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Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do the right thing." -- Warren ennis, Ph.D. "On ecoming a Leader." Since organizational behavior is the "study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations," then to build an argument for or against this as a vital ingredient in the workforce, we need to look at a few of the theories surrounding this study.
The first theory, Scientific Management, was created to organize workers, managers, and operations during the Industrial Revolution. This states that workers are basically machines and are easily replaced. Each task was broken down to its smallest unit, thereby making the worker doing that one thing repetitiously. Pay was tied to performance as an incentive to work harder and longer. Industrial engineers were used to establish conditions of the work environment, to increase overall production. After analyzing…
Spector, Paul E. Counter Page. 23 Nov. 2002. http://chuma.cas.usf.edu/~spector/counterpage.html
Wertheim, Edward G. Historical Background of Organizational Behavior. 23 Nov. 2002. http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/introd/history/htm
Clark, Donald R. Leadership -- Organizational Behavior. 23 Nov. 2002. www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
In 1984, the movie The Gods Must be Crazy depicted a Kalahari bushman who finds a Coca-Cola bottle that was discarded from an airplane into the desert. The bushman does not recognize the bottle or the brand, and the situation leads to all manner of confusion among the tribe, who try to decipher the meaning of the bottle. Such a story would be rather incomprehensible today, that there would be anywhere in the world where people would not recognize a Coca-Cola bottle. Indeed, not long after the movie was made, the process of globalization began in earnest with the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, followed by waves of other bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements, and then followed further by the invention of the Internet. If the era of globalization had not been officially declared before, by the time the 1999 WTO protests in Seattle occurred, globalization was a…
Bock, A., Opsahl, T., George, G. & Gann, D. (2012). The effects of culture and structure on strategic flexibility during business model innovation. Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 49 (2) 279-305.
Conrad, C. & Poole, S. (2012). Strategic organizational communication: In a global economy. Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.
Danet, B. & Herring, S. (2007). The multilingual Internet: Language, culture and communication online. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
DeSanctis, G. & Monge, P. (1998). Communication processes for virtual organizations. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. Vol. 3 (4)
Power and influence are two critical aspects of the ways that people in organizations interrelate. Power is relatively simple -- it is about how you get what you want. Influence is trickier -- the text understands it as the reaction to power.
The author discusses issues relating to obedience. The acceptance of authority is discussed, and the author proposes that there are four conditions that must be met in order for authority to be accepted; these are not supported with evidence. The author then discusses what the reactions are to orders -- the different levels at which obedience manifests in the organization. There is a zone of indifference, which is basically those instructions that are carried out without any critical evaluation on the part of the person doing the job. Sometimes, however, an employee may feel that they are getting poor value out of their relationship with the…
Lavigna, R. (2014) Why government workers are harder to motivate. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 9, 2015 from https://hbr.org/2014/11/why-government-workers-are-harder-to-motivate
In the last few years, the safe disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the public is demanding that some kind of solution is provided for addressing these challenges over the long-term. The result is the creation of the Centers of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management (CEHMM). This is a nonprofit that was founded to address these and other challenges through introducing innovative solutions. To fully understand how the organization is able to reach these objectives requires looking at: the individuals / groups in the organization, the way they interact with each other and the organizational behavior of the firm. Together, these different elements will highlight how the CEHMM is able to reach a variety of benchmarks. ("CEHMM," 2012)
Inside the CEHMM, everyone is working together with communities to address a host of challenges impacting the environment. The way…
Algae Bio Fuel. (2012), CEHMM. Retrieved from: http://www.cehmm.org/algea-stuff
CEHMM. (2012). CEHMM. Retrieved from: http://www.cehmm.org/about-us
CEHMM. (2012). CEHMM. Retrieved from: http://www.cehmm.org/admin-team
Davis, S. (2012). What's for Dinner? CEHMM. Retrieved from: http://www.cehmm.org/news/36-renewable-energy-news/145-whats-for-dinner-it-might-be-algae-fed-beef-
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This paper explains the core concepts of organizational behavior in the view of the case study of president of Great Northern American, Joe Salatino. The paper first explains the importance of perceptions and the attributions formed on the basis of those perceptions by the people. It also highlights the appropriate learning theory which could be deployed by Joe Salatino effectively in dealing with his employees. Moreover, it also explains how operant conditioning, learning theory and social learning theory could be instrumental in improving the performance levels of the employees. It also explains how self-efficacy could lend a hand to Joe Salatino in hiring new people within the organization.
Organizational Behavior (Joe Salatino Case Study)
The Process of Formation of Attributions from Perceptions and Its Significance for Joe's Employees
Perception tends to be a pivotal aspect of consideration in the domain of sales and…
Champoux, J., E. (2011). Organizational Behavior -- Integrating Individuals, groups and Organizations. NewYork, Taylor and Francis.
Griffin, R., W. & Moorhead, G. (2009). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Mason, Ohio. Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2011). Organization Behavior. Mason, Ohio. Cengage Learning.
Pawar, S., B. (2009). Some of the Recent Organizational Behavior Concepts as Precursors to Workplace Spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics. 88(2), Pp. 245-261,
Management and Organizational Behavior at Europcar Sydney International
My subject Management Organization
Management and Organizational Behavior at Europcar Sydney International
A manager is a person who is responsible to manage the work of his subordinates and ensure an effective running of business operations through planning, leading, organizing, and controlling (Koontz & Weihrich 2010). He may work individually or in teams to accomplish his assigned targets and achieve the organizational goals in a well-organized and efficient way (Saxena 2009). He also leads and motivates the organizational members through different motivational techniques so that they work with commitment and keep themselves directed towards the organization's mission and vision (Silverstein 2007). Being a leader, he is also dedicated with the responsibility of resolving conflicts and issues among his subordinates (Griffin & Moorehead 2012).
