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Change is the movement away from its present state toward a desired future state. Organizations are constantly changing, but organizational change typically refers to the large-scale changes that are sometimes needed to reset the organization. Inevitably, change processes will meet with resistance. This paper will examine how resistance can be a driver in the change process, rather than an obstacle. There is a substantial body of literature that discusses how organizations can overcome resistance to change. One tactic is to accept that some resistance is rational, and reflects legitimate concerns -- no manager should assume that his or her initial change tactic is bulletproof. The organization can benefit from managerial discretion in working with resistance to improve the change process.
Fleming and Spicer (2007) underline power and resistance as two movements, feeding off of each other. They focus on the struggles that occur as part of the change…
Buchanan, D. & Badham, R. (2008) Power, Politics, and Organizational Change: Winning the Turf Game. London: Sage. (pbk)
Fleming, P. & Spicer, A. (2007) Contesting the Corporation: Struggle, Power and Resistance in Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kotter, J. & Schlesinger, L. (1979) 'Choosing strategies for change', Harvard Business Review 57(2): 106-114.
Kotter, J. (1995) 'Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail', Harvard Business Review 73(2): 59-67.
The Burke-Litwin Model contains twelve organizational variables. Each of these variables is interconnected, so that changes in one variable will affect the others. Also built into the model is the idea that change can occur as the result of a concerted effort to change multiple variables. Ideally, an organizational change program will be strongest when all of the different variables are aligned in the direction of the desired change. Some variables may require minimal adjustment while others may require significant adjustment. The twelve variables are the external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, structure, management practices, systems, work unit climate, task requirements, motivation, individual needs and values. The external environment in this model is filtered through the ten other variables, with the outcome being organizational performance (Falletta, 2008).
The Burke-Litwin model is organized by the most important factors at the top, with the factors becoming less important…
Falletta, S.V. (2008). Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review & Synthesis. Leadersphere, Inc. Retrieved from http://leadersphere.com/img/OrgmodelsR2009.pdf
Burke, W.W. & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545. Retrieved from ProQuest.
McNamara, C. (2007). Organizational change and development. Free Management Library, Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/organizationalchange/
Organizational Change Plan -- Part III:
As explained in the previous articles, the setting up of an Electronic Medical ecord in a healthcare facility is a positive measure to improve the efficiency of the facility and cope up with the constantly changing technological world. The implementation of the system in a health facility is also beneficial in enhancing the quality of services, productivity, and the overall output. One of the most important parts of the implementation process is to determine the efficiency of the organizational change once it executed. The evaluation includes the use of various initiatives that examine the probable results of measurement strategies that are linked to the process. Following the implementation of the organizational change, determining its effectiveness helps in evaluating the cost, quality, and satisfaction outcomes of the change. Since the change is monitored gradually to promote its general acceptance by workers and smooth integration into…
Kotecha, J.A. & Birtwhistle, R.V. (2008). Electronic Medical Records. Canadian Medical
Association Journal, 178(10), 930-931. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=18591531
"Measuring Outcomes." (n.d.). Intermediary Development Series. Retrieved from University of Nebraska website: http://www.nebhands.nebraska.edu/files/Measuring%20Outcomes.pdf
Otieno et. al. (2008, January 12). Measuring Effectiveness of Electronic Medical Records
Exploring the complex web of meaning and interpretation attached to concepts like nostalgia would illuminate aspects of resistance in ways that current rationality-based theories do not. Greater attention to affect, identity, symbolism, aesthetics, and related subjects would provide a useful balance to change and innovation research. It is important to acknowledge the many sides of human beings and consider how they may figure in starting, sustaining, and resisting change.
We shall now propose a process model for understanding institutional change at the organizational field level of analysis. This process model consists of five overlapping stages of institutional change: (1) pressures for change; (2) the sources of new practices from institutional entrepreneurs; (3) the processes of deinstitutionalization and reinstitutionalization; (4) the dynamics of deinstitutionalization and re- institutionalization; and (5) reinstitutionalization and stability. We see this process model as useful for integrating much of the literature on institutional change. While this literature…
But boundaries and behaviors are not fixed: structuration does not produce perfect reproduction (Goodrick and Salancik, 1996; Ranson, Hinings, and Green- wood, 1980). The boundaries of organizational com- munities are constantly under review and subject to redefinition and defense; they are the outcome of ongoing claims and counterclaims (Greenwood, Suddaby, and Hinings, 2002). Institutional processes may, generally, work to- ward field stability. However, there are always differences of interpretation and emphasis that may be temporarily resolved by socially negotiated consensus. The appearance of stability is thus probably misleading (e.g. Sahlin-Andersson, 1996, p. 74) and fields should be seen ?not as static but evolving? (Hoffman, 1999, p. 352). There may be times when fields may even ?resemble institutional war? (p. 352). Boundaries between organizations often exhibit phases of isomorphic stability.
This paper suggests a number of new patterns that could be woven into the tapestry. Doing so will require some unraveling, but as the tapestry is rewoven and grows, it will become even more vibrant and illuminating.
Organizational Change Management Plan
The pervasive adoption of home care treatment programs over their more costly and less flexible institutionalized counterparts is forcing rapid change throughout the healthcare industry. Many of these changes are predicated on serving the patient more effectively, and this often encompasses their treatment programs, the level of patient satisfaction attained with their remote care, and the effectiveness of remote support and treatment from trained healthcare professionals. Telemedicine's potential to significantly improve patient outcomes is showing significant progress and is increasingly monitored as a quality management program using Six Sigma for example (Yun, Chun, 2008). Seeing remote healthcare in homes via telemedicine and ancillary technologies requires the healthcare professionals supporting these systems to change their perception of their jobs, how they evaluate their roles, and what excellence in their professions are.
Monitoring Implementation of the Change Management Plan
The shift to telemedicine-based homecare delivery systems that rely…
Beaubien, L. (2013). Technology, change, and management control: A temporal perspective. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 26(1), 48-74.
Benamati, J., & Lederer, A.L. (2000). Rapid change: Nine information technology management challenges. INFOR, 38(4), 336-358.
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W., & Braun, W. (2006). Transformational leadership in organizations: An environment-induced model. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 52-62.
Bloodgood, J.M., & Salisbury, W.D. (2001). Understanding the influence of organizational change strategies on information technology and knowledge management strategies. Decision Support Systems, 31(1), 55-69.
Effectiveness of the organizational change
There are various questions that the leaders of the organization have to ask themselves such as what happened after the changes? Were the expected results got? What were results got that were unexpected? Did the performance of the organization improve? Did the performance decline? Do any adjustments need to occur? The changes that have been implemented should be reflected on the performance of the organization. Improvement in the organization performance cannot occur unless there is a way that the organization can get feedback on the performance. Measuring the performance outcome creates a link between the organization's behavior and the goals set in the change plan (Gonzalez, & Chapa, 2010).To determine whether or not the change that has been proposed is effective there is need for both outcome and process measures. The change has been implemented there should be analysis done to determine the…
Advameg, Inc. (2013).Performance measurement. Retrieved 18, March 2013 from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Or-Pr/Performance-Measurement.html
Gonzalez, K. & Chapa, K. (2010).Performance Measurement: organizational changes and outcome monitoring. Retrieved march 18,2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CEUQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Frepositories.tdl.org%2Futswmed-ir%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F2152.5%2F1089%2FperfMeas.ppt%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=5iJHUemNE8vTPNO5gVg&usg=AFQjCNHUtcCptlAx_SYnAc9BMW1vxERRJw
Landahl, N. (2010). How to measure effectiveness of change in business. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/how_7383164_measure-effectiveness-change-business.html
Wordpress.com. (2011). Measuring Change at the Process and Outcome Levels. Retrieved March 8,203 from http://thechangecollaborative.wordpress.com/2011/09/06/measuring-change-at-the-process-and-outcome-levels/
Organizational Change Plan Part II
The modern world demands for organizational change. Hospitals in particular need change to handle the growing problem of elopement or, intended leaving of a medical facility after person is aware of not having permission to do so. Organizational change to solve such a problem can come from several areas. Some of which may involve new leadership or new ways to assess any changes throughout the day. New leadership could bring in, an organizational change through plans that involve changing the way staff behave and think in regards to certain activities like elopement and how to manage such potential incidents.
