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And in his "Declaration of the orld Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders," dated February 23, 1998, he went further:
All these crimes and sins committed by the Americans are a clear declaration of war on God, his Messenger, and Muslims.... [T]he jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries... As for the fighting to repulse [an enemy], it is aimed at defending sanctity and religion, and it is a duty... On that basis, and in compliance with God's order, we issue the following fatwa to all Muslims:
The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies-civilian and military -- is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it" (Knapp 2003).
In August, 1998, the African embassies were bombed. On August 23, he issued "The Declaration of Jihad on the…
Aboul-Enein, Youssef H. (2004 September 01). Osama bin-Laden interview, June 1999:
entering the mind of an adversary.(Review Essay)(Interview)(Excerpt). Military Review. Retrieved July 04, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Knapp, Michael G. (2003). The Concept and Practice f Jihad in Islam. Parameters.
Volume 33. Issue 1. Retrieved June 04, 2006 from Questa Online Library.
In Osama Bin Laden's "Letter to the American People," the Al Qaida leader used the Koran, the holy book of Islam, in order to excuse his actions against the population of the United States. The letter enumerates his feelings, and by extension those of all Al Qaida members, that what he and his organization is doing is justified by God. First, he lists reasons by which America is an aggressor against Muslims and thus their actions are in self-defense. Following this, are the other various reasons why Bin Laden believes that the United States is a sworn enemy and deserving of violent action, most notably their support and defense of Israel. The letter is nothing more than propaganda from a terrorist organization with a slanted and misguided viewpoint, who are trying to defend their actions by willful misinterpretation of the Koran and by misidentifying themselves as Muslims when…
Bin Laden, Osama. (2002). "Letter to the American People." Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2002/021120-ubl.htm
Initially, the organization was fighting western influence in Saudi Arabia and the royal family's power. Many top terrorism leaders joined Al Qaeda during this time, and still support Bin Laden today. The Saudis expelled him from the country in 1994, and he set up in Sudan, who expelled him in 1996, partly due to pressure from the United States. They felt his expulsion would "neutralize" the organization and cut it off from his funding operations in the Sudan. However, that was not the case. "Far from being neutralized by his expulsion from Sudan, bin Laden took the offensive against the country he saw as the enemy of Islam and God. On August 23, he issued 'The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places [Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia]' (Piszkiewicz 108). This was aggravated by the U.S. presence in the country after the…
Munson, Henry. "Lifting the Veil: Understanding the Roots of Islamic Militancy." Harvard International Review 25.4 (2004): 20+.
Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Thackrah, John Richard. Dictionary of Terrorism. New York: Routledge, 2004..
However, it is tempting to overstate the importance of Bin Laden's death. While he was a high-ranked person in his terrorist organization, Al Qaeda operates in cells. There are an untold number of men with the same amount of power as Bin Laden currently plotting against the United States. Killing Bin Laden most certainly did not eliminate the terrorist threat faced by the United States. In fact, it may have provided additional motivation to young terrorists throughout the Arab world. Killing Bin Laden did nothing to increase domestic security from terrorism. Therefore, his death had very little significance for national security. To understand how Bin Laden's death could be important politically and figuratively while having very little literal value, it is important to understand these two distinctions.
Legitimacy of the U.S. Led War on Terror
The War on Terror is, like its predecessor, the War on Drugs, an unwinnable war.…
Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…
"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.
Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com
Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
In Psychology, paranoia is defined as 'a mental illness in which somebody wrongly believes that they are hated or badly treated by others'. In this context, Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden do not have commonality of thought. Although leaders of their respective groups or nations, both the men, were poles apart. Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden belonged to two stark opposite backgrounds, performed differently, were brought up in absolutely opposite environments and functioned in this transitory world thereby spending their lives with a cause. However, the motives behind their actions were as different in the two cases as their actions were. In short, Hitler and Osama bin Laden have little comparison; our thesis statement that will be backed with sufficient evidence in the following passages of our research paper.
Adolf Hitler was the head of the state and he brought much anguish as well as created extreme…
The psychology and development of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved September 22, 2003 at http://www.abelard.org/hitler/hitler.html
Bernhardt (2001). Osama Bin Ladin, Anthrax and the Psychology of Terrorism.
Lauryssens S (1999). The Man Who Invented the Third Reich.
Speech at Kulmbach on 5 February 1928, quoted in Hitler, A Study in Tyranny
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.
