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Organizational Structures and Leadership
This paper explains the organization structure (or a combination of organization structures) implemented at a specific organization and how it affects the decision making and other aspects of the organization. For that purpose the health care organization has been taken into consideration.
Organizational structure generally refers to the hierarchical, reporting, authority and leadership set-up of an entity. The structures determine the working, leadership and decision making styles of the management as well as the overall culture of an entity. Organization structures can be of many types like: (obins and Langton, 2010)
Bureaucratic structure or Line structure: Under this type of organizational structure the roles and responsibilities are clearly defined and it follows a well defined hierarchy, this type of structure is a highly formal organizational structure. A line structure has many levels of hierarchy and authority and the chain of command of the organization is complicated.…
American School of Cardiology (2011). Developing and Managing a Successful CV Service Line. ACC Council on Clinical Practice Paper. [report] Washington: ACC Council.
Berggren, I. And Carlstrom, E. (2011). Decision making within a community provider organization. British Journal of Community Nursing, 15 (12), pp. 611-617.
Downy, M., Parslow, S. And Smart, M. (2011). The hidden treasure in nursing leadership: informal leaders. Journal of Nursing Management, 19 (2011), pp. 517-521.
Madden, A. (2011). EHR Adoption: Help is Here for Your Decision-Making Process. Nashville: Tennessee Medical Association. pp. 35-37.
There is one structural issue that will be examined. The hierarchical structure of CI is causing problems that affect the contingency factors most important to the CI organization including, Strategy, Sales cycle, and culture (Cengage, 2010). In the case study, Daly has assessed internal and external weaknesses and threats due to strategic direction.
The analysis reveals two internal threats to the organization that stem from the hierarchical organizational structure and communicating strategic goals and objectives (Oshagbemi & Gill, 2004). Without knowing what the goals for the company are, sales production and customer care has diminished.
Solution One Satisfaction Survey
One solution that supports restructuring the company from a hierarchy to a Matrix organization involves the sales team working with customers to develop and complete a customer satisfaction survey. Based on the response, goals will be addressed to improve business relationships, growth potential, profitability, and refocus on the customer.…
Bradford, D.L. And Burke, W. (2005). Reinvent organizational development. San Francisco. Pfeiffer Publishing.
Cengage Learning. (2010). Information sharing and structure: external environment.
Organization Theory and Design.
Edwards, G., and Gill, R. (2012). Transformational leadership across hierarchical levels in UK manufacturing organizations. Leadership & Organization Development
In this study, the researchers explored the concept of "psychological contract" and how it applies to and potentially determines cultures and sub-cultures that would emerge in organizations. Defining it as "individual beliefs or perceptions concerning the terms of…relationship between the individual and the organization," psychological contracts are identified into the following dimensions: (1) vertical or horizontal, referring to social status and power in "exchange relationships" and (2) individualism and collectivism, reflecting people's self-concept, based from themselves and other people's perceptions (p. 1440). esults of the study showed that indeed, different countries manifested different kinds of psychological contracts from its employees. The Chinese tend to be more "custodial" in their approach, which is best described as a 'vertical-collectivist,' a highly cooperative relationship with also high regard to social status. The French have an "exploitive" employer-employee relationship (vertical-individualist), Canadians as "instrumental" (horizontal-individualist), and the Norwegians "communitarian" (horizontal-collectivist) (p. 1442). The study demonstrated…
Fiedler, M. And I. Welpe. (2010). "How do organizations remember? The influence of organizational structure on organizational memory." Organization Studies, Vol. 31, No. 4.
Ozman, M. (2010). "The knowledge base of products: implications for organizational structures." Organization Studies, Vol. 31, No. 8.
Thomas, D., S. Fitzsimmons, E. Calvin, K. Au, B. Ekelund, and C. Barzantny. (2010). "Psychological contracts across culture." Organization Studies, Vol. 31, No. 11.
For this reasons, employees report higher level of supervisory trust in such organizations. 'The effect of interactional justice on supervisory trust is more pronounced in organic organizations." (p.301) the reason for this is that in mechanistic organizations, supervisors are constrained by rigid rules and hence they are allowed to develop as close an interaction with subordinates as in organic structures.
The second article which occupies a central place in business literature is N. Anand and Richard Daft, titled. "What is the right organizational design"? deals with the obvious subject of organizational structure but explains the changes in the design over the last four decades. It explains how horizontal division separation paved way for more process-based structures and how it finally led to the birth of a fluent and flowing organizational design that became more hollow and virtual.
The authors discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various design to show how…
Welcome to Acme Solutions! Ours is a growing company and I am pleased to welcome you to our family. You will find that Acme's simple organizational structure suits your preference for a collaborative work environment. We at Acme believe that even specialists can contribute to overall organizational success in areas beyond their locus of control. Therefore, the span of control in our organization is wide. We like to work together so that all employees see the "big picture" in any given project. As the CEO, I have noticed a great deal of success with this model of organizational structure. Employees like you need know what is going on in other departments, because it minimizes confusion and miscommunication. Therefore, we expect you to be highly communicative on the job. Never feel afraid to ask questions or point out areas of weakness or concern. We at Acme are proud of…
Japanese consumers are also much more likely to eat meals at cafes. This required Starbucks to create a larger array of meal-based foods, rather than pastries. The Japanese tend to prefer drinking tea, as opposed to coffee, and once the initial novelty of coffee-drinking wore thin, Starbucks was forced to incorporate a wider array of beverages (Lewis 2003). Starbucks made coffee-drinking in Japan more popular than it was before the company took root on Japanese soil, but Starbucks had to adopt a nationally-specific approach to thrive in the Japan and suit the needs of the Japanese consumer. Having a division specifically devoted to understanding Japanese consumer habits was vital in facilitating Starbucks' growth.
Starbucks is an extremely complex organization. It is multinational, yet coffee tastes and preferences are highly regional in nature. Although it is a large food conglomerate, the character of different stores and food offerings vary widely, not…
Lewis, Leo. (2003, December). Japan's coffee kings and the Starbucks effect.
Organizational chart Starbucks. (2011). The Official Board. Retrieved May 21, 2011 at http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/starbucks
This structure is more commonly seen in Limited Liability Corporations and Partnerships. Typically in this environment power is more evenly distributed through a wider selection of middle managers. The political structure of the organization may be more volatile as more employees or staff members are likely to participate in decision making and strategic initiatives. This can contribute to an organizations success however, particularly in a global environment by enhancing diversity and knowledge dissemination throughout the organization. This is the organizational style more often seen in modern or contemporary organizations that have more global influence and deal with more diverse clientele and customer service bases.
Of course hierarchical management is also present in an LLC or partnership, where one or two people may have more power and influence over decision making and strategic planning.
MSU Extension Service. (1998). "Selecting an Organizational Structure." Montana State
University, Available: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/mt9708.html
MSU Extension Service. (1998). "Selecting an Organizational Structure." Montana State
University, Available: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/mt9708.html
This can be seen when employees emulate the boss' style of dress, work ethic, and approach to interpersonal relationships within the office. Therefore, the culture of the organization can range from very formal to very casual, depending on the personal style of the company's leader. (For example, Google has a hierarchical structure, but is led by a person with a casual style, which has resulted in a very casual office culture).