The first towards implementing any kind of organizational changes in regards to reducing elopement is to understand the type of patients most likely to elope from the hospital. Patients with Alzheimer's or Dementia or most likely to elope. If staff are informed from the…
Aud, M.A. (2004). Dangerous wandering: Elopements of older adults with dementia from long-term care facilities. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 19(6), 361. Doi: 10.1177/153331750401900602
Gupta, A. (2013). Business strategy implementation and strategic management: An analytical study. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF Management AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES, 2(6), 11-16. Retrieved from http://www.ijmds.com/admin1/adminsettings/upload/AbhishekGupta2.pdf
Kaminski, J. (2011). Theory applied to informatics -- Lewin's Change Theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 6(1), 1. Retrieved from http://cjni.net/journal/?p=1210
Rhydderch, M., Elwyn, G., Marshall, M.N., & Grol, R.P. (2004). Organisational change theory and the use of indicators in general practice. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 13(3), 213. doi:10.1136/qshc.2003.006536
This is where the Emotional Intelligence (EI) of a leader becomes critical (McEnrue, Groves, Shen, 173, 174). To the extent a leader can nurture and create trust with their subordinates is to the extent they can create a positive perception of change, where employees identify and even own parts of the processes critical for change to strategies, systems, processes and procedures to be successful. It is in the approach leaders take to managing change and gaining ownership among employees that lasting change can be successfully managed. esistance to change cannot be accomplished through formal channels; there must be a more transformational role to managing organizational change that is more dependent on a leader's ability to inspire confidence in their judgment and abilities than blind faith in their position level in the organization.
Trust in Leaders is Critical for Lasting Organizational Change
The ability of a leader to have a transformational…
Robert Gandossy, Robin Guarnieri. (2008). Can You Measure Leadership? MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(1), 65-69. Retrieved April 3, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1570723551).
Tom Karp, Thomas I. Tveteraas Helgo. (2009). Reality revisited: leading people in chaotic change. The Journal of Management Development, 28(2), 81-93. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1632344561).
Mary Pat McEnrue, Kevin S. Groves, Winny Shen. (2009). Emotional intelligence development: leveraging individual characteristics. The Journal of Management Development, 28(2), 150-174. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1632344611).
In such situations, it still is pertinent to create some kind of agreement with regard to the current scope of work in relation to the consultant. (Gayle, 1993)
It could be said that the consultants engaged with firms experiencing change is required to adhere to the following important steps. The consultant is required to define the project goals and scope and inform employees about their anticipations. They are required to offer personal training to the leader(s) when the firm is undergoing transition. The consultant is required to choose suitable persons to include in the team. There is a necessity to have the support of other senior managers as well as stakeholders in the project goals and scope and offer a channel for important managers to offer necessary direction at crucial decision points in the system. The consultant is required to be certain that someone is liable to each detail of…
Burrello, Kelly N. (n. d.) "Change Management: The Consultant's Role" Retrieved 14 October, 2007 at http://www.diversitydtg.com/articles/change-management.htm
Davey, Neil G; Alderfer, Clayton P. (1972, Dec) "The External Consultant's Role in Organizational Change" Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 617-618.
Gayle, Moller. (1993, Summer) "The Consultant as Organizational Change Agent" New
Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, vol. 58, no. 4, pp: 73-79.
In late 2003, FedEx announced the acquisition of Kinko's, the chain of office stores, for $2.4 billion. In part, the deal was a response to the purchase of Mailboxes, Etc. By UPS two years previous. The Kinko's deal with clearly a response to that move, but there were also some perceived synergies for FedEx. The customers of Kinko's tended to be small businesses, many of which overlapped with FedEx's own customer base. As such, the idea that traffic could be driven from Kinko's to FedEx, and vice versa, was one of the key strategic considerations behind the acquisition (Flanigan, 2003). At the time of the acquisition, Kinko's had sales of $2 billion and 22,000 employees. FedEx immediately began installing counters in the Kinko's stores and making the transition to a culture and organizational structure more like that of FedEx. Five years later, the Kinko's name was eliminated, FedEx…
Deutsch, C. (2007). Paper jam at FedEx Kinko's. New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/2003/dec/31/business/fi-flan31
Flanigan, J. (2003). Tale of two small enterprises climaxes in FedEx's acquisition of Kinko's chain. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 30, 2012 from
An organizational change in a company involves a major change in processes or systems such as organizational structure, business model, leadership direction, strategy, objectives and technology. In the retail business the focus is on customer service and growth often brings about changes. This paper will explore the organizational change happening in a regional retail store selling home furnishings and art.
The store desires to expand its product offerings by opening an art gallery in the store and offering a wider range of furniture and decor in the store. The planned gallery will sell art from local artists on a consignment basis. The store's business model is offering handmade items from different countries priced for average consumers with a few high end pieces for the occasional collector. In order to facilitate this change the store needs to hire additional staff and reorganize its existing layout. The store has developed…
Austin, John (1 July 2009). Mapping Out a Game Plan for Change. Retrieved January 5, 2011 from http://www.shrm.org/TemplatesTools/Samples/SupervisoryNewsletter/Pages/MappingOutaGamePlanforChange.aspx
Gurchiek, Kathy (1 Sept. 2008). Slay Fear of Dragons by Creating Culture for Change. Retrieved January 6, 2011 from http://www.shrm.org/about/news/Pages/SlayFearofDragons.aspx
Hughes, Charity (9 Sept. 2008). Take These Steps to Lead Effective Change Initiative. Retrieve January 5, 2011 from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/orgempdev/articles/Pages/LeadEffectiveChange.aspx
Mirza, Beth (20 Aug. 2008). Organizational Change Starts with Individual Employees. Retrieved 4 January 2011 from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/businessleadership/articles/Pages/StartwithIndividualEmployees.aspx
Organizational Change and Development
This is an article on various aspects of change with special emphasis on the factors for change and subsequent OD activities. It has 11 sources.
Change is invariable in any management setting though it is concerned with the whole organization or only certain key management roles. Even though change in any form is one of the most contentious issues to deal with, it must be said that change is a very important as it drives an organization towards positive goals. Change must happen from time to time and may be termed as positive or negative depending on the tangible effects that it creates in the organization. For example computerization may be called as a progressive change when we consider the rise in efficiency of the whole organization. However, too much computerization will also reduce the human element in the company and may bear heavily on the…
Beckhard, R., Organization development: Strategies and models, Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, Reading, MA, 1969, p. 9, retrieved at http://www.alumni.caltech.edu/~rouda/T3_OD.html. On March 26, 2004
Robert H. Rouda & Mitchell E. Kusy, Jr., Organization Development the management of chang," retrieved at http://www.alumni.caltech.edu/~rouda/T3_OD.html. On March 26, 2004
Harold Koontz and Cyril O'Donell, (1978), Essentials of management, New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill Co, pp 10-50
Chris, Argyris, (1957), Personality and organization, New York: Harper and Row
Brief Summary of Prior Work
At IHC there have been two elopement breaches, and this has resulted in a change in the elopement policy. Although the incidents were reported to the authorities in a timely manner, at issue is how IHC can prevent another elopement incident from occurring in the future. There are currently two issues to be addressed in the organization's plan. The first is to prevent elopements and the second is to improve the speed at which we find the person.