The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…
Merey, Can. 2004. "Still no trace of Osama bin Laden."
Manila Bulletin, December 29.
Staff writer. 2005. "Irish Republicans in crisis over money laundering probe. Agence France Presse English, Feb. 19
Weisbach, Jessica. 2004. "The Psychology of the Terrorist Mind: Attempting to Understand as a Possible Means towards Prevention," in Peace, War and Human Nature. Accessed via the Internet 8/4/05. http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~t656_web/peace/Articles_Spring_2004/Weisbach_Jessica_terrorist_mind.htm
According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.
The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments
Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.
Terrorism as "War by Other Means"
Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website: http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…
Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.
Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.
3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.
4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…
Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
This theory also suits me well as I believe that the greater the effort and intensity, the higher the probabili8ty of attaining ones' objectives. There is also the element of continual learning, both at work and school to interpret and when applicable, use the lessons learned. Expectancy theory also is well-suited for accounting for environmental factors that can at times be uncontrollable yet capitalized on, leading to the attainment of objectives in the future. Finally, expectancy theory also concentrates on how the concepts of valence, or strength of a person's preference for a given outcome, when combined with instrumentality and expectancy, can accurately predict the attainment of objectives over time. The concept of linking effort and results is appealing.
6. What are the common characteristics of charismatic and transformational leadership? Compare Colin Powell and Osama bin Laden as charismatic or transformational leaders. Would your answer differ if you were sympathetic…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
The Taliban also destroyed ancient religious monuments that they deemed violative of Muslim teachings even those these monuments were part of the world's heritage. It was in this environment that charismatic Muslim leaders such as Osama bin Laden were able to step in and exploit the situation to their own advantage by inspiring yet more freedom fighters from all over the Arab world to join the battle to free the Holy Land from the Western invaders.
In reality, these same "freedom fighters" received massive amounts of American economic and military assistance during this period, acting essentially as U.S. proxies in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. If American military planners could have foreseen the dire outcome of this assistance at the time they were provided, it is reasonable to suggest that they would have reconsidered the intervention. Indeed, bin Laden and his like-minded extremists exploited this largesse and were…
It was generally a peaceful method of setting personal and social example of moral and caring behavior so others will join Islam because of its clear advantage for human desire for better, honest and non-violent life. But during history especially in the early days of Islam, Jihad by sword was an acceptable method, although never the only option. By its definition Jihad is therefore, global.
Yes there is a global Jihad that wishes to establish Islam every where in the world through acts of terrorism and religion imposition. The war is best understood as a global insurgency, initiated by a diffuse grouping of Islamist movements that seek to remake Islam role in the world order. They use terrorism as their primary but not as their sole tactic. Therefore they offer the best approach to defeating global jihad but in a single country.
David J. Kilcullen theory is devoted to counterinsurgency…
Edward W. Said, The Class of Ignorance, Vintage, New York, 2000.
Hardcover, Globalization, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical 'Development' Reader:; 1 edition. Amazon, 2004
Huntington, Samuel and Schuster, The Clash of Civilizations and The Remarking of World Order, Touchstone, New York, 1996
Kilcullen, David, The Accidental Guerilla: Fighting small wars in the midst of a big one, 2009
However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.
Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…
Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005
Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.
Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…
Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.
Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing
Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.
Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
The management of large organizations is a very crucial issue, whether they are government-related or not (Argyris, 1993; Argyris & Schon, 1978; Broom, Jackson, Harris, & Vogelsang-Coombs, n.d.; Brown & Brudney, 2003; Hatry, 1999; Haynes, 1999). Often, however, the government does not seem to realize that it must manage itself in the same way that a business would in certain aspects if it is to succeed and therefore it does not market itself to the public.
The spending that has been involved with the Department of Homeland Security is also crucial, because it has changed over time to reflect the needs and the realization of what it takes to make the Department work (Eggen & Mintz, 2003). This spending is important to discuss, because it indicates how much of the government's money - and by extension how much of the tax dollars of Americans - is going toward funding this…
Argyris, C., (1993). Knowledge for action: A guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1978). Organizational learning, a theory of action perspective. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Broom, C., Jackson, M., Harris, J., & Vogelsang-Coombs, V. (n.d.). Performance measurement: Concepts and techniques (3rd ed.), workbook. Washington, DC: American Society for Public administration.