This paper presents an analysis of the Management and Organizational Behavior at Europcar Sydney International Counter -- one…
DuBrin, J.A. 2009, Essentials of Management, 8th Edition. Mason, OH: Thomson Business & Economics
Daft, R.L. 2010, Management, 9th Edition, Mason, Ohio: South-Western Publishers
Europcar, 2012, Europcar career opportunities -- Work for a worldwide car rental company. Available from [Accessed February 5th, 2012]
Griffin, R.W., & Moorehead, G. 2012, Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Publishers
Galpin (1996) suggests that because changing the basic assumptions and beliefs of the underlying culture is very difficult, the best approach for influencing specific aspects of a culture that need to be changed for any given initiative and strategy to be successful needs to be on an exception vs. all-inclusive basis. Strategies then for dealing with change must focus on re-aligning values and objectives first with the initiatives and strategies that a company is trying to achieve. At the core of any successful change program, the values of a company are modified. In fact change management and culture are so tightly intertwined with each other one cannot be considered without the other with the CEO being crucial to leading effective cultures capable of changing (Berson, Oreg, Dvir, 2008). An example of this is the need Microsoft had to shift from being purely focused on packaged software to concentrating more on…
Communication in the organizations cover all the means and modes, be they formal or informal, by which information finds its ways down, up or even across the organizational network of employees and the management in a given business setting. These modes of communication may contain important information for instance between employees and the managers, to more trivial issues like passing rumors or hearsay from one employee to another as noted by eference for Business (2011). It is upon the business fraternity to channel the numerous pieces of information passed from one point to the other towards bolstering employee satisfaction, ensuring customers are satisfied with the services, enhance sharing of knowledge among the staff members as well as boost the organizational competitiveness.
Culture and behavior of Microsoft Corporation
The Microsoft Company has a peculiar culture that defines and sets apart the company from other organizations. In order to deal effectively…
Australian Public Service Commission, (2001). Guidelines on workplace diversity. Retrieved August 29, 2011 from http://www.apsc.gov.au/publications01/diversityguidelines.htm
Debra Lamb (2010). Organizational Behavior. Retrieved August 29, 2011 from http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/research/subjectguides/organizationalbehavior.html
Jia Wu, (2009). Discovering Microsoft's Corporate Culture. Retrieved August 29, 2011 from http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/news/asia/features/ciw_mscorpculture.aspx
Reference for Business (2011). Communication in Organizations. Retrieved August 29, 2011
Communication occurs at an inter-organizational level, an intra-organizational level, and between the organization and the community or society at large. For example, inter-organizational communications include the one-on-one discussions between coworkers. These communications can be purely related to the daily operations of the organization or they can be casual, to stimulate a friendly environment in the workplace. Intra-organizational communication occurs between two or more organizations. For example, an environmental group will need to maintain communications between it, the media, and the government. Finally, an organization will often need to communicate to the society at large. Organizations do so using pamphlets, advertisements, websites, and other media formats.
The effectiveness and efficiency of an organization is reflected in more than just profits. For instance, non-profit organizations often prove their effectiveness and efficiency through their ability to change public policy. Some organizations might have humanitarian goals in mind, such as adoption agencies or aid…
Clark, Donald. (1998). "Big Dog's Leadership Page: Organizational Behavior." Retrieved online http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html .
Santosus, Megan. (1996). "Uneasy pieces Part 2: The Learning Organization." CIO.com. Retrieved online 23 Nov 2004. http://www.cio.com/archive/060196_uneasy_5.html .
Organizational ehavior Terminology and Concepts
An organization's cultural composition encompasses a wide array of structural variables, all of which comprise the ultimate operational atmosphere of the company. Productive capacities and efficiency levels are almost always determined by the effectiveness and receptiveness of an organization's culture. The culture within an organization is also a key determinant of why and how leadership bodies will integrate strategic decisions. Depending of the various specificities of the firm and its respective industry, some firms will design their organizational cultures and leadership models with an authoritative metric, while others will promote a more participatory and collaborative technique in the company's cultural atmosphere. Ideally, an organization's culture will be receptive and help to easily facilitate strategic decisions and initiatives to further increase the profitability of the firm.
Organizational behavior entails the various models used in strategic decision-making and goal setting and the subsequent…
Anthony, S. (2010, May). Three Critical Innovation Lessons from Apple. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://blogs.hbr.org/anthony/2010/05/three_critical_innovation_less.html
Bougrain, F., & Haudeville, B. (2002). Innovation, Collaboration and Internal Research Capacities. Research Policy, 31 (5), 735-747.
Porter, M.E., & Stern, S. (2001). Innovation: Location Matters. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42 (4), 28-36.
Schein, E.H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Organizational Behavior - Analysis of Problems with the Top Leader Team at Greenlife
Whenever an organization changes in any way, central problems in organizational behavior often result (ousseau, 1997; Barley & Kunda 1992; Goodstein, 1994). This is evident within Greenlife, where the top leader team is demonstrating some critical failures and lack of cooperation.
Organizational moral behavior can only be obtained through a true "cooperative effort among all employees" (Holmes, et. al, 2002, p. 85) which is not the case at Greenlife. With the change in executive management that recently occurred between Lucy and Jane, things have gone awry, and the organizational structure at present more resembles a dictatorship than democratic environment. Jane has taken over and rather than encouraged top leader participation and collaboration, she has fostered an environment of dissent based on forced control and the illusion of consent.
A management is a successful organization has the responsibility…
Barley S, Kunda G. "Design and devotion: surges of rational and normative ideologies of control in managerial discourse." Adm. Sci. Q. (1991). 37:463-99
Caudron, Shari. "Keeping Team Conflict Alive." Public Management, (2000) Vol. 82, Issue 2, p. 5.
Clark, Robyn D. "Ulterior Motives Anyone?" Black Enterprise, (2000, April).Vol. 30, Issue 9, p. 65
Goodstein JD. Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: employer involvement in work-family issues. Acad Manage. J. (1994). 37:350-82
Employees in public sector organization are known to be -- and in many instances expected to be -- more flexible and more committed when it comes to putting in extra hours and extra effort to complete important assignments for the organization and the community. That concept is believed to be true because public sector organizations are more focused on the betterment of the community rather than on profit, power, or prestige for individual employees.
This concept is fully explored in an article published by the Journal of Business Ethics. The authors Rayner, et al., point out that when employees go "the extra mile" and do positive things for the organization it is referred to as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). And when it comes to those working in public sector organizations, there is a "public service ethos" which embraces the ideas of "…service, duty and obligation" (Rayner, 2012, p.…
Rayner, Julie, Lawton, Alan, and Williams, Helen M. (2012). Organizational Citizenship
Behavior and the Public Service Ethos: Whither the Organization? Journal of Business
Ethics, Vol. 106, 117-130.
Organizational Behavior -- Conflict Management and Negotiations
Conflict is functional when it serves to respond to business needs and problems are results in the creative outpouring of ideas and functions. Functional conflict can help teams achieve goals and create new solutions to problems. Conflict is not functional when it serves only to disrupt the work environment, disturbs or hinders job performance and creates emotional turmoil for employees. Functional conflict can turn into dysfunctional conflict if employees stop communicating with one another and searching out new ideas.