It was previously noted that there might be some organizational barriers to implementing the proposed changes. For example, some of the changes involve increasing security barriers that restrict freedom of movement within the facility, and in/out of the facility. There is also a high level of employee burnout and the changes might add to their work load, causing resistance. Nurses will be more accountable for…
Bond, B. (2013). Strategies for measuring organization change. Bureau of Justice Assistance. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://www.smartpolicinginitiative.com/sites/all/files/SPI%20Measuring%20Change%20Webinar%20FINAL.pdf
FAO. (2014). Budgetary control. FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w4343e/w4343e05.htm
Kotter, J. (2011). Before you can get buy-in, people need to feel the problem. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://blogs.hbr.org/2011/02/before-you-can-get-buy-in-peop/
Mullaly, M. (2014). Measuring organizational change. Infolific. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://infolific.com/technology/project-management/measuring-organizational-change/
The result of Kleinfeld's tremendous changes was been a thriving company, but a demoralized workforce. This result highlighted the problem with instituting change and the types of internal resistance innovative managers have been forced to deal with when overhauling failing companies.
In fact, one of the primary concerns that employees have had when there has been any type of major corporate restructuring has been the fear of layoffs. hen Spirit Aerosystems spun off from Boeing and was purchased by Onex Corp., its employees feared that layoffs were imminent. hile there were some lay-offs, the majority of the employees were retained and were also highly compensated for their role in helping make Spirit's IPO successful. The retention of so much of the workforce reflected a major change in corporate strategy; cooperation between workers and management. This change was exceptionally notable because the motive behind Boeing's decision to spin-off Spirit was largely…
Arndt, Michael. "McDonald's 24/7." Businessweek 5 Feb. 2007: 65-72.
Berner, Robert. "Chanel's American in Paris." Businessweek. 29 Jan. 2007; 70-71.
Byrnes, Nanette and Peter Burrows. "Where Dell Went Wrong." Businessweek. 19 Feb. 2007;
Engardio, Pete. "Beyond the Green Corporation." Businessweek. 29 Jan. 2007: 50-64.
Indeed, this is pointing out that culture -- along with organizational change -- is a double-edged sword that when managed properly will provide organizational benefits. To do otherwise may mean the demise of the continuity and operability of the organization. y taking to heart the contents and insights from all three articles, any person that will be part of the change management initiative of the organization will have the tools, techniques and knowledge that can be applied to whatever situation that will be faced whenever organization change is being implemented.
Nothing is indeed as constant as change and the assignment drives home this point especially with regards to organizational change. Since this will be faced by anyone belonging to an organization, knowing the intricacies of the matter should be de rigueur to ensure that once change happens or is happening, there will be less surprises. The articles read are invaluable…
Dunphy D. & Stace, D. (1993). The strategic management of corporate change human relations, 46(8): 905-920.
Nadler, D.A. & Tushman, M.L. (1989). "Organizational framebending: Principles for managing reorientation." Academy of Management Executive, 3(3): 194-204.
Sathe, V. 1983. "Implications of corporate culture. A manager's guide to action." Organizational Dynamics, 5 -23.
Organizational Change of Northrop Grumann Corporation
Analysis of Change
Northrop Grumman: Interview in relation to Program
Mergers & Acquisitions
Looking to the Future
Organizational Change of Northrop Grumann Corporation
Although acquisitions did not prove to improve the performance of firms the activities of acquisition persists and government policy toward the industry of defense has approved consolidation for the purpose of cost savings that are nominal at best. Mergers and acquisitions are events that greatly modify the dynamics of competition within the affected industries and merging firm's combination of additional capacity and resources make the position in the market and profitability of the firms remaining quite unstable.
Acquisition of technological advances may be often the motivating factor behind acquisitions. Diversification within the firms(s) involved in the acquisition or merger and particularly in terms of subsequent performance. The size of the firm attempting to assimilate a potential target firm may very…
McGovern, Patrick J. et al. (2004) Merger and Acquisition Assimilation 2004 Computerworld Honors Case Study: Business and Related Services Northrop Grumann Corporation [Online available at: http://securec.wheroes.org / briefingroom_2004/pdf_ frame/inde x.asp?id=5114
Holliday, Karen Kahler (2001) Northrop Grumman: Adapting to Change - Leadership: Different Venues [Online available at: http://www.fei.org/magazine/articles/7-8-2001_coverstory_2.cfm
Lean Manufacturing Collaboration (@003) Macro Value Stream Mapping Collaboration: Lean Training and Implementation [Online available at http://www.leanadvisors.com/Lean/articles/northroplockheed.cfm .
Survival Guide: Herb Anderson, Corporate Vice President for Special Projects Northrop Grumman, Corporation (2004) Washington Technology Vol.19 No. 7, 2004 July 5 [Online at http://www.washingtontechnology.com/news/19_7/survivalguide/23936-1.html ]
Organizational Change Theories
The termination of the draft that took place in 1973 has far most been the most significant change in the U.S. military. The impacts of this change are still being witnessed even after twenty-four years of implementing the changes. Most of those people who are in active duty came by free will. It has created a lot of complication on how the military functions and the way they relate with the society. Even with their ranking, the military have grown to the level of professional military. They are trained as soldiers and posses that sense of a society in them. They have families, health care expenses and social infrastructure, which makes them expensive (Shrader, 2006).
The ending of the conscription in the past 10 years has led to the emergence of professionalism in the military. This exists even with their enlisted ranks. Although these professional are more…
Herbert, P. (2008). Deciding what has to be done: General William E. DePuy and the 1976
Edition of FM 100 -- 5, Operations. Indiana: DIANE Publishing.
Hofman, T. (2010). A History of Innovation: U.S. Army Adaptation in War and Peace: U.S.
Army Adaptation in War and Peace Miami: Government Printing Office.
Organizational Change heory
O'Reilly, Charles a. & Michael L. ushman. (2004). he ambidextrous organization.
he Harvard Business Review.
It is often said that generals are always trying to win the last war, rather than look ahead to what they need to do to succeed in the future. his is also true of business organizations, according to Charles O'Reilly and Michael L. ushman's article "he ambidextrous organization" for he Harvard Business Review "Most successful enterprises are adept at refining their current offerings, but they falter when it comes to pioneering radically new products and services" (Reilly & ushman 2004: 1). Some theorists state that radical innovation by established organizations is a virtual impossibility. However, Reilly and ushman contend that innovation is possible, provided the organization remain sufficiently flexible.
he company must sustain its innovation at several levels. Incremental innovation (think Apple's continual 'retooling' of its music players and smartphone)…
The most fruitful type of creative organizations, according to the authors, are designed along the lines of what they call ambidextrous organizations, "where the breakthrough efforts were organized as structurally independent units, each having its own processes, structures, and cultures but integrated into the existing senior management hierarchy" (Reilly & Tushman 2004: 2). One example of this is the U.S.A. Today organization, which shelters a wide array of newspapers and other news sources under its umbrella. On one hand, all member newspapers are somewhat distinct, serving a regional or specialty audience or having a unique 'brand.' But by sharing information between the newspapers, a high level of quality is maintained that is mutually beneficial for all of the participants in the network.
Companies that thrive must also know what type of change is required by the market environment. While sometimes small, sustained changes can be beneficial, at other times companies must take radical efforts to outpace competitors, like the upstart contact lens company CIBA Vision, when it strove to challenge pharmaceutical behemoth Johnson & Johnson. It launched "six formal development projects, each focused on a revolutionary change. Four entailed new products, including daily disposables and extended-wear lenses, and two involved new manufacturing processes. In a controversial but necessary move, he [the CEO] canceled dozens of small R&D initiatives for conventional lenses to free up cash for the breakthrough efforts" Reilly & Tushman 2004: 4). The CEO, even while he allowed R&D a great deal of leeway, also strove to integrate the management of the multinational company, to ensure a coherence of mission in an 'ambidextrous' fashion.