Brown, M.M., & Brudney, J.L. (2003). Learning organizations in the public sector? A study of police agencies employing information and technology to advance knowledge. Public Administration Review. 63(1), 30-43.
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
In that regard, one of the most dramatic uses of this tactic enabled the Bush administration to obtain congressional authority to initiate a war against Iraq based on what were later proven to be deliberate falsehoods (BBC/Curtis, 2004).
Ironically, the fictional and manipulative elevation of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden to such levels of importance in the ideological war against the West may have actually played a substantial role in increasing the importance, the influence, and the ability of each to attract more followers (BBC/Curtis, 2004). The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan also seems to have undermined the effort against al-Qaeda by helping to transform what had been an isolated civil war in that country into a region supporting bin Laden today (BBC/Curtis, 2004).
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was originally an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood; it was the largest militant group in Egypt and once hoped to overthrow the Egyptian…
CIA. (1998). President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft
and other Attacks" (December 4, 1998). Retrieved May 20, 2010 from:
Curtis a. (2004). BBC Documentary -- the Power of Nightmares: Part 3: The Shadows
Islam and the Clash of Civilizations
orld civilization has known in the last decades some of the most important political, economic, and in particular cultural developments of the 20th century. The era after the end of the Cold ar determined a series of events that triggered numerous conflicts around the world, from the war in Kuwait in the early 1990s, to the genocide in Rwanda, human rights abuses and apartheid in South Africa, to the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon to dimensions never attained before.
The peak of the terrorist threat was reached on September 11, 2001 when the attacks on the orld Trade Center in New York fully demonstrated the power, influence, and capacity terrorist groups can master. Along with the terrorist phenomenon, the other regional conflicts still ongoing in parts of the Middle East and Africa, point out the increased differences that exist throughout the world between different…
Baxter, Kylie; Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. "U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East." Routledge.
Huntington. S. 1993."The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. "The True Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Policy, Mar/Apr2003, Issue 135
Krishna, S. 2008. Globalization and post colonialism. Hegemony and resistance in the twenty first century. Rowman, Littlefield Publishers, New York.
Terrorist Group Leaders
Tools and Techniques Used by Terrorist Group Leaders to Influence their Followers
In his article, War, Psychology, and Time, Friedman (2007) shows how Osama bin Laden employed a psychological strategy in an attempt to create a massive Islamic empire in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the union provided an ideal opportunity for bin Laden to demonstrate to the world that America was actually weak and could be severely hurt. For bin Laden, the Muslim world "suffered from a psychology of defeat" following America's triumph over the Soviet Union and it was therefore important for Muslims to show their might and create terror (Friedman, 2007). The use of psychology to advance terrorist ideologies is not limited to bin Laden and al Qaeda. Indeed, leaders of terrorist groups capitalize on psychological techniques to recruit and influence their followers (Victoroff, 2005). This paper…
These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with active shooters, barricades, and hostage situations include: three or four man entries using shields, power flooding for "large structure clearing," mobile hostage rescues, "linear entry techniques," and vehicle takedowns (Navy Seals, 2010).
eapons of Mass Destruction
eapons of mass destruction (MD) include any weapons that can cause catastrophic damage or destruction to a large number of people, structures, organizations, or the environment. Examples include bombs, nuclear, chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Due to the catastrophic threats posed by MD, in 2006 the FBI launched the eapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (MDD) to further integrate agency efforts for better prevention against MD attack.
Terrorism group, (International or Domestic)
Terrorists most often operate from within radical groups with political motivations. ithin the United…
With America's increasing dependence upon the Internet for storage and retrieval of critical information, and the use of computers to direct and make critical decisions, terrorists have more and more opportunities to hack or otherwise sabotage the Internet and cost human lives (as well as lots of money) as a result. While many people believe the threat of lost lives from a cyber attack is minimal, experts warn that the danger must be taken seriously, because "servers in the United States are the most aggressively targeted information systems in the world, with attacks increasing in severity, frequency, and sophistication each year" (CDI, 2011). Malicious computer users are becoming more skilled day-to-day, so defensive measures against these attacks must increase in strength and remain vigilant at all times. Cyber-terrorism threats can involve banks, hospitals, and government agencies; motivations include profit, general harm, or even assassination. While the U.S. has only experienced minor attacks, other countries such as the Ukraine and Estonia have suffered more massive attacks (CDI, 2011).
