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Here, testing is an important component. Individuals and institutions who work with older people should implement regular testing procedures to ensure that they continually provide effective care services to the aging population. Such testing procedures should be targeted towards improvement and implementation on an organization-wide scale.
According to Niles-Yokum and Wagner (2011, p. 16), the targeted development and training for the gerontological workforce began as early as the 1970s, where the focus was mainly on researchers and educators in the subject are of gerontology. Today, this has developed to include special skills sets such as mental health interventions. There are also centers of excellence in gerontology to ensure the effective delivery of care services to the older population. This is an important implementation to ensure the quality of care for older people.
In terms of testing, these centers of excellence should be investigated for their scope and reach. If there…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Eldercare Locator. Retrieved from: http://www.eldercare.gov/Eldercare.NET/Public/Index.aspx
NCMHA. (2012). Working to Promote Excellence in Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Primary Care Services to Older Adults Across America. National Coalition on Mental Health & Aging. Retrieved from: ncmha.org.
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. Seventh Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
After all, the company rationalized that new menu items had always been a part of McDonald's innovative image, and keeping on the cutting edge of restaurant trends, as had been the case with the introduction of its innovative breakfast sandwich items like the Egg McMuffin in 1976 and Chicken McNuggets in 1980 ("McDonald's Case Study,"2008).
Effectiveness of the Decision-Making Process
One problem with initiating changes like the "Made for You" campaign in the fast food industry is that customers are not always cognizant that the changes have occurred, as they are not usually connoisseurs of the food, only apprehending vaguely a decline or improvement in quality. "It seems a little bit better," observed one consumer when prompted by a reporter, noting "the bacon looks like it's just been cooked." Another frequent McDonald's patron was more complementary: "it seems like the Quarter Pounder is juicier," declared Rosemary Frigo, a nurse from…
Barett, Larry. "McBusted." Baseline. Jul 2, 2002. Jul 15, 2008 http://www.baselinemag.com/c/a/Projects-Supply-Chain/McDonalds-McBusted/
Buscemi, Eric. "McDonald's vs. Burger King: Battle of the Brands." Blogging Stocks. Apr 9, 2007. Jul 15, 2008. p:/ / www.bloggingstocks.com/2007/04/09/mcdonalds-vs.-burger-king-battle-of-the-brands/
Burger King." Official Website. Jul 15, 2008. http://www.burgerking.com/bkglobal/
Canedy, Dana. "McDonald's burger war salvo: Is 'Made for You' the way folks want to have it?"
oganizational decision making best explains decision making in an ideal-Typical Webeian bueaucacy?
In a classical Webeian bueaucacy, decisions ae made in an impesonal manne. People mean vey little, in tems of the functionality of the oganization. Pocesses athe than people ae impotant. In a classical Webeian model, even when the pesonnel within the bueaucatic stuctue might change, the oganization would still emain equally efficient. Subodinates follow the diections of thei supeios, but technical qualifications, athe than favoitism detemines pomotions. This could be called 'bounded ationality,' o ationally opeating to achieve optimal outcomes within imposed constaints and the limited knowledge available.
'Following the ules' in a blind fashion can be disastous, if the ules ae not set up coectly. But in the Webeian model of ationality, given that the ules ae ational, legal, "eliable and clea" this "allows the subodinate moe independence and discetion" than would exist othewise ("Bueaucacy (Webe)," Babson…
references, options, and outcomes, the influence of competing interests can create very different perceptions of what is rational.
Of course, it should be noted that Weber merely stated that bureaucracies pursued the best possible courses of rational actions for themselves, not for the world as a whole. But even that cannot fully explain why some organizations take actions that are profitable in the short-term (such as selling subprime loans) and fail to rationally anticipate likely negative long-term consequences that will harm the organization and cause it to implode because of the likely fall-out. Furthermore, decision-makers may not have optimal knowledge of 'the rules' and imperfectly follow them, causing the organization to behave irrationally in the absence of sufficient constraints (like laws on the banking industry).
"Bureaucracy (Weber)." Babson College. [27 Jul 2012]
Organizational Decision-Making: Situational/Contextual Frameworks
Different contexts call for different leadership approaches. For this reason, Snowden and Boone (2007) emphasize the importance of recognizing the context at a specific time before deciding what action or decision to take. As a guide, the authors developed the Cynefin framework, which categorizes the issues that leaders face into four contexts defined by the nature of the cause-and-effect relationship: simple, complicated, complex, and chaotic. This text analyzes the applicability of different decision-making approaches in each the four contexts.
Applicability of Tools of Rational Economics
Rational economics is an economic theory that assumes that individuals will always make decisions that offer the highest possible level of utility given the choices available (Bruce, 2016). The cornerstone of rational economics is that individuals have perfect information about all available alternatives and their features (Bruce, 2016). Under rational decision-making, an individual identifies a problem, establishes decision criteria, generates alternatives,…
Bruce, P. J. (2016). Understanding Decision-Making Processes in Airline Operations Control. New York, NY: Routledge.
Miner, J. B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice – Volume 4. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Snowden, D. J., & Boone, M. E. (2007). A Leader’s Framework for Decision-Making: A Leader’s Framework for Decision-Making. Harvard Business Review, 85(11), 68-76.
Steward, D., & Cavazos, R. (2019). Big Data Analytics in US Courts: Uses, Challenges, and Implications. New York, NY: Springer.
Still, MIT countered "Our mission statement talks about principled, innovative leaders and we take the principled part seriously." (AP ire, 2005)
Part II. The impact of technology on work-related stress
ork should be growing less stressful -- given the ubiquity telecommuting, and the increased swiftness and interconnectedness of technical innovation that connects the individual to the workplace via the Internet. (Olson, 2003) However, the easier it becomes to get 'connected' to work, quite often the more the stress of the workforce bleeds into the quality life of one's home and the higher the expectations demanded of conscientious employees.