Being ambidextrous means able to be a mold-breaker, yet also staying true to the company spirit, purpose, mission, and sense of fellowship. Through incremental, architectural, and discontinuous innovation the company must ensure that a thirst for future innovation is built into its corporate culture, even while it strives to meet the demands of the moment. An existing company must hold onto its existing business and customers, even while it fights the forces of complacency and inertia that can hamper its future. The task is challenging, but the examples cited by O'Reilly and Tushman underline the fact that it is essential for a company to do so, if it wishes to remain a lasting success.
Organizational Change and Leadership Styles
Human beings are naturally change-resistant, many have stated, and human beings in collective organizations such as corporations are perhaps more rather than less resistant to shifts in their daily routines. This is because the resistance to change in one individual fosters and gives permission to others to behave in similarly change-resistant fashions. If one person is late everyday, then it seems 'okay' to other employees to come in late, so long as they are not 'as late' as the 'latest' person in their block of cubicles/
This is the downside of the human animal's status as a 'social beast' as opposed to an individualistic creature. A leader of an organization must stand outside of this tendency to reinforce negative workforce patterns and attitudes. He or she cannot ignore such tendencies in his or her fellow workers, though. Rather, a critical definition of organizational leadership on…
Works Cited de Bono, E. (1986), Six Thinking Hats, Little, Brown, New York.
Leadership (Feb 6, 1997) Retrieved on June 25, 2004 at http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/Styles/styles.html. Factorsleaders Motivation & Leadership Styles." (2004) Retrieved on June 26, 2004 at http://www.motivation-tools.com/workplace/leadership_styles.htm
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Organizational change is a complex process, with deep implications company-wide. As such, in order to best implement organizational change, one needs to primarily understand the organizations, as entities. The best theory for the organization proposes an open-system approach, in which the organization continuously interacts with the external environment. This is correct, particularly in the present, when globalization has imposed a system where entities world-wide are interconnected and relate to one another in exchange processes.
Branding the organization as an open system brings about several different characteristics, including importation of energy, output, negative entropy or integration and coordination. The comparison that the authors make is interesting and appropriate: the organization does embrace all these elements, just like a living organism. As an additional argument for this approach, an organization is, after all, made up essentially of human resource, which brings added value and allows it to be competitive on the market.…
Change is a phenomenon that is part and parcel of life. In the business world, change is often challenging on multiple levels, including the interpersonal and the organizational levels. In terms of the interpersonal level, many employees or even managers may resist change because it tends to remove the comfort zone, even if only temporarily. Change may also cause fear, especially when there is a danger of job losses and the like. These personal issues can cause inter-level tension within the organization and have unforeseen and unintended negative effects on the process and its goals. For this reason, as Burke notes in the chapter on levels of organization change, it is important for managers to be aware of and actively manage the various levels of change that occur within his or her organization.
I believe that Burke (p. 99) makes an important statement in recognizing that there are…
Organizational Change: ole of the Leader
Being America's largest civil rights organization, the Human ights Campaign (HC) largely concerns itself with the role of improving the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons "by advocating for equal rights and benefits in the workplace, ensuring families are treated equally under the law and increasing public support among all Americans" (HC, 2014). Capitalist structures have facilitated the campaign's operations -- there has been a substantial rise in lesbian and gay identity in America, and corporations have been increasingly progressive in their practices towards such individuals (Githens, 2009). However, the same is not the case in many other countries. The HC admits that millions of LGBT persons across the world still live in isolation and fear, and under the rule of administrations that criminalize their identities and sexual orientations. To this end, the campaign is seeking to expand its operations into…
Brager, G. & Holloway, S. (2002). Changing Human Service Organizations. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2004). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models, Tools & Techniques of Organizational Change. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Githens, R.P. (2009). Capitalism, Identity Politics and Queerness Converge: LGBT Employee Resource Groups. New Horizons in Adult Education and Human Resource Development, 23(3), 18-31.
HRC. (2014). The Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 24 July 2014 from http://www.hrc.org/
The senior executives who are for the most part from engineering, are taking a wait-and-see approach to how effective the use of a 3rd party is for porting the Cincom applications to the cloud-based platforms from Salesforce.com. The group of leaders who are in charge of the transition of specific piloted applications are concentrating on creating a dashboard of metrics to show how effectively the move to a more scalable and cost-effective platform is. Resistance to change is being dealt with through testing, which is consistent with the change transition curve.
The search aspects of the change transition curve have led to the decision to standardize on the Salesforce.com platform, specifically Force.com given its use of technologies compatible with legacy Cincom applications. The integration aspects of the change transition curve however have been more difficult as the culture within Cincom is very slow to change. The reliance on the…
The failure of many institutional giants can be attributed to deadly complacency within the organization. When complacency becomes a comfortable part of the organizational culture, it may be doomed to failure. Urgency helps to reignite the organization, to allow it to compete in a rapidly changing marketplace and competitive environment.
As Bustillo (2011) points out, Wal*Mart recognizes the need for organizational change and understands how to create a sense of urgency. Wal*Mart is "is taking on competitive threats from Amazon.com Inc. And other big online retailers by testing out home delivery of groceries," (Bustillo, 2011). If the move towards home delivery is not aggressive enough because of its narrow focus, then Wal*Mart could start experiencing successive failures that might hurt the company. esistances to Wal*Mart's new home delivery program could come from a variety of sources, including consumers who do not value Wal*Mart's brand equity and would prefer…
Bustillo, M. (2011). Wal*Mart tests home delivery. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703567404576280922297538578.html
Kotter, J. The importance of urgency. Harvard Business School. [Interview]. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zD8xKv2ur_s&feature=related
This paper summarizes three articles. The first two pertain to organizational change and the last one to human resources with respect to the global organization. The first article provides a history of organizational change as a discipline, some statistics that illustrate the challenges associated with organizational change, and some of the best practices for how to make organizational change successful in an organization. The second article is specific to McDonald's, highlighting that company's struggles to effect organizational change. Management's view of what change looks like is not really aligned with the views of the franchisees, and in general this has left the franchisees critical. This is a case study is how not to implement a successful organizational change program. The third article is about the role that human resources plays in the development of the global organization, in particular with respect to training.
Goodman, N. (2011) Cultivating cultural intelligence: The better a training department can capture, retain and disseminate its acquired cultural intelligence throughout the organization, the greater the strategic value it will bring. Training. Vol. 2 (2011) p.38. In possession of the author.
No author (2014) The change missionaries. Human Capital. In possession of the author.
Peterson, H. (2015) McDonald\\\\'s franchises say the brand is in a deep depression and facing its final days. Business Insider. In possession of the author.