Bin Laden and Al Qaeda
Osama Bin Laden established his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, in 1988; it's "goals were the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and repelling foreign intervention in the Middle East" (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden's efforts began with fights against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, and he always had access to large sums of money as the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire. After the Gulf Wars began, Al Qaeda became involved in terrorist activities against U.S. involvement in the Middle East, particularly the presence of American troops in Islamic holy lands (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden began to align with other terrorist groups, and in 1996 moved back to Afghanistan and joined forces with the Taliban (ADL, 2011). Attacks continued over the years since then, until the culmination of Al Qaeda's efforts in the 9/11 terrorist attacks -- in which nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
TV news channels and online media for breaking the latest and hottest news first and taking the credit of being more alert and efficient. This paper compares the news delivered by different news channel websites regarding an important incident of this year "Killing of Osama Bin Laden" which took place on 1st May 2011 in Pakistan. Following paragraphs will compare how different news channel websites portrayed this story:
CNN declared Osama's killing news by calling Osama the "most prominent face of terror in America" was killed as said by the U.S. officials and they confirm to have his dead body.
The later part of the new article explains bin Laden's story; from his birth in Saudi Arabia to his leading of Al-Qaeda, which is a terrorist network behind the September 11, 2001 attacks. The news also states the destruction that was caused by the four hijacked planes and…
Al-Jazeera Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan. Al- Jazeera News. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2011/05/2011522132275789.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Baker, P., Cooer, H., Mazzetti, M. (2011). Bin Ladin Is Dead, Osama Says. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
CNN Staff Wire. (2011). Osama bin Laden, the face of terror, killed in Pakistan, CNN World. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-05-01/world/bin.laden.obit_1_bin-terrorist-network-uss-cole?_s=PM:WORLD, Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Dawn Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan, says Obama. Dawn News. http://www.dawn.com/2011/05/02/osama-bin-laden-killed-in-pakistan-says-obama.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…
Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm
Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.htm
Hassan, Sulman. "The legality of the United States intervention in Afghanistan."
American Studies Today Online. July 15, 2004. November 23, 2007. http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Forum/Afghanlegality.htm
"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."
This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.
Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.
There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…
Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005. http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html
AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm
Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…
Office of the Secretary Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (OSOCC) U.S. Department Of State. 1994 April: Patterns Of Global Terrorism, 1993. Department of State Publication 10136. 1994. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm . Accessed December 2002
U.S. State Department (USSD) (1996) State-Sponsored Terrorism. 1995 Patterns of Global Terrorism. April, 1996. USIA Electronic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1997. Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0297/ijge/gj-9.htm. Accessed December, 2002.
United Stated Department of State (USDS) (1996a). Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1995. The Year in Review Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Department of State Publication. Embassy of the United States of America. Dag Hammarskjlds V g 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm. Released April 1996. Retrieved at http://www.usis.usemb.se/terror/ rpt1995/year.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Terrorism / Homeland security
Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).
Terrorism in Middle East
Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…
Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.
Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.
Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.
Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in Southeast Asia: Jemaah Islamiya and Al Qaeda the financial network . Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25 (2), 169-199.
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?
Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.
The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:
"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…
Adas, J., 2010. Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance, s.l.: s.n.
Akram, M., 2008. Pakistan, Terrorism and Drugs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/opinion/lweb22pakistan.html?_r=1&ref=opinion [Accessed 17 October 2009].
Anon., 1988. Hamas Charter. [Online]
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…
Rex a. Hudson, "The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who Becomes a terrorist and why?," Sept 1999, Library of Congress, Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
BBC, "Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1550419.stm
Frank Bovenkerk, "Terrorism and Organized Crime," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/law/2006-0803-203003/bovenkerk_05_terrorism_and_organized.doc
The impact that terrorism has had on the global community since September 11, 2001 has been profound to say the least. In this short essay, the author will address the intent of terrorists, their methods, the political objectives, and the global response. In addition, they will include a treatment and analysis of how terrorism has affected international cooperation and other relations. Unfortunately, it is the opinion of this author that the efforts of the United States since September 11, 2001 have only exacerbated the problem. The methods and the political objectives of the terrorists have been largely achieved due to the American mismanagement of the war on terrorism. hen one soberly reflects upon the present quagmires (one must use the plural form) that the U.S. finds itself in the Middle East, there are few other options but to review how we got where we are and how to extricate…
Bin Laden, O. (2004, October 30). Bin ladin tape: transcript of osama bin laden's speech. Retrieved from http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/1964.cfm .