On the opposite end of the spectrum are organizations that lack a clearly defined hierarchy or where management has little power over employees. In those circumstances, it is not the influence of the organization's leader, but that of the workers, which defines the organization's culture. Again, the culture can range from very formal to very casual, depending on the personal style of the individuals involved, but will be a function of the normative culture of the group, rather than…
Culture is an abstract force that impacts everyone that consents to its power. In organizations culture can be used as technology that may help or hinder the ability of that organizations' capability to succeed and accomplish objectives. The purpose of this essay is to assess the impact of organizational culture and the feedback loop that is created between the participants of that culture and the organization itself. This essay will discuss this idea in a general manner and applying organizational culture in an objective method that can apply to any hypothetical or real organization.
Mallinger et al. (2009) suggested that "understanding culture can be useful in two ways. First, cultural insight provides awareness of the extent to which organization members are willing to accept change; and second, a cultural assessment is likely to determine the root cause of the problems that impede stronger performance." To many this is…
Mallinger, M. et al. (2009). Recognizing Organizational Culture in Managing Change. Graziadio Business Review, 12(1), 2009. Retrieved from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/recognizing-organizational-culture-in-managing-change/
Watkins, M. ( 2013). What is Organizational Culture? And Why Should We Care? Harvard Business Review, 15 May 2013. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/05/what-is-organizational-culture/
Organizations can be of many types and it would be wrong to say that there are universal formulae for the success of all organizations. That is the reasons why there are managers to lead the organizations to success. They have to decide the type of organization it is and then adopt the required strategies that would lead it to success.
One of the recent developments in organizations have been organizations which have been set up with an alliance between two organizations or groups, or in partnership with each other. The requirement of these organizations are becoming very important as there is an increasing shift of work from the developed countries to less developed countries as the cost of labor in the less developed countries are much less. This is a very critical type of organization as it effectively has to keep two masters happy. The problems with this…
Boyatzis, Richard. E. Burruss, James. A (4 July, 1995) "The Heart of Human Resource
Development: Counseling Competencies" Retrieved from http://www.eiconsortium.org/research/heart_of_hrd.htm Accessed 22 August, 2005
"Building the Management team and a Successful Organizational Culture" Retrieved from www.sbaer.uca.edu/publications/entrepreneurship/pdf/10.pdf
Accessed 21 August, 2005
Critically discuss the extent to which an organisation's structure not only shapes its culture, but also its ability to transform itself
As with structure, culture is methodologically analyzable by virtue of its emergent status. Indeed, like structure, culture has relational, causal properties of its own, which confront actualizing agency in the form of situational logics (Archer 2006: Chapter 7). Cultural analysis is also a multi-level affair, from the doctrinal level, where, for instance, religious doctrine may contradict welfare policy, down to the micro-level. Just as any role within an organization can have contradictory requirements, so can cultural values. However, the problem currently vitiating the literature on 'organizational culture' is precisely how one can examine the relative interplay between society's 'prepositional register' and agency when culture is reduced to, or defined solely in terms of, what goes on at the level of causality. The realist assertion that culture as…
Archer, M.S. 2006 Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anthony, P. 2004 Managing Culture, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bloor, D. 2005 Knowledge and Social Imagery, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Bhaskar, R. 1994 Plato Etc.: The Problems of Philosophy and Their Resolution, London: Verso.
There is also the use of project teams and committees that are in large part on a volunteer basis although the leaders that should or must be involved in certain projects are not having to have their arms twisted to get engaged. For example, a project that involves the accounting department would clearly need to involve the leadership and other senior members of the accounting team on one level or another. That all being said, stakeholders come in many forms and flavors and the formal leadership is far from being the only example and this organization understands and embraces that rather than shun it (Kalvar, 2003).
Both formal and informal leadership will be present in some form in even the most regimented and established hierarchies and organization are foolish to try and stifle this. Instead, they should embrace the idea and harness this phenomenon in an effective and managed…
Kalvar, S.T. (2003, June 7). Understand and use your informal leadership role | TechRepublic. TechRepublic - a Resource for it Professionals. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/understand-and-use-your-informal-leadership-role/5035204
McGraw-Hill. (2013, June 20). Organizational Structure. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073526703/student_view0/ebook/chapter1/chbody1/organizational_structure.html
Organizational structure of three companies in the mobile telephony industry, namely Ericsson, Nokia and Motorola.
The Organisational Structure of Ericsson:
The usiness Organisation at Ericsson-- the international leaders in telecommunication based in Sweden -- is segmented as usiness Units, Core Units, and Other usiness Operations. The business units comprises of Systems, Mobile Systems CDMA, Global Services and Transmission and Transport Networks and the Core Units include Core Network Development, Radio Network Development, Service Network and Applications, Supply and Sourcing. The Other usiness Operations include Mobile Platforms, Enterprise, Technology Licensing, Network Technologies, Microwave Systems, usiness Innovations, Power Modules and Test Environments. The global market and sales organization is spread across three primary market areas- the Americas, Asia Pacific, and Europe, Middle East and Africa. (www.ericsson,2003)
The company is geared by the Executive Management Team headed by the President and CEO, who is reported to by the Deputy CEO and First Executive…
Rory, Chase L. Knowledge Management Benchmarks. Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(1). 1997
Company Information and Reports Available at www.ericsson.com. Accessed 2.07.2003
Company Information and Reports Available at www.nokia.com. Accessed 2.07.2003
Company Information and Reports Available at www.motorola.com. Accessed on 2.07.2003
Nevada Department of Correction (NDOC) Organization Chart
Board of State Prison Commissioners
Deputy Director Operations
Deputy Director Support Services
Deputy Director Industrial Programs
etrieved from Nevada Department of Corrections Web Org Chart July 2011
As shown in the organizational chart, the Nevada Department of Correction is governed by the Board of State Prison Commissioners. The Board comprises of the Governor who doubles up as the chair of the Board, the Secretary of the State, and the Attorney General. All administrative duties of the Department are presided over by the Director who is appointed by the Governor (NDOC, 2011). The Director is a member of the Governor's cabinet. The personnel in the director's office include executive assistant and persons in-charge of family and victim services. Under the Director…
NDOC (2010). Organization. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://www.doc.nv.gov/organization.php
NDOC. (2011). Department Organization. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://www.doc.nv.gov/?q=node/85
United States Census Bureau (2009). Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United
States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico. Retrieved August 11, 2013 from http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv
Organizational structure of a large, international or multinational company is important, and must be one that works well in all ways. If the structure of the organization is not handled properly, the entire company can be put at risk. The organization studied here is Wal-Mart, because it is so large and represents what many people think of when they think of a multinational corporation that is generally successful. The organizational structure of this corporation works, and there are several reason why that is the case. The most significant reason is that the organization's structure has been kept simple (Fishman, 2006). While Wal-Mart is a huge corporation that operates all across the globe, it has stayed small and humble in the way it has organized itself. Because it has done that, it has been able to continue to build itself up and use the profits made through sales to put back…
Fishman, C. (2006). The Wal-Mart effect: How the world's most powerful company really works -- and how it's transforming the American economy. NY: Penguin.
Gereffi, G., & Michelle, C. (2009). The impacts of Wal-Mart: The rise and consequences of the world's dominant retailer. Annual Review of Sociology, 35: 573 -- 591.
Vance, S.S., Scott, R.V. (1997). Wal-Mart: A history of Sam Walton's retail phenomenon. NY: Twayne Publishers.