There are certain situations when it would be beneficial to have more inter-group conflict. A perfect example is when a company is deadlocked or out of ideas and thus decides to go with the standard approach to solving a problem or conflict rather than a new one. Sometimes additional conflict and varying ideas help add to a particular problem and can result in new…
The risk that I am going to take to become successful in my career is to making sure that when formulating decisions for the organization, I am not compromising the interests of both the management and members (employees). Rather than compromising their interests, the risk that I am willing to take is to reconcile the interests of both parties, a feat that is difficult, yet not impossible to undertake.
It is vital to establish priorities in confronting different problems in order to create an image of being firm and consistent as a leader or manager for the organization. It is only necessary to re-evaluate priorities when the problem involves situations or circumstances that are beyond the organization's ability to resolve (e.g., internal conflict in the organization wherein the decision-makers themselves are involved and concerned).
Diversity is vital for efficient decision-making processes confronting organizational problems within the global context.…
One of the most immediate changes that happened in my college just recently is the introduction of online library services that allows me to access important resources I need for my studies more easily anywhere I go. Similarly, technological change has brought about significant changes that made my tasks at the firm more manageable and faster, allowing me to perform optimally. Evidently, environmental forces greatly influence changes among organizations more than internal forces that act within them.
Organization interventions are activities initiated by the manager to induce planned change in developing problem-solving techniques and strategies for efficiency of tasks in handling change in an organization. In this context, it is evident that change is the key to the implementation and success of intervention, mainly because change is the inevitable result of intervention.
The concept of total quality management (TQM) is possible to be implemented without initial diagnosis of…
Yet, they do exist and can once again be said that the eight stage process has its roots in the theories enounced by John M. Ivancevich, obert Konopaske and Michael T. Matteson. Throughout the book for instance, the three authors discuss organizational behavior aspects such as communications or conflict, which could easily interfere with the change process. To take one step forward however, the editing team also argues that conflict -- which, from the standpoint of Kotter, can be generated by various internal matters such as lack of adequate communications, the inconsistencies in the working environment and so on -- "may have either positive or negative consequences for the organization, depending upon how much exists and how it is managed" (Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson, 2008). Conflict could be good for change through its ability to promote diverse and even opposed opinions, to stimulate the mind, to create competition in the…
Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R., Matteson, M.T., 2007, Organizational Behavior and Management, 8th Edition, McGarw-Hill/Irwin, ISBN 9780073405087
Kotter, J.P., 1996, Leading Change, Harvard Business School Press, ISBN 0875847471
It keeps the company moving forward in new and interesting directions. This approach is how they have been able to provide ideas that help people around the world connect, create and accomplish a lot of spectacular things. This has allowed their people who are experts in so many areas be successful. These areas of expertise include marketing, finance, H, sales, IT infrastructure, personal computing devices, business technology solutions, global services, and imaging and printing. They believe that when you bring great minds together in over 170 countries, each person has a hand in driving the innovations that make the world a better place (Hewlett-Packard, 2009).
The Santa osa Systems Division of Hewlett Packard (SSD) was created in 1992 in order to target a new systems integration opportunity in the ever growing communication business sector. In 1994 SSD faced many challenges that threatened its success as well as that of its…
Beer, Michael. (2002). Building Organizational Fitness in the 21st Century. Retrieved December 2, 2009, from Web site:
Besser, Terry L. (1999). Globalization and Internal Organizational Responses. Qualitative Sociology. 22(1), p83-91.
Hewlett-Packard. (2009). Retrieved December 2, 2009, from Web site:
Moreover, artlett (cited in Churchwell, 2003) underlined that, in the past, managing diversity was rather synonymous with giving equal opportunities to people of different gender or race. Nowadays, he emphasized that diversity meant "legitimizing diverse views in an organization, including those based in cultural differences."
In addition to his remark, one could say that managing diversity under contemporary circumstances doesn't exclusively consist of providing equal treatment to different people. It also implies possessing the necessary know how for properly handling the respective discrepancies in order to obtain competitive results. For instance, researches have emphasized that teams encompassing members who have different cultural backgrounds are more creative. Therefore, if a manager knows how to stimulate synergy among team members, than there is a higher chance for innovations to arouse and this can only be beneficial to the respective organization.
The new variables/challenges that managers encounter are also influencing the ratio between…
Churchwell, C (2003). The New Global Business Manager. On the Internet at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/3827.html . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
Clark, D.R. (2008). Organizational Behavior. On the Internet at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html . Retrieved March 8, 2008.
Hofstede, G. (2003). Cultural Dimensions. On the Internet at http://www.geert-hofstede.comRetrieved March 8, 2008.
Thomas, K., Tymon, W. (1982). Necessary Properties of Relevant Research: Lessons from Recent Criticisms of the Organizational Sciences. The Academy of Management Review, 7 (3), 345-352.
When examined in this manner, it becomes clear that the cultural context in which intelligence is developed and utilized by the organization will have a direct bearing on the manner in which the individual responds. Although Fincham and hodes do not specifically argue this point, the conclusion drawn is that organizational culture will play a direct role in the development of individual behavior. Thus, even if the individual employee demonstrates a highly intelligent persona, the reality is that it is up to the organization to effectively utilize this asset in a manner that promotes positive outcomes for the organization.
At the outset of this investigation, a basic statement for evaluation was proposed: "An individual's work achievement can be best predicted by measuring their intelligence." Synthesizing all of the data provided in this investigation, it is now possible to evaluate this statement and its implication for the development of…
Fincham, R. & Rhodes, P., 2006. Principles of organizational behavior. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sternberg, R., 2006. Cognitive Psychology. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.
Youndt, M. & Snell, S.A., 2004. Human resource configurations, intellectual capital and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16(3), pp. 337-360.
Besides being the process through which information is exchanged throughout the organization, communication is a critical job skill because it directly influences the management of interpersonal relationships. This is true at the organizational as well as the individual level. Indeed, this is precisely the reason why organizations need to focus on important aspects of effective interpersonal communication, including communication systems, perception, verbal and nonverbal communication, networks and channels, listening and feedback, symbolic behavior, and the impact of organizational structure and culture (Harris, 1993, p. 284).