Morgan, M.J. (2004). The origins of the new terrorism. Parameters, 30-43.
U.S. State Department, Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy.
(2005). Cultural diplomacy the linchpin of public diplomacy. Washington,
expression that has been dedicated to the 2001 terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda that the United States suffered from on September 11. It won't be incorrect to state that 9/11 proved to be a turning point for the George W. Bush administration and the foreign policy of the United States of America. The events unswervingly led to the United States support for the downfall of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan where it was believed to have its foundation. These attacks were also important as they were later used by the United States of America as a justification of invading Iraq regardless of the fact that no apparent proof could be presented regarding any connection between Iraq with Al Qaeda. Nevertheless, the 9/11 impact was strong enough and the invasion was therefore strongly supported by the American public ("9/11," 2013).
Description of the Event
Al-Qaeda is a radical Islamic group that has been involved…
9/11 from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2013). Questia. Retrieved October 11, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/ read/1E1-N-9-11/9-11
Bergen, P. (2006, September 24). What were the Causes of 9/11?. Prospect Magazine. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/whatwerethecausesof911/#.UllYG1Awpcp
Economic Impact of the September 11 World Trade Center Attack. (2001, September 28). Fiscal Policy. Retrieved October 13, 2013, from http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/sep28WTCreport.pdf
Griffin, D.R. (2005, May 10). David Ray Griffin: 9/11 and the American Empire | Scoop News. Scoop - New Zealand News. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0505/S00129.htm
How does the creation of the Department of Homeland Security affect resources traditionally designated for local criminal justice organizations?
The esource Imbalance caused by formation of HLS
The Department of Homeland Security controls a lot of resources. The significant among these are 40,000 coast guard members, 13,000 immigration law enforcement officers, 50,000 TSA screeners, 40,000 border patrol customs and 4000 Secret Service agents (Jaffe, 2015). These resources are immense and seriously affect the remainder, meant to be used by other law enforcement units. In 2012, the police were in dire need of ammunition while DHS had purchased up to 1.6 billion rounds of ammunition and added 2.717 Mine esistant Armored Protection; the latter being vehicles that were previously used for counterinsurgency operations in Iraq (Bell, 2013).
Are there too few resources to fight both terrorists and traditional criminals?
Stressed State Police
Lack of funding has led to budget…
Bell, L. (2013, March 10). Why The Heck Is DHS Buying More Than A Billion Bullets Plus Thousands Of Guns And Mine-Resistant Armored Vehicles? Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrybell/2013/03/10/why-the-heck-is-dhs-buying-more-than-a-billion-bullets-plus-thousands-of-guns-and-mine-resistant-armored-vehicles/#32e788e410ab
Gates, S. (2012, September 7). Terrorists should have due process protections. Retrieved from Debate.org: http://www.debate.org/debates/Terrorists-should-have-due-process-protections/1/
Hussain, I., & Sadullah, S. (2011, July). The killing of Osama bin Laden. Retrieved from International Brief: http://www.global-briefing.org/2011/07/the-killing-of-osama-bin-laden/#auth
Jaffe, A. (2015, Febraury 27). What happens if DHS shuts down? Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/02/16/politics/dhs-shutdown-consequences/
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 made the world pass though many sad and undesirable changes. One of such changes is declining rate of ethical considerations in U.S. based commercial organization. The subject is important to explore as it is likely to affect the image of U.S. business organizations. Furthermore, it is also expected that U.S. literature upon management and business administration may fail to appeal the world as the practices are not aligned with it.
The paper explains the changes in lieu of unfortunate incident of 9/11 in USA and casts light upon the implication of ethical consideration presently enforced in U.S. based organizations.
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 was an unfortunate event for many nations of the worlds including Americans. The incident changed…
Angle, C. (2008). Defining Ethics Good & Evil. New York: Philosophy Publishing.
Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Germany: GRIN Verlag.
Bergen, P. (2011). The Longest War America and Al-Qaeda since 9/11. New York: Free Press.
Carroll, A. And Buchholtz, A. (2011). Business & Society. USA: Cengage Learning.
By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.
hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.
The dynamic terrorist threat." RAND Corporation. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1782.pdf .
