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The book is set in a gulf country that is never actually named, but is suspected to be Jordan around the time of the 1930s. In the novel, the edouin residents of a little oasis and community called Wadi al-Uyoun have their lives forever changed when Americans come to their tiny area and discover that there is oil there (Munif, 1989). Instead of having just one person in this community relate what has happened because of this, there is a large and diverse cast of edouin individuals that are used in the story, so that it can be seen through the eyes of many and given various perspectives.
There are many different manifestations that are created from the upheaval that is seen when the Americans arrive, and the author of the novel believed that it was important to see the issues from many sets of eyes and from many different…… [Read More]
The work of Edward Said and Thomas Mitchell provides a unified insight into the way that the Occidental mind has succeeded in 'othering' and marginalizing the reality of the Orient. Orientalism, as suggested by Said is a form of representation that interprets and re-presents the other in a way that distorts and liminalizes the meaning of the Orient, creating a false mystique rather than reality.
In his work Orientalism Said points to the way that the rich and varied texture of cultures, countries and the wealth of diversity of these regions are radically condensed and distorted into the stereotypes of Western commentators and scholars. This refers to the view that from an Orientalist or Western perspective the Orient is often simplified and reduced to series of myths and stereotypes that serve to distort the cultura richness and reality of the East. "The depiction of this single 'Orient' which can…… [Read More]
This was done by various means and especially by constructing a poor mythical picture of the Orient and then forcing all Oriental societies to fit that image. The same treatment was meted out to Japanese societies and other societies of the East. India was the land of snake-charmers and spices for as long as we can remember until India burst out with a brand-new identity by becoming a leader in science and technology. However to this day, many people would connect India with its Oriental image and those who visit the land usually do so because of the mythical picture they have constructed in their minds. India is no such place and it never was. But presenting it as an exotic and mythical land west had no desire to accentuate the beauty or charm of the land but instead it simply wanted to develop an unmistakable contrast between East and…… [Read More]
These perceptions form the basis of various ideological stances that are translated into policy and action. In the modern context therefore there is a dangerous continuation of the myth that has grown up around the stereotypical discourse of Orientalism. The link between the construction of Orientalism and contemporary politics is clearly referred to in the book:
My contention is that Orientalism is fundamentally a political doctrine willed over the Orient because the Orient was weaker than the West, which elided the Orient' difference with its weakness. . . . As a cultural apparatus Orientalism is all aggression, activity, judgment, will to truth, and knowledge."
In essence this book interrogates the foundational assumptions and perceptions that constitute the ideological construction of Orientalism. As one critic notes, Said argues"...for the use of "narrative" rather than "vision" in interpreting the geographical landscape known as the Orient…" (Orientalism) He stresses that the scholar should…… [Read More]
This will reveal the bias of the West and how it has come to embrace the stereotypical imagery and ideas of the Oriental.
In conclusion, the essay will briefly recount the points made throughout the essay overall, but will also offer analytical ideas as to how, understanding Orientalism as a product of the colonial and post colonial West, how the East and the West might move forward and achieve the cultural equality necessary to build a safe and productive global community and environment of co-existence through mutual respect, understanding, and equality.
It is only in conjunction with other works which specifically address the subject of Orientalism that one begins to identify markers of Orientalism in Captain Sir Richard Burton's interpretation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (Burton, ). Works by authors like Edward W. Said, who spent much of his life studying and…… [Read More]
However, he goes further in his analysis of the world as exhibit. He suggests that the way in which the West represents realty as an objectified "picture' in essence distorts and separates us from reality. This is in essence is the stance taken by Martin Heidegger in his critique of Western Metaphysics and dualistic thought.
In his analysis of world-as-exhibit Mitchell states that. "The consolidation of the global hegemony of the West, economically and politically, can be connected not just to the imagery of Orientalism but to all the new machinery for rendering up and laying out the meaning of the world." ( Mitchell 289) The representation of reality is treated as an exhibit so that the difference between reality and illusion becomes opaque. What Mitchell implies is this analysis is that the exhibit-as-reality is a central facet of the Western objectification of reality. He adds that;
What reduced the…… [Read More]
eligion and Politics
Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Orientalism
There have been many uses and abuses in regard to the cultural and social concept called Orientalism. "Unlike the Americans, the French and British -- less so the Germans, ussians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss -- have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, and experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely…… [Read More]
China and the far east represent such areas and naturally they are a threat to Turkey. One ways of fighting against this threat is by encouraging the local creativity to develop and by promoting it abroad.
Another important issue that can be discussed is repr4esented by the impact of fashion upon the Turkish society. One might argue that the Turkish society is so different from the western one that it is impossible for fashion to actually have a profound social influence. This is not true. On the one hand the attack of the media is extremely intense and there is no way to prevent girls and women to come in contact with them. On the other hand, keeping them away from the media is not a solution, even if the purpose would be that of defending culture. The right way to proceed about it is to allow women to decide…… [Read More]
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]
A further stereotype about Asians that cannot be ignored is that regarding the sexuality of the Asian female. "Asian Pacific women have generally been perceived by Hollywood with a mixture of fascination, fear, and contempt....If we are 'good' we are childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex or else we are tragic victim types. And if we are not silent, suffering doormats, we are demonized dragon ladies -- cunning, deceitful, sexual provocateurs." (Hagedorn) the pornography industry is highly populated with Asian women fulfilling the male desire for sexual stereotypes. Japanese school girls in short skirts with lollipops and repressed sexual needs are a popular fetish. The subservient Geisha wife in kimonos, pale make-up, and most importantly donning a subservient, unthreatening, submissive sexual attitude is another. Look again and one is certain to find the "dragon lady" as mentioned above: the over-sexed, wild, uninhibited Asian girl looking to please as many…… [Read More]
David Henry Hwang's Pulitzer-prize-winning drama M. Butterfly is almost single-minded in its examination of the role played by preconceptions in the establishment of cultural expectations and stereotypes. Based on a true story, the drama to some extent lays out in clear precise terms the ways in which estern prejudices toward China can lead to results that would seem wildly implausible in a brief factual summary, but are nonetheless the foreordained results of taking such estern prejudices to their logical conclusion. It is crucial to note, however, that Hwang's ideas are couched largely in terms of gender: this is a play in which the difference between men and women is engaged intellectually for the reader or viewer as a way of complicating or underscoring certain preconceptions about the difference between East and est. It is worth conducting a deeper examination of the ways whereby Hwang constructs his story and to…… [Read More]
Gender Politics and the Nation
The historical development of the nation has impacted the ability of women to participate in contemporary politics by reinforcing gender roles in the public sphere. Traditionally, the exclusion women from the international community was linked to ideas of gender roles and today, these ideas continue to exclude women from international politics.
Traditionally, colonialism was driven by the Enlightenment ideal of using reason to obtain goals, a view that also saw females as irrational and emotional. Enloe notes, "Perhaps international politics has been impervious to feminist ideas precisely because for so many centuries in so many cultures it has been thought of as a typically 'masculine' sphere of life" (4).
Enloe argues that the status of diplomatic wives is tied closely to ideas of women as loyal supporters of their men, who were busy at the business of international relations. This view clearly shows the pervasiveness…… [Read More]
Noam Chomsky underlines the above point in a discussion entitled the New War on Terror. Chomsky alerts us to the fact that are many more forms of terror than bombing or direct violence that are often extremely devastating and morally indefensible. This in fact constitutes a form of terrorism in the moral sense of the terms. He notes for example that,
..there are 7 to 8 million people in Afghanistan on the verge of starvation. That was true actually before September 11th. They were surviving on international aid. On September 16th, the Times reported, I'm quoting it, that the United States demanded from Pakistan the elimination of truck convoys that provide much of the food and other supplies to Afghanistan's civilian population.
Chomsky refers to this as a form of "silent genocide." The existence of state-sponsored economic and other forms of terror is referred to by a number of…… [Read More]
Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.
Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):
Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…… [Read More]
Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media
American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as 'demon women', 'hookers', and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they…… [Read More]
In this sense, Jansson makes clear reference when defining the term "internal orientalism." Despite the fact that such terms have been further discussed in previous studies, the author brings a different stand on the term and offers it a new dimension when combined with the term "the other" and psychogeography. Therefore, his aim is to further discuss not necessarily the role and meaning of internal orientalism but also to undergo an analysis of the factors that may influence them and may determine different outcomes of the debate.
Aside from the academic background and the information received from previous studies, Jansson also makes use of the interview technique in order to have a better sense of the realities on the ground for the areas under analysis. More precisely, the interviews undertaken for the study include members of the "Southern" nationalist organization League of the South, and with African-Americans in the Lynchburg,…… [Read More]
According to Korean-American comedian Margaret Cho, her first appearance on American television was one of the most devastating experiences of her life, rather than something positive and uplifting. Her sitcom All-American Girl was the first sitcom ever to depict an Asian-American family on screen. But Cho was not permitted to be her funny, raunchy self and the scripts were fully of stereotypes of Asian American people “Critics panned the show for its bad jokes, stereotyped characters and banal storylines that endorsed, rather than shattered, ethnic myths” and Cho struggled with the constant criticism of her weight and appearance by the show’s producers, which they felt was inappropriate for an Asian American woman (Woo). Despite advances in understanding in the intersection of race and culture, representations of Asian women in American sitcoms still revolve largely around the stereotype of the demure yet hyper-sexualized geisha and the desexualized “nerdy” positive stereotype of…… [Read More]
The Representation of Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature: A Comparison
Representations of women in Middle Eastern literature represent a means by which the appreciation, perspective and overall role of women and how they are viewed by society can be determined. While some argue that literature and actually lived daily life are separate, literature serves as a measuring stick by which one can ascertain a definitive viewpoint on what the experience of being a Muslim woman is, and how such women are viewed. Literature can tell one volumes about how societies work and underscore the role that women play or don’t play and how others see them. While both eastern and western literature is incredibly vast, it is possible to get a definitive sense of how Muslim women are viewed; however, it is possible to get an overall sense of certain trends that arise over and over. This paper…… [Read More]
She knew the secret I was trying to hide. but, unlike a estern woman, she didn't confront me, threaten, even pout. (Hwang 519)
Song also expresses how Gallimard has viewed her and her country when the says to the judge,
The est thinks of itself as masculine -- big guns, big industry, big money -- so the East is feminine -- weak, delicate, poor... But good at art, and full of inscrutable wisdom -- the feminine mystique. (Hwang 531)
Hwang uses the excesses of the operatic world as a beginning point for a play about two people who themselves are playing a part in life, a part derived from an opera that embodies a false, but for some comforting, image. Gallimard believes in an image, and Song knows this and so presents that image. Gallimard is a man who has failed with estern women and who sees Asian women as…… [Read More]
Understanding the Arab mind and cultural mentality is a contentious issue and one that has been debated from a number of points-of-view. Many modern scholars and researchers claim that much of the analysis of Arab culture is biased towards a Eurocentric and Western perspective. Critics claim that generalized statements of the constitution and characteristics of the Arab mind are often denigrating and racist in their views of the differences in cultural norms. The subject is fraught with political and social sensitivity and many critics compare modern analyses of Arab culture to colonial discourse of Africa in the past, where the "other " or the different culture is seen as essentially inferior. This is even the case, claim some critics, when the analysis of Arab culture is seemingly well intentioned.
The difficulty in understanding another culture without bias and prejudice is one of the central aspects and problematics in…… [Read More]
Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism
The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld
In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…… [Read More]
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…… [Read More]
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…… [Read More]
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…… [Read More]
The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…… [Read More]
Chodorow and Reproduction of Mothering
In, "A Room Of Her Own," the feminist novelist and author, Virginia Woolf demonstrated that one of the reasons why women writers were in overwhelmingly low numbers than their male counterparts was because of the lack of economic opportunity. (Woolf, 1991) Victorian perceptions also saddled women with the responsibilities of motherhood and domesticity. This took away the opportunity for women (except for a few) to truly come into their own. Nancy Chodorow, a preeminent social scientist addresses the issue. (Chodorow, 1999) She does not get caught up in the traditional feminist or socialization mindset. Even psychologists, Chodorow avers, have not pursued the matter at a higher granularity. All can agree that, explicitly or implicitly, women have been subjugated. Chodorow addresses the problem using psychoanalysis. She believes that the second-class status of women is associated with the issues of mothering, childbearing and childrearing -- aspects which…… [Read More]
Feminism and colonialism
Gayatri Spivak's essay "Can the subaltern speak?" is a complex and sometimes elliptical essay which can be summed up in a very simple answer: "no." Spivak poignantly illustrates the reality of many Indian women's lives throughout history by providing an overview of how the treatment of native women was regarded during the period of Indian colonial rule. The British, in their effort to present themselves as civilizing the uncouth and barbarian Indians, decried what they saw as negative, male-dominant aspects of Indian culture. Many Indian men defended this ideology as a source of national cultural pride and as a source of resistance to colonialism. Of course, the voices of the women were lost in this discourse: to speak out against patriarchy meant to ally themselves with the British who did not have their interests or their country's interests at heart. To condone Indian patriarchy meant to sublimate…… [Read More]
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…… [Read More]
How did you react to Vathek?
I found Vathek to be quite a strange tale albeit with some dark humor. I am not completely sure about how I feel about it. However, I do not dislike Vathek. I found most part of the book to be odd. However, in the latter stages of the story, Beckford makes it much more appealing in a literary perspective. The main character Sultan Vathek gets into a deal with a djinn, which in the end does not end well. However, he does lead a very wonderful and remarkable life. The condemnation of Caliph Vathek in the underground world, the delineations of hell and with every individual obtaining precisely what they deserve make the book much more appealing and interesting (Beckford 300). Bearing in mind that the tale is over 200 years old, the style of writing is quite different from the one that we…… [Read More]
Anand (2000) explores the narratives that shape Tibetan identity, especially the notion of a national identity among those in diaspora. The author explores the impact of Western orientalist theorizing of Tibet on Tibetan self-consciousness, claiming that Tibetan self-consciousness and national identity has been shaped by these orientalist narratives.
The author argues that Tibetan national identity has been historically and socially constructed, via discursive practices relating to orientalism: an idealized narrative of what Tibet means.
Theories and Concepts
Anand (2000) invokes social constructivism, identity construction, and discursive identity construction in the analysis.
To support claims and substantiate positions, Anand (2000) provides an overview of the Tibetan diaspora. The author also cites authors with similar views on nationalism, and also shows how Tibetans in diaspora have had access to the means by which to create and maintain national identity. Anand (2000) also refers to several example…… [Read More]
Moreover, the arena for that very transformation could, because of the inherent nature of technological advancement, achieve something that is beyond the sum of its parts. Cyberspace in Neuromancer becomes more than an expression of human consciousness, it eventually becomes consciousness.
Adams, Paul C. "Cyberspace and Virtual Places." Geographical Review, 87 (1997): 155-171.
ell, David, an Introduction to Cybercultures, NY; Routledge, 2001.
ell, David and arbara M. Kennedy, the Cybercultures Reader, NY: Routledge, 2000.
enedikt, Michael, "Cyberspace, First Steps," the Cybercultures Reader. Eds. David ell, arbara M. Kennedy. NY: Routledge, 2000.
Punday, Daniel. "The narrative construction of cyberspace: Reading Neuromancer, reading cyberspace debates." College English 63 (2000): 194-213.
Lemley Mark a. "Place and Cyberspace." California Law Review, 91 (2003): 521-542.
Marshall, David P, New Media Cultures, Oxford University Press, NY, 2004.
Niu, G.. "Techno-Orientalism, Nanotechnology, Posthumans, and Post-Posthumans in Neal Stephenson's and Linda Nagata's Science Fiction." MELUS 33 (2008):…… [Read More]
The war is driven by the modern military which has abandoned its warrior ethic and now fights with guns -- a theme repeated in The Last Samurai. Again Funakoshi represents this position. He tells the Japanese military captain, "Who I challenge to Kung Fu and what I do is no business of the military. . . . I am not a politician." The distinction between colonial imperialism and true warrior ethic is pronounced. The military captain is disappointed in Akutagawa's failure to destroy the rival sect, and kills him, although he has the true spirit of the Samurai about honest fights and honor. The military leader can only say, "To best serve the Japanese emperor, you'd better forget what is right or wrong." This highlights the contrast between new imperialist might, technology, and economic power and the old warrior system.
The symbolic struggle between national identities is epitomized in the…… [Read More]
Also, a few new Nohs have been written and some 'retired' ones have been re-activated. Noh has also blended with other forms of entertainment and theatrical genres.
That is the extent of the change, though as there is a very sincere and earnest call for tradition and custom throughout the Noh industry. The field remains very codified and the emphasis from within the field is much more so on tradition than innovation. The society of Noh preserves and espouses the traditions. One of the traditions is the regimented progression of Noh characters than an actor/actress can portray during the course of their lives.
The Noh remains an integral part of Japanese culture. Ezra Pound maintained a pursuit of sharing the Noh with the est for most of his adult life. His endeavor was a success as the Noh has indeed been shared all over the world while remaining particularly sacred…… [Read More]
The identity of a Geisha, and the origins of the profession has a great deal more to do with performance and skills in such than in any other aspect of the trade.
(1) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(2) Ibid. p. 224.
(3) Ibid. p. 223.
(5) Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD
1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July
(7) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(8) Ibid. p. 222.
(9) Ibid. p. 221.
(10) Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing
World The e-Production-cum-Consumption of…… [Read More]
These conservatives are, in the authors' estimation, anti-Western, even though they perceive themselves to be upholding Western values.
But is this really a useful or complete understanding of the complexities of the religious and cultural debates that exist within the Middle East, America, or the larger world? Although the use of the term Occidentalism helpful to some extent in examining why 'they' hate 'us' in the Islamic vs. Western world's culture wars, ultimately the term is so broad its value is somewhat limited, especially if their construct is applied to Nazi Germany vs. The West. Further confusing the issue is that the authors note that many Western critics come from within the system itself, from the ultimate critic of Western bourgeois values Karl Marx to Western-educated fundamentalist terrorists. This makes the definition of 'the Occident' even slipperier, especially as Marx was pro-urban, pro-science, in contrast to religious fundamentalists.
This blurry…… [Read More]
If it isn't demons, idols, and black magic, it's sex -- the most repressed impulse in the estern-Christian tradition.
During and after his time in the court of Kubla Khan, one notices an increased tone of rationality in the narrative. Less exoticized details of the life of people in the Orient begin to emerge, such as food and clothing habit, but the earlier sensationalism is not lost entirely -- perhaps cannot be, as it is such an engrained part of the estern perspective when viewing the sights of Asia. He travels to a region he identifies as "Bengala," which according to Latham is likely Bengal but could possibly be Pegu, which was in the process of being conquered during the time of the Great Khan's court (Latham, 189). Though this passage also contains a brief and simple message about the main sources of sustenance for the people in this region,…… [Read More]
The narrative of Rama demonstrates that the need to trust in the "Primal Creator" accept the fact that human beings folly and that the world will be redeemed if individuals have faith enough in him, the one God. The significance of the Rama narrative is then demonstrative of the value and fallibility of the common man. Guru Gobind Singh, through the Dasam Granth meant to draw the common man to a faith that he or she could understand and embrace.
Dasam Granth March 10, 2008 from: http://www.searchgurbani.com/main.php?book=dasam_granth&action=pagebypage
Durga Recalled by the Tenth Guru" by Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh, in "The Sikh Tradition: A Continuing Reality," edited by S. Bhatia and a. Spencer (Patiala: Punjab University, 1999), pp. 208-255.