The narrowness is from the singular focus of each position: regulatory issues and scientific study.
The span of control for the Deputy Assistant Administrator for Operations and the Director International Affairs is narrow but deep. The director of international affairs must be knowledgeable of the international laws, issues and players of the countries with whom the U.S. may have disputes. The skills of the administrative team differ greatly from those of the other divisions; however, all the other divisions need these skills -- finance, accounting, and technology -.
A divisional organizational structure groups together subject matter experts and provides them with a clear scope of responsibilities. At NOAA Fisheries, two of the teams, the regulatory and scientific teams, are regionalized. Each of theses divisions have the responsible for a specific skill set which needs to be replicated in different areas within the U.S. The strength of a divisional structure is…
Organizational Trends of Criminal Justice
Criminal justice organizations were typically comprised from public resources and structures, yet there have been movements towards different style organizations that do not rely on the public domain for their support. The privatization of criminal justice organizations is essentially when such organizations are removed from the public control and placed into private ownership. A major reason for the privatization of such criminal justice resources is because of a lack of funding or other resources on behalf of a public government to carry out the tasks at hand. Privatized organizational structure is often quite different from the types of structures seen in public criminal justice organizations. Often, private organizations are contracted by local governments to augment the already established criminal justice structure. Thus, privatized organizations may be much smaller or more specified in regards to their organizational structure in compared to traditional criminal justice organizations. This…
As such, the competition with potentially more efficient internal environments are in a better position than Airstar.
As a solution, Robinson's six principles are mainly directed towards better focus in terms of task assignments and internal structure. Communication should however not be overlooked in determining solutions for Airstar, Inc.
Generally, Robinson's principles appear to focus on internal changes that would provide Airstar with a better position from which to handle external environmental changes. Concomitantly, Morgan should consider how internal structural factors relate to the six principles. Because of the long lifetime of the company, for example, formalization in terms of written rules and regulations seems to be lacking. Communication is an important factor in this as well.
It is recommended that Airstar, Inc. begins its internal transformation process by creating a list of recommended rules, regulations and policies. It is suggested that these initially be communicated in writing, providing…
Organizational Structures / Organizational Structures and Its Behavioral Implication
Behavorial Implications of Distinct Organisational Designs
Structure Better Than Others
The organizational design process helps in managing and altering the official system of power and task relationships which governs the way people in the organization must make use of organizational resources and cooperate with one another for accomplishing company goals.
Light on Problem
Business Administration Professor, osabeth Moss Kanter of Harvard Business School, dealt with the issue of an evolving trend in organizations in the form of a stream of females in managerial and professional posts, as well as several other changes. Since the basis of a number of existing theories was an obsolete organizational and economic model, emphasis began to be placed on newly developed models, and extension of assessments for taking more elements into consideration, which were earlier disregarded. Professor Kanter also maintained that those facing challenges in their…
Boundless. (2015a). Divisional Structure. Boundless Management. Boundless. Retrieved 20 Sep. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/common-organizational-structures-25/divisional-structure-147-3977/
Boundless. (2015b). Matrix Structure. Boundless Management. Boundless. Retrieved 20 September, 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/common-organizational-structures-25/matrix-structure-148-3980/
Elsaid, N.M., Okasha, I.E., & Abdelghaly, A.A. (2013).Defining and Solving the Organizational Structure Problems to Improve the Performance of Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs - Egypt. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3 (10).DOI 2250-3153. Available on www.ijsrp.org
Galeti?, L. (2011). Organizational Structure. Retrieved on 20th September, 2015 from https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://web.efzg.hr/dok/OIM/inacinovic/LECTURE.orgstucture.pdf
These subchannels both operate via employers. The Affiliated channel has only one subchannel, the Career Agency subchannel.
Its Non-Proprietary/Independent distribution channel is divided into the Investment-oriented, Insurance-oriented, and Banks channels. The Investment-oriented channel only has one subchannel: the Warehouses, egional B/Ds & Planners subchannel. The Insurance-oriented channel only has one subchannel: the Insurance producers channel. The Banks channel only has one subchannel, the Banks, B/Ds, and Marketers channel. (Prospectus 14)
Operation of the Company
Sales are done through the company's Local Business Centers, egional etirement Services Offices, and egional Group Insurance Solutions Offices. This is where the sales manager will listen to the needs of the prospective client and present the company's value proposition.
Once a relationship is established with the client, the client is assigned an Account epresentative at the same Business Center. The Account epresentative becomes familiar with the details of the Client's financial situation and performs actions…
Year-End 2010 Company Profile
Quarterly 2011 Company Profile
Yahoo Finance - http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=pfg
Reuters - http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=PFG.N
Organizational Design and Structure of Nestle
Nestle S.A., a Swiss multinational company based in Vevey, is the world's largest beverage and food company. It is renowned for its attempts at leading the world market in Nutrition, Wellness and Health. The company owns numerous brands, manufacturing diverse products, including beverages like bottled water, coffee, and milkshakes, infant formula, breakfast cereals, seasonings, healthcare and performance nutrition, sauces and soups, refrigerated and frozen food items and pet foods, in several world markets (Lee, 2014).
Organizational effectiveness represents a sum total of company goodness and factors like production, turnover, output quality, cost performance, efficiency, and profitability (Katz & Kahn, 1966). Effectiveness denotes the organization's ability to accomplish its aims and fulfill needs of different stakeholder's (Khandwalla, 1995). Nestle's official website claims that stakeholders of the company include company employees, suppliers, distributors, investors, partners, shareholders, customers, regulatory authorities, etc. (Lee, 2014).
Daft, R.L (2012). Organization Theory and Design (11th ed.), Mason, Ohio: South-Western
Dartey-Baah, K. (2013). The Cultural Approach to the Management of the International Human Resource: An Analysis of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Business Administration.
Katz D, Kahn RL (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley. P. 168
Khandwalla, P.N. (1995). "Management Style." New Delhi: Mc-Graw Hill. P. 387.
Singapore Management University is one of the universities in Singapore whose development was overseen by the Higher Education Division as an autonomous university alongside three other universities namely National University of Singapore, the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore University of Technology and Design (Ministry of Education, Singapore, 2012). This university was officially incorporated in 2000 and was the first private university that was sponsored by the government. Just like the National University of Singapore.
The university hosts an average of 7,000 students in the six schools that are within the university offering the undergraduate, graduate and even the PhD levels of education and training. The main schools within the university are Accountancy school, Business Management school, Information Systems management school, Economics, social sciences and Law (Singapore Management University, 2012a). These are among other research centers as well as providing programs that are custom made for those who are working…
John Wiley & Sons Inc., (2012). The External Environment. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/The-External-Environment.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8859.html
Ministry of Education, Singapore, (2012). Higher Education Division. Retrieved February 11,
2012 from http://www.moe.gov.sg/about/org-structure/hed/
Singapore Management University, (2012a). Schools. Retrieved February 11, 2012 from http://www.smu.edu.sg/admissions/pages/smu_degrees/SMU-Degrees.asp
Organizational Structure on Communication (internal/External Factors)
Internal communication is useful for proper communication between management and the employee and also between employees and their fellow employees
External communication is the mode at which an organization relates to its customers or the general public and includes marketing, public relations, investor relations, and corporate advertising.
Communication in organizations has the following importance
It changes individual's attitude towards the organization this is because the employees will be more informed of what is going on within the organization.