Thornburgh, Dick. "Balancing civil liberties and homeland security." Albany Law Review, 68(4), (2005): 801-813.
Weapons of mass destruction." Global Focus. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://globalfocus.org/GF-WMDs.htm.
Islam and Terrorism
Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?
Background of Islam
Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam
Public Opinion Polls
Islam in the Media
There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."
Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…
AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i5ajtNJ0qTTRMBSFpYngMOjrmDbQ
Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink: http://www.culturelink.org/conf/dialogue/mesic.pdf
Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.
Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia: http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Sayid_Jarrah
Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.
Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…
Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005. http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm
'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm
Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/
"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm
War on Terrorism: Is it Justified?
On September 11, 2001, two separate airliners, loaded with passengers, were flown into the two towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. This was soon followed by a similar act in Washington, D.C. that destroyed part of the Pentagon. Passengers on another plane attempted to retake it from hijackers, and that plane crashed into the Pennsylvania countryside, undoubtedly preventing a fourth attack.
y the time the second plane flew into the south tower of the World Trade Center, we knew these were deliberate attacks. y the time the Pentagon had been attacked, there was a widespread perception that we were at war. Spokespersons and reporters drew comparisons to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
However, there are troubling differences to the attack of December 7, 1941, particularly in who the enemy was or is in each situation. There was no doubt in…
Albom, Mitch. Oct. 15, 2001. "Battle Must be Joined as Surely as Peace." Los Angeles Business Journal.
Author not available. Dec. 2001. "Iraq, Anthrax, and the Hawks." The Progressive. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1295/12_65/80681001/print.jhtml
Pipes, Daniel. Jan. 2002. "Who Is the Enemy? (Analysis of United States War on Terrorism)" Commentary Magazine.
Stephen, Andrew. Sept. 24, 2001. "The War that Bush Cannot Win." New Statesman. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/4556_130/79029848/print.jhtml
Who is Al-Zarqawi, and why is he today one of the world's most hated terrorists? What are his activities and why is he wanted by the various Intelligence Agencies not only of the U.S.A., but also of the world? Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi is today one of the world's most wanted terrorists, said to be capable of overshadowing even the 'Enemy Number 1', as he is referred to in the United States of America, Osama bin Laden, and whose value, for capture, offered by the U.S. State Department, is said to be at par with that of Osama bin Laden, that is, an astronomical amount of $25 million. However, Al-Zarqawi has not been put on the 'Most Wanted' list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. This terrorist has been at times described as an 'Osama Associate', and also, at times, an individual who is capable…
Chossudovsky, Michel. Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? 11 June, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO405B.html Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Mackay, Neil. A Prince of Terror's Deadly Game, the Hostage Takers, Al-Zarqawi. The Sunday Herald. September, 2004. pp: 4-5
Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Praeger, 2003. p 168.
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
Narco- terrorism can be seen from a number of perspectives. The term is commonly applied to the use of terrorist techniques by drug traffickers and dealers to distract attention from and facilitate drug abuse. An accepted definition in this regard is as follows:
DOD) Terrorism conducted to further the aims of drug traffickers. It may include assassinations, extortion, hijackings, bombings, and kidnappings directed against judges, prosecutors, elected officials, or law enforcement agents, and general disruption of a legitimate government to divert attention from drug operations. (Narco-Terrorism: definition)
From a broader sociological perspective Narco-terrorism can also be seen in terms of its emphasis on the aspect of terrorism per se. From this broader and more inclusive perspective a number assessments of the meaning of the term may be made. Firstly, in this wider context narcotics can be used as another weapon in the terrorist's arsenal to influence and detrimentally affect…
A" Level Sociology Deviance and Social Control. October 27, 2004. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en
Flynn, Stephen. "Worldwide Drug Scourge: The Response." Brookings Review Spring 1993: 36+. Questia. 2 Nov. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
There is ample evidence according to some, including CIA Director George Tenet who stated in 2000 Al-Qa'ida was attempting to gain chemicals to use in terrorist activities. There is no question that terrorists seem to have an interest in such weapons. However, while they may make a concerted effort to get these weapons, they may still lack the technology and financial abundance to deploy such weapons on a massive scale. It is not impossible, and it is certainly prudent to be on guard for any plots involving weapons of mass destruction.