Organizational Effectiveness and Efficiency: Organizational effectiveness is measured using established criteria of organizational performance such as achievement of stated business goals. Organizational efficiency, on the other hand, looks at the ability of an organization to achieve its goals using the bare minimum of resources. In other words, organizational efficiency is all about "doing things right" in order to bring about maximum utilization of resources, while…
Blanchard, K. (2004). Effectiveness vs. Efficiency. Wachovia. Retrieved Nov. 30, 2004:
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles, and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
NOAA. Managing Diversity at NOAA...Definitions and Commonly Asked Questions.
The third level of the pyramid of needs has also motivated my desire to obtain my degree at Davenport. This level refers to the sense of belonging to a family, a group of friends or colleagues. This motivated me in the meaning that I desired to continue the family tradition and better relate to the family members that had attended Davenport. Also, this need was reflected by my desire to belong to a group of intelligent students guided by dedicated professors.
The last features from Maslow's hierarchy of needs that stimulated me to attend the Davenport courses were those of self-esteem and self-actualization. I knew that studying at Davenport would offer me the chance to prove my skills and intelligence and would sustain me in achieving my goals. Furthermore, the studies and the degree would offer me the opportunity to grow and improve my capabilities.
4. The general shortcoming of…
Kreitner, R., Kinicki, November 30, 2005, Organizational Behaviour, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill/Irwin, ISBN:
Kreitner, R., Kinicki, a., Organizational Behavior, Chapter Eight: Foundation of Motivation, Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Managers of small teams who regularly rely on this technique are focused on the long-term effects of this strategy, looking to unify autonomy, mastery and purpose into a solid foundation for long-term motivation and long-term learning (Klein, Ziegert, Knight, Xiao, 2006). This triad of factors is crucial for team members to have a strong sense of purpose and stay motivated over the long-term, while also seeing value in staying committed to the team's long-term goals. All of these factors must also be orchestrated on an ongoing basis between a teams' managers and subordinates with a very clear sense of purpose and accountability for results.
Another best practice with regard to delegation and responsibility is the need for creating clarity and consistency of ongoing team results as well. The most effective team leaders provide a high degree of transparency and visibility into overall team performance on an ongoing basis (Ivancevich, Konopaske,…
Horton, T.R. (1992). Delegation and team building: No solo acts please. Management Review, 81(9), 58-58.
Ivancevich, J.M., Konopaske, R., & Matteson, M.T. (2010). Organizational behavior and management. (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Johnson, R.S. (1993). TQM: Leadership for the quality transformation (part 3). Quality Progress, 26(3), 91-91.
Klein, K.J., Ziegert, J.C., Knight, a.P., & Xiao, Y. (2006). Dynamic delegation: Shared, hierarchical, and deindividualized leadership in extreme action teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(4), 590-621.
Objective of this project is to carry out the organizational behavior of the Emmar Properties. The paper investigates the strategy Emaar Properties employs to implement its organizational behavior to successfully carry out its business operations in Dubai and other countries that the company is operating. Essentially, the management tasks are to effectively use different skills to develop appropriate company structure and leadership to achieve their strategic objectives. This paper investigates Emaar's corporate structure, communication and training styles. Moreover, the paper uses the SWOT analysis to investigate the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats that Emaar is facing within the business environments. Using the results of the SWOT analysis, the paper provides the recommendations that will assist Emaar to improve its business operations.
The concept organizational behavior focuses on understanding, controlling, and predicting human behaviors within an organizational environment. (Punnett, 2004). Typically, organizational behavior evolves from the classical…
Luthans, F. & Youssef, C.M. (2007). Emerging Positive Organizational Behavior. Journal of Management. 33( 3): 321-349.
Mehta, A. (2009).Emaar Properties PJSC and Subsidiaries Case Study. Institute of Management Technology Dubai.
Punnett, B.J.(2004). International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management. M.E. Sharpe.
Penn State has been wracked with scandal in recent months, and it is time that we turned that situation around in our favor. We were once a great school, well-respected by student, parents, our peers in the halls of academia at other institutions, and the nation in which we reside. Unfortunately, our good name has been tainted by the scandals perpetrated on us by members of our athletic department, and those scandals have overshadowed what is good about Penn State. The media, always looking for a scandal to latch onto, has run with the story of our troubles in the athletic department and hasn't let it go; therefore, our once good reputation is sullied, and as you know, once a reputation is damaged, it is difficult to get it back to the shining example to others that it once was. However, I do believe that with time and…
Duhe, Sandra C. (2007). New Media and Public Relations. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Griffin, Ricky W. (2009). Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
McShane, Steven L. And Von Gilnow, Mary Ann. (2000). Organizational Behavior. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Persons, Christopher Edgar. (1946). Public Relations for Colleges and Universities. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Organizational Behavior - Communication
How are new technologies affecting the way we manage & communicate?
Technology will continue to exist so long as people continue to exist. In fact, the methods of forming tools are taken as the principal confirmation of the commencement of human culture. In general, technology has been a dominant force in the growth of civilization, especially so as its connection with science has been forged. (Chapter 3: The Nature of Technology) Simon and Koppel termed the last decade as the age of globalization and believed that the uprising of communication technologies as one of the forces steering the globalization process. It is understandable that setting up overseas offices, international collaboration and joint ventures, growing global market and employing transnational labor force are highlighted as elements of globalization. In such state of affairs, business communication also becomes global and intercultural. (The influence of using electronic mail on…
Business across Cultures: E-mail's Influence. Retrieved from http://www.expat.or.id/business/e-mail.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Chapter 3: The Nature of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/tools/sfaaol/chap3.htm Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Gender and "Virtual Work": How New Technologies Influence Work Practices and Gender Equity. Briefing Note Number 12. Retrieved from http://www.simmons.edu/som/cgo/insights_12.pdf Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Gerardine DeSanctis; Monge, Peter. Communication Processes for Virtual Organizations. JCMC. Volume: 3; No: 4; 1998. Retrieved from http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue4/desanctis.html Accessed on 8 November, 2004
Additionally, the managerial team argues that the levels of employee empowerment are increased within the organization. And they do this not only because it is the right thing to do, but also as it benefits the organization. Tim Gebauer, manager at the Mason City Wal-Mart stores argues that the great ideas come from the employees who interact with products and customers on daily basis and that this represents a major competitive advantage as well as a strong reason in support of employee empowerment. In his own words: "They know their piece of this business better than I do. One of the most important keys to developing your business is to simply make use of the tremendous resources of experience and knowledge that are already within your organization" (Tim Gebauer, quoted by Biztrain).
