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Organized Crime has been witnessed to prosper with the infiltration on legitimate businesses in a way that they associate themselves in order to steal from the host. Organized crime organizations execute such activities in order to generate income, sweep profits, achieve more power, and launder wealth (Abadinsky, 2009).
The crimes that are committed by the individuals that are employed in the legitimate corporations are particularly known as white collar crimes. A white collar crime is another salient aspect of organized crime, which is constantly growing at an accelerated pace in the current times. Embezzlement, fraud, and theft are the key characteristics that define the white collar crime, usually executed by the employees working within the organization (Edwards & Gill, 2006).
However, it has also been monitored that nowadays the members of the organized crime enterprises embed themselves into multinational and giant corporations so that they can create substantial revenues through…
Abadinsky, H. (2009). Organized Crime. 9th Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
Albanese, J.S. (2010). Organized Crime: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. USA: Oxford University Press.
Beken, T. (2006). European Organised Crime Scenarios for 2015. USA and Canada: Maklu.
Bitzenis, a. (2009). The Balkans: Foreign Direct Investment and Eu Accession. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Some of the most important aspects of organized crime will be taken into account in the paper. Its history, definitions and some of the main attributes of organized crime will be taken into account in the paper.
History of organized crime
At the time when J. Edgar was the director of the FBI in the 1970s, one of the main debates within the Americans was about the existence of organized crime. In these times, it was seen that American mafia was considered synonymous with organized crime. However, if the scope and nature of the organized crime are taken into account, it is seen that organized crime is insidious dynamics between those criminals who are known for using ruthless methods of crimes that include murder in order to increase profits and public who is hungry to purchase better and improved goods (Abadinsky, 2009, p. 11).
Definitions of organized crime…
Abadinsky, H. (2009). Organized Crime. Edition 9. Cengage Learning.
Organized crime has been romanticized in American film and television media. Although some of the depictions are stereotyped and exaggerated, many of the core elements revealed in fictionalized accounts of organized crime are real. The history of organized crime in America is linked with important historical and political events including the prohibition of both drugs and alcohol.
According to the United States National Security Council (2013), organized crime is defined by the primary goal of economic or financial gains. Organized crime exists often because underclass groups seek a means of acquiring wealth and status, or bolstering opportunities for pursuing or achieving the American Dream. This fundamental feature distinguishes organized crime from, say, terrorist groups that might have a primary goal that is more political in nature such as the recognition of a new nation state of ethnic minority groups. Another definition of organized crime takes into account the more recent…
Dobovsek, B. (1996). Organized crime: Can we unify the definition? Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/org323.htm
Finckenauer, J.O. (n.d.). Problems of definition: What is organized crime? In Trends in Organized Crime 8(3): Spring, 2005.
United States National Security Council (2013). Strategy to Combat Transnational organized crime. Retrieved online: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/transnational-crime/definition
Organized Crime Fighting
Organized crime, and more specifically, international organized crime (IOC) present very serious and long lasting problems for law enforcement units in many ways. The manner in which the laws are constructed within the United States presents unique and specific problems that make this duty very difficult to perform. The purpose of this essay is to identify and explain in detail the law enforcement strategies, tools and Federal Statutes available for prosecuting and punishing ICO elements such as Los Zetas and other drug running foreign crime cabals. This essay will explain how these tools can be used effectively in an investigation and prosecution of this criminal enterprise and summarize the key aspects that apply to such an endeavor.
Los Zetas is a Mexican crime syndicate and is one of the most powerful and dangerous in the world and the fact that the group contains a sophisticated set…
Finklea, K. (2010). Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. 22 Dec 2010. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40525.pdf
Nardini, W. (2006). The Prosecutor's Toolbox: Investigating and Prosecuting Organized Crime in the United States. Journal of International Criminal Justice 4(3), 2006. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1096951
The United States Department of Justice (2008). Overview of the Law Enforcement Strategy to Combat International Organized Crime. April 2008. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/ag/speeches/2008/ioc-strategy-public-overview.pdf
hen Gorbachev launched perestroika (Gorbachev's policy of social, economic and political restructuring), the above mentioned "shadow" sector of society actually got amnesty and hence were offered a kind of "legitimacy," Khokhriakov writes on page 13. During the first part of perestroika, the Soviets developed cooperatives, which "only strengthened the destructive model of the 'shadow' market economy, Khokhriakov explains on page 14. But the Soviets' transition was short of capital so because they needed loans, they turned to the est (in particular, the U.S., which was thrilled of course to witness the demise of communism). Instead of cash, the est provided the Soviets with goods, and right away Soviet merchants knew how to "dispose" of the goods; many new cooperatives sprang up and sold goods "at market prices" and that "shadow" sector became quite "lively" (Khokhriakov, 14).
The "new hero" came from "the underground," Khokhriakov reports; the biggest portion of the…
Albini, Joseph L., Rogers, R.E., Shabalin, Victor, Kutushev, Valery, Moiseev, Vladimir, and Anderson, Julie. "Russian Organized Crime: Its History, Structure and Function." Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 11.4 (1995): 214-241.
Barkan, Steven E. Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2011.
Khokhriakov, Gennadii F. "Organized Crime in Russia from the 1960s Through the First
Organized Crime in Canada
Each year, the Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) creates an organized crime report to inform the public of organized crime activities and markets in Canada. The nature of such activity is evolving -- new threats, participants and policies spring forth each year (McIntosh, 2010). It is critical that Canadians are informed of the nature and scope of such activity, governmental interventions and policing, and what they can personally do to thwart organized crime (CISC, 2010).
The Criminal Code (467.1) of the CISC defines criminal organizations as those consisting of three or more persons within Canada or in outlying areas that exist only to commit serious offenses that result in their own material or financial benefit (Tusikov, 2009). andom criminal rings that develop for a single offense are not included; rather the CISC is most concerned with systemic, organized units conducting continued and premeditated illegal acts. This…
McIntosh, C.N. (2010). Stephen R. Schneider, Iced: the story of organized crime in Canada. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(4), 362-364. doi:10.1007/s12117-010-9105-x.
Tusikov, N. (2009). Toward a Risk-Based Analysis of Organized Crime: The Experience of Canada. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-16.
Lampe, K. (2008). Mortgage fraud and organized crime in Canada: strategic intelligence brief. Trends In Organized Crime, 11(3), 301-308. doi:10.1007/s12117-008-9040-2.
Katz, K. (2011). Law Gone to Politics, Politics Gone to Law: The Evolution of Canada's Organized Crime Legislation. Criminal Law Quarterly, 57(1), 58-111.
Organized Crime in America, Dennis Kenney and Jim Finckenauer note that the movie "The Godfather had more influence on the public mind and the minds of many public officials than did any library filled with scholarly works that argued for the true nature of organized crime" (Mario pp).
The scenes from "The Godfather" are among the most often recalled and parodied in screen history (Fox pp). Released in 1972, it won three Oscars, including Best picture, as did the sequel, "The Godfather Part II" two years later (Fox pp). Both movies have become legendary landmarks of American film history, however, when Mario Puzo wrote the novel, he had no intention of telling any real hard truths about the gangsters (Fox pp). Puzo, the son of illiterate Neapolitan immigrants, had grown up in Hell's Kitchen area of New York City, and saw writing as a way out of the working class…
Fox, Stephen. Family History. Retrieved July 22, 2005 from:
http://www.amctv.com/article?CID=1436-1 -- 0-3-EST
Kassander, Peter J. "Italy: Chapter 5D. Organized Crime." Countries of the World. 1/1/1991. Retrieved July 22, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Lampe, Klaus von. The Concept of Organized Crime in Historical Perspective.
Human trafficking occurs through clandestine or deceptive activities, avoiding legal border controls, and through the use of fraudulent documents. Illegal smuggling or trafficking hinders the safety and well-being of Americans since it has a negative influence on both the regional and national security ("Multinational Operations," 2011). Illegal smuggling more than trafficking of humans has become one of the major areas for organized crime operations in America because of its link to other areas like drug trafficking and corruption of government officials.
The second major area for the operations of organized crime in America is drug trafficking that has been expanded by these networks in the recent past. This is regardless of the recent effective counter-drug measures, especially against cocaine. While illicit drugs are still a major threat to the health, security, financial well-being, and safety of Americans; the demand for these drugs in America has fueled the power…
"Combating Transnational Organized Crime." (2011, July 25). Public Affairs -- Homeland
Security. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Homeland Security website http://blog.dhs.gov/2011/07/combating-transnational-organized-crime.html
Finklea, K.M. (2010, December 22). Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues
for Congress. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40525.pdf
The effectual activities that have resulted in such kinds of organized crime activities involve compromising of the technological approaches and systems. Such technological approaches are used to transmit money from one section of the country to another.
eports indicate that many organized crime activities and perpetrators assume the roles of paying for elections through their corrupt deals. These deals ensure continuity of their businesses when they get to government. The effectual happening is a translational organized crime activity that will live to be remembered in many parts of the world (Mallory, 2012).
Globally, many people lose their lives daily in accordance to attacks from organized crime personalities. Most of them have succumbed to drug use and abuse together with death through weapons and other forms of weaponry in the society. It is relevant to note the difference between the many sectors of the economy that relay significance or influence of…
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Benson, M., & French, J.L. (2008). Organized crime. New York: Chelsea House.
Chris, L. (2006). Organised Crime. International Journal of Police Science and Management,
ISSN 1461-3557, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp. 249-251
The number of hours that are spent negotiating with those demanding bribes will have to be taken from productive efforts (Mafia Capitalism).
Moreover, businesses in Russia and America are subjected to demands for tribute not only from organized crime gangs, but also from a broad variety of representatives of the official bureaucracy. This far exceeds the corruption associated with mafia in many other parts of the world, and explains in part why, in the compilation of international indices on corruption, Russia tends to rank amongst the worst cases" (Mafia Capitalism).
Organized Crime and capitalist business are beginning to have the same negative label because of the constantly changing environment in America as well as the social state of its homeland. People are convinced that the Mafia consists of criminals, pimps, and murderers, which is becoming a normal aspect of capitalist business. In the past, the Mafia had the best…
Popular culture portrayals of organized crime are sordidly romantic. Like medieval royalty, mob families appear tyrannical and noble at the same time. The kingpins are usually kind if ruthless. They love their families and protect them at any cost. Like kings, mob bosses reign over a specific territory and usually respect their competitors and their boundaries. Like medieval nobility, organized crime has hereditary lineage, and sons inherit a title from their fathers as in the Corleones of The Godfather. Stories of organized crime include titillating themes of betrayal, backstabbing, murder, and intrigue. Organized crime also depicts the triumph of the underdog: the would-be poor immigrant growing rich in spite of being hounded by the big bad cops. These themes are especially appealing to Americans, who have consistently been fascinated with underdog winners and anti-establishment ethos.
Movies like Goodfellas and television shows like The Sopranos are perfect examples of…
Criminal Justice Resources: Organized Crime." Retrieved April 15, 2007 at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (nd). "Organized Crime." Retrieved April 15, 2007 at http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/orgcrime/aboutocs.htm
Organized Crime and Its Link to Money Laundering in Contemporary Society
Organized crime is a very real facet of society (Bartlett, 2002; Cressey & Finckenauer, 2008). Those who are not involved with it in some way may not notice it, which could lead them to underestimate the seriousness of the problem. However, it is of deep concern to police, the government, and others who are exposed to it and the trouble it can cause. There are also many different types of organized crime, and many ways in which it is used (Williams, 2001). In other words, while it conjures up visions of the mafia, that is not often the case.
There are gangs of national and international criminals that engage in various activities, one of which is money laundering (Akers, 1996; King & Wincyp, 2007; Williams, 2001). This is the act of taking money that is gained through crime, which…
Akers, R.L. (1996). Is differential association/social learning cultural deviance theory?" Criminology, 34(2): 229 -- 247.
Baker, R. (2005). Capitalism's Achilles heel. NY: Wiley.
Bartlett, B. (2002). The negative effects of money laundering on economic development. Asian Development Bank.
Cressey, L. & Finckenauer, J. (2008). Theft of the nation: The structure and operations of organised crime in America. NY: Transaction Publishers.
The modern ussian mafia seized upon the fall of the Soviet bloc and resulting capitalism to instantly engage in all of the black market activities. The American mafia, by contrast, arose not from political chaos, but from a single black market commodity: prohibition-era alcohol.
Another key difference is the public role occupied by organized crime. While the U.S. may glamorize its organized crime groups via its pop-culture, law enforcement is still the official and unofficial policy of the nation. In Mexico, however, the organized crime groups wield much more actual power and operate in many ways with impunity. In ussia, as in Mexico, the groups are known to have the cooperation of the government. In the Unites States, individual politicians and law enforcement officers are susceptible to bribery and cavorting with the crime groups, but the crime groups in the United States are never known to be operating under the…
Human trafficking- Japan. 2006. Humantrafficking.org http://www.humantrafficking.org/
Shelley, L. The Drug Trade in Contemporary Russia. (2006. China and Eurasia Forum
Quarterly 4: 15-20
International Efforts to Combat Organized Crime. 13 March 2009. Wilson Center on
1961-1968) was the first successful attempt from Washington to eliminate the vices and repercussions of organized crime on the economy. Intended to destroy the Mafia, RIC follows the patterned activity of old criminal families' illicit proceedings, including extortion, bribery, loan sharking, murder, drug sales, and prostitution among others. At the same time, the act played on the psychological state of the criminals, providing legal incentive for their cooperation under the law as the greater crime rings were brought down. While seemingly successful early on, the changing nature of crime could not be captured under RIC, demanding a new approach by law enforcement to counteract the social destruction of organized crime. By learning more about the nature of organized crime and their interactions with legal institutions, all businesses, citizens, and civic organizations, an increased police presence and secured word of law, law enforcement will be able to pose a viable threat…
Organized Crime - Intro/Conclusion
Organized crime is among the more pervasive forms of criminal disobedience and inundates all levels of society with the nefarious malefaction inherent to the rackets. At the same time, it is also among the most successful, leaving the government and police little authority to combat the lawlessness so protected by the personal liberties, freedoms, and protections granted all Americans by the Constitution. From Tammany Hall to historic Chicago and modern-day Manhattan, public safety advocates have proffered a wealth of suggestions to mount the offense against organized crime. Some call for the addition or more police forces, prisons, and tighter laws, wagering the strength of law enforcement against the torment. Others rebuke the suggestion as reactionary, calling for a more accurate understanding of the nature of the organized crime and its relationship with legitimate institutions, which might be better regulated to modulate the impact of the lawless groups. Yet, still others find both solutions inadequate standing alone, but see promise melding them together with existing practices of deterrence.
The 1970 passing of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations by Congress (RICO, Title 18, USC Sec. 1961-1968) was the first successful attempt from Washington to eliminate the vices and repercussions of organized crime on the economy. Intended to destroy the Mafia, RICO follows the patterned activity of old criminal families' illicit proceedings, including extortion, bribery, loan sharking, murder, drug sales, and prostitution among others. At the same time, the act played on the psychological state of the criminals, providing legal incentive for their cooperation under the law as the greater crime rings were brought down. While seemingly successful early on, the changing nature of crime could not be captured under RICO, demanding a new approach by law enforcement to counteract the social destruction of organized crime. By learning more about the nature of organized crime and their interactions with legal institutions, all businesses, citizens, and civic organizations, an increased police presence and secured word of law, law enforcement will be able to pose a viable threat to the criminal rings, targeting their non-static nature in policy, practice, presence, and prison.
The Latino organized crime outfit that I have chosen to target for prosecution is the Nortenos. This is a street level gang that operates out of Salinas, California, and in other surrounding towns. There is evidence that indicates that this organized crime outfit participates in a hierarchy (Jameson, 1974, p. 395) of gang activity within California, which is principally controlled by the Nuestra Familia gang, which has been existent for approximately 40 years. It is significant to note that the vast majority of the Nuestra Familia are incarcerated, and conduct activity from various federal (and some state) prisons. These leaders disseminate orders through mid-level gangs who are referred to as Bros, and which encompass a gang known as Nuestra aza (eynolds, 2010). Nortenos tend to act out the direct orders of the Nuestra aza, and are the "foot soldiers" in a gang war that has been waged for…
Jameson, J.B. (1974). "Street gangs behind bars." Social Problems. 21 (3): 395-409.
Reynolds, J. (2010). "War on gangs: drug case strategies work where RICO tactics failed." Herald Salinas Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_15950996
Organized Crime Investigation & Prosecution
The Case of Zap Cell Batteries and the DiMattia Crime Organization
This case, our latest run at the notorious DiMattia crime family, began with the disappearance of Dr. A. Smith, Ph.D., a stream ecology research scientist employed by the Department of Natural esources (DN) in the state in question. On an early morning in September 2009, Dr. Smith went on a 2-day field trip to Greenfield State Park to collect water samples along a tributary of the Tooling iver. He filed the appropriate paperwork with the DN, and when he did not return by the time indicated on the paperwork, some of his coworkers went looking for him. They discovered his camp in the woods at a site he had typically preferred, but Dr. Smith was nowhere to be found. The state police were called in. We combed the site for evidence and found nothing…
Albanese, J. Organized crime in America. (1985). Cincinnati: Criminal Justice Studies.
Pace, D.F., & Styles, J.C. (1975). Organized Crime: Concepts and control. Englewood Cliffs,
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. (1998) West's encyclopedia of American law. Vol 8. 253-255. Minneapolis: West Publishing.
Police officers must do all they can to destabilize such a relationship between criminal groups and communities. Criminal organizations usually arise in closely knit immigrant groups that do not trust the local police and other authorities, thus the lower the level of trust between police and law-abiding residents, the more apt illegal organizations may form and even attempt to assume the policing role in a community. The Italian-American Mafia is one such example. ("Organized Crime, U.S. History, 2005)
Disrespect for the law, particularly prohibition, is also thought to have fostered organized criminal support in America. This is one reason as well the police must seek to fairly enforce the law, so that anti-immigrant or racial bias does not give added incentive to support for organized criminal figures. Today, white-collar crimes, other immigrant groups, and organizations of great international scope are all part of the 'profile' of organized crime, but no…
Organized Crime." (2005) U.S. History Website. Retrieved 28 Oct 2005 at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1596.html
It may not seem that Southern California would be a hotbed for ussian-led organized crime, but it has become so over the past two decades. ussia, after the fall of the Soviet Union, was eager to embrace capitalism, but this did not always mean that the forces behind the movement were law-abiding. In that time of transition, many different organized crime groups emerged, and they merged with those already established on the Eastern seaboard of the United States. Within the last 20 years these groups have been steadily increasing their influence in other parts of the United States as they see opportunity grow with better technology and more access to information. This paper discusses present location of the group, its activities and why it is important to expose the crime to research.
Southern California includes everything from the Mexican border to the Tehachpis Mountains north of Los Angeles.…
California Department of Justice (CADOJ). (1996). Organized crime in California. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/orgcrm96.pdf
Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Russian organized criminal activities in California. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/rusorg4.htm
Organized Crime eduction Strategy
There is no doubt whatsoever that transnational organized crime groups are a threat to not only the security of the countries in which they operate, but also global security in general. Often operating in well-organized formations, transnational organized crime groups are often difficult to annihilate or contain. It should, however, be noted that given their impact on both the security and stability of the countries or regions in which they operate, the need to contain such formations cannot be overstated. This text highlights the various strategies that could be applied to rein in transnational criminal enterprises. The country of choice for this analysis is Mexico. It is important to note that today, crime remains one of the most important concerns facing this North American federal republic. Indeed, the country is home to some of the world's most violent and sophisticated organized criminal enterprises. For this reason,…
Central Intelligence Agency -- CIA (2014). The World Factbook -- North America: Mexico. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html
CNN Wire Staff. (2011). Mexico's President Pledges to Continue Fighting Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/04/world/americas/mexico-president-speech/
Estevez, D. (2014). Mexico is the Fifth Most Dangerous Country in Latin America for Business Says FTI Consulting. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/doliaestevez/2014/03/26/mexico-is-the-fifth-most-dangerous-country-in-latin-america-for-business-says-fti-consulting/
Galeotti, M. (Ed.). (2014). Global Crime Today: The Changing Face of Organized Crime. New York, NY: Routledge.
In extreme cases whole legitimate economic sectors are dislocated by commerce based on illegal activities, subverting loyalties from the nation-state and habituating individuals to operating outside the legal framework;
3) Degrade environmental systems through evasion of environmental safeguards and regulations;
4) Destabilize strategically important nations and hinder the progress of so-called economies in transition and developing economies and otherwise interfere with a nation's foreign policy goals and the international system; and 5) Burden societies with the enormous social and economic costs of illegal drugs." (Porteus, 1996)
The work of Bruce G. Ohr entitled: "Effective Methods to Combat Transnational Organized Crime in Criminal Justice Processes" states five reasons that globalization has brought about serious, yet unintended consequences related to transnational crime which are those as follows:
1) Increasing ease of international communications;
2) Growth of international commerce;
3) the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union;
Phywaczewski, Emil W. (2003) Chinese Organized Crime in Western and Eastern Europe. USINFO.STATE.GOV. East Asia and the Pacific. Online available at http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Organized_Crime_in_Western_and_Eastern_Europe.html
Carter, David L. (nd) International Organized Crime. School of Criminal Justice Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan. http://www.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
Porteus, Samuel D. (1996) the Threat From Transnational Crime: An Intelligence Perspective. Commentary No. 70. Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Online available at http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/commentary/com70.asp.
Counterfeiting & Organized Crime Report (2004) 2nd ed. Union des Fabricants Online available at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/IntellectualProperty/Publications/UDF.pdf .
There is not a chance that Genovese would want other mobsters to be aware of his private business. He barely knew some of these men and knew others on a casual basis. If Genovese was looking for investors in a Havana venture he would have been doing so very quietly, and among men he could easily dominate. The last place he'd look would be to powerful mob bosses who saw Vito as a rival. (Hafer, n.d., p.6)
In early 1957, shortly before he was murdered, Francisco Aguirre told Albert Anastasia that Hilton International was asking for bids to operate the Habana Hilton Hotel Casino on a concession basis. Aguirre told Anastasia it would require a minimum of $2 million to close the deal, and asked if he could use his influence as the hotel owner to try to get the Hiltons to go along with the deal. Anastasia contacted Frank…
Bibliography absoluteastronomy.com. (n.d.). Apalachin meeting. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Absolute astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Apalachin_Meeting#encyclopedia answers.com. (n.d.). Apalachin conference. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from Answers.com:
Bernstein, L. (2002). The greatest menace: Organized crime in cold war America. Amherst,
Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts press.
Bernstein, L. (2007, October 2). What did Apalachin prove? Mafia skeptcism in cold war politics and culture. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from springerlink.com: http://www.springerlink.com/content/128052t0811638m8/fulltext.pdf?page=1
The nature of weapons used to cause terror differs significantly among retail terrorists but are similar in wholesale terrorism. The reason for the terrorism in retail terrorism is not wide spread compared to wholesale terrorism (othe, 2011).
Casualty levels in retail terrorism are usually low if any. The casualty levels in wholesale are usually large and has a higher probability of occurring. When passenger planes were hijacked on September 11, the type of terrorism could be called retail terrorism, as the target group was the passengers. The target later changed and the target group was the world trade center and the casualty level increased. After hitting the world trade center the terrorism, become wholesale terrorism. Another significant difference is the spread. There are many terror groups in many nations but they are limited to individual nations. Al-Qaeda is an example of wholesale terrorism because it has cells in many nations.…
Friedrichs, D.O. (2010). Trusted criminals: White collar crime in contemporary society. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Rothe, D. (2011). State crime: Current perspectives. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Wages of Crime by R.T. Naylor is a book covering the underside of society where Naylor tries to provide readers the various ways people commit crime. From prostitution to prohibition, Naylor includes the details of which characters come and commit illegal actions for the sake of financial gain and power. The book also includes other activities from recreational drugs and gambling and details supply-side controls act to increase profits as well as promote production. Best-case scenarios involve a few intermediaries removed from business.
But as Naylor notes, the black market always persisted thanks to consistent demand. In future instances a failure to thwart crime serves as a foundation for increasing police budgets, the expansion of law enforcement powers, and the great outpouring of money into the insatiable budget of the prison-industrial complex. This is simply just the introduction of the book, but allows the reader to under that Naylor is…
Nwebo, O. E., & Ubah, C. (2015). Globalization of Crime: Problems and Challenges for World Peace and Security. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 3(2), 92-102.
Wang, P. (2012). The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing. Trends in Organized Crime, 16(1), 49-73. doi:10.1007/s12117-012-9179-8
Using Intelligence and Surveillance at Border Control
The Hells Angels are a sizeable and hierarchically organized criminal outfit with chapters throughout Canada. The organization’s primary source of profit is drug trafficking. The organization’s members use intermediaries so as to avoid close involvement in criminal activity. The key strategy to use for eradicating the organization is to adopt a three-fold approach, consisting 1) of conducting surveillance of lower-level actors who can be used to turn witness against high-ranking members; 2) investigating the crime of trafficking with emphasis on ports and borders; and 3) tracking of funds to show the money trail. This approach can lead to the arrest of many members of the club.
This report examines the organization of the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC). It describes the criminal organization; its organization commercial and behavioral characteristics in the first part. In the second part,…
CISC. (2004). Annual Report: Organized Crime in Canada. National Police Service.
Katz, K. (2011). The enemy within: The outlaw motorcycle gang moral panic. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 36(3), 231.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). (1994). Outlaw motorcycle gangs. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Gazette, 56(3 & 4), 3.
Sakellariou, A. (2019). 20 Rules The Hells Angels Make Their Members Follow. Retrieved from https://www.thethings.com/rules-the-angels-make-their-members-follow/
Schneider, S. (2017). Canadian organized crime. Canadian Scholars.
Silvester, J. (2006). The silent enforcer. Retrieved from https://www.theage.com.au/technology/the-silent-enforcer-20060924-ge376c.html?page=2
This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"
Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.
Government and organized crime
Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story
Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.
Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
Jewish crime organization as a whole fails to live up to the elements that define organized crime. It certainly is violent, it recruits members, it uses monopolies to retain power, and it is a functional and individual culture. It's firm and unrelenting connection to Israel and Jewish rights, however, raises questions as to whether it is a crime syndicate. Its grounding in the promotion of Jewish rights likens it more to the terrorist groups of today than with the Sicilian mob of the 40s. It uses criminal means to support a national and religious ideology. Either Jewish groups shouldn't be labeled Organized Crime or the definition of that term should be re-examined.
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). ussian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996).…
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). Russian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996). Our Dirty Little Secret is No More. Sh'ma, 26/506, Jan. 19,
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
Personal Perceptions on Organized Crimes
Organized crime, in reality, is a complex mix of largely clandestine social aspects of life which are also highly diverse. It is, therefore, not possible to define them as an identifiable entity. It takes both linguistic effort and cognitive input to enable us to view the phenomena as connected. Consequently, it is better to delve into the organized crime problem, not as an exclusively empirical issue. Checking the historical aspects of organized crime is likely to provide insights into its depth and extent. It will also demystify the phrase "organized crime" and provide insights into the political and social aspects that inform and shape views on organized crime (Von Lampe, 2011).
Assumptions about organized crime
The practice of organized crime is driven by a number of assumptions. Firstly, it is believed that awareness and responsibility levels will be reduced significantly as opposed to a situation…
Felix, O. (2010). Organized Crime - Characteristics of Organized Crime. Retrieved June 07, 2017, from http://law.jrank.org/pages/11942/Organized-Crime-Characteristics-organized-crime.html
Mallory, S. L. (2007). Understanding Organized Crime. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Von Lampe, K. (2011). The application of the framework of situational crime prevention to 'organized crime'. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 11(2), 145-163.
Organized Crime uses Poverty to Facilitate Human Trafficking
Clandestine Partnerships: The Link Between Human Trafficking and Organized Crime in Metropolitan Atlanta
The author had several research questions: 1)What proportion of the specified human trafficking cases involves organized crime; 2) What type of relationship is most prevalent between human trafficking and organized crime in metropolitan Atlanta; 3)What types of organized crime demonstrate a relationship with human trafficking in the specified cases; 4)What differences, if any, do the specified sex trafficking and forced labor cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime; and 5) What differences, if any, do the specified international and domestic human trafficking cases exhibit in regards to their relationship with organized crime?
The author's hypothesis is that human trafficking, while occurring in an organized fashion, may be conducted outside of traditionally established organized criminal organizations, and that the links may differ depending on whether humans are…
Molland, Sverre. 2010. "The Perfect Business': Human Trafficking and Lao-Thai Cross Border
Migration. Development and Change 41(5):831-855.
Simmons, Beth and Paulette Lloyd. 2010. "The Diffusion of Global Law: Transnational Crime
and the Case of Human Trafficking." Retrieved September 22, 2013 ( http://irworkshop.sites.yale.edu/sites/default/files/Simmons_IRW.pdf ).
The Italian mafia as it still works in Italy is extremely powerful (Summerfield,2005). As late as in the 1990's they were very active in the killing of law enforcement officers with terroristic bombing techniques. The Italian mafia is noted to have found its way into the United States in the early 1900's when the banned IOC figures came to the country illegally (Porter & Lyman, 2006). Most of these were members of the Sicilian Mafiosi. It is most of these who in the 1920s aided in the establishment of the La Cosa Nostra (American Mafia). The other organized crime groups that are recognized by the FBI thereafter came into being.
The traditional organized criminal groups in the U.S. preyed on the ignorance as well as vulnerability of the people in the U.S. The immigrants are noted to have been the common victims of these organized criminal organizations. Their vulnerability was…
Bjelopera, J and Finklea, KM (2012).Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement . Congressional research Service.
Finklea, KM (2010).Organized Crime in the United States: Trends and Issues for Congress.Congressional research Service
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
The Asian gangs are becoming dominant in many areas of illegal activities, including drug and human trafficking.
The Big Circle Gang
The Big Circle Gang has rapidly become one of the most notorious and successful Chinese gangs in the world. The origins of the group go back to China's ed Guard, and the group has units-based throughout the world, including the U.S. And Canada. The ed Guards carried out Mao Zedong's harassment of China's middle class during his rule in China. After his death in 1976, the ed Guard was dissolved, "many ed Guards were sent to re-education prison camps around the city of Canton -- represented on maps by a big circle, hence the name -- where they were tortured and starved. Having been through this degradation and having military training, they have a fearsome reputation" (Hall, 2005). Many escaped China and relocated to Hong Kong, and then immigrated…
1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States (R. J. Kelly, K. Chin, & R. Schatzberg, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hall, N. (2005). Big Circle Boys born of Red Guards: Drugs, loansharking among Asian gang's specialties. Retrieved from the Canada.com Web site: http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/specials/websterawards/story.html?id=56ca11d5-f4e6-455a-b686-f7cc9b668c125 May 2007.
Mahlmann, N. (2007). Chinese criminal enterprises. Retrieved from the U.S. State Department Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Criminal_Enterprises.html5 May 2007.
Paoli, L. (2003). Mafia brotherhoods: Organized crime, Italian style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Social Institution and Organized Crime
Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…
Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.
Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/
Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
Complicating efforts to fight the drug problem are prisons that are bursting at the seams that are already full of nonviolent offenders charged with drug-related crimes (Knowles, 2008).
Given the potential threat to national security, something must be done today to eliminate the staggering financial incentives that are involved in illegal drug trafficking, and one such alternative would be the same solution that ended Prohibition and the organized crime that went hand in hand with that law. Legalizing drugs represents the only truly effective approach to eliminating the criminal element that is naturally attracted to the product because of their high demand and potential profits. While marijuana legalization efforts continue across the country, it is reasonable to conclude that ultimately the decision will be made that all of the expense and casualties that have been invested in the war on drugs are not worth it, given the poor return…
Fazey, C. (2007). International policy on illicit drug trafficking: the formal and informal mechanisms. Journal of Drug Issues, 37(4), 755-757.
Friman, H.R. (2003). Caught up in the madness? State power and transnational organized crime in the work of Susan Strange. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 28(4), 473-475.
Kelly, R.J. & Chin, K-L. (1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Organized crime presents certain unique challenges for law enforcement in the 21st century. As noted by Bjelopera & Finklea (2012) in their report to Congress on the history of organized criminal activity in the United States, modern organized criminal networks tend to be more fluid and less hierarchical than organized associations of the past. Organized crime networks are also more apt to outsource critical aspects of their operations, which can make building a unified case a challenge for law enforcement agencies (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p.1). Diverting resources to combat terrorism have also left law enforcement agencies in the United States with fewer financial resources to combat other forms of organized crime, although some of the methods to trace both types of organizations, such as patterns of money laundering, are similar between both of these types of illicit associations.
Organized crime is defined as "criminal activity that, through violence or…
Bjelopera, J. & Finklea, K. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for U.S. law
Enforcement. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Bradley, T. (2015).Cybercrime is the modern-day mafia. Forbes. Retrieved from:
Organized Crime Control
Controlling Organized Crime
The purpose of this paper is to research "Organized Crime" historically and what effects it has on society in the present time as well as implications for the future and then to examine what suggestions have been offered for asserting effective control over that which is termed "organized crime."
Organized crime can be defined as structured business framework that with no regard to moral, ethic or societal concerns or standards prospers from that which promises to prosper the individual and group within that network the most. Some examples of organized crime are the drug trafficking trade, illegal weapons and nuclear arms trade, slave trade, gambling rings, pornography rings among many other variations of the major crime categories.
Many of the Organized Crime networks are based on familial relations although there are networks defined by religion, government, country, political persuasion among other groups which characteristic…
DeYoung, Karen (2001) "Alarm on Spreading Ecstasy; Illegal Pills Fly in from Europe, Eluding Standard Remedies for Smuggling: Washington Times Aug 2001 [Online] available at: http://wwwlhighbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCIS=IPI:32174317 & num=1& ctrlInfo=R
International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: "Testimony of Louise Shelley" American University Prof. & Dir. Transnational Organized Crime and Corruption [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.a p-ct rlInfo=Round9a %3AProd%3ADOC%3APrint& DOCID=1P1:28418991& print=yes
Kaufman (1990) U.S. History 1990: Americas' Habit: "Drug Abuse, Drug Trafficking, & Organized Crime": Chapter VI Part 2: Interdiction U.S. History 1990: 9/1/1990;
Organized Crime and Its Impact
What are some of the ways that organized crime impacts you and a community or city (of your choice) directly?
Organized crime details a conspiracy among criminal elements who wish to enter into an enterprise engaged in illegal activities as a way of generating dirty money (Dirks & Snyman, 2010). An organized crime is organized as a group with a structure that is similar to some pyramid hierarchy. The groups employ bribery and violence to ensure their operations continue. They also use retribution threats to ensure they maintain external and internal control in the community, and mobilization and thievery to acquire political power during campaigns in order to get immunity from prosecution and exposure (Dirks & Snyman, 2010). The activities of organized crime groups include gun running, kidnapping to get ransom, vehicle theft, smuggling, racketeering, prostitution, pornography, fraud related to credit cards, illegal gambling, narcotics…
As an alternative, on the foundation of information obtained from confidential informants, the government petitioned the district court to give permission for the placement of an electronic surveillance wire tap on Jesus Zambrana's private telephone. Information obtained over this wire tap led law enforcement officers to think that Ernest Lonzo and another unidentified person were carrying narcotics from Miami, Florida, to Jesus Zambrana's house in Gary, Indiana.
On the foundation of this wire tap information, DEA agents, with the help of police officers from Lake County, Indiana, and East Chicago, Indiana, began the surveillance of Interstate Highway I-65 in the area of Crown Point, Indian. Prior to starting the surveillance, a DEA agent met with Lake County, Indiana, police officers and gave them a list of five people suspected as being involved in the carrying of narcotics between Florida and Indiana, as well as a list of four vehicles thought…
Informants, Surveillance, and Undercover Operations. (2010). Retreived from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/3220/3220lect02c.htm
United States of America, Plaintiff-Appellee v. Jesus Zambrana, Sr., Charles Cole and Jay
Zambrana, 841 F.2d 1320. (1988). Retreived from http://ftp.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/841/841.F2d.1320.86-1501.86-1402.86-1115.html
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Though another consideration of bribing, this is moreover a method of control within the law and the government.
Many organized crime groups are comprised of emigrants who have contacts in their country of origin whom are also part of organized crime groups abroad. These contacts open windows of opportunity for drug-trafficking. With immunity to police action and legal repercussions, these groups are able to thrive on drug selling income and monopolizing (Marat, 2006).
Organized crime groups are also able to monopolize the entire districts in which they operate. Running major drug operations, the sale of illegal firearms and other products, these groups flourish on unverifiable and untaxed income.
These operations are devastating to the areas that they control - allowing and enabling the drug abuse statistics, increasing poverty rates, and further oppressing the individual businesses and residents. usinesses that operate within the territory of powerful organized crime groups are often…
Gresvenor Jr., Charles R. (2007). Savings and Loan Scandal. Retrieved May 07, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://www.inthe80s.com/sandl.shtml
Marat, Erica. (2006). Impact of Drug Trade and Organized Crime on State Functioning. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program Volume 4. No. 4.
dismantling organized crime in New York. More specifically, the article concerns itself with the efforts made by a team of FBI agents to effectively bring to an end the illegal operations of two of New York's most prominent organized-crime families. Authored by the Partnership for Public Service in conjunction with the Washington Post, the article appeared on the November 12th 2013 online version of the Washington Post. The article in question is titled; Striking a Major Blow Against two New York Organized Crime Families. The link to the article has been given in the references section of this text.
According to the FBI (2013), "in the recent years, the face of organized crime has changed, and the threat is broader and more complex than ever." As the FBI further points out, organized crime in the U.S. can be split into four key groupings. This includes; groups of mobsters that came…
FBI. (2013). Organized Crime: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/overview
The Partnership for Public Service. (2013, November 12). Striking a Major Blow Against two New York Organized Crime Families. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/federal_government/striking-a-major-blow-against-two-new-york-organized-crime-families/2013/11/12/d14cc33a-4ba9-11e3-ac54-aa84301ced81_story.html
But as obvious as their presence might have been, Jewish crime remained a hushed subject in the history of Jews in the U.S. This oversight was intentional and by no means an evidence of lack of criminal activities in Jewish circles. In fact it was the nefarious activities of Jewish entrepreneur Joseph Seligman that led to the stock market crash in late 1800s as Ginsberg notes:
"[the crash] ruined thousands of investors, implicated President Grant, and led to a Congressional investigation of [Jay] Gould and Seligman ... Similarly, in the early 1890s, Jacob Schiff collaborated with E.H. Harriman in the latter's attempts to wrest control of the Northern Pacific ailroad from J.P. Morgan and James Hill ... When the price of the Northern Pacific Stock collapsed, the entire market crashed in the notorious 'Black Thursday' panic that led to a nationwide economic depression." [Ginsberg., p. 73]
Thus Jewish organized crime…
Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fatal Embrace: Jews and the State. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1994.
Silberman, Laurence J. Mapping Jewish Identities. New York University Press, New York & London, 2000
Katcher, Leo (1959/1994). The Big Bankroll. The Life and Times of Arnold Rothstein, New York: Da Capo Press
Traditional Organized Crime Groups
The task at hand is to report upon the organized criminal activities of the Italian mafia that is partially transplanted from Italy and its islands, as well as the mafia culture that is indigenous to the United States. The mafia is somewhat of an open secret. People know and believe that it exists, yet it is not a topic that people often discuss publically, and for good reason. Secrecy and discretion is key to the existence of the traditional organized crime group of the Italian O.C., also known as La Costra Nostra. The mafia, like the media, the government, the prison system, and education, is an industry. As the world changes, the mafia diversifies its activities to keep up with the times, creating as many streams of revenue from as many directions as possible. The Italian mafia has long since been a group that…
ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm . 2013 May 04. Web.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia . 2013 May 04. Web.