It keeps all the workers and the management informed hence hastening the decision making process within the organization
It keeps employees motivated by making it clear on roles to be played by each employee and how they can improve their performance.
It brings individuals in the organization together
Communication sets some limits for the employees in an organization. It clearly sets the policies and guidelines to…
1. Berwick, D.M. "Healthcare organizations" Journal of Medical studies, 312 (7031):619-22, March 9, 2000.
2. Brook, R.H. "Quality Healthcare." Journal of Medicine, 325 (14): 966-70, July 26,2007
3. Faulkner & Gray, 1996. "Management of Healthcare institutions." Business and Health, Special Report, 11-6, 1998.
The goal of the Sheriff's Department is to protect and serve all people in accordance with the law, and with the ultimate goal of creating and maintaining a high quality of life in the community. High quality of life is in part defined by respect and tolerance, as well as safety and order. To serve the primary goal of promoting a high quality of life, the Sheriff's Department will work with any and all community organizations as willing partners. The Department values cooperation, compassion, and communication. All stakeholders will be treated with respect, and in accordance with egalitarian values and social justice. Discrimination will not be tolerated, either within the Sheriff's Office or in the community at large. Ultimately, the laws of the county, state, and nation are our primary provision. The preservation of human rights and liberties is also our mission.
Business Case Studies, (2014). Operations Theory. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/business-theory/operations/the-formal-and-informal-organisation-structure.html#axzz300xk7xqB
Management Study guide, (2014). Advantages and Disadvantages of Participative Management. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://managementstudyguide.com/participative-management-advantages-disadvantages.htm
Naval Case Study
Modern organizational structures are so highly complex and competitive that the old paradigm -- improving efficiency and the bottom line, is no longer all it takes to be successful. Instead, continued reinvention of both materials and capabilities is not only necessary, but will ensure continued success. This is particularly true as a paradigm for the military organization, which needs to field operations with as few limitations as possible. One seminal example of this paradigm shift involved the development of continuous aim firing for the U.S. Navy.
We know that gunfire at sea is difficult at best -- the gun in mounted on an unstable platform, the sea is moving, and the target moves as well. Add to this variable like weather and range, and it becomes increasingly complex to even come close to hitting a target. The issue was solved due to the tenaciousness to two individuals:…
Daugherty, L. (2009). Pioneers of Amphibious Warfare, 1898-1945. Jefferson, NC:
McFarland and Company.
Morrison, E. (1966). Gunfire at Sea: A Case Study of Innovation. In Elting Morrison, ed.
Men, Machines and Modern Times. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Organizational mission: the organization's mission and purpose, stated in terms of benefits to customers, employees, and society
The mission of an organization is its guiding purpose, its reason for existing beyond the superficial aims of profiting its shareholders, owners, and staff members. At the very least, the organizational mission is linked to its core goals or objectives, which include the target population or market it serves, as well as why, and most importantly, how it will achieve those goals (Ahmed, 2019). The organization can also choose to break down its mission into more specific parts, explaining factors like its operating goals, overall performance objectives, use or allocation of resources, position in the marketplace, and more (Daft, 2013). Its mission statement will typically reveal the organization’s role vis-a-vis society at large, the target market or customer base, and also its employees.
All organizations serve some sort of need, typically via the…
1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interrelationships between Organizational Functions and Impact on Organisational Structure
The functions of an organization take into account the different aspects undertaken by the business including production or manufacturing, marketing, sales, accounting as well as research and development. In accordance to Sherman and Thompson (2019), the organizational structure delineates the relationship and interrelations between the functions of a business and ascertains the manner in which the chain of command operates through the various levels. The interrelationship between organizational functions and organizational structure is akin to a flow chart. This is in the sense that an entity can set up its business structure around the organizational functions. However, even if the entity fails to do so, the organizational functions and structure will have an impact on one another (Sherman and Thompson, 2019).
Functional Organizational Structure
A functional organizational structure creates distinct and separate departments. Plenty…
An organization's structure affects many aspects of the organization. Kanter (1999) notes that people within an organization tend to operate in line with the messages that they are receiving, so structural elements do affect culture and vice versa. An organizational structure reflects how the people at the top of the organization view how the organization works. So if you have, for example, few new products, you might just work with a geographic structure, and that would encourage people in the company to adopt a transactional mindset, building stability within a tightly defined context. However, if products are the basis of the organizational culture, this might have people working on a specific product become more oriented towards growing that product. The orientation of the company is different so the way that people within the company see themselves and their roles is also going to be different. Buhler (2011) also…
Buhler, P. (2011). Changing organizational structures and their impact on managers. Supervision. Vol. 72 (2) 24.
Kurtzman, J. (1999). An interview with Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Strategy & Business. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/19494?gko=df950
The Boardman Management Group has a simple organizational structure consisting of a single unit. All of the management is located in one facility, which is situated adjacent to the primary area of business. The group uses this structure because most of its business is the Baderman Island Resort. It is not known if the Group even manages the original portfolio of cottages and hotels, but there are some offsite properties that are also managed from this central location. Presumably the rationale is that these properties are not a major part of the business, and it is easier to have management centrally located than on-site.
This type of organizational structure is typically utilized for firms that have a single business, and a narrow geographic scope. All of the functions can work closely together when they are in a central location. The company's units have a higher degree of cohesion,…
Resolution often needs to be imposed from above.
A third type of communication problem at firms operating a matrix structure is that of corporate culture clash. In the case of Spectrum, the regional head office may wish to impose upon the different product functions the head office corporate culture. Each of the functional firms, however, may have its own culture and may find that it benefits from certain cultural differences. These differences, however, can cause communication problems and discord.
ithin the multidivisional structure, one type of communication that can occur is that the company only shares some types of information well, but not others. hen Apple reorganized into a multidivisional structure, some groups communicated very well, but ultimately the results did not generate any congruencies or economies of scale advantages -- the wrong people were communicating about the wrong things (Grant, 2002).
Another form of communication problem that can occur…
Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling. Wiley p. 109
Hoskisson, R. (2008). Strategic management -- concepts and cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. Cengage, p. 318
Grant, R. (2002). Contemporary strategy analysis: Concepts, techniques, applications. Wiley. p.207
With each organization looking for the most efficient ways of getting work done, there has a risen a necessity to try out several modes of operation that would enable the intended results in an organization to be realized. This was one of the driving forces that prompted Best Buy to change their mode of operation to the ROWE model.
The other very significant reason behind the ROWE model is the employee burnout that is experienced by the majority of the people who are stuck to their desks from morning straight to evening with very short breaks in the name of working from the office. This results into loss of balance between the work-life aspects.
It is also significant to note that the employees looked at the clock system as one full of dogma with the bosses requiring them to be physically present at all the working…
They do this by supporting the different functions and subgeographic groups such as those outlined in Exhibit C. Exhibit B. illustrates the role that each of the different functions plays - they are on a par with Ground Operations in the structure, but perform a staff function.
c. The organizational design at FedEx best serves the company's needs. Despite the company having operations around the world, there is little need for matrix structure. There are several reasons for this. One is that the company's core Express operation requires close coordination globally. The company presents a face to the consumer that is united globally, a function of the global nature of the service. Therefore, it is logical that each operating company be run from one head office, with operations managed at the regional level, because all areas must be working closely together within a given operating company.
Another reason is that…
Some corporate information from Reuters. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=FDX.N
2008 FedEx Annual Report. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/FDX/491475030x0x223284/b51e2e11-6edc-44a3-bcad-e5379c70a765/FedEx08ar.pdf
They might have a different structure at higher levels where more innovation and creativity is required, but at the lower levels everything is based on a machine-like system -- that system is what the franchisees pay for.
Another type of organization is the professional bureaucracy. This type of organization also has a high level of bureaucracy to its nature, but differs from the machine bureaucracy in that there is also a high degree of specialization. Organizations that rely on knowledge workers often have this strategy. While there are a lot of rules and procedures, the actual output is produced by highly-trained professionals, not unskilled labor. An example of this type of organization is a hospital or university (Mantkelow, 2014).
For any given company, there might be differences in the optimal structure. Many industries will gravitate to one structure over the others because it best suits firms in that business. Other…
Davoren, J. (2014). Functional structure organization strengths & weaknesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/functional-structure-organization-strength-weakness-60111.html
Mantkelow, J. (2014). Mintzberg's organizational configurations. MindTools. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_54.htm
As more organizations begin to realize there are new and innovative ways to involve everyone in the process, then more organizations will see the benefits of changing the way people report to one another, and how they solve problems. Removing the layers of management and hierarchy create more open communication, and remove the fear many staff feel when discussing new ideas and innovations. Having many people "in charge" in an organization may work for some people, but for most it stifles their creativity and need for challenge and growth. I reject the type of management that cannot learn from everyone on staff, and look forward to a time when organizations have the capacity to learn from within, as well as from the outside. I think that will be a new and better day for American business.
This conflict over change is actually very productive as it forces innovation into cultures (Flanagan, unde, 2009). The bottom line is that organizational structures can be changed, and it often takes a CEO to bring lasting and significant innovation to their company as they lead. From being more customer-centered (Peterson, Anand, 2004) to embracing the need for greater innovation (Tellis, Prabhu, Chandy, 2009) organizational structures can change as the underlying cultures do. It takes exceptional effort however and often an external set of circumstances to force change over time.
Tim Flanagan, Craig unde. (2009). How teams can capitalize on conflict. Strategy & Leadership, 37(1), 20-22. etrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1626513761).
ichard a Peterson, N Anand. (2004). The PODUCTION of CULTUE PESPECTIVE. Annual eview of Sociology, 30, 311-334. etrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 691462791).
Gerard J. Tellis, Jaideep C.…
Tim Flanagan, Craig Runde. (2009). How teams can capitalize on conflict. Strategy & Leadership, 37(1), 20-22. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1626513761).
Richard a Peterson, N Anand. (2004). The PRODUCTION of CULTURE PERSPECTIVE. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 311-334. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 691462791).
Gerard J. Tellis, Jaideep C. Prabhu, Rajesh K. Chandy. (2009). Radical Innovation Across Nations: The Preeminence of Corporate Culture. Journal of Marketing, 73(1), 3. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1611531261).
business organizations and environment facilitates a complex flow of information through each segment of the business corporation. It is therefore advocated that efficient and timely management of information is the backbone of all business organizations. So for the sake of acquaintance of effective information management of business records the organizations are now taking more technological approaches rather than manual ones. For that many organization have installed business software than offer customizable tools for different business and even various departments of the same organization. These customizable features have offered a great deal of satisfaction to the entrepreneurs and cooperation who basically seek for authenticity and accuracy.
Role of Information Technology in Business Organizations and Its Structure
As a matter of fact information technology is the core determinant of the contemporary organizations. The business landscape has been exposed to a wide variety of information management tools that offers instant solutions to…
Dawe, Richard L. "An Investigation of the Pace and Determination of Information Technology Use in the Manufacturing Materials Logistics System." Journal of Business Logistics 15.1 (1994): 229+. Questia. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.
Delmonte, Anthony J. "Information Technology and the Competitive Strategy of Firms." Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 8.1 (2003): 115+. Questia. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.
Edwards, Sebastian. "Information Technology and Economic Growth in Developing Countries." Challenge 45.3 (2002): 19+. Questia. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.
"The Information Technology Revolution." World Economic Outlook: 105. Questia. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.
THE INTENATIONAL BOTHEHOOD OF THE TEAMSTES
Administration and membership of the Teamsters Union and its Organization
The Teamsters Union refers to one of the biggest labor unions across the world. It contributes significantly to the revenues realized by the U.S. The union has a unique structure that facilitates the effective running and management of organizational activities. The president leads the union who plays the responsibility of overseeing all the organizational activities and making decisions that influence the performance of the union and its ability to provide its services to its global consumers. The general secretary, international vice presidents, and international trustees play the responsibility of providing the required support to the president and implementation of the planned organizational activities (DeLancey, 2003). The Teamsters employ the use of top-down organizational structure to ensure effective communication and creation of order in the execution of organizational activities. The top-down organizational structure ensures…
DeLancey M. (2003).100 years of Teamsters history: a strong legacy, a powerful future. United States: DeLancey.
Jacobs, J.B., & Cooperman, K.T. (2011). Breaking the devil's pact the battle to free the Teamsters from the mob. New York: New York University Press.
Search Results. (n.d.). Teamsters. Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://teamster.org/ search-as_q=002804770644527135998%3A4zrokwi71xm&ie=UTF-8&as_q=leadersip+structure&sa=Search' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Large amounts of employees cannot be easily dealt with by one, or sometimes even a few, corporate officers, as the Nucor example makes clear. Corporate officers often can make better use of their time in other ways. If a company begins with a large number of employees, simple structure may not be the answer for them. Similarly, if employees in plants are large distances from the corporate headquarters, or the company has a variety of plants, a separate structure must be adopted for each plant in order to best deal with the problems that arise there. Relying on a single CEO or small group of officers in this case may lengthen reaction times and end up in financial or literal disaster for companies. Finally, a complex structure encourages a great deal of respect while a simple structure can be interpreted as loose and informal, with every day workers appealing decisions…
Google Company Analysis
The company under scrutiny is Google Inc. At Google's new parent company, their employees stand at 72,053 full-time employees (Statista). The vision of Google is "to provide access to the world's information in one click." The mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful." Google operates in all countries where the Internet is but is operates in 100 countries around the globe but has 25 countries that have partially blocked Google's services (Google Inc., 2015).
Google is a global technology company that deals in designing. Moreover, it offers various products and services to its subscribers. Google Inc. has a primary focus on web-based search and tools of display advertising, consumer content, desktop systems, hardware products, commerce, and enterprise solutions. The customers of Google are worldwide. The main competitors included Yahoo (YHOO) media company AOL, and Internet pioneer. Moreover,…
CNN. Alphabet Inc. Retrieved from money.cnn.com/quote/quote.html?symb=GOOG&source=story_quote_link
Geier, B. (2015). This is Google's secret to making work less awful. Fortune.
Google Inc. (2014). Google Inc. Form 10-K, 2014.
Google Inc. (2015). Company -- Google.