Cite a specific example (from work, industry, media etc.) where technology played/will play a role in an organizations behavior
For example, the connective nature of work enabled by the Internet, specifically with high-speed connections such as broadband, and when complimented with wireless phones, video conferencing, and other technologies, have enabled some workers…
AP Wire. (9 Mar 2005) "Harvard rejects those who saw Admissions." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/business/AP-Business-School-Hacker.html
Olson, Elizabeth. (24 Aug 2003) Executive Life; at Home (of Course) With a Telecommuter." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60F1FF83F5D0C778EDDA10894DB404482
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Decision making is a term that can be described as the process of choosing between alternatives and entails identification, development, and selection. Based on academic literature decision making and analysis can be widely divided into two schools of thoughts i.e. analytic and experiential or incremental decision making processes (Sipp & Carayannis, 2013, p.18). The analytic school of thought on decision making and analysis primarily focuses on problem definition and identification, assessment and selection of alternatives. In this school of thought, implementation in the decision making process basically entails simple execution of the cautiously selected alternative. On the contrary, even though experiential or incremental school of thought incorporates the two major steps in decision making just like the other school of thought, it focuses more on the execution of the alternative. This school of thought on decision making also utilize feedback to make necessary adjustments to the selected alternative in order…
Barnard, M. & Stoll, N. (2010, October). Organizational Change Management: A Rapid Literature Review. Retrieved from Bristol Institute of Public Affairs website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf
Choi, M. & Ruona, W.E.A. (2011, March). Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46-73.
Manuela, P.V. & Clara, M.F. (n.d.). Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study. Retrieved from University of Valencia website: http://www.uv.es/~pardoman/resistencias.PDF
Mykkanen, M. & Vos, M. (2015). The Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making: Insights from the Literature. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 1-17.
Decision Making Model
Decision making is defined as the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives (Wikipedia, 2004). Effective decision making, however, is contingent on an individual or group's ability to select the course of action, which is most likely to result in goal or task accomplishment. In the business world, this is easier said than done since most decisions involve taking into consideration a myriad number of variables such as environmental factors, competitive activities, customer needs, internal goals and organizational constraints. Therefore, most organizations deem it advisable to use decision making support systems or models, which have been developed specifically to assist in the through analysis and evaluation of various alternative courses of action.
One such model is the Force Field Analysis. It is the objective of this paper to describe how the Force Field Analysis model helps weigh the pros and cons of…
Ashley, W.C., & Morrison, J.L. (1997, September -- October). Anticipatory Management:
Tools for Better Decision Making. The Futurist. Vol. 31:5, p. 47+ Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004: www.questia.com
Bauer, G.J., Baunchalk, M.S., Ingram, T.N., & Laforge, R.W. (1998). Emerging Trends in Sales Thought and Practice. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Bounds, G.M., & Stahl, M.J. (1991). Competing Globally through Customer Value: The
In the case of Kava island issue, we shall reach the decision in the following manner.
White Hat / Hat #1:
This is where a person needs to consider all the available data on the issue at hand. For example we know that Kava is a land of richness. It is a place with multiple possibilities because it has a sizeable young population, is rich in petroleum, coffee, sugar and other such important items. It has people from diverse backgrounds who add to the richness of its culture and almost 15 languages are spoken in this area. But at the same time, the country is plagued with numerous problems including ever-increasing cases of HIV.
Red Hat / Hat #2:
This is where a person needs to focus on intuition. Intuitively for example we can say that Kava can be seen as a great tourist destination if developed properly. Nik's firm…
Anderson Children's Hospital (ACH) is an internationally known and recognized pediatric hospital that provides the full range of services from primary to critical care units, located in San Francisco, CA with affiliated care centers throughout the Bay Area. The board of directors at ACH would like to create a mobile-crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco and eventually grow to service the entire Bay Area. The following sections present the process through which the Board of Directors is trying to navigate towards its final decision.
At the core of the following proposal is this 2-part question: Should ACH create a mobile crisis program to be piloted in the City of San Francisco for (up to) one year with the intent of expanding its funding, personnel, and service area over the next 3-5 years throughout the entire Bay Area and if…
Liese, Friedrich and Miescke, Klaus-J. (2008). Statistical Decision Theory: Estimation, Testing, and Selection. Springer.
Bernardo, JE & Smith, Adrian (2000). Bayesian theory. New York: Wiley.
Ahrens, J., & Dieter, U. (1982). Computer Generation of Poisson Deviates. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 8 (2): 163 -- 179.
decision making tool.
Forced Field Analysis: a decision making tool
In business applications, health care, or private life there arise many occasions when one is faced with making a major decision. Although many individuals face such instances with their wits alone, relying on his or her "gut feelings" to assist them in their quandary, many find that such an unscientific approach can lead them to the wrong action. Indeed, when one lacks a basic "tool" approach to decision making, the odds of coming to the correct or workable solution is significantly reduced in most circumstances. Having a method such as the "Forced Field Analysis" tool is extremely useful.
In simple terms, Forced Field Analysis involves identifying, compiling a list concerning, discussing and evaluating the possible "forces" in favor of as well as against a possible change or decision. In essence, the technique helps the decision maker see the true context…
The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. hile clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.
Modern decision-making theory,…
DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.
Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational,…
Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://www.unf.edu/~gbaker/Man6204/Decision.PDF
Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4035/is_n2_v34/ai_7376934
Petress, Ken. (2002). "An alternative model for decision-making." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCG/is_3_29/ai_91707794/pg_1
Williams, Tim. (Mar 2004). "Setting Impossible Standards."
Barnes and Noble Inc. is one of the most successful bookstores in the world. The company operates throughout the United States and boasts roomy inviting stores. In addition to books, the company also sells DVDs and music. The company operates both brick and mortar stores and it is also the largest internet bookstore. Furthermore, Barnes & Noble, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company and the largest bookseller in the world. In addition, "The company is a leading content, commerce and technology company that provides customers easy and convenient access to books, magazines, newspapers and other content across its multi-channel distribution platform. As of January 29, 2011, the company operates 705 retail bookstores in regional shopping malls, major strip centers and freestanding locations in 50 states, and 636 college bookstores serving nearly 4 million students and faculty members at colleges and universities across the United States (For Investors)." The…
Barnes & Noble Annual Report 2010. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/documents/bn_annual_report_2010.pdf
Corporate Governance Guidelines. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/governance/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines.html
For Investors. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/for_investors.html
Forman C., Ghose, A., Goldfarb, A. (2009) Between Local and Electronic Markets: How the Benefit of Buying Online Depends on Where You Live. 55(1)
In other words, throughout the transition period, Onetech would create efficiencies and would consolidate its position. In the future however, it is recommended that the company moved towards a strategy of diversification, as this would better satisfy customers' needs, attract them and as such create market power for the firm (Markides, 2007).