The Forgotten Tradition: Sikhism in the Study of orld Religions" by Mark Jurgensmeyer, in "Sikh Studies: Comparative Perspectives on a Changing Tradition" (Berkeley: Berkeley Religious Studies Series, 1979), pp.…… [Read More]
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…… [Read More]
Anti Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorist Tactics
The threat of terrorism involves many variables. The nature and degree of risk posed by a potential attack depends on a number of factors, including the goals of the attackers and their means of inciting terror. There are numerous terrorist organizations with agendas ranging from various political ideologies to animal rights, environmental, and reproductive issues. With so many diverse groups and causes in play, the number and variety of potential targets present an enormous challenge. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to address likely goals and targets of specific terrorist groups. It is important to understand, however, that the risk posed to any company or environment is related to the nature of the particular threat posed by particular terrorist groups (Bauman, 1995). In addition, while local police play a major role in gathering information about likely terrorist attacks, it…… [Read More]
Most individuals fail to appreciate life to the fullest because they concentrate on being remembered as some of the greatest humans who ever lives. This makes it difficult for them to enjoy the simple pleasures in life, considering that they waste most of their time trying to put across ideas that are appealing to the masses. While many did not manage to produce ideas that survived more than them, others succeeded and actually produced thinking that remained in society for a long period of time consequent to their death.
Creativity is generally regarded as one of the most important concepts in society, considering that it generally induces intense feelings in individuals. It is responsible for progress and for the fact that humanity managed to produce a series of ideas that dominated society's thinking through time. In order for someone to create a concept that will live longer than him or…… [Read More]
For instance, multiculturalism is the official policy of Australia, but New Zealand insists on a bicultural stance. This is quite backwards and must be rectified. Multiculturalism is a theory (although it is vague) about the bases and groundwork of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural thought processes. Multiculturalism was redefined by Said's "Orientalism" as well.
Looked at broadly, the term is often used to describe societies (especially nations) which have many distinct cultural groups, usually as a result of immigration. This can engender anxiety about the stability of national identity, yet can also result in cultural exchanges that benefit the cultural groups. Such exchanges range from major accomplishments in literature, art and philosophy to relatively token appreciation of variations in music, dress and new foods.
On a smaller scale, the term can also be used to refer to specific districts in cities where people of different cultures…… [Read More]
Did Bertha not subscribe to the "cult of true womanhood" in which a real woman was believed to be without any sexual feelings, to be responsible for the man's sexual behavior, to be religious, obedient to her husband, and to provide a serene haven for him? After all, the man had to do business in a dangerous and corrupt world and needed rest and regeneration in a serene and cheerful household where all his needs and wants were met. ochester complains, "...I perceived that I should never have a quiet nor settled household..." The ideal Victorian real woman suffers any mistreatment without complaint. She is non-assertive.
It's obvious that Bertha does not fit this role at all and is therefore liable to be labeled "crazy" because she doesn't conform. Waller (2004) discusses sexuality as insanity in 19th century literature and argues that "the rejection of a proper woman's role... is…… [Read More]
343). This same pious fellow who reports in his letter that he hears God announcing His approach is also the picture of imperial majesty, brave, stern, and exacting, and of course only working for the betterment of those he is bringing into his empire. St. John's rousing finale allows the work to finish as it almost physically completes a conquering of Jane's secular world, as well.
The celebratory nature of Jane's (and apparently Charlotte Bronte's) attitude towards imperialism is off-putting to some scholars, who find Jane Eyre and other "women's texts" to be a feminist re-appropriation of imperial ideals and mechanisms, and it must certainly be acknowledged that Jane is only able to exalt fully in this image of British dominance when she herself has found the freedom she sought and that was so long denied her as a woman (Spivak, p. 243). More important than the timing of Jane's…… [Read More]
Mr. Duffy finds romance -- love, even -- but he is too unaware to realize what this could mean for him and for the woman he realizes he loves too late. Both Mr. Duffy and this would-be lover are isolated, caught in their own middle-aged loneliness through what are essentially a series of cowardly choices, while Araby's hero is somewhat brave if ultimately ineffective (Corrington, 182).
The differences between these two protagonists and the stories themselves are made more interesting by the many similarities they share. Both characters end up regretting the decisions they made regarding love and romance, and end up feeling their loneliness and isolation more sharply than they had before. Despite their difference in ages and situations, both characters also end with little seeming hope of correcting their mistakes and finding true love. In fact, it is suggested in both stories that there is no really way…… [Read More]
Creating East and West
Nancy isaha's book Creating East and West: Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks is at once groundbreaking and unfortunately limited. The book is groundbreaking because it pushes back the development of European views regarding the Ottoman Empire, and non-Western peoples more generally, to the age of the Renaissance, rather than the age of colonialism and imperialism. y highlighting how the Renaissance saw a shift from a medieval era concept of a religious opposition between East and West to a post-medieval dichotomy of civilization vs. barbarism, the book draws a direct line between the Renaissance humanists and the later Europeans who would adopt ideas like the "White Man's urden" to legitimize their colonial activities. However, at the same time the book feels woefully limited, because although it does an effective job of recentering the development of the East-West, barbarism-civilization dichotomy in the Renaissance, it fails to effectively…… [Read More]
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]
Women in War and Violence
Women War and Violence
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the theory of being and becoming, and to discuss how this theory relates to war and violence in Virginia Woolf's portrayal of female characters in her novels. Being and becoming relates the theories of existence, and how one becomes and matures as an entity in society. It is evident throughout Woolf's lifetime that her character's evolve from simple creatures consumed with thoughts of darkness and death, that through a myriad of experiences with power, control, and pain they are able to transform their lives from simple existence into complex portrayals of beauty and lives that reflect the art of becoming human beings consumed with the beauty of all life has to offer.
To understand being and becoming, and how this relationship exists with regard to war and violence, and further with Woolf…… [Read More]
Mississippi Masala, "Do the Right Thing" and "Scarface."
Over the years, Hollywood and independent filmmakers have taken the 'American identity' and given audiences an opportunity to view the multi-faceted ethnicity of community-based ethics and interracial harmonies - or lack thereof. America has become a melting pot of cultures and beliefs that have had to fight off social stereotypes and fight against anglo-conformity.
Directors like rian De Palma, Mira Nair and Spike Lee have taken their audiences into the heart of ethnic racism in communities and the struggle some cultures face in order to survive against 'Americanization' and the paradox of achieving their 'American Dream'.
In De Palma's remake of "Scarface," the 1980 Mariel boat lift from Cuba formed the backdrop and set the stage for Tony Montana's desire to gradually manifest his destiny that eventually leads to his self-destruction.
Drawing on historical fact involving the North Miami refugee camps, including…… [Read More]
Chinese' Food and the Model Minority study in ethnic cuisine and culture, marginalization and commercialization, and the paradox of exoticism.
The anthropological theme studied for this work was that of the ethnic compromises and paradoxes inherent in creating a "Chinese" restaurant in America, for Americans. In every English speaking country from England to Canada, Chinese food is a huge business. For many immigrants it is one of the only businesses ready and willing to take them in. Most Chinese restaurants strive to present themselves as cultural representations where the American connoisseur can have a legitimate cross-cultural experience. The more I researched the actual traditions of Chinese and Asian cuisine and the way in which Western prejudices and expectations shape the presentation of this experience, the more it became apparent that --like so many other cultural phenomena-- the cultural relevance of the Chinese-food experience is far from untainted. Repeated immersion at…… [Read More]
Full Metal Kubrick
In the years following the Vietnam War, from 1979 -1989, many movies were created to depict this event from an American point-of-View. The genre of war movies, became inundated with new films based on this violent conflict. The purpose of this essay is to explore Stanley Kubrick's movie Full Metal Jacket as it relates to film media and how it represents this particular era in both history and art. This essay will discuss how this film played an impact on American culture and film in general.
Stanley Kubrick is often noted as one of the best film makers who has ever picked up a camera. His legend is based upon his intellectual capacity and his daring and innovative styles of film that never seem to become outdated and remain fresh and current despite them being decades old. Kubrick had great success as film maker in the…… [Read More]
Origins and Demise of the Concept of ace by Charles Hirschman
In modern times, the reality of race is indisputable, especially for American eyes. acial discrimination is not just skin deep and based on skin color, features and hair texture, but it has rather existed since ancient times to date, with age-old exploitation and discrimination. Through this essay, Hirschman discusses the theory of racism history, in relation to social science. He concludes that this concept of race and racism is not a primordial or ancestral belief rather it has developed with modernity over the past 40 decades and reached its pinnacle in the early twentieth century (385).