Bon Secours Organizational Structure
I n 1824, in Paris, amidst the devastation following the French Revolution, a group of 12 women came together to form the congregation of the Sisters of Bon Secours, French for "Good Help" and the Sisters' purpose was to nurse the sick and dying in their homes (Bon Secours, N.d.). The group later arrived in the United States towards the end of the nineteenth century and has been operating there ever since. The organization has grown to include many locations in several states on the East Coast. The organization still operates with their Catholic heritage in mind and much of the cares provided in these organizations are charity cases. The organization consists of a staff of over 21,000 and well over 60 facilities in six states
Figure 1 - Bon Secours Locations (Bon Secours, 2013)
Figure 2 - Community Benefit (Bon Secours, 2013)
Bon Secours. (2012). 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved from Bon Secours: http://www.bshsi.com/assets/hso/BSHSI_Annual_Report-2011FINAL.pdf
Bon Secours. (2013). Community Benefit. Retrieved from Annual Report: http://richmond.bonsecours.com/assets/pdfs/BSGN-1579_BSR_Annual_Report_2012_final4_OL_FOR_WEB.pdf
Bon Secours. (2013). Locations. Retrieved from Careers at Bon Secours: http://careers.bonsecours.com/locations.html
Bon Secours. (N.d.). About us. Retrieved from Bon Secours Health Systems: http://richmond.bonsecours.com/about-us-about-bon-secours.html
Organizational Structure Analysis
Why Flattening Hierarchies and Empowering Teams Is a Strategy
Flattening, also called delayering, simply refers to the removal of layers in the organizational hierarchy of a company, and the expansion of the manager's span of power. The supposed benefits of flattening run basically from pushing decisions down to improving client and market responsiveness to enhancing drive as well as responsibility. This is a strategy because the basis of flattening seems positive: to stay competitive in the face of more competition, for example, companies should pursue a streamlined, effective organization, which could respond to clients more rapidly (Wulf, 2012).
An empowered worker has the power and responsibility of making decisions, instead of the need to get instructions or consent from the manager. In an empowered team, every teammate has a say in group discussions. The team might make alterations to their product or project at will. An organization…
Boundless. (2015, July 21). Divisional Structure. Retrieved from Boundless Management. Boundless: https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-structure-2/common-organizational-structures-25/divisional-structure-147-3977/
Corcoran, C. K. (2000). The Intersection of Technology and Organizational Culture. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Fall_2000/corcoran.htm
Harris, S. (2015, December 9). Global expansion -- the essential enabling technologies. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Orange Business: http://www.orange-business.com/en/blogs/connecting-technology/emerging-markets/global-expansion-the-essential-enabling-technologies
Marzec, E. (2016). What Is Team Empowerment? Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Small Business: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/team-empowerment-12716.html
The healthcare organization that this paper will focus on is Carolinas Healthcare System. In particular, this is one of the top healthcare organizations in the Southeast region and one of the most wide-ranging, non-profit healthcare organizations in the United States.
The governing structure of Carolinas Healthcare System is led by the Board of Commissioners. These people are a set of individuals who have shown awareness and interest in the health and well-being of the public. In addition, the organization has a Board of Advisors, whose members are selected by the Chairman of the Board (Carolinas Healthcare System, 2016).
Mission, Vision, and Key Values
Carolinas Healthcare System's mission is the formation of an all-encompassing system to provide comprehensive healthcare associated services, in addition to educational and research prospects, for the benefit of the consumers. Secondly, the vision of the organization is to be nationally acknowledged as a…
Arnwine, D. L. (2002). Effective governance: the roles and responsibilities of board members. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 15(1), 19.
Bonn, I., & Fisher, J. (2005). Corporate governance and business ethics: Insights from the strategic planning experience. Corporate governance: An international review, 13(6), 730-738.
Carolinas Healthcare System. (2016). About Carolinas Healthcare System. Retrieved 4 August 2016 from: http://www.carolinashealthcare.org/about-us
Carolinas Healthcare System. (2016). Carolinas Healthcare System Governing Boards. Retrieved 4 August 2016 from:
firms, the organizational structure will have an impact on how well they are able to achieve operational objectives and increase profit margins. In the case of Southwest Airlines, they have redefined the way carriers are interacting with customers and the kinds of services that are provided. This is illustrating how the kind of structure will influence the way a firm is able to reach out to stakeholders. To determine the kind of model that Southwest is utilizing requires looking at: the organizational structure, how it functions and the design. Together, these different elements will show how Southwest Airlines is able to use them to increase revenues and meet the needs of various stakeholders.
Describe the organizational structure of Southwest Airlines. Compare and contrast that structure with two different organizational structures.
The organizational structure that is used by Southwest Airlines is a hybrid model. This is where the firm is utilizing…
Organization Structure and Design. (2009). Slide Share. Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/mubeena/org-design
Organizational Structure of Southwest Airlines. (2010). Word Press. Retrieved from: https://tortora.wordpress.com/2010/04/15/organizational-structure-of-southwest-airlines/
Southwest Airlines. (2012). The Official on the Board. Retrieved from: http://www.theofficialboard.com/org-chart/southwest-airlines
Writing, A. (2012). Different Types of Organizational Structures. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/different-types-organizational-structure-723.html
al-Mart Organizational Structure
The most successful companies have something to teach us. al-Mart has proved its successful business approach by adapting with changes throughout the years while maintaining a certain organizational system. The purpose of this essay is to examine al-Mart and its organizational structure methods. I will specifically analyze three different organizing functions for this company. I will evaluate the organizational structure of al-Mart and compare it to other forms of structuring. Next, this essay will evaluate al-Mart in terms of its organizational functions. Finally, I will demonstrate how al-Mart's organizational design suits its business model.
According to al-Mart's corporate web site, this company serves over 200 million customers a week providing consumer items including groceries, clothing, electronics and more. al-Mart sells its goods to customer through various outlets including retail, online and mobile devices. al-Mart employs more than 2 million people throughout the world and its…
Gereffi, G. & Christian, M. (2009). The Impacts of Wal-Mart: The Rise and Consequence of the World's Dominant Retailer. Annual Review of Sociology, 2009, 35: 573-91. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115947
Hartung, A. (2012). Wal-Mart's Wrong-Headed Reorganization. Forbes, 30 Jan 2012. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamhartung/2012/01/30/wal-marts-wrong-headed-re - organization/2/
Wal-Mart Corporate Web page. "Leadership." Viewed on 25 Jan 2013. Retrieved from http://corporate.walmart.com/our-story/
Multidivisional Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure of Large Corporations
Effective management of any organization is a function of keeping track of the details. hen the day was over, a profitable enterprise is one which can answer the questions of how much was produced, spent, sold, what kind of problems occurred along the way, and what the organization is doing to solve the problems in order to remain on the path toward profitability. hile this list may appear overly simplistic, everything that a business does can be mapped along a path begins by purchasing raw materials and ends at selling a finished product at a significantly higher price. hether the company sells paperclips, pomegranates, or purple SUV's, their purpose is to buy and sell at a profit while satisfying the needs of the consumer and working community which they serve.
During the last century, as businesses morphed from corner stores and family…
Baliga, B.R. & Alfred M. Jaeger. 1984. Multinational corporations: Control systems and delegation issues. Journal of International Business Studies, 15(2): 25-39.
Birkinshaw, Julian, Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations.. Vol. 26, Journal of International Business Studies, 12-01-1995, pp 729(25).
Chandler, Alfred Jr. (1962) Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the history of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Child, John. 1973. Strategies of control and organizational behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, March: 1-17.
The structure of the organization plays a key role and ING's organization has sustained it and helped in its expansion this far. Basically then it can be assumed that the current structure is functional with some problems. The views regarding the typical system can be explored first so that the INGs system can be placed better. In the basic framework it seems to be working, and it is better to leave the structure which is working till there is found a very sure alternate. Some things that would be essential to understand would be what work specialization is, chain of command and span of control. These are the basis of any system.
Traditional and Contemporary views of work specialization, chain of command, and span of control
The span of control relates to the number of managers needed at each level of the system, in other words the…
Allen, Thomas J; Morton, Michael Scott (1994) "Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s: Research Studies." Oxford University Press: New York.
Daft, Richard L. (2009) "Organization Theory and Design"
Gitman, Lawrence J; McDaniel, Carl. (2008) "The Future of Business: The Essentials"
The number of levels between CEOs and the lowest managers are dropping. In terms of pay it is stated that pay and incentives become more like a partnership. A concrete example is the outline of organizational flexibility of University of Phoenix. In terms of pay, the old structure promoted a fix sum, regardless of the hours worked, while the new one introduced the notion of salary exempt that allowed a flexible pay system; the salary new structure allows for retribution according to performance as well. The same flexibility can be noticed in terms of hiring techniques, which added a background check to the original procedure. The job descriptions suggest that the new way involves a wider span and a horizontal dispersion of hierarchies suggesting a more collaborative approach. However, the power remains somehow centralized due to the preservation of some hierarchical levels.
Daft .L, Marcic D. (2004), from Understanding…
Daft R.L, Marcic D. (2004), from Understanding Management, 4th Edition, Retrieved from www.monroecc.edu/wusers/mmarriott/bus204/ch07.htm
The Move from Tall to Flat: How Corporate Hierarchies Are Changing, Retrieved at http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=834
Acer has carved out a niche as a cost leader in computers, a business that made the Taiwan-based company popular in the past few years. However, as the personal computer business has generally struggled the last couple of years, Acer has also struggled. This paper will analyze the performance of Acer.
Acer's mission is "to contribute to society," meaning that the more people have access to technology, the better (Acer, 2014). The brand values are curious, progressive and human. While this provides little insight into what the company does or how it seeks to do it, Acer has been most active recently in the personal computer business. As this business has transformed since 2000, laptops have become the number one product in the industry, but standardization of this product has been a boon to low cost providers. Acer, a former OEM manufacturer of personal computers, has become one of the…
Acer Group, (2014). Brand
Retrieved: 27 January, 2014 from http://acer-group.com/public/The_Brands/index.htm
Acer Group (2014). Management
Retrieved: 27 January, 2014 from http://acer-group.com/public/The_Group/management.htm
The company that we will be examining is Apple. They are one the largest computer and electronics manufacturers in the world. At the same time, they also provide support to their various products through additional services they provide (such as: the I Tunes store). It is currently divided into several different divisions to include: Personal Computers, Network Solutions / Peripherals, Media, Digital Content and Third Party Digital Applications. ("Apple," 2011) ased on how Apple is structured, one way to improve economic performance is to re-establish its alliance with Google. What made the partnership fall apart is that Steve Jobs (the founder / CEO) believed that Google stole key I Phone features and placed them in the Android. This created contention between the two sides, as it appeared as if Apple was trying to prevent Google from releasing a competitor to the I Phone. If the company…
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL+Profile
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=AAPL+Analyst+Estimates
Apple's Core Values. (2009). Manueal Corpas. Retrieved from: http://manuelcorpas.com/2009/03/08/apples-core-values-according-to-its-ceo-tim-cook/
Apple is a Good Employer but Not as Amazing. (2007). Glass Door. Retrieved from: http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Employee-Review-Apple-RVW35192.htm
Unlike a media conglomerate like Disney or Time arner, an advertising firm has a large number of creative talents that work as a part of teams or cells, on particular accounts in a fairly independent fashion. For example, the Omnicom Group is an advertising, marketing and corporate communication conglomerate, rather than an agency with a singular and notable figurehead that manages such accounts as Gillette and has thirteen corporate branches under its letterhead. But this largeness makes it easier for the firm to take risks in accounts in selecting clients and launching campaigns, in case one campaign fails or a client is lost, another campaign may be just as likely to succeed. hen businesses cannot standardize their product, diversity is key.
Borgatti, Steven. (1996) "Organizational Structure." Last updated April 2, 2002. Retrieved http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/handouts.htm
Omnicom. (2003). Company Profile. Retrieved 17 Sept 2005 at companyprofile.asp?userID=33881961&h=w4VDAyJ6QAzSMrELlnYDMA&username=runner12&symb=OMC
Borgatti, Steven. (1996) "Organizational Structure." Last updated April 2, 2002. Retrieved http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/handouts.htm
Omnicom. (2003). Company Profile. Retrieved 17 Sept 2005 at companyprofile.asp?userID=33881961&h=w4VDAyJ6QAzSMrELlnYDMA&username=runner12&symb=OMC
Strategic Management: Management, Organizational Structure, And Corporate Strategies
Manager, management, and organization
The significance of managers .
Size and strategy of a company
Mission, vision, and corporate strategy
In an organizational setting, strategy has always been more of a high stakes game where the management team identifies the company's mission and makes important decisions that focus all the company's capital, resources, and energy towards its attainment. With the dynamic nature of the current business environment, managers need to constantly analyze their internal and external environments to avoid losing their customers to the competition and losing grip of their market share. This text evaluates the importance of managers to an organization, the importance of organizational structure and culture, and the formulation of corporate strategies.
Manager, management, and an organization
To understand the operations in any business environment, it is important define a manager, management, and an organization. An organization…
Daft, R.L.,2013. Organization Theory and Design. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
Dransfield, R., 2001. Corporate Strategy. Oxford: Heinnemann Educational Publishers
Flamholtz, E., & Randel, Y., 2011. Corporate Culture: The Ultimate Strategic Asset. California: Stanford University Press
Griffin, R.W., 2013. Management. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
When considering motivation, a person might lose his or her motivation at work by losing the satisfaction of his or her main lower-order needs. An employee who is obliged to work under dangerous or physically unpleasant conditions, for example, would be likely to lose his or her motivation. Another factor is compensation, which is the most immediate motivator for job performance. Salary is directly related to the ability of employees to meet his or her own immediate needs in terms of food, shelter, and clothing, which are at the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
If this is no longer sufficient to meet these needs, an employee's motivation would be unlikely to last very long. This can then also be seen as the main reason behind striking for higher salaries; when employees no longer feel able to meet their own and their families' basic needs, they are likely to become…
Appraisals. Purpose of Performance Appraisal. 2007. Web: http://appraisals.naukrihub.com/purpose-of-performance-appraisal.html
Archer, North and Associates. Performance Appraisal Basic Purposes. 2011. Web: http://www.performance-appraisal.com/basic.htm
Baena, S., Calle, C., Fernandez, P., Garcia, I., and Garcia, A. The Impact of Managerial Style on Task Performance Considering Nature of Task and Individaul Motivational Needs. 2011. Web: http://www.slideshare.net/clase5pt09/the-impact-of-managerial-style-on-task-performance-considering-nature-of-task-and-individual-motivational-needs
Envision. Maslow's Theory of Motivation -- Hierarchy of Needs. Web: http://www.envisionsoftware.com/articles/Maslows_Needs_Hierarchy.html
organizational culture and diversity helps me to understand my current workplace and the issues we face. All organizational theories provide some insight into the organization, with diversity theories and organizational culture and management theories being especially relevant because we are a small company with a diverse workforce. In spite of the tremendous benefit and opportunities presented by diversity in the workplace, I do not see that our current owner/chief executive understands well enough how to capitalize on diversity. The chapter on diversity in the text points out how diversity management is fast becoming a critical management strategy not just because of ethics and social justice, but also because diversity is good for business.