The decision making process at Onetech
The decision making process at Onetech is quite intricate, revealing both strengths, as well as weaknesses. Decisions are for instance made at the level of the board and are based on the expertise gathered by the various major players in the firm. Still, the decisions are made by the executives, with little emphasis on the input which could be provided by the employees.
In order to better assess the decision making process at Onetech, it is appropriate to analyze it through the lenses of the rational decision making model. This model consists…
Cologon, D.R., Cohen, D.R., 2008, FileMaker Pro 9 Bible, John Wiley and Sons
Hage, M., 2007, A stakeholder concern towards an economix theory on stakeholder governance, Uitgeverij Van Gorcum
Jacobs, P.K., 2000, Minding the muse: the impact of downsizing on corporate creativity, Harvard Business School, http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/1518.html last accessed on November 30, 2011
Markides, C.C., 2007, Diversification, refocusing and economic performance, MIT Press
The brainstorming approach: The Grubb & Ellis Company
In contrast to the City of Miami, the Grubb & Ellis Company, a commercial real estate advisory firm, uses the 'brainstorming' method of decision-making. A creative business such as Grubb & Ellis clearly believes it benefits from a decision-making model that encourages a 'free for all' of information. In this model, individuals write down, collectively or individually, every idea that comes to mind, good or bad. No censorship is allowed. Quite often, unique and off-beat solutions are generated through this method, and sometimes even the 'craziest' ideas can germinate practical solutions.
The only problem with the brainstorming model is that because it is so democratic, the organization can get bogged down debating an array of available alternatives, when a quick decision is required. Eventually, a solution must be arrived at, and the organization may find itself forced to shift to a more…
Six-Step Decision Making Model. (201). Decision-Making Confidence. Retrieved February 12,
2010 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/six-step-decision-making-process.html
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
Planning Decision Making
Planning and decision making are two main and fundamental processes of an organization. Planning is one of the main factors with the help of which an organization can determine where it wants to be in the future. It is planning with the help of which an organization can determine as to what can be done in order to accomplish the mission and aims that an organization has. One of the basics that are followed during planning includes achievement of the objectives that the organization has. In order to have better planning, there are four main facts that are needed to be kept in mind by the planners in the organizations. These include mission, values, resources, as well as the environment of the organization as these are the four main facts that help in having better planning within the organization.
Decision making is the second important foundation of…
Beecher, J.A. (1996). Avoided cost: an essential concept for integrated resource planning. Water resources update (104).
Boutilier, C., Dean, T., and Hanks, S. (1999). Decision-Theoretic Planning: Structural Assumption and Computational Leverage. Journal of Articial Intelligence Research 11 (1999)1-94.
Dreu, D., Carsten K.W., and West, M.A. (2001). Minority dissent and team innovation: the importance of participation in decision making. Journal of applied psychology, 86 (6), pp. 1191-1201.
Kiker, G.A., Bridges, T.S., Varghese, A., Seager, T.P., and Linkovj, I. (2005). Application of Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Environmental Decision Making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1, pp. 95 -- 108.
Healthcare Budgetary Decision Making
With resources becoming increasingly limited in the healthcare industry, managers are continually challenged with devising effective strategies for dealing with budgetary concerns. The most prominent challenge comes in the form of decision making that results in striking a balance between cost reduction and the maintenance of high quality care and safety for patients. The following discussion outlines approaches that can be utilized by managers to effectively deal with budgetary concerns in healthcare settings, with an emphasis on the advantages of group decision making strategies.
It is evident that there is often a struggle in the healthcare industry for managers to continually and effectively manage depleting resources, address the ever-changing needs of patients, and all the while provide a high level of patient care (Sibbald et al., 2010). This struggle has at its core a need for improvement in regards to the processes in which priorities are…
Burleson, G. (1984). Management, budgeting and the use of resources -- a private sector review. Hospital and Health Services Review, 80(3), 124-5.
Sibbald, S.L., Gibson, J.L., Singer, P.A., Upshur, R., Martin, D.K. (2010). Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 131.
Xie, H., Chaussalet, T., Toffa, S., Crowther, P. (2005). A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 114, 284-90.
decision making points a nonprofit organization. Study Boys & Girls Club New ochelle (http://www.bgcnr.org/-great.aspx) info find. Create a case study utilizing information learned Managerial Decision Making.
Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle
What is the history of the organization? What is the mission of the organization?
The Boys and Girls of New ochelle was initiated in 1929 aiming at safeguarding the interests of youth as the big sufferers during harsh economic times. Through the efforts of well-wishers, the Club has continually made efforts to meet the needs of the youth and the surrounding community (Bazerman, 1997).
The Club continues to attract grants and donations from individuals and organizations with the appreciation that youth empowerment is of great value to the community. To date Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle has boosted the potential of the youth by helping in the upbringing of successful adults and persons who are…
Bazerman, M.H.M.D.A. 1997. Judgment In Managerial Decision Making 7th Edition, London, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chugh, D. (2004). Societal and managerial implications of implicit social cognition: Why milliseconds matter. Social Justice Research, 17(2) 155-175.
quantum and incremental technological change? Why are these types of change important to organizations?
Quantum and incremental technological changes are distinguished as two separate forces in terms of their impact upon organizations. Quantum changes are conceptualized as technological changes that result "in the innovation of new kinds of goods and services, such as development of the Internet and the development of genetic engineering" (Promoting innovation, 2014,-Page Out). Quantum changes thus generate the necessity for new business models. A good example of this is the creation of Netflix as a way of disseminating movies and television shows vs. The old model of Blockbuster which sold items via brick-and-mortar stores. Blockbuster's model quickly became defunct because of quantum changes in technology. In contrast, "incremental technological change is change that refines existing technology and leads to gradual improvements or refinements in products over time, such as Intel's incremental improvements to its original microprocessor"…
Promoting innovation, product development, and entrepreneurship. (2014). Page Out. Retrieved:
Organizational decision-making. (2014). Management 481. Retrieved from:
Decision Making & Creativity, Power and Influence in the Workplace, and Leadership in Organizations
Creating a platform for leadership that is agile enough to respond quickly to unforeseen events, yet stable enough to ensure team and group solidary is one of the most challenging aspects of any leader's long-term growth. Coupled with the need for having a solid foundation of leadership skills including Emotional Intelligence (EI), situational awareness and transformational leadership (Purvanova, Bono, 2009) is the need for leaders to thoroughly understand power and influence not just in their departments but across their entire organization as well. The five dominant forms of organizational power, ranging from coercive, to reward, legitimate, referent expert and informational power, all must be orchestrated successfully by a manager if challenging, often time-constrained objectives are to be attained (Drea, Bruner, Hensel, 1993). This self-reflection analysis includes insights into specific types of power from the context of…
Drea, J.T., Bruner, Gordon C.,II, & Hensel, P.J. (1993). Comparing alternative measures of the French and Raven power bases. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 13(4), 73.
McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M.A. (2010). Organizational behavior. (sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343
Approaches in decision making
Decision-making forms a very significant component of success at work, at the same time it can be the cause of failure if the conditions are wrong and if those involved are not on the same page. Confusion with regard to decision-making can cause conflict to teams, supervisors, managers, and team leaders. There are various decision-making approaches that can be adopted depending on the situations, these include: consensus, majority vote, minority (subcommittee), expert, authority with discussion, and authority without discussion (Eisenfuhr, 2011). This will describe the 'consensus' and 'expert' approaches of decision-making with respect to the scenario selected.
In the consensus or group decision-making approach, the manager becomes part of the team and involves everyone who is willing and ready to contribute in the decision-making process. The fact that the word consensus is used does not signify that all those involved fully agree with whatever decision…
Bubnicki, Z. (2003). Analysis and decision making in uncertain systems. New York, NY:
Eisenfuhr, F. (2011). Decision making. New York, NY: Springer.
Therefore, decision makers evaluate only a reasonable number of alternatives and choose the best one from their comparisons (Kantrow, 1987).
A made a similar decision based on the rational decision making model. When recently, I decided to buy a car, I knew that I had a problem, since without using car it was taking many hours from work to the home. Therefore, I was able to identify the problem. In next step, I needed to decide which car to buy at an affordable price range. In this step, I evaluated several cars, along with their comfort level, rating, and price range. Though evaluating all of these cars took a long amount of time for me, as it required me to research the performance of several cars within the affordable price range. Finally, based on these evaluations, I was able to pick a car that I thought was the best on…
Anonymous (2004). Theories of Decision Making the Rational Comprehensive Model. Adapted from commed.atu.edu/EAM3003/READING4.pdf
Huber, G.P. (1991). Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88-115.
Kantrow, a.M. (1987). The Constraints of Corporate Traditions. New York: Harper & Row.
To this end, synergy can be likened to economies of scope, whereby the quality of decisions reached goes up with the inclusion of more minds (Nelson & Quick, 2012). Information-sharing is based on the idea that every individual possesses some unique information besides that which is known by everyone (Nelson & Quick, 2012). When several individuals come together in a group, they consolidate these unique pieces of information, creating a more complete informational platform and consequently, a decision of high quality (Nelson & Quick, 2012).
Group decision making is not without its share of drawbacks; i) since the technique is built on consultations, it usually involves lengthy procedures that could be quite costly to the organization, ii) it could kill team spirit, especially if some members feel that they are being shortchanged, iii) decisions are largely influenced by members' relative statuses - in an academic group task, for instance, members…
Band, J. & Partridge, L. (2001). Advanced Decision Making. Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire: Select Knowledge Ltd.
Bazerman, M.H. & Don, a.M. (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision-Making (7th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Nelson, D. & Quick, J. (2012). Organizational Behavior: Science, the Real World, and You (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Since long the necessity for quality health care for veterans is considered to be a critical issue with widespread implications in respect of health care system of the nation. Irrespective of the incessant pressure on converting the Veteran Administration into a business model it has been alleged vehemently on the ground that the approach is not conducive to the satisfaction of most veterans, the legislators and even the providers of the health care. The problem of extending acceptable quality health care for the veterans of the nation is to be resolved by constituting public consensus on the issue. Irrespective of its increasing challenges it is believed that the provision of quality health care for the veterans of the nation is considered to be an appropriate objective for this country to maintain. Acknowledging the sacrifices of the veterans, the death of millions of Americans in service, 1.5 million returning…
Alqarni, Abdul Rahman. "The Managerial Decision Styles" A dissertation submitted to the School of Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Information Studies: The Florida State University. http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11242003-215328/unrestricted/Alqarni.Dissertation.pdf Accessed on 25 February, 2005
'Leadership Challenges in Non-Governmental Organisations" (2004) Organisational
The most general critical thinking strategy involves the following steps, outlined by Cohen et al. (2000). First, we propose certain statements or hypotheses. For example, I have written down my thoughts at this stage in the decision-making process if I have too many ideas. Second, we need to think of or actively solicit counter-arguments. We need alternative explanations for our observations. So in my situation, I need to brainstorm all the possibilities for a discrepancy in pharmaceutical inventory. My hunch might seem outlandish to another person and vice-versa. Only when all ideas are on the table can the project proceed in a rational, systematic manner. The third step in the Cohen et al. (2000) model is to modify the original hypotheses to take the additional information into account.
According to Paul & Elder (2002), irrational decision-making is simply a "bad habit" (146). We can unlearn this bad habit by practicing…
Cohen, M.S., Adelman, L. & Thompson B.B. (2000). Experimental investigation of uncertainty, stakes, and time in pilot decision making. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-thkg.htm#critical
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2002). The art of making intelligent decisions. Chapter 9 in Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. FT Press.
A second change that has occurred and will continue to transform is that, regardless of the motivation, many employers have begun to experiment with flextime, telecommuting, and voluntary reduced-load work arrangements to give employees more discretion and personal flexibility in how they integrate work demands with other life roles such as family, community, and leisure. This increase in flexible work arrangements has further blurred the boundaries between work and home for many employees. Effectively switching and managing multiple work and non-work roles has never been more complex. Findings from individual, family, and organizational perspectives are mixed in terms of the success and social acceptance of alternative work arrangements (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 6)
Though the criminal justice system is known for what they do and have been around for centuries, it is important to note that every organization has a plan, a vision, and successful mixed with failures. This…
Kossek, E.E. & Lambert, S.J. (Eds.). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R.R. (1994). Ethics and Organizational Decision Making: A Call for Renewal. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
According to Halpern (1996, p. 197), arguments that utilize irrelevant reasons are fairly common: "The Latin word for this sort of fallacy is non-sequitur, which literally translates to 'it doesn't follow.' In other words, the reason or premise is unrelated to the conclusion." Since relevant premises are a key criteria for building sound arguments, it follows that critical thinkers must learn to recognize and avoid such fallacies.