The organizational culture is a pivotal element in the success of any entity, but even more…
Greenwald, R., 2006, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price, Brave New Films
Klinger, M., Twinger, S., Motivating Front Line Staff for Bottom Line Results, McKinsey, Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Motivatingfrontlinestaff.pdf on June 5, 2009
2002, Corporate Culture Provides Wal-Mart Competitive Advantage, Refrigerated Transporter, http://refrigeratedtrans.com/mag/transportation_corporate_culture_provides / last accessed on June 5, 2009
2009, Wal-Mart Website, http://walmartstores.com last accessed on June 5, 2009
Corporate Social Responsibility Article Summaries
Much has been written about the importance of CSR (corporate social responsibility) generating interest among consumers. But according to Rupp (et al. 2018) in the article “Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement: The Moderating Role of CSR?Specific Relative Autonomy and Individualism” from the Journal of Organizational Behavior,
CSR can also be a vital component of motivating employees. This motivation can be both internally-derived (giving a sense of motivation to the employee when functioning within the organization) and externally-derived (motivating the employee through a larger sense of being part of an organization which is good to society). The enhancement effect has been found to be valid across a wide variety of cultural contexts, and the author’s study involved a sampling of 673 employees in Canada, China, France, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
The authors argue, however, that there are other variables which can affect the extent…
Opoku. Dakwa, A., Chen, C.C., Rupp, D.E. (2018). CSR initiative characteristics and employee engagement: An impact?based perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39:580–593. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/job.2281
Rupp, D. E., Shao, R., Skarlicki, D.P., Paddock, E.L., Kim, T?Y, & Nadisic T. (2018). Corporate social responsibility and employee engagement: The moderating role of CSR? specific relative autonomy and individualism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39:559–579. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/job.2282
A Review of Organizational Behavior Theories
Because organizations are the primary means by which capital is earned and job are created, it is not surprising that there has been a great deal of scholarship concerning how organizations actually “behave” in the real world. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current definition of organizational behavior together with a statement of three prominent theories of organizational behavior, French and Raven's Five Bases of Power, Complexity Theory and Resource Dependence Theory. An explanation concerning the fundamental concepts of each of these three theories is followed by an analysis of their respective importance to a business. In addition, an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three theories as well as the positive and negative ways that the theories impact the workforce behavior of organizations. Finally, in the context of Air India, the paper presents a critical analysis…
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
Organizational behavior refers to the psychological and sociological habits and patterns evident in specific groups of people. It is often defined formally as "the study of individuals and groups in organizations," ("Organizational Behavior Today," p.2). The study of organizational behavior includes elements such as leadership traits and behaviors; the use or abuse of power, and the politics that characterize people's behavior within the organization. Because each organization functions according to different goals and missions, organizational behavior varies widely from sector to sector. Organizations which have as their primary aim to make profit will for instance behave differently than non-profit organizations; the individuals that comprise those organizations will demonstrate certain character traits that make them valuable to the organization as a whole. On the other hand, all organizations will demonstrate certain similar characteristics that are essential for the smooth functioning of any group of people. For example, the leaders in most…
Clark, Donald. "Leadership: Organizational Behavior." Big Dog's Leadership Page. .
'Organizational Behavior Today."
Wertheim, Edward G. "Historical Background of Organizational Behavior." .
Since long the necessity for quality health care for veterans is considered to be a critical issue with widespread implications in respect of health care system of the nation. Irrespective of the incessant pressure on converting the Veteran Administration into a business model it has been alleged vehemently on the ground that the approach is not conducive to the satisfaction of most veterans, the legislators and even the providers of the health care. The problem of extending acceptable quality health care for the veterans of the nation is to be resolved by constituting public consensus on the issue. Irrespective of its increasing challenges it is believed that the provision of quality health care for the veterans of the nation is considered to be an appropriate objective for this country to maintain. Acknowledging the sacrifices of the veterans, the death of millions of Americans in service, 1.5 million returning…
Alqarni, Abdul Rahman. "The Managerial Decision Styles" A dissertation submitted to the School of Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Information Studies: The Florida State University. http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11242003-215328/unrestricted/Alqarni.Dissertation.pdf Accessed on 25 February, 2005
'Leadership Challenges in Non-Governmental Organisations" (2004) Organisational
The personnel performance and human motivation components of the study of organizational behavior also date back to the late 19th and early 20th century work of theorists like Max Weber and to the 20th century works of Douglass McGregor and Abraham Maslow (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010). Weber outlined the most productive breakdown of organizational hierarchies, elements of working groups, and the relationship between individual employees and their supervisors. McGregor and Maslow contributed psychological theories that identified specific factors that determine levels of personal commitment and satisfaction of individual employees within organizations (George & Jones, 2008; NAU, 2010).
The Importance of Organizational Behavior to Modern Business Management
Understanding organizational behavior in all of its applications is an essential requirement in modern business management (NAU, 2010; obbins & Judge, 2009). Naturally, the specific aspects of organizational behavior that are most important to individual business managers depend on the responsibilities of…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
National American University. (2008). Organizational Behavior Instructional Materials
Terminology and Concepts
American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…
Flexibility, adaptability, and a global mindset cause my organization to behave in a responsive rather than hierarchical fashion. These organizational values conspire to create an organizational culture that respects education, values protocol and is detail-oriented, yet is not such a slave to the rules that it loses sight of human beings. After all, if the rules were absolute, there would not be different government laws and bylaws, depending on the country one is sealing with. The services I perform require communication is with diverse doctors from an ever-increasingly wide range of nations, including South Africa, India, British Columbia, Iran, Iraq, China, Cuba, and Segal. Each one of these governments, organizations, and educational systems differs from the United States' own, yet all nations and national must be respected so that the place I work for realizes its goals of improving health care and education across borders.
Organizational learning for Credentials Specialists…
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
The content of organizational behavior studies is expanding to include matters of personal ethics, values, and experiences. For example, interoffice friendships and romantic relationships are becoming increasingly important with regards to the functioning of groups. Group dynamics change dramatically when friendship and/or romance are added to the multitude of variables that impact organizational behavior. In some cases, camaraderie results in increased on-the-job morale and could therefore influence measurable traits like productivity. However, intimacy outside of the workplace can also be problematic, especially when personal affairs seep into the workplace, when emotions become intertwined with job performance, and when friendships or romances change. Inevitably, addressing personal issues such as friendship and romance will bring up values related to human sexuality and personal morality, topics that are challenging and difficult to incorporate into organizational codes. The challenge is to create cohesive organizational cultures that reflect the collective values of the…
McShane, Stephen L. And Von Glinow, Mary Ann. Organizational Behavior. 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html .
Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.
Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
The relevance of understanding group behavior as well as group properties cannot be overstated. This is more so the case for those keen on becoming effective managers and/or members of various groups. Managers who happen to be familiar with group behavior within organizations are more likely to fast track the accomplishment of the various goals and objectives of their respective organizations by amongst other things using groups more effectively.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organizations
A group according to Griffin and Moorhead (2011, p.240) "is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person." It is however important to note that apart from this definition, several other definitions of a group have been proposed by various authors.
Types of Groups
In basic terms, groups can be divided into two. On one hand…
Griffin, R.W. And Moorhead, G. 2011. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. And Slocum, J.W. 2007. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Martin, J. 2005. Organizational Behavior and Management. 3rd ed. Bedford Row, London: Thomson Learning.
Organizational Behavior Case Study
esidential care facility's staff plays an important role in the daily lives of residents; unfortunately these facilities are usually faced with organizational obstacles and lack of information that prevents them from taking proper care of residents (Smith, 1998). This organizational behavioral case study is about a residential care facility which is part of a parent company that runs six different residential care facilities. The management of the company observed, this residential care facility facing serious problems. Turnover rate was high, performance was poor and economic losses were high.
In order to diagnose and solve the problem; parent company conducted a culture survey in all of its residential care facilities in which each member was bound to participate. The results were satisfactory for all residential care facilities except this care facility which showed totally negative results.
Looking at this serious situation; management hired a new…
Atchison, J. (1998). Perceived job satisfaction factors of nursing assistants employed in Midwest Nursing
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p.57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work.
Importance of organizational behavior knowledge
Having acquired essential skills in organizational behavior, I plan to use it in the management of my department at place of work to ensure it is a perfect example to the rest of the organization. I will use the skills acquired to study the behavior of employees and know the best way to treat each and every employee in their own skill capability and adjusting the management to a personalized management approach as is recommended by the organizational behavior study. I will also use the skills acquired to understand the organizational culture which can only be easy with the organizational behavior knowledge, and with the understanding of the organizational culture of the particular organization, I will be able to propel the people within my department towards achieving the vision of the organization. The communication skills that is achieved from the organizational behavior study…
Organizational Behavior: Past Present. Discuss statements. • The Human elations Movement. Discuss Hawthorne Experiment implications a legacy workplace; compare contrast McGregor's Theory X Theory Y assumptions employees, personal experiences Theory X & Y managers, prefer.
Organizational behavior: Past and present
Discuss the Hawthorne Experiment and its implications as a legacy in the workplace
The Hawthorne Experiment suggests that when subjects are aware that they are being observed, they behave better than they do under regular circumstances. The implications of this experiment in the workplace are fairly obvious: workers are often regularly watched by managers, as a way of improving employee productivity and enhancing compliance. When workers cannot be watched through the use of human agency, then mechanized means are used to engage in surveillance. Time clocks, 'blocking' controls upon unsupervised employee web-surfing, sitting workers in open environments where they can be easily monitored and other efforts to make employee behaviors…
Kreitner & Kinicki. (2007). Chapter 14 outline. Fundamentals of organizational behavior.
Mead, A. (1996). Deming distilled. TQM. Retrieved April 28, 2011 at http://www.well.com/user/vamead/demingdist.html
Schmidt, Klaus. (1998). Applying the Four Principles of Total Quality Management to the classroom. Tech Directions, 58 (1):16-18.
Professionalism on the part of employees is also facilitated by management's demanding high standards of employees, in line with the stress of the necessity of improving world health care and helping students. Yet management is always committed to recognizing impressive employee performances with generous bonuses, providing a comprehensive benefits package for all workers, and showing respect for employee health and welfare, as well as customer health and welfare. Also, the tuition assistance program shows how the company respects the importance of education for workers as well as for customers
Globalization spawned the founding of this organization. Globalization continues to impact its structure and mission. As health care bureaucracies around the world grow more complex, and the policies regarding foreign nationals studying in the U.S. change in response to international political events, the ECFMG must remain flexible and abreast of world affairs.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Organizational Behavior Case
This case is interesting because it portrays the cultural variances that an employee might find in different cultures from a first person perspective. First, an American employee shares his perspective about his experience working on a project in Germany. He finds that the employees are extraordinarily methodological during the planning phase of the project; then rather autonomous throughout the duration of the project. In his experience American firms generally set a goals and performance targets earlier in the project and do not require that the entire team comes to a consensus about the underlying ideologies that are driving the project while also expecting that the team leader takes a more authoritarian type approach.
From the German perspective, they feel as if they can devote all of the team's resources and energies in the planning phase then they can save a bunch of time down the road because…
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Rawski, S. (2011). A Tale of Two Paradigms: The Impact of Psychological Capital and Reinforcing Feedback on Problem Solving and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 333-350.
Organizational ehavior: Shift From Individual to Team ehavior
Traditionally, organizational behavior has been defined as understanding human behavior and the means of influencing individuals, singularly and in work groups. Hierarchical control and hierarchical referral have been common practice. More contemporary visions of organizational behavior have de-emphasized the role of the individual and hierarchical management in favor of team work and decentralization. When considering the merits of these two organizational behavior approaches, the real answer is that the old needs to be melded with the new. Teams still require strong leadership to prevent conflict that can cause the same degree of inefficiency as centralized hierarchies. However, the role of leader is vastly different from that of a hierarchical manager.
There are many reasons that companies are transitioning to team management. In complex operations with diverse business units, it's difficult for one person to manage everything.
Also, hierarchical management implies that a…
Brady, D. (2000, August 28).
An executive whose time has gone: Increasing corporate complexity and the shift to team management are killing the chief operating officer.
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Dynatronics Corporation (formerly Dynatronics Laser Corporation) was started in 1979 with the initial intent of developing laser technology for use in medical procedures. Unable to acquire the necessary FDA approval required to market the technology the company turned to other areas within the medical rehabilitation market. Seeing an opening in the market for ultrasound electrotherapy technology the company soon found a distribution channel that could support the new product offerings. Subsequent years led to the company developing additional products that have been used to treat chronic pain, test physical ability with computer software and to provide other forms of therapy. In addition, the company has ventured into the aesthetic market and has patented and distributed microdermabrasion technology for use by both aestheticians and plastic surgeons. Dynatronics has made several acquisitions over the years that have met with mixed results. The purchase of a rehabilitation…
Drucker, P.F. (1954). The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row.
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What Lies Ahead. (2003, January). T& D, 57, 32+. Retrieved February 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
In other words, the emphasis is on effective leadership and increased revenue for the company as a whole, which ultimately benefit individual managers as well.
Like cross-functional teams, self-managed teams also need specific models to ensure success, not least because of the collective leadership these teams display. The potential for conflict and misunderstanding could result in ineffective group work. To mitigate this, Silverman and Propst (n.d.) proposes a specific model according to which such teams can function optimally. There are various roles inherent in the model that is suggested. These roles include: 1) upholding organizational and personal values and principles; 2) accomplishing the work assigned to the team; 3) organizing the work environment; 4) managing work processes; 5) participating in organization-wide systems; 6) participating in organization-wide strategies; and 7) managing team processes.
The model therefore indicates that some leadership and management are essential in helping the team to achieve its…
Armstrong, R.V. (2005). Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from: http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Merritt, E.A. And Reynolds, D.E. (n.d.) The Effect of Self-Managing Teams on Manager Commitment and Organizational Tenure in Private Clubs. Retrieved from:
Myshko, D. (2006, Sep.) Cross-Functional Teams: Models of Success. PharmaVoice. Retrieved from: http://www.skila.com/Downloads/Cross%20Functional%20Teams.pdf
Pragmatic Marketing (2011). Enabling Cross-Functional Teams: A Leadership Role for Product Managers. Retrieved from: http://www.pragmaticmarketing.com/publications/topics/09/enabling-cross-functional-teams-a-leadership-role-for-product-managers
Organizational Behavior and Customer Demand
Customer demands might seem to be something quite simple to respond to -- when customer demands increases, an organization increases its overall level production, and when customer demand decreases, the organization must decrease its supply and price. However, in addition to such responses to simple microeconomic theory, other organizational factors come into play. Customer demand, for example, is affected by external factors such as overall economic health, employment, potential for future employment, and consumer confidence. Also, the perception of the goods being sold in the industry as a necessity or a luxury, and the availability of potential substitutes can cause demand to fluxuate in a fashion that the industry must respond to effectively and efficiently. Managers may need to cut costs or reduce worker's benefits and raises to respond to the external factor of a decrease in overall consumer demand. But they also must still…
Wertheim, Edward. (2000) "Historical Background of Organizational Behavior." Business.com website. Retrieved 9 Jan 2005 at http://www.business.com/bdcframe.asp?ticker=& src=http%3A//rd.business.com/index.asp%3Fbdcz%3Dil.l.ml.e%26bdcr%3D1%26bdcu%3Dhttp%253A//www.cba.neu.edu/%257Eewertheim/introd/history.htm%26bdcs%3D6CDED792-2ACB-4D62-A50D-96BCF5B1532E2005195912360%26bdcf%3Ddc2de241-7ea7-11d4-8f7f-00d0b7826be1%26bdcp%3D%26partner%3Dbdc%26title%3DHistorical%2520Background%2520of%2520Organizational%2520Behavior& back=http%3A//www.business.com/directory/management/management_theory/organization_behavior_and_culture/& path=/directory/management/management_theory/organization_behavior_and_culture
Strategic Management of Human esources
Human resource is considered as the most precious asset for business organizations. The financial performance and growth in the industry heavily depends upon the way an organization's employees perform at the workplace (Edwards 2003). A dedicated and committed workforce contributes towards a high level of operational excellence and market competitiveness. Therefore, it should be among the top priorities for an organization to manage its human resource in an effective and efficient way (ose 2004).
Strategic Human esource Management deals with formulating policies and procedures for getting the best work from employees, implementing different techniques to motivate them, and assessing the future human resource requirements at the workplace (Saxena 2009). This paper explains the strategic human resource management policies of one of the World's Top software companies -- Adobe Systems Incorporated. These policies are required to meet the current human resource requirements of the…
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Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
Human esource Management Practices
Competitive Advantage through Human esource Management Practices
HUMAN ESOUCE Management
Human esource Management involves all those activities which are related to the management of workforce or employees of an organization. It is also one of the core functions which managers perform at the workplace. Human esource Management entails activities like recruitment and selection, training and development, performance assessment, compensation, leadership, and motivation at large (Chadwick & Dabu 2009). Basically, Human esource Management focuses on recruitment, management, guidance, and motivation of employees in an organization. In the past, HM was just restricted to two core functions: employee management and motivation. Now, it has emerged as one of the biggest strategic issues in the business world (Kandula 2007).
With the passage of time, the scope and functions of Human esource Management have also increased. Now, it also involves employee…
Armstrong, M. 2007, A handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th Edition. London: Kogan Page
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813-816.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C., Patterson, M., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. 2008, The Impact of Human Resource and Operational Management Practices on Company Productivity: A Longitudinal Study, Personnel Psychology, 61 (1): 467-501.
Browning, V., Edgar, F., Gray, B., & Garrett, T. 2009, Realizing Competitive Advantage through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries, The Service Industries Journal, 29 (6): 741-760.
But al-Mart has been more successful where Kmart has failed. The author of the study explains this difference with the treatment, importance and role played and offered to the human resource. "Kmart and al-Mart are virtually identical, right? Yet most people prefer to shop at al-Mart. Kmart recently declared bankruptcy. Could the reason for this be as fundamental as leadership style and the resultant employee attitude? I believe so. Kmart has been said to use the "control" method of leadership, while al-Mart has used an "empowerment" model. Thus, there is a subtle, yet big, difference between the customer relationship with employees of each corporation" (ork Motivation Incentives, 2004-2005).
Otherwise put, al-Mart allows its staff members to make their statement and to voice their opinions. And this often proved beneficial for the organizational well-being. For instance, Tim Gebauer was once talking to an employee who suggested putting an extra product line…
Kliger, M., Tweraser, S., Motivating Front Line Staff for Bottom Line Results, McKinsey & Company, Retrieved at http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Motivatingfrontlinestaff.pdf on May 16, 2008
Miner, J.B., 2002, Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories and Analyses, Oxford University Press
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Smith provided the appropriate managerial direction which struck the right balance between creativity, performance and productivity. His farsightedness which encompassed a wide vision was long-term, ambitious and the same time entirely practical and feasible. (Section 7: Leadership and Management, p. 243)
Having earlier steered a floundering company towards a successful path, Smith's work was uphill. He had to drastically change the organizational culture and structure while reducing conflict within the very talented set of employees and provide them with a collective direction. He was also expected to reduce the atmosphere of uncertainty prevailing in the organization and use the "countercultures" of the earlier two companies to foster innovation and creativity and thus get a competitive advantage for the new organization. (Section 2: Organizations & Culture, p. 64)
d. Organizational goals, vision, mission, objectives and values
Organizational mission defines the very reason for its existence. It basically refers to a general…
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De Laurentis, Giacomo., 2004. Strategy and organization of corporate banking. Springer.