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
growth of organized crime is best understood when situated within a broader societal context. Illustrate why this is so, giving specific examples from the lectures / required readings. Why is this understanding important for controlling organized crime?
It is prudent to consider organized crime within the broader societal context because research evidence and criminology theory has shown that such crime does not occur in isolation; rather, it is driven by a set of societal factors ranging from cultural values to corruption, political failures, and economic issues. Society, therefore, does have a hand in the emergence and continued development of organized crime; as a matter of fact, organized crime is integrated into society, and unless we can effectively conceptualize and understand society's role in fueling the same, we may not be able to devise a sustainable solution to the issue of organized crime.
Criminology theory and models give credence to the…
Beare, M. (2002). Organized Corporate Criminality -- Tobacco Smuggling between Canada and the U.S. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(3), 225-243.
Finckenauer, J.O. (2005). Problems of Definition: What is Organized Crime? Trends in Organized Crime, 8(3), 63-83.
Finckenauer, J.O. & Voronin, Y.A. (2001). The Threat of Russian Organized Crime: Issues in International Crime. The U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/187085.pdf
Galeotti, M. (2008). Criminal Histories: An Introduction. Global Crime, 9(1), 1-7.
Jamaican Posse Violence / Organized Crime
Jamaican Posse Violence
Violent Jamaican posses are not new. They have been around since shortly after Hurricane Charlie struck Jamaica, back in 1951 (Gunst, 1996). Jamaicans with gang violence in mind came to the United States in 1971, and began their activities in that country as early as 1976 (Gunst, 1996). Gun battles with police and drive-by shootings with rival gangs were common, generally based on arguments over drugs and territory. In 1984, the posses started to attract the attention of law enforcement. Southern Florida was one of the most common places to find them, with the Shower Posse and the Spangler Posse being the most notable of the gangs at that time (Gunst, 1996). Those two gangs are still the most prominent today, and they have a bitter rivalry with one another. Anyone who happens to get caught up in their violence, even…
Gunst, L. (1996). Born fi' dead: A journey through the Jamaican posse underworld. NY: Holt.
Schatzberg, R. & Kelly, R.J. (1997). African-American organized crime: A social history. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
History Of Organized Crime
More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…
Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.
Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.
Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.
Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Terrorism: Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in Mexico
Assessment eport for Marceline
123 Crawford Lane
Phone: +54-675 5545
Presenting Problem or eason for eferral
Marceline is a 19yr old that is self-referred, with a 26-month-old male child. Marceline is very frustrated with her child and her boyfriend, Leon, for whom she is seeking counseling. Marceline's frustration with her child is making her think of giving him off to her mother-in-law. M reports feeling frustrated, uses alcohol and other substances to calm her nerves, is miserable from her job loss four months ago, and mounting bills. M also indicates to be confused on to stay with Leone her current live in boyfriend or gets back to her husband Michael the father to Michael Junior. She also indicates to be depressed with suicidal thoughts, which she overcomes with alcohol and substance abuse.…
Burwell, R.P. & Chen, C.P. (2006). Applying the principles and techniques of solution-focused therapy to career counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 189-203.
Buss, D.M. & Larsen, R.J. (2002). Personality psychology: dimensions of knowledge about human nature (1 de edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. (2012). American Psychological Association, APA. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=7.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. (6th edition). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases
Religion and Stereotyping
Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).
Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…
Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.
Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.
Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html
Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
Crime Delinquency Teenagers
Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…
Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/
Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm
Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…
Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.
Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.
Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.
Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines. The banditos use "puppet" or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf.
In the modern era, widespread crackdowns and joint operations initiated by state and federal law enforcement authorities and legislative tools such as the federal acketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations (ICO) Act have greatly reduced the influence of the Italian Mafia/LCN in American society but organized crime still persists, even if on a much smaller scale than half a century ago. However, whereas the power and reach of LCN has been greatly reduced, a significant influx of newer criminal enterprises has filled much of the gap vacated in…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
September 2007: 1-7.
Transnational crime has definitely evolved over the last few generations consistent with the trend of globalization. As information and resources more quickly crosses boarders, so does the potential for criminal acts that also transcend international boundaries. Globalization is a complex phenomenon that is often misunderstood. Part of this trend deals with a movement toward more integrated economic and political systems. Much of the globalization trend has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, which have worked making the Earth a seemingly smaller place in regards to the ability to reach out to other people across the globe. Many argue that consumers around the world benefit from globalization because they gain access to goods that they could not find in their domestically produced markets (Crump, 2006).
However, the trend of globalization has also brought new waves of organized crime that have found new niches for…
Crump, T. (2006, March 1). The Dutch East Indies Company - The First 100 Years. Retrieved from Gresham College: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/the-dutch-east-indies-company-the-first-100-years
NIJ. (2007, November 15). Transnational Organized Crime. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/organized-crime/pages/welcome.aspx
US Deptartment of Justice. (2012, September 6). Third Dreamboard Member Sentenced to Life in Prison for Participating in International Criminal Network Organized to Sexually Exploit Children. Retrieved from U.S. Deptartment of Justice: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2012/September/12-crm-1085.html
Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
The presence of organized crime in modern society is not as a cut and dry concept as most people would intuitively think. Take for example the existence of prostitution in virtually every society that has existed throughout the course of humanity. Although it is clear that this practice falls outside the realm of what is considered to be acceptable by the majority, many of the practitioners of this trade are actually grateful that they have the opportunity, the clients are obviously satisfied or else the demand for such services would not exist in the first place, and there is, in most cases, no one that is actually harmed in the process (at least directly). Therefore, whether organized or not, where does the actual criminality for such practices come into play? Is it because some people and/or groups believe it fall outside their limits of moral…
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.