However, in the real world this is perhaps easier said than done since the use of force often tends to sway decisions in favor of the person who is making the threat, implied or otherwise. An example that comes readily to mind is the manner in which advertisers have coerced sports bodies to disallow ambush marketing: "It is important that any sports body has the right to control what is being brought into their events...to protect the millions of pounds of investment that…
Blair, J.A., Grootendorst, R.F., Henkemans, F.S., Johnson, R.H., Krabbe, E.C.W., Plantin,
C.H., Van Eemeren, F.H., Walton, D.N., Willard, C.A., Woods, J.A., Zarefsky, D.F. (1996). Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory: A Handbook of Historical Backgrounds and Contemporary Developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, E. (2004, January). Arthur Anderson refugees reflect on what went wrong. Notre Dame Magazine. Retrieved Nov. 23, 2004: http://www.nd.edu/~ndmag/w0304/ander.html
Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.
As in any merger, the organization would have to deal with human resource issues (because the verification process was double-performed, one of the two teams needs to be reapplied within the organization), financial issues, etc.
The third option would be to create a sole compartment to deal with the verification process, a compartment that would employ human resource from both the ECFMG and the EICS. This compartment would deal only with the verification and would have several advantages. First of all, it would eliminate the original problem we had to deal with and, second of all, it would probably increase the efficiency of the compartment, with more employees and a better coordination.
In making the decision, we need to choose between deciding by majority rule and consensus building. In my opinion, in this particular case, it is best to build the appropriate consensus with all party involved. For additional information…
1. Basic Steps in Decision-Making. On the Internet at http://www.boarddevelopment.org/display_document.cfm?document_id=86
Collaborative Decision Making Through Share Governance
I attended a committee meeting at a local school. The committee was formed in order to come up with a proposal on how they could improve the performance of the school. Those who attended the meeting were supposed to see to it that they come up with a proposal on how the performance of the students could be improved. I was quite keen on how the committee members interacted and the process the committee used to arrive at their decisions.
I observed that the committee used both managerial level and group levels in the decision making process. First of all I observe that there were proposals from the management that were forwarded to the committee members. The management of the school had come up with their own measures that would be taken to ensure that the performance of the school would be improved. This…
MountHolyoke.(2009). Skill Building -- Group Decision Making.Retrieved August 29, 2014 from www.soas.ac.uk/admin/.../file37354.pdf
Chand, S. (2010). 4 Techniques for Group Decision Making Process More Effective. Retrieved August 29, 2014 from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/management/4-techniques-for-group-decesion-making-process-more-effective/3506/
Organizations need to manage employee stress that is directly related to technology by such means as offering stress-management seminars, allocating certain times of the day for relaxation, investing in ergonomic technology, and by judicious use of communications technologies.
Preventing stress is far easier and cheaper than treating stress-related illnesses. Therefore, one of the trends in organizational behavior regarding the impact of technology on work-related stress is to improve the workspace by making it healthier and more ergonomic. In a workplace environment that contains potential health hazards related to technology, such as in a factory warehouse where machines create noise and fumes, the organization must keep abreast keep their employees informed about the ways to avoid physically stressing their body. A loud or polluted workplace can greatly increase stress levels on the job. Persons who have to drive all day long are exposed to stressors related to automotive technologies and cellular…
Administrative model is defined as "a decision-making model that describes how managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity" (Daft 1999, p. 284). This approach to decision-making recognizes that not all decisions are able to be considered and judged based on quantitative methods. While it may be preferred that decisions be made by a process where the outcomes are known and can be compared, it is not always possible to know the outcomes. For these types of decisions, a new kind of model is needed that takes into account the uncertainty. This model is the administrative model.
Herbert A. Simon is the founder of the administrative model. He considered the economic model of decision-making and noted that one major element was missing. This element was the human element. Taking the human element into consideration, Simon rejected the idea that people make decisions based on rational…
Daft, R.L. (1999). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Simon, H.A. (1979). Rational decision making in business organizations. American Economic Review, 69, 493-513.
Organizations Environment Each perspective examines organizations perceived relationships environment differently. Describe differences. What enacted features organization's (U.S. Postal Service) environment ways features displayed perceived consistent perspectives? Text: Organization Theory by Mary Jo Hatch.
Each perspective examines organizations and their perceived relationships to the environment differently. For this discussion, describe these differences.
Contingency theory stresses the fact that an organization's decision-making processes are in constant dialogue with the environment. An organization's policies are always contingent upon its particular market situation. This theory of organizational behavior stresses the situational nature of decision-making on the part of organizations. An organization in a 'mature' or perfectly competitive market environment with an established demand for its product will need to make different decisions regarding pricing and marketing than an organization with clear market dominance and a near monopoly. Complexity of the individual organization and rate of change of the external environment will determine…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (2006). Organization theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
US Postal Service: Vision 2013. (2008). Five-year strategic plan. U.S. Postal Service.
46). Likewise, Gillispie suggests that an incremental approach can be used to "test the waters" for even very small companies seeking to project an internationalized presence. In this regard, Gillespie recommends that companies, "Craft a scaleable master design that represents the major aspects of your business worldwide and anticipates the degree of localization that will be required in each market. The degree of localization can have a real impact on budgets and timelines" (2008, p. 45). These are important factors for companies in general where limited resources and a lack of experience may preclude more aggressive internationalization initiatives, and these issues are directly related to a company's internal resources as discussed further below.
The company has a wide range of specialized internal resources which are described in Table 2 below.
Internal resources of BG Limited
BG's Specialist Cleaning division offers a…
Angola. 2011 CIA World Factbook. [online] available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.
Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Carthew, A. 2006, September/October 'Spreading the Word.' Communication World, vol. 23,
no. 5, pp. 30-32.
decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig?
The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach. This is when everyone inside the organization will be focused on selecting options that work well within their current circumstances. The problem is that these individuals are not selecting an approach, which is in the best interests of everyone. Instead, there is an obsession in meeting short-term objectives at all costs. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon, everyone was ignoring obvious signs that the well was about to explode. The biggest reason why is managers were focused on meeting the productivity goals of the company at all costs. ("What are ational Models," 2012)
Which of the decision- making biases played a potential role in the disaster?
The kind of decision making biases that were occurring prior the Deepwater Horizon incident…
An Intuitive Decision Making Model. (2008). Rapid Business Intelligence. Retrieved from: http://www.rapid-business-intelligence-success.com/intuitive-decision-making.html
Was Poor Decision Making a Cause of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster. (n.d.).
What are Rational Models. (2012). Decision Making. Retrieved from: http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html
Bly, M. (2011). Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation. Washington D.C.U.S. Government Printing Offices.
Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.
In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).
Brusseau, J. (2011). Business Ethics Workshop (1st ed.). Flat World Knowledge. (Course Book)
Archibald, A. (2007, December 30). Employees' Responsibilities In Business Ethics. Retrieved January 9, 2014, from
eview of Making a Business Decision
Decision making is an unavoidable part of business. Smaller decisions where there is a lower perceived cost associated with making the wrong decision are psychologically easer compared to important decisions where a wrong choice could incur high costs. A recent example of a decision involved selecting an employee for an internal promotion. The position of team leader had become available for one of following the resignation of the incumbent team leader. The position was important for the team, and the department, as the team leader is key in managing the team from a practical perspective and ensuring that targets for the team would be met, as well as playing an important motivational role. The performance of the department was reliant on performance of each team, so the appointment was also important for the department I managed. The decision was important from the perspective…
Tschappeler, Roman; Krogerus, Mikael, (2011), The Decision Book: Fifty Models for Strategic Thinking, Profile Books
The activities I will engage in will support the full scope of situational awareness and lead to decisions about what information is available, what information is needed, what resources are available, which resources are already engaged, and which resources are likely to be needed.
As deployment commences, attention will immediately be focused on situational awareness. Continuous monitoring is an essential attribute of situational awareness as incidents are dynamic, and require efficacious information gathering for the actual presenting incident and any developing incidents ("IS 800.b," 2011). The monitoring profile must be responsive to the type of incident and the attendant reporting thresholds ("IS 800.b," 2011). It is essential for both incident monitoring and coordination of effort that critical information pass through established reporting channels as stipulated by the established security protocols ("IS 800.b," 2011).
I will apply an activation and deployment framework early in this situation that will enable…
IS-800.b National Response Framework, An Introduction. (2011, April 27). FEMA Independent Study Program. Retreived from http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is800blst.asp
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Interim planning guidance for preparedness and response to a mass casualty event resulting from terrorist use of explosives. (2010). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://emergency.cdc.gov/masscasualties/pdf/cdc_guidance-508.pdf
Yechiam, E., Barron, G., & Erev, I. (2005, June). The role of personal experience in contributing to different patterns of response to rare terrorist attacks.
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(3), 430-439. doi: 10.1177/0022002704270847.
Assessing a Decision Based on Edward de Bono's Six Thinking Hats Technique
In the book Six Thinking Hats Edward de Bono describes the process of parallel thinking. This process means looking at problems from all angles at once. Edward de Bono uses the example of four people all looking at the same house. One person is looking at the front. Another is looking at the back. The other is looking at the left side. The final person is looking at the right side. These people are all arguing about what the house looks like, while each has a different view of the house. The fact is that what everyone is seeing is part of what the house looks like. But as long as they are all only seeing one side, they will never agree. They will also never really understand what the entire house looks like. The four people…
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
de Bono, E. (1999). Six Thinking Hats. New York: Back Bay Books.
Furnham, A. (1993). "Reaping the Benefits of Teamwork." Financial Times 19 May 1993: 12-14.
Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1995). Competitive Advantage through Diversity. London: Sage.
Organizational Design and Development
In the criminal justice organization, the decision making process is very important. It is also extremely hierarchical in nature, because it requires that people in all levels follow the chain of command for their particular department or other entity. In other words, a police cadet who is on the lowest rung of the advancement ladder would have a number of people above him or her, from which he or she would be required to take orders. Additionally, if there are organizations that have jurisdiction over the criminal justice organization in which that cadet works, he or she would also be required and expected to take orders from those individuals, as well. That is highly significant, and well worth noting, because a failure to understand how the organizational design and development of a criminal justice organization actually works can mean a lack of true respect for a…
Decision Making and Planning in Construction
The formula to determine the most probable to complete the backyard swimming pool is as follows:
a = Optimistic
m = Most probable
The study uses Microsoft Excel software to calculate the probable time for the project. The results show that the project will be complete within 49.5 days, which is approximately 50 days as revealed in Table 1 below.
Duration in Days
The study uses the Microsoft Excel to develop the project schedule and output is revealed below:
The PET distribution to complete the project is in Fig 1 as follows
Fig 1: PET Distribution to Complete the Project
The stimulation to determine the expected time to complete the Swimming Pool project with 90% confidence is as follows:
Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., Williams, T. A., Wisniewski, M., & Pierron, X. (2017). An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Andover, Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., & Williams, T. A. (2003). Solutions manual, An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making, 10th edition. Cincinnati, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
What decision making model would you use to make this decision?
The rational decision making model would be the best choice in this instance. This model is particularly useful as it provides a systematic method of processing information. Many of the steps involved within the overall process involve judgment and foresight. In question 4 of the self test, the primary problem is centered on working an additional shift. The decision to work the additional shift lends itself well to the rational decision making model. First the model allows the development of alternatives, which can better aid management in its overall decision. Alternatives to working an additional shift would be to outsource labor, improve productivity through technology and so forth. Through the rational decision making model, these alternatives can be properly addressed while also outlining a means to arrive at the best possible decision. Management however, must guard itself on…
1. Erdogan, B., Liden, R.C., & Kraimer, M.L. (2006). Justice and leader-member exchange: The moderating role of organizational culture. Academy of Management Journal, 49,395 -- 406.
2. Duarte, N.T., Goodson, J.R., & Klich, N.R. (1994). Effects of dyadic quality and durationon performance appraisal. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 499 -- 521.
3. Heneman, R.L., Greenberger, D.B., & Anonyuo, C. (1989). Attributions and exchanges: The effects of interpersonal factors on the diagnosis of employee performance. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 466 -- 476.
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
Professional ethics refer to the ethics that surround a particular profession. These are the ethical standards that surround the job, and they will typically encompass a range of job-specific ethics and basic ethical standards in general. Organizational ethics are the set of ethical standards by which the organization operates. Each organization has its own culture, and that culture will have a built-in set of ethics that may be different from those of similar organizations. Social ethics are the ethics of a society.
At their heart, each code of ethics reflects the standards by which the group of people agrees to operate. So a society, a firm and a professional body are three different groups of people, and each can therefore have their own set of ethical standards and guidelines. Ethical guidelines are part of an agreed structure for any group of people. When one belongs to a group,…
Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/
Johnson, P. (2005). Rational-comprehensive decision-making. Auburn University. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.auburn.edu/~johnspm/gloss/rational-comprehensive
The recency effect: most manager at times have an overreliance on the most readily available information to make decisions, it commonly occurs when carrying out annual performance evaluations of employees where recent performance of the employees plays a major role than accomplishments that have taken place in the earlier periods of review, this has an adverse effect has it may lead to the deviation of the set desired goals. (John k.bochardt 2010)
Anchoring bias: in most cases the price tags on products often if not always affect the purchasing negations between consumers and retailers, and most of the time consumer's end up paying higher prices for the product than necessary. This notion that sometimes leads us to allow initial reference point to distort our estimates is what professor oberto refers to anchoring bias.
From a marketing point-of-view anchoring bias can come about when negotiating the renewal of a contract with…
John k.borchardt (2010): overcoming barriers to effective deciosion making. An examination of cognitive bses that cause us to make poor decisions
Retrieved from: http://www.ncmahq.org/files/Articles/CM0610%20-%2054-61.pdf
Andrew T. Chadwick and Matthew D. Segall: Overcoming psychological barriers to good discovery
Technology Decision Making
Effect of technology decision making
Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making…
Bahamonde L., DuMouchel W, Shea S . (2003). A meta-analysis in16 randomized controlled trials for evaluating computer-based clinical reminder systems in preventive care for ambulatory setting. J Am Med Inform Asso. c;3:399-409
Greenes R.A. (2009). Informatics and a health care strategy for the future -- general directions. Studies In Health Technology AndInformatics [Stud Health Technol Inform], Vol. 149, pp. 21-8; PMID: 19745469
Hart J. K, Newton B. W, Boone S.E. (2010).University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic healthrecord and medical informatics training for undergraduatehealth professionals. Journal Of The Medical Library Association: JMLA [J Med Libr AssocVol. 98 (3), pp. 212-6.
Kampov J. (2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States. Journal of Medical Library Association.
" (Kinnunen, 2004) the work of Kaplan and Schroar (2003) states findings that the past performance is highly relative to capitals flows to private equity funds.
The work of Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy entitled: "Managing Venture Capital Investment Decisions: A Knowledge-ased Approach" relates the building of a causal map of the investment decision through use of interviewing venture capitalists and then converting this information into a "causal ayes net" which are stated to be "especially suited for domains characterized by a high degree of uncertainty." (Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy, 2001) This technique has also been utilized in developing artificial intelligence and even used "in medical diagnosis, modeling portfolio risk and return, and new product development..." And are based on "probability theory." (Mishra, Kemmerer, and Shenoy, 2001) This method is reported to be one that increases the likelihood of gaining an understanding of the decision-making process of Venture Capitalists (VCs) and…
Kaplan, S. & Schroar, a. 2003. Private Equity Performance: Returns, Persistence and Capital Flows. MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4446-03; AFA 2004 San Diego Meetings.
Cochrane, John H. The Risk and Return of Venture Capital. Working paper, University of Chicago, 2001.
Kinnunen, Harri (2004) Institutional Investor's Decision Making Criteria for Investing in Venture Capital Funds. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004. Online available at http://www.ebrc.info/kuvat/695-709_04.pdf
Patel, Pankaj and D'Souza, Rodney (2008) Uncovering Knowledge Structures of Venture Capital Investment Decision Making. A Working Paper for SBA Office of Advocacy. Jan 2008. Online available at http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs315tot.pdf
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
LEADERSHIP, INTERPERSONAL SKILLS, DECISION-MAKING research paper prepared for the staff of New Jersey Publishing Corporation
Improving Leaders and Interpersonal Relationship
ritten, Oral, Listening, Perception)
Organization and Planning
This research paper analyzes the effect of leadership skills providing direction, interpersonal skills in interacting with others and decision making.
It includes oral communication skills, written business communication, and perception skills important in analyzing problems and proposing solutions.
Final component deals with organizational change and self-designing change management.
The research paper will be the basis of a proposal for a seminar workshop to enhance staff knowledge of such qualities as leadership and ability to interact with others for the enhancement of the capabilities of the staff.
To counteract dire predictions in the globalized world, leadership, interpersonal relationship and decision-making in the corporate world should undergo enhancement, strengthening and change in design
The process takes careful analysis, outlining of problems…
Andrews, Deborah C. And William D. Andrew. Business Communication. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988.
Blake, Robert R., Jane Srygley Mouton and Ann Adams McCause. Change by Design. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1991.
Brzezinski, Zbignew. Out of Control. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993.
Ewald, Helen Rothschild and Rebecca E. Burnett. Business Communication. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1997.
Decision Making with Providers
The scenario facing Mike, the lab technician, is that of lateness, which attracted a reprimand from his supervisor. Seemingly, lateness had become a trend to Mike while reporting to work and that is why the supervisor had questioned him. He had made a promise that he would be punctual, the last time his supervisor questioned him. Mike's promise pegged on the importance he attached to his job because he was the sole breadwinner for his wife and newborn baby. Mike was overwhelmed by the thought that his job would be terminated in the possible reoccurrence of his tendencies to come to the workplace while late. He had received the assurance his supervisor (Grand Canyon University, n.d.).
On this day, Mike tries his best to reach work on time. Therefore, he leaves home twenty minutes before time but unfortunately, there was an accident on his commute. Although…
Dlugacz, Y.D., Restifo, A., & Greenwood, A. (2004). The quality handbook for health care organizations: a manager's guide to tools and programs. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
ECRI Institute. (July 2009). Risk Management, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety. Healthcare Risk Control .
Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Allied Health Community. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Scenario: Critical Decision Making for Providers. Mike, Lab Technician: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html .