Teams and Organizational Structure: Denise Morrison
Organizational leadership is the determining factor when it comes to the success of an organization. In most cases, the leader is expected to come up with the strategic plan meant to take the company forward and ensure growth in every sector. The importance of leadership has in particular developed interest in the recent past as both employees and consumers are critical of the way the company is operated. For example, companies are expected to take their corporate social responsibility seriously or risk losing its market share. Consequently, leadership plays a major role in the management of employees and ensuring retention of the top talent in the organization. The leadership style adopted by the top management in an organization determines the relationship the organization has with its employees, which determines the motivational levels of the employees. Campbell Soup is a company operating in a…
Avolio, B. J., & Yammarino, F. J. (Eds.). (2013). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. xxvii-xxxiii). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Hurst, A. (2017). How Denise Morrison took processed food icon Campbell on a fresh food-buying spree. Fast Company. Retrieved
Marcus, B. (2014). Campbell Soup CEO Denise Morrison stirs the pot to create cultural change. Forbes. Retrieved
Bio, F. (2014). Campbell Soup CEO Denise Morrison Stirs The Pot to Create Cultural Change. Forbes. Retrieved from www.forbes.com/sites/bonniemarcus/2014/04/25/campbell-soup-ceo-denise-morrison-stirs-the-pot-to-create-cultural-change/#7681d77c170d
Klassen, A. (2012). How CEO Denise Morrison is Getting Campbell to Think Outside the Can. Advertising Age. Retrieved from adage.com/article/news/morrison-campbell/237563/
“5 Conflict Management Styles at a Glance,” (2017). Retrieved http://sourcesofinsight.com/conflict-management-styles-at-a-glance/
Coping with Change
There are several different models for organizational change. One of the older models is Lewin's Change Management Model, which is simplified as unfreeze, change, refreeze (MindTools, 2018). This model basically outlines what needs to happen on a very high level. It does not recognize change as a fluid process to be influenced, but rather three concrete steps, ending with a completed change and a return to the status quo. The weakness in this theory is that most modern organizations do not accept the idea of the base state, which can be exited in anticipation of the organization returning to a new base state at a later point. Fluidity is more the accepted norm, given the rapid pace of change in today's world relative to when Lewin developed his theory.
Kotter's 8-step change model to some extent builds on the Lewin model, in that it begins with ending…
MindTools (2018) Kotter\\'s 8-Step change model. MindTools. Retrieved May 15, 2018 from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm
MindTools (2018). Lewin\\'s change management model. MindTools. Retrieved May 15, 2018 from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_94.htm
Mulholland, B. (2017). 8 critical change management models to evolve and survive. Process.st. Retrieved May 15, 2018 from https://www.process.st/change-management-models/
Traub, S. (2008) FedEx removes Kinkos with a write-off. CFO Magazine. Retrieved May 15, 2018 from http://ww2.cfo.com/accounting-tax/2008/06/fedex-removes-the-kinkos-with-a-write-off/
Support managers, involve stakeholders, address resistance, celebrate victories and define the objective
Give focus and support to individuals involved in the change
Know the needs of all stakeholders
Start at the top
Change has to be implemented correctly and follow a process so as not to stall or be met with resistance (Schantz, 2018)
Change is required
IT workers have to be more involved in making computers and networks safer for users
Anyone who uses the Internet is at risk of being hacked
Health care providers, IT workers, administrators, patients and all stakeholders have to be more aware of the cybersecurity risks attendant the use of multiple
medical devices (Shindell, 2018)
Medical devices can be hacked
(Anderson & Williams, 2018)Part I: Concept Map
Part II: Explaining the Concept Map
The Relationship of Parts
Cybersecurity, Organizational Change and Modernization Theory
As the concept map shows, cybersecurity,…
Anderson, S., & Williams, T. (2018). Cybersecurity and medical devices: Are the ISO/IEC 80001-2-2 technical controls up to the challenge?. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 56, 134-143.
Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 8(1), 9-32.
Dooley, K. J. (1997). A complex adaptive systems model of organization change. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 1(1), 69-97.
Schantz, J. (2018). How can leaders manage change successfully? HR.com, 8-9.
Shindell, R. (2018). Wearable devices: The next wave of cybercrime. Journal of AHIMA, 24-27.
Ten, C. W., Manimaran, G., & Liu, C. C. (2010). Cybersecurity for critical infrastructures: Attack and defense modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 40(4), 853-865.
Senior leaders assess their company’s readiness for change using various tools and techniques. Change readiness refers to two main factors: member commitment and perceived efficacy (Weiner, 2009). Both commitment and efficacy suggest that a unified vision for change is required for effective organizational change. Whether it is stimulated by internal or external factors, member commitment to and belief in organizational change is critical.
The factors used to determine if change is needed in a given organization include regular, systematic, ongoing assessments of internal and external factors. The need for change can be sparked by external threats like encroaching competition or shifting consumer trends. Entering a new market might initiate a change strategy in the organization, too. Other internal factors that can determine whether change is needed include raw data from performance reports. Once the need for change has been determined, senior leaders need to shift their attention to the vision…
Musselwhite, C. & Plouffe, T. (2010). Four ways to know whether you are ready for change. Harvard Business Review. June 2, 1010. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2010/06/four-ways-to-know-whether-you
Weiner, B.J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation Science 4: 67.
Making a big splash to establish a new policy has its risks, but this approach can be advantageous as well. The current situation is that there are only a few volunteers working with the organization regularly and they are facing burnout. So there is a problem that may break soon, and threaten the ability of the organization to do its work. The training seminars are going to be a barrier for those who are already working to continue, and a further barrier to attracting new people to do this work. There is no particular evidence that the seminars are going to solve any problem at all, so I would treat them with some skepticism. This is especially true in that 75% of volunteers are one-offs, and the number of one-offs might drop to near zero if they have to attend the seminars before volunteering.
In order to gather the challenges, it is necessary to rehabilitate organizations into learning institutions at the first step, so as to make them superlative. To make a change from a traditional to a learning organization, the main factor is leadership, which brings to light the goals and the main insights of the organization, assists workers to achieve their aims and helps them put up a learning condition which is inventive (Diab, Safan & Beeker, 2017). In the most recent proposal, an outline of an organization’s assessment on how ready they are to adopt evidence-based practice in the healthcare sector is presented. This project will be carried out in hospital environments with the respondents being healthcare professionals. The study will employ the Prevention Program Assessment tool to check their preparedness for change and thereafter get into a training period of 25 weeks. The outcomes will be analyzed qualitatively and…
Aarons, G. A., Ehrhart, M. G., Farahnak, L., & Hurlburt, M. (2015). Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation. Implement Sci, 10(11), doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0192-y.
Bosch, M., Tavender, E. J., Brennan, S., Knott, J., Russell, L., & Green, S. (2016). The many organizational factors relevant to planning change in emergency care departments: a qualitative study to inform a cluster randomized controlled trial aiming to improve the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries. PLoS ONE, 11(2).doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148091
Brown, C. G. (2014). The Iowa model of evidence-based practice to promote quality care: An illustrated example in oncology nursing. Clin J Oncol Nurs, 18, 167-169.
Cavarec, Y. (2014). Increase your organization readiness to change. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2014, North America, Phoenix, AZ. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
CGEAN. (2018). CGEAN evidence-based implementation project 2018 – 2020. Retrieved from https://www.cgean.org/resources/Documents/RFP_2018EBPProject.pdf
Cullen, L. (2015). Models for implementation and integration of evidence-based practice. Nursing Research, 20(2), 51-60. Retrieved from https://opac.ll.chiba-u.jp/da/curator/900118575/20(2)_51-60.pdf
Diab, G. M., Safan, S. M., & Bakeer, H. M. (2018). Organizational change readiness and managers’ behavior in managing change. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 8(7). doi: 10.5430/jnep.v8n7p68
El-Sayed, F., Seada, A., & El-Guindy, H. (2017). Factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change at BeniSueif University Hospital. Egyptian Nursing Journal, 14(2), 141-151.
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
This means training that is focused on increasing the knowledge economy of the transforming firm rather than in simply standardizing processes. According to the text by Chapman (2009), this may even call for a change in the linguistic approach to this process. Chapman advises that "training implies putting skills into people, when actually we should be developing people from the inside out, beyond skills, ie., facilitating learning. So focus on facilitating learning, not imposing training." (Chapman, p. 1) It is conceivable that an appeal to this approach might have spared much of the uncertainty that permeated Cutting Edge Paper during and after the changeover in ownership.
Another recommendation is for the opening of dialogue during the process of transformation so that leadership can become more attuned to the needs of personnel. It is conceivable that during this transformation and Cutting Edge Paper, some ambiguity might have been reduced if leadership…
Chapman, A. (2009). Organizational Change, Training and Learning. BusinessBalls.com.