Gitman, Lawrence J; McDaniel, Carl. 2009., The Future of Business: The Essentials. South Western Cengage Learning.
Effective diversity management, on the other hand, provides a means more than just the elimination of potential sources of revenue loss; it means actually increasing revenue through customer satisfaction that is known to generate increased patronage and brand loyalty (ussell-Whalling, 2008), especially in the restaurant services industry.
Organizational Dynamics and the ole of Managers in the etail Services Industry
The highly competitive nature of modern retail restaurant services makes traditional supervisory and management practices comparatively ineffective, especially in areas outside of direct operational dynamics. Traditional supervisor-subordinate relationships are sufficient to provide training in mechanical procedures and operations; they are comparatively ineffective at cultivating a commitment to becoming part of an organizational culture (George & Jones, 2008).
Especially with respect to inexperienced, part-time, non-career, and seasonal employees, it is preferable for organizational leaders (Bennis, 2009) and managers (Lencioni, 2009) to develop a more personal connection to their staff members. In fact,…
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Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The strategy allowed better communications between the hotels and their culturally diverse customers.
Communication is the key to any success, but even more so to a business triumph. The process is understood as the mechanism by which people exchange information. This is pivotal within any economic entity in order to transmit the most adequate data at the required time. Additionally, it is compulsory that the information transmitted be accurate and reliable and as such able to support the decision making process.
d. Business Ethics
As mentioned in the introductory part, the role of business ethics has significantly grown throughout the past decades. The concept is generically defined as the set of norms and regulations which help the individual make the right decision in a context of raised morality issues. Business ethics refers to all types of relationships and actions undergone by the company and it is obvious at…
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With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
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Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Organizational behavior -- globalization and diversity
Diversity is becoming more present within the contemporaneous business climates and it is necessary that economic agents devise and implement the most adequate strategies in responding to the challenges of diversity. Diversity in itself is not only a constant presence, but also a generator of impacts and organizational change. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the fact that diversity forces changes at the level of the leadership styles. Furthermore however, diversity also impacts organizational bottom line and productivity.
In light of the new evolutions at the level of the business climate, numerous changes occur in the previous paradigms. Specifically, one can easily observe shifts in organizational paradigms and to exemplify these, the cases of several Malaysian firms are introduced. Finally, the concept of organizational culture is detailed and emphasis is placed on the strategic strengthening of organizational culture.
Barak, M.E.M., 2010, Managing diversity: toward a globally inclusive workplace, SAGE
Brooks, M.B., 2009, Diversity is about the bottom line, Major Ben's Consulting, http://majorben.com/resources/diversity-is-about-the-bottom-line / last accessed on May 4, 2011
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The Group Behavior Model is a framework for conceptualizing how various aspects of the external and internal environments of a work group influence the group's performance of its task(s) and the group members' level of satisfaction with the experience of group work. External conditions include an organization's authority structure, rules and regulations, corporate culture, resources, setting, and market competition. Internal factors include the individual skills, talents, and experiences each member brings to the work group; the nature of the group's structure; and the dynamics of the group's work processes. The model helps one understand how the interplay of these four components -- external conditions, group member resources, group structure, and group processes -- determine how the group performs its task and how much satisfaction the members of the group derive from the experience of doing performing the task and the outcome of their efforts (Henderson, n. d.).
Nakata, C., & Im, S. (2010). Spurring Cross-Functional Integration for Higher New Product
Performance: A Group Effectiveness Perspective. Journal of Product Innovation
Management, 27(4), 554-571.
Another internal factor that affects the O'Connell High School are the customer demands, in which in the school's case, the customers are the students. O'Connell High School satisfies everything that students and their parents would want in an education. Aside from the low tuition fee and quality education that the school offers, it also reinforces learning to students and to anyone who wishes to gain more knowledge through community education. This is done through evening and weekend classes and a variety of non-credit courses. Thus, these positive internal factors of good opportunities given to students, O'Connell High Schools organization behavior is influenced.
estructuring is another internal factor that positively impacts the organizational behavior of the school. Despite of the closing of the school in school year 2003-2004, the school is now back in pursuing its missions and objectives. It has restructured its curriculum, expanding through more educational degrees that are…
O'Connell High School.
Retrieved on September 01, 2005, from Online. Web site: http://www.ochsgalv.com
The way that this will impact an agency's effectiveness is to influence individual views about the department, command structures and policies / procedures. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Group Dynamics: Group dynamics is focusing on how well various individuals and teams are interacting with each other. This will have an impact on the behavior of police officers by affecting communication. As a result, the ability to work together will modify an agency's capabilities in investigating criminal activity and prosecuting those who are responsible. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Quality of Work Life: The quality of work life will affect the levels of job satisfaction inside a law enforcement agency. This will influence everyone's behavior by impacting their ability to perform various tasks. The way that this will control a department's effectiveness is to manipulate opinions and the levels of motivation for addressing different problems. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
These elements can challenge…
Crotty, S. (2004). Public Management and Organizational Performance. Journal of Public Administration Management Theory, 14 (1), 1 -- 18.
Herbert, S. (1998). Police Subculture. Criminology, 36 (2), 343 -- 370.
Wilson, J. (1979). Varieties of Police Behavior. New York, NY: Antheum.
NIKE Marketing Analysis
Business environment consists of numerous factors and forces that impact the business organizations' ability to operate competitively and profitably in their industry. These forces exist at both micro and macro levels and require the business organizations to show quick response to the uncertainties and complexities which may arise in the business environment from time to time (Cadle, Paul, & Yeates 2010). These forces impact each and every aspect of the business operations like marketing decisions, segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategies, consumers' buying behavior, marketing or promotional activities, and others (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). This paper presents a report on the marketing analysis of Nike, Inc. -- a well-recognized brand in the clothing, sportswear, and footwear manufacturing industry of the world. The major sections include; impacts of micro and macro environments on Nike's marketing decisions, the segmentation criteria which it uses in different markets, the…
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Yeates, D. 2010, Business Analysis, 2nd Edition. Swindon: British Informatics Society
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. 2010, Contemporary Marketing, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education
Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. 2012, Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning
Nike, Inc. 2012, About Nike, Inc. Available from [Accessed September 30th, 2012]