The best possible argument one can make based on evidenced gathered by intelligence agencies is that many terrorist groups do have interest in weapons of mass destruction. Many attempt to acquire the raw materials for these weapons. However, there is not proof yet, solid proofs, that terrorist have the ability to use these weapons or deploy them on a…
Ackerman, Gary & Bale, Jeffrey M. Al-Qa'ida and Weapons of Mass Destruction. CNS,
Center for Nonproliferation studies, in, Perspectives, San Jose Mercury News, Sunday, Dec. 22, 2002. Available: http://cns.miis.edu/pubx/other/alqwmd.htm.
McCloud, Kimberly & Osbourne, Matthew. WMD Terrorism and Usama Bin Laden.
CNS Reports, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 2001. Available:
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
From prison, Qutb regenerated the secret apparatus and Saudi Arabia supplied the group with arms and money. Qutb was betrayed, however, and six months after he was released from prison, he was arrested again for a plot to overthrow the Egyptian government. He was sentenced to death by hanging for his radical views and accepted his fate with pride. His anger inspired Zawahiri and, in due course, influenced Osama bin Laden.
Qutb's death paved the way for more Rabie al-Zawahiri, a professor. His son, Ayman, grew up to be a rebellious, self-righteous man with "headstrong qualities that would invariably be associated with him in the future and that would propel him into conflict with nearly everyone he would meet" (37). Zawahiri was the perfect man to put Qutb's vision into action. At 15 years of age, he formed an underground cell "devoted to overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamic…
Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. New York: Alfred a Knopf, 2006.
Katulis and Juul help put into perspective the tentative position of Iraq in saying that Iraq's leadership remains split on a draft version of SOF (Katulis and Juul, online). The Iraqi cabinet must vote a two-thirds majority in favor of their support for a plan (Katulis and Juul). This may be difficult to achieve when the cabinet is divided along religious sect lines. It is, too, perhaps the first time since the election of the cabinet by the Iraqi people that they had to put such concerted emphasis on their decision making, because, once made, there is no turning back from that decision which could result in the U.S. pulling out of Iraq beginning almost immediately. What follows will answer the question of whether or not Iraq is prepared to stand on its own against the forces of Islamic fundamentalist extremism. Leaving Iraq may see it become impossible to regain…
As Hanson points out, the jihadists do not need fighter jets, a navy fleet or even tanks to win their war against the west (Hoover Institution, Hanson, online). Their tools are terrorism, and this, too, seems to be one of the aspects of the present and future nature of warfare that people choose not to acknowledge. The goals of terrorism are no to destroy buildings, although the destruction of buildings as occurred on September 11, 2001, does indeed further their work; it is rather to cause a disruption of the economy, to create political division, world discord, to instill a prevailing atmosphere of fear and panic, and to bring down the society that is the target of the terrorist acts. In this regard, as we examine where America is today, and where the rest of the world is as economies are collapsing around us, it might be fair to say that the jihadists are winning their war of terrorism.
Who would have believed, as Hanson so succinctly argues, that a world amidst the technological progress where the world stands today could be brought to its knees by terrorists who have effectively enslaved the freedoms that it has taken America and its post World War II allies hundreds of years to achieve? Today, cartoon satire depicting Islamic extremists can be banned - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban ideas and images; the words "war on terror" have been ostensibly set aside because they have become too psychologically burdensome to the public - instituting the Islamic fundamentalist goal to ban words from the language; and other examples of giving into the weight of terrorism as cited by Hanson (Hanson, online). Echoing Galbraith, the question must be asked, "Is this victory?"
Wordpress.com, 2008. Galbraith, Peter, GBlog. Found online at http://gunnyg.wordpress.com/2008/10/27/is-this-a-victory-by-peter-w-galbraith/,retrieved 18 November 2008.
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…
Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html , accessed 11 June 2007.
Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Media and Terrorism
Contemporary terrorism relies heavily on the media. The modern media has much to offer terrorist organization. Media coverage is used not only to convey the terrorist's objectives and political messages, but also to intimidate larger populations.
The media provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient method of relaying their goals. Further, it offers a forum to attract supporters, and a means of raising funds in an era of independent fund raising (Introduction).
The Munich Olympics in 1972 marked the true beginning of the exploitation of the modern media by terrorists. In those Olympics, terrorists first exploited the media to gain access to a global audience (Introduction).
However, the potential utility of the media on terrorist activities was well-known long before the events of the 1972 Munich Olympics (Fundamentals of Terrorism).