Corley, K.G. & Gioia, D.A. (2004). Identity Ambiguity and Change in the Wake of a Corporate Spin-off. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(2).
Eisenberg, E.M. (1984). Ambiguity as Strategy in Organizational Communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 227-242.
Eustis, J. & McMillan, G. (1997). Technology Initiatives and Organizational Changge: Higher Education in a Networked World. CAUSE '97.
Furthermore, the change leader should have developed a more universal approach, showing how it would benefit all departments and be the correct fiscal procedure as well, thereby including all member of the organization as a team.. (Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan & Switzler, 2008) by including more of the directors in on her original thinking she would have been able to develop more support before going in front of the management team. She lacked a more encompassing vision. This would have helped get the project moving more quickly and would have had everyone engaged in the action. This would have had more directors proactive and positive when discussing it with their staff, going a long way towards outweighing the resistance to change.
Brenneman, G. (1998). ight away and all at once. Harvard Business eview, 76;(5), 162-173.
Demings, W.E. (2005.). The w. edwards demings instate.http://www.deming.org/
etrieved on September 17, 2005
Brenneman, G. (1998). Right away and all at once. Harvard Business Review, 76;(5), 162-173.
Demings, W.E. (2005.). The w. edwards demings instate. http://www.deming.org/
Retrieved on September 17, 2005
Hirschhorn, L. (2002). Campaigning for change. Harvard Business Review, 80(7), p98-104
The change that outsourcing and SAs bring into organizations is, or should be, planned. It is the result of specific efforts by a change agent (individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns), in this case managers. Planned change processes are a direct response to someone's perception of a discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs (performance gap). Performance gaps are at the same time problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored through outsourcing and SAs.
All in all, outsourcing and strategic alliances are both concepts that will be found on the corporate strategic agenda for the years to come. The market dynamics and increasing pressures toward efficiency impose the need for organizational change. The benefits of the two strategic directions discussed are real, and through careful planning and implementation, organizations can gain a competitive advantage.
Berrio A.A. 2003, An…
Berrio A.A. 2003, An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension, National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Retrieved from URL http://www.joe.org/joe/2003april/a3.shtml
Gottfredson M., Puryear R., Phillips S., Strategic Sourcing: From Periphery to the Core, Harvard Business Review, February 2005 Issue
Gupta, S. 2002, Demystifying offshore outsourcing: despite the risks, the benefits can be great, CMA Management, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.allbusiness.com/periodicals/article/357507-2.html
Schermerhorn J., Hunt J., and Osborn R. 2005, Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. New York, Wiley
Organizational Change and Development in Public Sector
Additional points are in red per
Rewrite Edition April 6, 2012
Organizational Change and Development in the Public Sector
One of the most challenging aspects of organizational change is defining a compelling enough vision for associates and employees to concentrate on so they see the value of changing how they work and why. Empirically-based studies indicate that transformational leaders are the most effective at clearly defining and executing a compelling vision that leads to long-term change in an organization (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon, 2012). The following proposal for a capstone project focuses on the qualitative factors that contribute the most to successful change management strategies that lead to long-term, permanent change occurring throughout an enterprise. Transformational leadership is essential for the development of an organizational culture that values long-term learning, which is the foundation of long-term productivity gains in an enterprise (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon,…
Change management is inherently qualitative in nature as it is often an internalized aspect of behavior in organizations (September, McCarrey, Baranowsky, et. al., 2001). Translating these inherently qualitative aspects of organizational behavior into quantitative measures of performance requires a research method that captures the quantitative, external perceptions and actions of respondents throughout an organization. The research method is therefore predicated on attitudinal measures of perception and performance. The research method therefore includes the research design based on random sampling and Likert scaling to quantify attitudinal
Organization Change Leadership
Every organization has a culture observed in daily operations. Organizational culture oftentimes influences the extent of performance and success (Burke, 2008). For instance, the visit to county jail and federal prison showed a difference in culture. The new federal prison suggested that the management intends to establish tight security. On the other hand, the county jail had established a culture where jailers freely interacting even with staff members. For many organizations, culture should be handed down from before current employees as they join an organization. According to head of OD group in Proctor and Gamble, culture introduced by the founders should be handed down even to future employees.
Cummings and Worley (2005) observed that organizational culture plays a big role in managing an organization. First, it sets the standards for all stakeholders involved in the organization. For instance, the management will always want to encourage a certain…
Burke, W.W. (2008). Organization change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage pub.
Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2005). Organization development and change. Mason,
A lack of any purposeful or directional change had led to a stagnancy in sales and a lethargy amongst the establishment's staff, and though the owner recognized this she did not seem to have an understanding of how to change it. This period happened to coincide with the departure of one of the more senior employees, and the owner used this opportunity to hire an assistant manager with previous H experience; this individual developed new incentives and deeper levels of organizational involvement for all employees, which proved to be very successful at motivating individuals and creating a more adaptive and customer-oriented business. The assistant manager was very much brought in as a change agent for the organization, and demonstrated how successful such new insight to an organization can be when approached in the proper manner (Schabracq 2007).
In both of these instances, there was a clear moment when change began…
Fisk, P. (2008). Business genius: A more inspired approach to business growth. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Capstone.
Schabracq, M.J. (2007). Changing organizational culture: The change agent's guidebook. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Change anywhere is never easy, in fact most people in an organization usually have a difficult adjustment when it comes to that. However, it is a process that cannot be avoided, it must happen. An organization may have no other choice but to change. hen this occurs, it is important to make sure that the employees are all on the same page and that this change is good and scary at the same time. There are so many various reasons for an organization to change, for instance a sudden change of the financial climate or the arising threat of competition. Through getting a good understanding of the procedure and theory of organizational change, an organization such as the Fairfax Media Group can manage change in the best conceivable way.
In Jennifer M. George's and Gareth R. Jones book, Contemporary Management, organizational change is well-defined as "the crusade of…
Fisher, D.R. (2000). Global and domestic actors within the global climate change regime: Toward a theory of the global environmental system. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 221-234.
Ford, R. (2004). Organizational learning, change and power: Toward a practice-theory framework. The Learning Organization,, 13(5).
Macri, D.M., Tagliaventi, M.R., & Bertolotti, F. (2002). A grounded theory for resistance to change in a small organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 292-310.
Nelson, L. (2005). A case study in organisational change: Implications for theory. The Learning Organization, 12(3), 18-30.
"Change implementation within an organization can…be conceptualized as an exercise in social influence, defined as the alteration or an attitude or behavior by one actor in response to another actor's actions… [and] one important dimension along which they vary is the extent to which they break with existing institutions in a field of activity…" (Battilana, et al., 2012).
hen companies need to make major changes -- do to the emerging trends in the marketplace, new products being produced, or simply because the old ways are not profitable anymore -- how do they go about it and how do they deal with employees' resistance to change? This is one of the most common problems that organizations face, and there are reasonable answers as to why they face those problems. This paper points out the need for change and the resistance to change. There are also solutions to resistance to…
Battilana, J. And Casciaro, T. (2012). Change Agents, Networks, and Institutions: A
Contingency Theory of Organizational Change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(2),
Denning, Steve. (2011). How Do You Change An Organizational Culture? Forbes. Retrieved June 30, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com .
Change agents must address both the process-centric and people-based aspects of change for lasting contributions to be made to their organizations. Theirs is the role of disruptor of the status quo, as in many organizations there is a tendency to become lethargic and complacent about the need for change. Instead, change agents are more comparable to disruptors of change who should not be silenced but encouraged instead (Zigarmi, 2008). Change agents are the one force that will propel any organization or company to continually improve, no matter how painful or difficult the change is.
Julian Birkinshaw, Gary Hamel, Michael J. Mol. (2008). Management INNOVATION. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management eview, 33(4), 825-845. etrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1574212121).
Teresa Sande (2008). Taking charge of change with confidence. Strategic Communication Management, 13(1), 28-31. etrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID:…
Julian Birkinshaw, Gary Hamel, Michael J. Mol. (2008). Management INNOVATION. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 33(4), 825-845. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1574212121).
Teresa Sande (2008). Taking charge of change with confidence. Strategic Communication Management, 13(1), 28-31. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1633743781).
Drea Zigarmi (2008). JUST LEADERSHIP: CREATING a VALUES-DRIVEN COMMUNITY. Leader to Leader, 2008(47), 33-38. Retrieved January 26, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1409198221).
As described, the image of the change manager as navigator is reflected of Fiorina because she focused on the people, because the success of the merger and the operations after the merger is dependent on whether or not personnel have "a history of distrust, hoarding of information, and boundary protection by functional units" (27). Hurd, meanwhile, is the change manager as director, since like Fiorina, he just responded to what he perceived was the company's direction after the merger, wherein he focused more on operations and implementing work efficiency to make the company profitable, than centering his attention to human resource. His success in using this strategy is reflected in the company's highest growth in seven (7) years; however, it is worth noting that Fiorina's and Hurd's efforts as CEOs to HP is complementary rather than contradictory to each other. Each CEO contributed to the company in his or her…
The company that is today FedEx Office was once Kinko's. Kinko's was a successful chain of office services stores. Prior to the takeover by FedEx, Kinko's was known for a casual corporate culture and decentralized organizational structure. By the late 1990s, Kinko's consisted of 128 different joint ventures, small companies and partnerships, but had not franchised its operations. A restructuring during that period streamlined the structure, resulting in a Kinko's that was a singular corporate entity (Quittner, 1998). The company went public and eventually faced another restructuring when it was acquired by FedEx in 2003. At this point, the company was no longer independent, but part of a larger organization. Culture clashes began almost immediately and over the coming years the Kinko's organization would face restructuring and a shift in the organizational culture to integrate it into FedEx.
Before and After the Change
Before the change, Kinko's was…
Bachrach, A. (2009). 6 management strategies for organizational change success. eZine Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?6-Management-Strategies-For-Organizational-Change-Success&id=2472621
Deutsch, C. (2007). Paper jam at FedEx Kinko's. New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/05/business/05kinkos.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
PR Log. (2010). What happened to Kinko's? PR Log. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www.prlog.org/10835819-what-happened-to-kinkos.html
Quittner, J. (1998). Why Paul Orfalea didn't franchise Kinko's. Business Week. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/news/date/9809/e980923.htm
Organizational Changes in Telefonica
In this paper, we will assess the recent organizational changes made in the telecom firm Telefonica. Our analysis will be based on the 5w's and one how. Let's first overview the changes in general, the whole organizational structure of the firm is revamped targeting the medium and long-term future in terms of proper growth, more participation in technological world and acquiring more opportunities based on the firm's global presence and alliances.
Changes in detail
Let's first analyze by the "How" part in the 5w's and see how the changes were made and the reasons for their application. The whole organizational structure focused on three modules namely the commitment, growth and competitiveness alongside the midterm objectives as well as a proper series of "waves" of achievements which each lasts a year. Here, the top level management is supposed to get together by the end of the year…
Read, William. (1996). Telecom Strategy for Economic Development. Connecticut: Praeger.
Jussawalla, Meheroo. (1993). Global Telecom Policies. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Mclarty, TM 1998, 'Liberalized Telecommunications Trade in the WTO', Federal Communications Law Journal, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1.
Gold, MA 1994, 'Telecommunications and Cost Savings in Health Care Services', Southern Economic Journal, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 343.
To accommodate change in business imperatives a company must also turn its focus inward and make necessary adjustments to organizational structure, systems, processes, technology, resources or staffing and skill sets. Cultural imperatives have to change to facilitate the changes the organization undertakes. Cultural imperatives include norms or collective ways of working and relating in the company.
Leaders and employees must behave differently to recreate the organization's culture.
They must have a change in mindset that is made up of worldviews, assumptions and beliefs to drive change in culture.
In summary, drives of organizational change, both external and internal, are fluid in nature and highly interdependent. In today's complex world, nothing happens in a vacuum. At least not if it's going to be successful.
Anderson, L.A. And Anderson, D. Identifying your drivers of change. Retrieved November 10, 2005 from Web site: http://www.beingfirst.com/changeresources/tools/CT003
Anderson, L.A. And Anderson, D. Identifying your drivers of change. Retrieved November 10, 2005 from Web site: http://www.beingfirst.com/changeresources/tools/CT003
Organizational Change and the Lessons Learnt Process
Change is often inevitable. Indeed, in today's increasingly competitive marketplace, businesses must embrace change or perish. Change in this case could assume various dimensions including the implementation of various cost cutting measures, adoption of new technology, etc. Change for me came knocking when I was appointed team leader. Although this provided me with a unique opportunity to further enhance my leadership skills, it did bring along some unique challenges. The very first challenge I faced was transitioning from an individual contributor to a team leader. As an individual contributor, all that was required of me was cooperation and professionalism in the accomplishment of tasks assigned. As a team leader, my responsibilities expanded to include setting the team agenda. I suddenly came to the realization that leading a team required a new set of skills. I had to learn how to lead. Secondly, relating…
Managing Change Organization. Provide a significant change place a major organization, compare contrast established change management models/frameworks implementation phase common lessons learned.
Managing change in the organization: est uy
One of the most recent successful changes to be implemented at a major organization is that of the technology company est uy's shift to a results-only workplace (ROWE). In the ROWE model, workers are judged solely on their output, not on how many hours they log at the company headquarters. This is a complete shift from the previous organizational culture and the way of valuing employees at est uy before ROWE was implemented. efore, workers were encouraged to pride themselves about how early they came in to the office and how late they stayed. Today, measurable output alone is how workers are valued. "Employee productivity has increased an average of 35% in departments covered by the program," and the…
Brandon, John. 2007. Rethinking the time clock. CNN. Available:
http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/03/01/8401022/index.htm [27 Jun 2012]
Major change frameworks and models. (n.d.). DePaul University. Accessed:
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/nsutcliffe/450-00Current/450Frameworks-Models.htm [27 Jun 2012]
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
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Organizational Change Management
Managers are often times faced with the challenging task of having to compare different project alternatives so as to choose those that best utilize organizational resources. Trend analysis is a common comparison technique that compares alternatives in terms of either costs or revenues over multiple time periods.
In this text, we compare two project proposals (J.P Technologies Inc. And IT USA Inc.) to determine the option that realizes higher cost savings over a three-year implementation period. The costs and common sizing information of the three items included in the package -- hardware and software maintenance, regular and ongoing maintenance, and training and education -- for each alternative, have been presented in the attached spreadsheet.
Trend analysis reveals that the cost of the J.P Technologies alternative would decrease by a cumulative total of 54% of start-up cost over the implementation period (47% over year 2 and 7% over…
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In this regard, the conflict in question is a small occurrence in a company with hundreds of employees. However, leaving it unmitigated could result in severe future conflicts and related failures. Because employees are encouraged to contribute to corporate governance in an egalitarian way, the unmitigated conflict could lead to major future problems that could relate to significant financial or reputation losses for the company. Simplification can result in a global ethical principal that all the company's employees should contribute to and adhere to.
The third principle of anticipation is Sensitivity to Operations. This means that all employees are aware of the systems responsible for the smooth functioning of the company. For the conflict involved, this is probably the most important principle. If both employees in question are aware of the system underlying the operations of MTO and how to effectively promote these operations, the conflict would be much easier…
esistance to change in educational institutions is also pegged to the fact that in schools, unlike in a business context, the inter-individual relations are more personal. The school is a friendlier setting and the students and teachers interact without competition and offense. The relationships in an organizational context are more formal and more focused on organizational goals. This difference makes it possible for a relative standardization in economic agents; but in schools, every decision or act is taken personally and feelings are currently involved. In other words, change implementation in schools is more complex as it needs to consider the feelings of the involved parties.
Another interesting aspect Evans reveals is given by the access of schools to resources. While economic agents generate their own profit which is then reinvested in change and improvement agendas, schools -- in their large majority -- do not reveal an ability to generate profits…
Evans, R., Speeches retrieved from Tape 1 - http://media.shu.edu:8080/ramgen/shuworldwide/shu_robert_evans_pt1.rm Robert Evans - Tape 2 - http://media.shu.edu:8080/ramgen/shuworldwide/shu_robert_evans_pt2.rm
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The non-threatening approach of the study needs to be expanded upon with top-management visibility and support added to give it even more credibility and credence in the eyes of the workers being effected by the manufacturing operation closure. The support of top management in any change management initiative, including the closure of the plant and the urgent need to get an OD strategic plan created and implemented, is crucial (Hoff, 2008). The study being completed by Dr. Akin from the University of Virginia is just the start and while it shows excellent support for appreciate inquiry, it does not integrate OD and sense-making as well. While sense-making is done well on its own it needs to be part of the broader OD strategy. To accomplish this, I would bring together DuPont senior management for the plant and work to create a strategic plan that ties together all three concepts into…
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The company has recently put into effect a change which has involved moving away from the present structure and putting in place a task force. The task force operates via a matrix structure with members of the task force answering to both their functional boss and the task force boss. The role of the task force was to improve flexibility and also to incorporate diversification, with the task force designed to make recommendations and drive change in these areas. However, the task force is not achieving what it was designed to do. It is in fact just creating more problems.
While this flexibility is recognized as being important to the company, the changes have not been effective in providing it.
The problems occurring are summarized below:
Task force unsuccessful - as a team the task force has been unsuccessful. The members have no clear purpose, there is little…
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Recruiting and Retaining Talent
In response to the scenario provided, the scenario represents one of the more extreme examples of organizational change. However, there are three months to prepare for the change which provides for some level of planning and facilitation for the change. This analysis will create a guide for attempting to meet the objectives of employee retention throughout the transition. There will undoubtedly be a great deal of employee resistance to change that manifests as soon as the news of change breaks. The leader will have to have all of the available information prepared including the changes impact on each individual's position, job requirements, and compensation among other factors. The leader will have to have an intimate knowledge of the new organization and its culture. The leader will also need to serve as a source of inspiration and provide a vision for the individuals as well…
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Who better to identify and resolve company problems than the people who work in the organization and know the company best? Delaney and Huselid agree: "Job or work structures have also been argued to enhance firm performance by allowing skilled and motivated employees to become more involved in determining what work is to be done and how it is to be performed." (Delaney, Huselid, 1996)
The situation of the organization determines what and to what degree changes need to be made. To be effective, a change may be small or minor. On the other hand, sweeping, systematic changes may be necessary for the improvements necessary. Bowen and Lawley III force the point: "Quality improvement may require changes in mission structure, job design, management practices, and every other facet of the [H] organization." (Bowen, Lawler III, 1992) Another necessary effective change is the attitude that change is welcomed. If an organization…
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In addition to this pressure, the Hays article allows us to deduce that al-Mart is also responding to the internal pressure plied by its laborers, who could represent the risk of unionizing to al-Mart. It is thus that the nature of the changes made as reported by the Hays article would be poised to alter the course of al-Mart's labor orientation. Thus, in 2004, it would announce a set of changes in this area, "including the establishment of a compliance group that will oversee workers' pay, their hours and even whether they take breaks. al-Mart is testing a program that will alert cashiers, for example, when it is time for a meal break and shut down their cash registers if they do not respond." (Hays, 1) These decisions represent a newfound concern on the part of al-Mart about the way that its image impacts its sales and success.
Fox News. (2005). HP Ousts Fiorina, Appoints Wayman Interim CEO. Foxnews.com
Hays, C.L. (2004). Wal-Mart Answers Critics With Changes on 2 Levels. The New York Times.
Tsao, a. (2002). For McDonald's, the Fat's in the Fire. BusinessWeek.
The larger social implications of successful human resources development practices and perspectives have not been lost on researchers in the area, either. Altering human resource management practices to better address labor issues faced by non-management employees both ithin the organization and in their lives at large creates both a more satisfied and a more productive orkforce and can also lead to reduced levels of underemployment and improve the general quality of life of orkers (Worrall et al. 2010). Thus increasing profitability through human resource development also creates benefits for society at large.
The ide array of different approaches, both theoretical and methodological, that have been brought to bear on an understanding of human resource development and its role in overall organizational development and adaptability provide both specific instances of mechanisms and practices that can be utilized for such development, as ell as a general understanding of the role of human…
works cited, could also bear some solidification. As knowledge becomes more certain through repeated observation, recommendations and understandings will also become more concrete. It is hoped that this review provides one step towards this goal of more comprehensive and concrete understandings.
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Haslinda, a. (2009). "Outcomes of Human Resource Development Interventions. Journal of social sciences 5(1), pp. 25-32.
The connection between effective strategic leadership and a company's success has long been understood by studies in the last years. However, theoreticians chose to emphasize different aspects of how this connection appeared and why it was important. Some pointed to the fact that effective leadership is best applied in human resource management, giving way to efficient personnel, while others pointed out to financial organization.
Yukl (2008) offers a comprehensive study, looking at the influences of strategic leadership in different areas of an organization. He proposes relationships between strategic leadership and an effective organization in areas such as innovative adaptation, human capital, performance determinants, tradeoffs and synergies and distributed leadership.
Two particular aspects of interest from Yukl are worth a further investigation. The first is human capital, one of the key assets in an organization. Yukl emphasizes the role that effective leadership can play in underscoring this type of…
Organizational Change: Organizational Flexibility and Sustainability
In a rapidly-changing marketplace, organizations need to ensure that they are flexible enough to adapt to new and emerging changes (Halkos & Bousinakis, 2012). Multinational corporations ought to ensure that they can adjust their organizational cultures and structures to respond effectively to technological, legal, and cultural changes in their external environment (Hila & Tzafris, 2011). One of the organizations that has been able to do this effectively is Wal-Mart, the world's largest retailer, which currently operates over 11,000 stores in 28 different countries. These countries have different cultures, values, and ways of life, but still, the retailer has managed to thrive, adapting its internal systems effectively to respond to the needs of consumers.
From a cultural perspective, for instance, Wal-Mart has been successful in both China and the United States despite the two having substantially different cultures. It has been able to…
Gereffi, G. & Ong, R (2007). Wal-Mart in China: Can the World's Largest Retailer Succeed in the World's Most Populous Market? Harvard Asia Pacific Review, 9(1), 46-49
Halkos, G.E., & Bousinakis, D. (2012). Importance and Influence of Organizational Changes on Companies and their Employees. Journal of Advanced Research in Management, 3(2), 90-103.
Hila, C.B., & Tzafrir, S.S. (2011). Consultant-Client Relationship: One of the Secrets to Effective Organizational Change? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 24(5), 662-679.
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Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.
When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful…
Bodor, T., Thompson, F. & DemirAivi, F. (2004). Criminal justice cultures in the United States. Retrieved online: https://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/journals/hpa_2004_criminal/hpa_2004_criminal.pdf
Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Forces for and resistance to organizational change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 27(4).
Stojkovic, S., Kalinch, D. & Klofas, J. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Organizations. Fifth Edition.
Umbreit, M.S. (2007). Restorative justice: Implications for organizational change. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved online: http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/organizational-change/pages/implications.aspx