Kuhn, A.M., & Youngberg, B.J. (2002). The need for risk management to evolve to assure a culture of safety. Qual Saf Health Care, 11 (2), 158-62.
Alternative evaluation: At this instance, the customer evaluates the brands and products that are in their suggested set. Customers appraise substitutes in terms of the practical and psychological reimbursement that they present. The marketing association wants to recognize what benefits customers for what they are looking for and then which features are most significant in provisions of making a choice. The related inner psychological procedure that is linked with the alternative evaluation phase is attitude configuration. Note that attitudes are studies tendency towards an item. Attitudes include both cognitive and affective fundamentals that are together what an individual think and how they become aware of something. The multi-characteristic attitude form clarifies how customers evaluate alternatives on a series of characteristics. For a firm, identification for a number of tactics is necessary which can be worn to control it. Lastly, there are a variety of methods that customers relate to this…
Grunert, K.C. (1988). Research in Consumer Behavior: Beyond Attitudes and Decision Making. European Research.
Chisnall, P.M. (1992). Marketing: A Behavioral Analysis. London: McGraw-Hill.
This step entails communicating the decision to the concerned person or parties along with the penalties. This step also entails communicating the future course of action to concerned parties.
Close the case- the big errors that companies frequently make is that at times they let the case hang around on without any accomplishment on it. An imperative part of ethical decision making is to close the case by taking action as and when the decision has been communicated.
Set an example and move on- There is no damage in setting the examples for the other workers so that they have a complete awareness of it and they themselves stay away from making such mistakes at any costs. Making sure that everybody has good information of it, and then moving forward is one of imperative facet of ethical decision making (Problem-Solving and Decision-Making, 2010).
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010).…
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010). Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Forester-Miller, Holly and Davis, Thomas. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision
Making. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…
Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother, a 51 years old father and an adopted 15 years old son. The mother is a clinical psychologist and the father is currently an out of work electrician. In this particular case:
big ticket purchases are generally decided by the mother, since she is the sole provider of the family; the father is charged with the family vacations food and toiletries are purchased on individual preference basically because the mother does not have enough time to cook group decisions are made in regard to the places where to dine out or electronic appliances to be purchased for the home the child's power of influence is revealed by his capability to research certain products and provide his mother with the required information…
Mann, a., Consumer Behavior - Family Purchasing Decisions Making Process, Ezine Articles, Retrieved at http://ezinearticles.com/?Consumer-Behavior-Family-Purchasing-Decisions-Making-Process&id=307532on February 8, 2008
Business Standard, 2004, Marketing with Precision, Rediff, Retrieved at http://imdownloads.rediff.com/money/2004/oct/28guest2.htm . On February 8, 2008
Chamberlain, B., Types of Families, Retrieved at http://www.hhs.wash.k12.ut.us/department/health/masters/ch5l1/type.htm. On February 8, 2008
Perner, L., PhD., Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing, Consumer Psychologist, Retrieved at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/on February 8, 2008
Decision making and problem solving in companies are probably the most important processes in any business. These processes ensure that companies run smoothly and effectively. There are a variety of decision-making and problem-solving processes that ensure the effectiveness of business processes. Often, these are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness in the particular business setting involved. The automotive industry, for example, would not function on the same decision-making process as a childcare business. Particularly, problem identification relate to various problem-solving styles, including the morphological approach, the Kepner-Tregoe approach, inventive problem solving, constraints thinking, the collective-participative style, and the fairness approach. These will be related to five types of businesses, including an automotive business, a restaurant, an electronics business, a DVD store, and a preschool,
The first important step in problem solving is problem identification (Reference for Business, 2010). All five businesses investigated have a problem identification process in…
Jones, D, Padgett, M., Rose, C., and Weilacker, R. (2009, Aug. 3) Problem Formulation and Identification. Retrieved from:
Pashiardis, P. (1994). Problem and Dilemma Identification and Formulation as the Most Critical Element of the Decision-Making Process: Behavioral Biases and Characteristics. International Intervisitation Programme in Educational Administration. Retrieved from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED375465.pdf
Reference for Business.. (2010). Problem-Solving Styles. Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed Retrieved from: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Problem-Solving-Styles.html
Decision making in institutes have been depicted as a progression of conduct with the full amount of level-headedness at individual excessive, as well as absolute illogicality at the other excessive. The depiction entails that no more than illogical decision making brings about individual morals priority in excess of economic principles. There must be a way of finding some focal point amid these ends, as it is obvious that any of this set of values can be overlooked. Many a times, managers have been brazen out with the responsibility coming up with stern, objectionable, as well as obnoxious slashes of workers along with services in a speedy approach, for the reason that, in a way, they botched to pay attention to the earlier decisions as per economic values. In the same way, institutions have also been pushed to decision retracting as well as acting in a more confusing way…
Joe has made considerable progress towards contract renewal between UWEAR and Peninsula Hotel chain and has planned a meeting with his management team to discuss the contract renewal. In light of the challenges relating to decline sales and profitability of UWEAR as well as the increased pressures to perform, Joe is optimistic that the contract renewal between these two firms will help in promoting continued success and employment with UWEAR. However, the contract negotiations have created a strained relationship between Joe and Bill lately because of the complexities involved in the negotiation process. Actually, the good relationship between Joe and Bill played an influential role in securing the contract renewal between the two companies despite the significantly cheaper offer from Threads4U. Bill has invited Joe and his wife for a short trip on the yacht, which will provide a good opportunity for both couples to catch up since…
UWEAR is undergoing a difficult period that has been characterized by declining sales and relatively low profit margins. This situation has generated considerable concerns and pressure of the firm's employees include Joe who is fearing cutbacks and layoffs because of the company's merger with PALEDENIM. However, Joe has established good relations with the CEO of Peninsula Hotels and signed a contract with them in the past financial year. Given the good relations that already exist between Joe and the CEO of this hotel chains, Peninsula is seeking to renew the contract for the upcoming financial year. However, the contract renewal has generated several concerns given that the initial price was so low while Threads4U has offered to beat that offer by 10%. As a result, Joe is facing a leadership and ethical decision-making dilemma that is exacerbated by the pressure to perform.
Joe's Probable Course of Action
In light of…
hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.
Step 6: Evaluate the evidence
Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.
Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)
After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…
Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Decisionmaking.org. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.decisionmaking.org/worksheet.pdf
Fourteen decision-making steps