A business-focused diversity management strategy would help our small private ambulance/paramedic company improve our branding, attract a broader clientele, and expand the business. Equally as important, a cohesive diversity management strategy would help our company retain top…
Arvinen-Muondo, Raisa, and Stephen Perkins. Organizational Behaviour. Kogan Page. 2013.Skillsoft. (Accessed May 16, 2017)
Organizational structure is defined as a framework that a company uses to distinguish roles and responsibilities, power and authority as well as the method information flows within the organization. A company may choose a structure that will assist in reacting to changes and uncertainties from both external and internal environments. A suitable organizational structure will assist a company to implement proper decision making and operating procedures, which will aid the organization to achieve their goals and objectives. A common approach in assessing the organizational structure is to examine both the mechanistic and organic structures, which is the effective tool to rate an organization business process. (Dust, esick, & Mawritz, 2014).
The objective of this study is to assess the Apple Inc. organizational structure and uses the 10-likert scale to evaluate the structure of the company. The study provides the recommendations for Apple to improve their organization structure.
Dust, S. B., Resick, C. J., & Mawritz, M. B. (2014). Transformational Leadership, Psychological Empowerment, and the Moderating role of Mechanistic-organic Contexts.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2012). Mechanistic-Organic Organizations -- An Axiomatic Theory: Authority Based on Bureaucracy or Professional Norms. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Property. 14(2):1-7.
Phillips, J.M. & Gully, S.M. (2013). Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success. UK. Cengage Learning.
Ronda, R.F. (2001). Measuring Organic and Mechanistic Cultures. Engineering Management Journal. 13(4): 3-8.
Organizational Change and Management
Organizations have set goals and objectives that should be achieved within a specified period. For organizations to achieve them, they should have structures that would ensure that the needed activities are done in the desired way. Maguire (2012) defines the organizational structure as the way in which people are grouped to get work done in a firm. It forms the basis for the development of an effective relationship between different stakeholders such as managers and the employees. Organizational structures can be grouped into different types that include matrix, functional, and divisional structures among others. Evidence shows that the type of structure used in an organization influences its members significantly.
Organizational structures affect job satisfaction among the staff of a firm. According to a literature review performed by Thomas (2015), it became evident that nurses who worked in hospitals where decentralization was used in task execution and…
Technology: Influence on Organizational Structure and Future Practice
Influence on Organizational Structure and Future Practice: Technology
Technology has changed the way people interact, and how they conduct business. Social media platforms have made it easier for organizations to market their products and extend their coverage beyond geographical boundaries. This text analyzes the role of technology in the modern-day organization, including how it influences organizational structure, organizational authority, and future professional practice.
Technology has, and continues to change the way we live our lives, including how we interact with each other, and how we conduct business. Social media networks such as Facebook and Twitter are an integral part of the modern-day organization. These technologies assist organizations in interacting with their customers and also marketing their products beyond geographical borders. Through technology, organizations are able to maintain authority over their counterparts that rely on traditional methods and techniques. Technology can be a…
Couldry, N. (2012). Media, Society, World: Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Zimmerman, J. & Ng, D. (2015). Social Media Marketing All-in-One for Dummies (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
MANAGING OGANIZATION'S STUCTUE
Managing the Organization's Structure; McDonald's case study
McDonald's represents the biggest fast food chain in the world, with its key products being burgers, soft drinks, French fries, desserts and shakes. Increasing health consciousness and trends against obesity have called attention to the company, which, by all accounts, has contributed majorly to rapid growth of obesity in its customers. Foods marketed by the company (all fast foods, in fact) are unhealthy, being loaded with salt and fat, and having minimal nutritional value (About McDonald, 2015).
The organization I work in shows the following scores, based on the McGinty/Moss survey:
It has a deliberative traditional culture
Questions 6-10: It doesn't portray a stable/established culture
Questions 11-15: It has an urgent or seat of the pants culture
The question category 1-5, which labels my company's culture as traditional showed the most number of 'true' responses in the McGinty/Moss 'true/false question'…
About McDonald's. Retrieved on 19 September 2015 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2006).Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework (Rev. ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Jacobides., M. G. (2007). The inherent limits of organizational structure and the unfulfilled role of hierarchy: Lessons from a near-war. Organization Science, 18, 3, 455-477.
Kraut, A. (1996).Organizational Survey: Tools for Assessment and Change. Josey-Bass Publishers
.....organizational structure. Please make specific reference to pages 160-168 in your textbook Advancing your Career. In your opinion, is the structure of your organization effective or ineffective? Please defend your position -- what is working or not working and state specifically ideas which would make it more effective.
Elizabeth's organizational structure would best be described as an adhocracy, or an organic organizational structure that is relatively fluid and dynamic (Nunnery, 2012, p.161). Different components of the organization attend to various needs of elderly adults and persons with disabilities, spanning from long-term care, adult daycare, hospice care, and other supportive services such as assistance for elders experiencing abuse at the hands of their caregivers. An organic rather than a bureaucratic structure is needed because there is often overlap between the different services required by patients. Some patients may begin with a need for treatment of a specific ailment like a fall…
Complexity as a Driver of Organizational Structure Technology
Complexity as a driver in organizational structure and technology is ostensibly an attempt to create value as a function of technological innovation. However, the question of uncertainty arises when technological progress is exceedingly complex. In fact, according to a study (Perrow, 1973), there are technologies that are highly complex yielding uncertainty in performance and "availability of inputs, and the variability of the transformation process. More complex technology leads to more uncertainty, fewer programmed decisions, and a greater use of discretion." (Perrow, 1973)
If such complexity in technological systems causes these issues, then why do organizations elect to invest into this complexity? According to Perrow (1973), "Technology is often seen as tools or equipment that converts inputs into outputs of some kind. This is not the only definition of technology, it is a modernist view, but even they introduce the terms of core,…
Hatch, M.J., & Cunliffe, A.L. (2006). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Perrow, C. (1973). The short and glorious history of organizational theory. Organizational Dynamics 2(1), 2 -- 15.
United States Postal Service (2008). Vision 2013. Five-Year Strategic Plan.
Bureaucratic structures exist in organizations in order to provide a means by which to exercise control over the organization. This type of structure focuses on chain of command and reporting. This structure usually sees strategy formulated at the top of the organization, then disseminated downwards. The managers play the role of assigning tasks and control over their employees. Multiple layers of management are typically used in order to ensure full and effective control over the company (Ingram, 2015).
There are several benefits to flatter organizational hierarchies, and the Xerox case exhibits several of these. One of the most important is better communication. Management at Xerox needed to encourage greater creativity, in particular getting feedback from all levels of the organization in order to innovate. The flatter hierarchy lowers barriers between workers and key decision-makers, enabling communications to flow better throughout the organization (Griffin, 2015). This is what occurred at…
Ingram, D. (2015). What are the advantages and disadvantages of a bureaucratic organizational structure. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-bureaucratic-organization-structure-2761.html
Griffin, D. (2015). Benefits of a flat organization structure. Houston Chronicle Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/benefits-flat-organizational-structure-281.html