Since ancient times, cultural diversity evolved naturally as people learned to survive and settle in different climatic zones and their physical features like skin color and hair varied according to climatic conditions. Different outcomes were recorded as they interacted; some were accommodated calmly…… [Read More]
Dr. Asma Barlas. "Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I have the autonomy to answer this question?"
Questions about issues raised by the author of the dossier
The author gives a talk about whether the Qur'an supports gender equality and before the speaker delves in the matter, she decides to look at the pre-structure of understanding because it reflects on things that people encounter. The speaker reiterates why the poster includes the picture of a veiled woman that shows that the burqa has been used to define the lives of Muslim women. Therefore, the underlying question seeks to resolve whether Orientalism is supported. Her arguments are in line with the words of the immigration minister who asserted that they want to see the individual they are communicating with: she asserted the veiled woman's face should be her face on the poster. From this poster, they are showing that…… [Read More]
In the novel, Ani possesses power primarily because she is the one who makes it possible for Umuofia members to have productive harvests and for women to bear more children, yields greater power in the patriarchal Umuofia community (30-1). The power Ani wields to the village reflect the importance given to agriculture and fertility, symbolic and actual concepts related to reproduction, which would not become possible without the participation and presence of women. Thus, Ani embodies the collective power of women in Umuofia, whose ability to reproduce makes them more powerful than the monied and powerful men of their village. Through Ezinma and Ani, female power has managed to emerge and become influential in Umuofia, although male dominance is tolerated in order to maintain the status quo in the tribe.
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart.…… [Read More]
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]
There are numerous reasons why so many movies fail the Bechdel test. Most of these reasons directly correspond to the exact nature of this assessment, and what it reveals about society. Still others of these reasons pertain to the function of films within society. For the most part, they are used to reinforce societal values and mores. To a lesser extent, this medium is also widely deployed as a means of introducing new societal norms which will one day become part of the social establishment. Finally, still other reasons directly correlate to the notion of gender and gender constructs in Westernization today. A thorough examination of these different reasons reveals so many movies fail the Bechdel test because they reflect the values of a male-dominated society.
In examining the specific way in which this this thesis applies to some of the theorists analyzed within this class, it is first necessary…… [Read More]
And yet, it is also important to understand that not everyone criticized Manet, for it was also Dejeuner which set the stage for the advent of Impressionism.
Indeed, Manet emerged as something of an enfant terrible in the Parisian art scene of this era. In the same year, he would also produce Olympia, another painting featuring a female nude that would become the centre of much controversy. Olympia caused a major uproar when it was first exhibited in 1865 at the Salon in Paris. Despite the fact that it calls to mind the classical images of Giorgione (Venus Sleeping), Titian (Venus of Urbino), and Ingres (Odalisque with a Slave), the public was outraged by Manet's depiction of a common prostitute laying nude on a bed. A black female servant stares at her as she fixes the Madame's bed, while a black cat stands on edge at the end of the…… [Read More]
While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.
America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…… [Read More]
Indeed, the trajectory of the narrative involves exacting revenge on those who prevented her marriage from taking place.
Although the Bride's marital aspirations might suggest that she holds a conservative sensibility, this is far from the case and she is ultimately more aggressive than Jen. While Jen also exhibits physical prowess, her sacrificial gesture at the film's conclusion signifies how she maintains a strong reverence for the Confucian moral code, assimilating her within the wuxia genre. Physically, the Bride resembles a dominatrix; she is taller than many of the characters and fights in a relentlessly savage manner (even going so far as to bite her adversary in one scene.) in contrast, Jen is more diminutive and her face and eyes are softer and less predatory. Where the Bride looks much more imposing than an average person, Jen has an average size that is not dissimilar from the other characters. Indeed,…… [Read More]