The first well-documented understanding of the role of the media in terrorism likely has its roots in the…
Fine, Janet. Arabian Knight Woos West. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Fundamentals of Terrorism. 14 November 2002. http://www.geocities.com/p_enn/a_terrorismengl_02.pdf
Introduction. Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media, p. 103.
Morrow, Lance. The Gleam of a Pearl. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
The author though falls into this mentality again when they were being interviewed. hile it is understandable that they would react against American jingoism that ranks all acts against America as being pure evil, their attitude of "understanding" the terrorists is too much on the other extreme. Truly, there are not enough people simply rooting for and thinking about the little people that simply have to make a living or get to where they are going. Most people do not have the political sophistication or are too busy to think about the broader picture.
Unfortunately, is events like September 11, 2001 that frame these extremes clearly. On the right wing side, the war on terror has been an abject disaster. Al-Qaeda and other radicals are stronger than ever. e gave them exactly what they wanted. Osama Bin Laden wanted to bleed the United States economically in his jihad war against…
Bowman, G. (2001). Thinking the unthinkable: anthropological meditations on the events of 11 september 2001 . Anthropology Today, 17(6), 16-19.
Was osama bin laden an economic terrorist? (2011) Retrieved from http://globaleconomicwarfare.com/2011/05/04/was-bin-laden-an-economicterrorist.aspx
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…
Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)
Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.
Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.
Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
people commit acts of terrorism?
At one level, this question is unanswerable in the same way child abuse and rape are incomprehensible. For people who do not believe that violence is ever acceptable except to defend oneself or other innocent people, it is impossible to fathom what would motivate people to harm innocent bystanders, an element in so much of terrorism. But, clearly -- given the number of terrorist acts that occur in the world -- to other people terrorism is something that simply makes good political sense: Realpolitik carried to logical extremes.
A great deal has been written about terrorism since 11 September 2001, but this should not blind us to the fact that terrorism is hardly a new phenomenon. Although it is hard to believe that there is anyone in the world who is not now more aware of the possible reach and effects of terrorism than they…
Armstrong, Karen: "The true, peaceful face of Islam." Time 158.15 1 oct 2001 www.time.com.
This article provides a very brief overview of the history of Islam and explains the historical basis for the Koran's discussion of the importance of armed conflict and the belligerent tone of some Islamic liturgical passages.
Forster, Peter M. "The Psychology of Terror -- The mind of the terrorist." http://www.blue-oceans.com/education/terror_psych.html .
This site provides some basic definitions of terrorism and looks at the historical reasons that people have become terrorists, discussing how religion and ethnicity as well as other factors come into play. It also provides an analysis of the psychology that motivates terrorist actions.
Amnesty International and Human ights reports on the U.S. government fair and objective? Explain. Do they cover the full range of rights discussed in the International Bill of Human ights?
Although both organizations do seem to cover the full range of rights discussed in the International Bill of Human ights, with some rights, however, being focused on more unevenly than others, the Amnesty International and Human ights reports on the U.S. government are not always fair and objective. For instance, the Amnesty International report in May 25, 2005 claimed that the U.S. is a top offender of human rights. This was a ridiculous and blanket statement easily refuted by the White House who claimed the allegations to be ridiculous and unsupported by the facts:
The United States is leading the way when it comes to protecting human rights and promoting human dignity. We have liberated 50 million people in Iraq…
AI Report 2005
Amnesty International, Annual Report, 2012
What makes me cringe even more is the continued claim that we are "liberators (Byrd, 2003)." The facts don't seem to support the label we have so euphemistically attached to ourselves (Byrd, 2003). True, we have unseated a brutal, despicable despot, but "liberation" implies the follow up of freedom, self-determination and a better life for the common people (Byrd, 2003). In fact, if the situation in Iraq is the result of "liberation," we may have set the cause of freedom back 200 years (Byrd, 2003)." agree with Byrd when he reminds the American people that our claim to have liberated the Iraqi people has actually put them in a position to have very little food, little water, destroyed towns and cities and no government to speak of.
To top it off the initial request to self-govern was stalled and ignored for many months as Bush proclaimed victory and insisted that…
Byrd, Robert (2003) Iraq War, Unprovoked Invasion of a Sovereign Nation?
Delivered on the floor of the U.S. Senate (Accessed 4-16-07)
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html
Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html
Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html
Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp