Osteoporosis Essays (Examples)

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Health Promotion Health Belief

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28260448

Osteoporosis and the Health Belief Model

Discuss the Health Belief Model

The Health Belief Model was initially a systematic mode of predicating and thus preventing health behavior. By focusing on the relationship between the practices and the behaviors of health services it aimed to create a theoretical presentation of the same. Later it was revised to motivate the general health for the 'purpose of distinguishing illness and sick-role behavior from health behavior'. [Brown, 1999] The HBM is essentially a concept that integrates psychological motivators with physical and social settings. Its said to have been initiated in 1952 by three socio-psychologists, Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels and Irwin osenstock. During the 1950's the society realized a need to prevent disease rather than cure it. The U.S. Public Health Service was more concerned with preventing outbreaks which would have a nationwide impact than with trying to solve and cure the symptoms that individuals…… [Read More]


Brown, Kelli M. [January 11, 1999] HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Community and Family Health University of South Florida

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999a). NOF Physician's Guide: impact and overview [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/physguide/impact_and_overview.

National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999b). Osteoporosis Fast Facts [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/stats.htm.
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1 As She Suffers From

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15201917

Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]

1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
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Osteogenesis Imperfecta OI Also Known

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46631307

Hence calcitonin has been found to reduce the turnover of bone and pain in Paget's disease patients.

It is found as an injection: 200 units/ml administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Also available is intranasal spray: 200 units/activation (0.09 ml/puff) which is administered into the nostril. There are no adequate studies of calcitonin in pregnant women and nursing mothers. Calcitonin salmon helps treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone but does not cure them. Patients should continue using calcitonin salmon even if they feel well and should only be stopped by the doctor. Using calcitonin salmon for osteoporosis, it is also essential to get enough calcium and vitamin D

Calcitonin salmon may cause side effects such as stomach upset, vomiting, redness, swelling, or irritation at the site of injection, flushing of the face or hands, increased urination at night, itching of the ear lobes, feverish feeling, eye pain, decreased appetite, stomach pain,…… [Read More]

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Aging Body the Author Bases

Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39927888

3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.

4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…… [Read More]


Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.

Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.

Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
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Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS

Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18797249

History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]


Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
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Healthcare for Women Health Care

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29507577

As a woman enters her geriatric years, many unique problems are also faced. Her post-menopausal period leaves a woman with increased risk of osteoporosis, and hormone-replacement therapy may need to be considered or dismissed depending upon the needs and wellness of the individual women. Additionally, increased risk for obesity begins nearly at the adolescent period, when women's hormone loads change and often activity of childhood decreases. The incidence of obesity and overweight among women perpetually increases with every year of life. ("Overweight, Obesity Threaten U.S.," 2002, p. 8)Obesity and overweight, as one of the most significant conditions associated with several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke and hypertension should be developed as a lifespan issue, as the needs of intervention and prevention change as women age and go through various stages of life.

While women have functional characteristics that require specialized health care,…… [Read More]


Blackwell, Daria, 2002. Women in the Healthcare Industry Reaching for the Top. Medical Marketing & Media, Dec2002, Vol. 37 Issue 12, p44, 8p.

Fleming, Carl, 2004. Healthcare Access: Conflicts of Interest Presented by Managed Care Icu Bedside Rationing and Their Impact on Minorities and Women. Georgetown Journal of Gender & the Law, Spring2004, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p663-676.

Heyman, B., & Henriksen, M. (2001). Risk, Age and Pregnancy: A Case Study of Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing / . New York: Palgrave.

Lueck, T.L., & Chang, H. (2002). Tribune's 'WomanNews' Gives Voice to Women's Issues. Newspaper Research Journal, 23(1), 59.
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Mechanism of Aging

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27707348

Mechanisms of Aging

Mechanism of Aging

Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)

Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…… [Read More]

Works cited

Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.

Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.

Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
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Evista® Raloxifene Hydrochloride the Evista®

Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87552851

Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 11% of EVISTA®-treated women and 9% of placebo-treated women. Common adverse events related to EVISTA® therapy were hot flashes and leg cramps. Hot flashes were most commonly reported during the first 6 months of treatment and were not different from placebo thereafter.


Cholestyramine causes a 60% reduction in the absorption and enterohepatic cycling of raloxifene after a single dose. Thus, co-administration of cholestyramine with EVISTA® is not recommended.


Overall, raloxifene exerts similar positive on bone mineral density and bone turnover as other SEMS and estrogen therapy. However, the reduction in fracture risk is improved with SEMs vs. estrogen (Nakamura 632).


Overall, administration of calcium and vitamin D is more effective and economical than any approved drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The annual cost of calcium and vitamin D treatment is $22 compared to $255 for estrogen,…… [Read More]


Barrett-Connor, E., et al. "Risk-Benefit Profile for Raloxifene: 4-Year Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (More) Randomized Trial." J. Bone Miner Res 19.8 (2004): 1270-5.

Borgstrom, F., et al. "Cost Effectiveness of Raloxifene in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Sweden: An Economic Evaluation Based on the More Study." Pharmacoeconomics 22.17 (2004): 1153-65.

Bryant, H.U. "Mechanism of Action and Preclinical Profile of Raloxifene, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2.1 (2001): 129-38.

Cranney, a., et al. "Meta-Analyses of Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Iv. Meta-Analysis of Raloxifene for the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis." Endocr Rev 23.4 (2002): 524-8.
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Falls Among the Elderly Age GROUP1

Words: 2717 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80389108

Fall Among the Elderly Age Group

Falls among the Elderly Age Group

Biological Factors

Unintentional falls

Expected falls and unexpected falls

isk Elements for Falls

Outline of Several Different Strategies

Counseling and Health Education Strategies

Single Strategies

Primary Strategies

Exercise and physical activity 8

Nursing-Home Strategies

Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness

Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem

Schedule an appointment with your Medic

Keep moving

Wear sensible shoes

According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased…… [Read More]


A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.

JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.

Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.
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Midwifery in Primary Care New Directions for

Words: 2611 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83945934

Midwifery in Primary Care

New Directions for Midwives:

Addressing Novel Primary Care oles

Looking towards the future, radical changes are sweeping the United States healthcare system with the advent of a new public healthcare system. This change and the economic reality of care should motivate all healthcare providers to question of who can best meet the healthcare needs of women. Nurse midwives are advanced practice nurses educated in the field of primary health care for essentially normal women and newborns. Their focus is wellness and health education. Once patients are introduced to the concept of a nurse practitioner and the services provided, the majority are satisfied with the quality of the care received. Evidence suggests that women, if given a choice, prefer the ministrations of a female practitioner over that of a male for their intimate healthcare needs. As a predominantly female group, nurse midwives are an excellent source of…… [Read More]

Rossouw, J.E., Anderson, G.L., Prentice, R.L. (2002). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 288(3):321-33.

Santoro, N., Brown, J.R., Adel, T. And Skurnick J.H. (1996). Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 81(4):1495-501.

Santoro, N. And Randolph, J. (2011). Reproductive hormones and the menopause transition. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 38(3):455-66.
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Nutrition for Healthy Body

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4955880

Calcium potentiates the effect of estrogen and calcitonin on bone mass," (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998) and "Calcium and Osteoporosis" (New Zealand Vegetarian Society web site). oth articles, while dealing with the same issue, had differing viewpoints leading to my concluding that there are many more variables involved in the prevention of osteoporosis than depletion of calcium in the body.

The first article presents as fact the evidence of 31 studies that found that postmenopausal women who took estrogen had an average increase of 1.3% in spinal bone mass, while those who took a combination of estrogen and calcium supplements had an average increase of 3.3%. Contra to this, the second article refers to evidence extracted from a different body of research studies published by reputed journals such as the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal Clinical Investigation and Science magazine, to establish as fact that there is "no…… [Read More]


Bone of Contention." The News and Observer. July 4, 2002. Health World Online. URL:


Calcium and Osteoporosis." New Zealand Vegetarian Society web site. URL:

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Pros and Cons of Hormone Therapy

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48700854

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Menopause and Its Consequences

Menopause is that inevitable and irreversible time when a woman's reproductive cycle and menstruation periods gradually end, as her ovaries cease to respond to male gonadotropins and her capacity to become pregnant stops (Mayeux, Jr. 1997). This spontaneously occurs between 45 and 55 in American women, with 51 as the median age.

A woman's ovaries at the menopause are nearly empty of primary follicles - which, in child-bearing age, are abundant, mature and can be fertilized by the male sperm cell, resulting in conception and pregnancy. At menopause, the ovaries' production of the hormone called estrogen becomes very minimal, and this altered condition of a lack of estrogen produces many unpleasant symptoms in approximately 70% of all postmenopausal women (Mayeux, Jr.). These symptoms include hot flushes and extreme warmth, profuse sweating, tremor, irritability, and depression. Physically, the female reproductive organs shrink and lose…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. American Medical Women's Association. (1999). Q & A on Hormone Replacement

Therapy and Breast Cancer. (accessed 02-01-03). http://www.amwa-doc.org/healthtopics/hrt_breastcancer_qa.htm

2. Hempel, Karl. (1996). Estrogen Replacement Therapy. The Health Gazette.

A accessed 02-01-03). http://www.freenet.scri.fsu.edu/HealthGazette/ert.html
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Soy Protein and Bone Health

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36076040

Soy Protein and Bone Health in Women

Soy, a protein-rich legume, has been prominently featured in the traditional cuisines of Far Eastern cultures for thousands of years. In addition to its high protein content, soy also contains the other two macronutrients, carbohydrates and fats, as well as many vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients such as calcium, folic acid, and iron. Dietary sources of soy protein include soybeans, tofu, beans curd, tempeh, miso, and soymilk. Since it represents a vegetable source of high quality complete protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, soy is particularly valued by vegetarians, who must derive all their dietary protein from vegetables rather than from animal products.(DGPL)

Soy has yet to become as integrated into American cuisine as it has always been in the Far East, but its sales have gradually increased over the last ten years, to approximately $3 billion and almost one third…… [Read More]


Boyles, S. (2002) Soy Doesn't Improve Bones in Young Women: Benefits May Be Confined to Those Who are Menopausal and Older. WebMD Inc.

Medical News Archive; Accessed March 21, 2004 at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/53/50459.htm

Messina M, Hughes C. (2003) Efficacy of Soyfoods and Soybean Isoflavone Supplements for Alleviating Menopausal Symptoms is Positively Related to Initial Hot Flush Frequency. Journal of Medicinal Food 6:1-11.

Rubin, K.W. (2003) Meat, Legume or Both?: Soy and Health. (Nutrition Update)
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Vitamin D Deficiency Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1652 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44446402

Vol. 4. 145-56.

In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).

o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).

McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…… [Read More]

Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.

His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).

Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
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Overdosed America by Jay Abramson

Words: 1363 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79303949

Chapter 10: Direct to Consumer Advertising


Television advertising has caused a rift in traditional doctor-patient relationship.

Patients arriving for doctor visits with a firm, fixed idea of outcome -- prescribe me the drug because I saw it on television! Encourage consumers to think buying drug like buying soap.

End of expectation that individual doctor knows best and best medical care emerges from open discussion of patient symptoms, concerns, and exam and consideration of the options, some of which may involve lifestyle changes not drugs


1. Even in car, hear about medical miracles that can change your life. Unending assault on consumer ears through various media.

Public Relations

There are financial ties between many of the supposedly most trusted medical experts and the medical industry

Medical 'news' or advertising masquerading as news

Studies on real news shows, funded by drug companies are presented as objective

Inadequate medical coverage and…… [Read More]

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Ulcerative Colitis Initial Presentation the Patient Is

Words: 2339 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12190706

Ulcerative Colitis

Initial presentation

The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.

Historical information

The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.

Presenting Symptoms

He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]


Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.

Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.

Libbey Eurotext.
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Diffusion of Product Innovation Through

Words: 16573 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65231417

Moreover, CoPs develop their practice through improving the diffusion of innovation within their active networks; the benefits of such interactions are countless especially in the field of healthcare. One can assume that specialty doctors' communities would present the perfect example for CoPs because they share the same practice, interest and professionalism. It would be interesting to study if those CoP networks exist in United Arab Emirates, whether they are active or not and whether leaders can be identified. Collecting such data will enable this project to measure if the rate of diffusion of new innovation can be improved and hence be used by pharmaceutical companies in UAE to improve their resource allocation; all within healthcares' ethical framework.

Overview of Study

This dissertation used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. To this end, chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and…… [Read More]

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Macrobutton Dofieldclick Student's Last Name

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41322115

Additional skeletal clues referring to development are that female skeletons tend to mature faster than males, with a hardening of the cartilage occurring at a younger age, by age 18 for females and age 21 for males. This may be due to the reproductive advantage conferred on the species if a female body is strong enough to support a child in utero at an earlier age (Liu, Sartor and Nader).

The age of the skeleton also provides clues relating to development. While younger children and infants may be hard to tell apart in gender, the elderly skeleton may be show osteoporosis in the female skeleton as compared to age-matched males, as the lack of estrogen contributes to decreasing bone density with age. The male skeleton, due to the presence of testosterone, may simply not degenerate as fast in terms of osteoporosis as a female's would (Kim, Sung and Song).

While…… [Read More]


Baum, NH and CA. Crespi. "Testosterone replacement in elderly men." Geriatrics 62.9 (2007): 15-18.

Kim, T, et al. "Sex Difference between Body Composition and Weight-Bearing Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adult Twins: Healthy Twin Study." Calcified Tissue International 88.6 (2011): 495-502.

Liu, D, et al. "Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation." BMC Genomics (2011): PMCID: PMC3091777 .

Silva, RF, et al. "Human identification based on cranial computed tomography scan: a case report." Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology (2011): 257-261.
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Dietary Supplements Calcium to Supplement

Words: 927 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85219961

Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Dietary Supplement Pyramid." (2006) Council for Responsible Nutrition Retrieved 18 May 2006 at  http://www.crnusa.org/about_pyramid.html 

Heinz, Agnes. (1 Aug 1992) "Osteoporosis." American Council on Science and Health. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.864/pub_detail.asp

Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation." (15 Feb 2006) Press Release: Council for Responsible Nutrition. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/prpdfs/PR06_WHI_CalciumVitD021506.pdf
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Grave's Disease

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97073410

Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.

Overview and Brief History of the Condition:

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.


The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.

Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:

pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.

Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
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Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Words: 3536 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30574410

Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).

A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…… [Read More]


8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u- _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx

Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]


Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Safety and Concentration

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28980052

Vitamin D Supplementation

Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.

An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.

In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163

Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient

Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
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Spirit Catches You the World

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45402548

They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).

The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…… [Read More]


Compton, B., Galaway, B., & Curnoyer, B.R. (1994). Social work processes (7th ed.).

Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Fadiman, Anne (1997) the Spirit Catches You, and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown
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Cola Is Bad for Kids

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47001711

And one cannot stop wondering: in a world where there are enough dangers among which drugs, murders etc., do we really want our children to become addicted to some product even from infancy? In a world where there are other addictive factors such as TV, computer games, fast-food, and which, combined, produce illnesses (both physical and psychical) are we to let our children drink coca cola? Are we to add another product to the list of things which tend to destroy our children health?


Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html

LaBudde, obert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007 http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html

Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm

Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/

Martini, Betty.…… [Read More]


Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html

LaBudde, Robert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007    http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html   

Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm

Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/
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Skeletal System Purpose and Functions

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41575906

Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).

Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]


Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html

Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL

Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf

ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
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Marks 2010 Conducted a Through

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4002021

The conclusion of Marks (2010) was that nominal physical activity and exercise on the level of the individual can help in reducing the prevalence of hips fractures and should be encouraged. "Young adults everywhere need to be appraised of their future risk for hip fracture in later life and encouraged to follow healthy active lifestyles." (p.12)

Discussion questions:

1. Quoting Wehre and Magaziner (2003), Marks (2010) says that annual incidence of hip fractures will likely increase rather than increase. May this be due to the unprecedented growth of the elderly population, or rather due to the fact that people are less inclined to engage in physical activity? and, if you think the latter may be the cause why is this s more so now than in previous times?

2. What is the best way to formulate a physical activity program that can encourage people to follow it?

3. Marks (2010)…… [Read More]


Marks, R. (2010) Physical activity and hip fracture disability: A review Journ. Of Aging Research, 223-279

Wehre, L & Magaziner, (2003) J. Hip fracture: risk factors and outcomes, Current Ost. Reports, 1, 78-85
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Paget's Disease

Words: 1856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9221986

Paget's Disease Of Bone

James Paget, 1877

Paget's disease of bone

general information about disease


genetic causes

viral causes

Effects of disease




Diagnosis of Disease

radiographic examinations

laboratory tests

Treatment and Prognosis for patient



disease can be treated but not cured.

Paget's Disease of Bone

In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.

Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.

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Why Do the Japanese Live Longer

Words: 2874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63437076

Japanese Nutrition




As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.

Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…… [Read More]


Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.

London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
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Electro Magnetic Therapy

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95283069

Electromagnetic Therapy

A review of the existing scientific literature

The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…… [Read More]


Battisti, E., Albanese, A., Bianciardi, L., Piazza, E., Rigato, M., Vittoria, A., & Giordano, N.

(2007). Efficacy and safety of new TAMMEF (therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields) system in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

Environmentalist, 27(4), 441-445.

Cadossi, R., Setti, S., & Fini, M. (2011). Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields: I-ONE therapy. Environmentalist, 31(2), 149-154
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Outcomes Evaluation

Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67266842


Study Evaluations

Evaluating the program's progress and results will be an ongoing concern for this study; many of the tools necessary to do so are relatively simple to create and implement. The process for doing so includes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative method will include hard numbers and percentages based on initial testing, ongoing evaluations and a comparative test at the end of the study that will be used to determine results and outcomes. The qualitative method will be based on the perceptions, thoughts, ideals and beliefs of the participants of the study and how they have changed in either negative or positive ways.

Instructional Problem

The instructional problem that this paper will address is "can instructing students in the area(s) of fitness and diet improve the student's capabilities and understanding in regards to how they influence the student's overweight or obesity issues?" Previous research has shown…… [Read More]


Hua, V.; (2010) A strategy worth watching, THE Journal, Vol. 37, Issue 5, pp. 26-31

Kastner, M.; Li, J.; Lottridge, D.; Marquez, C.; Newton, D.; Straus, S.E.; (2010) Development of a prototype clinical decision support tool for osteoporosis disease management: A qualitative study of focus groups, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 10 Issue 1, pp. 40 -- 54

Rivera, M.L.; Donnelly, J.; Parry, B.A.; Dinizio, A.; Johnson, C.L.; Kline, J.A.; Kabrhel, C.; (2008) Prospective randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 8, Issue 1, Special section, pp. 1 -- 7

Rumsey, S. & Loureiro-Koechlin, C.; (2010) The role of an entity registry in scholarly communication: Exploring creative uses of research activity data, New Review of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 16, pp. 17 -- 27
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Search for 'Nutrition for a Healthy Body'

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69669371

Search for 'Nutrition for a Healthy Body' could lead to Analysis Paralysis!

There has been a lot of social attention on 'right nutrition' in recent years, leading to experimenting in different types of foods including herbal preparations. hile I have no doubt that such heightened social consciousness and continued scientific investigation will ultimately benefit humankind, right now one can't help feeling that too much information can be self-defeating. hy or how am I saying this? Ah! Herein lies a story. You see, the spotlight on 'healthy living' had initially led me to doubt as to whether I knew enough about nutrition.

So, I decided to embark on a quest for more information on healthier nutrition and living. I did my research on the web, where I found approximately 221,000 results to my query. Never one to back away from a task that I set my mind on, I sallied forth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Organic Foods: Growers, Buyers and Bugs." "Safe and Sound." November-December 1998. Resource web site. URL:


Tea may help protect against heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis." Healthy eating club newsletter. June 2002. URL:

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Actual Mechanisms Behind the Changes Associated With Aging

Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77671652

Physiological Changes Associated With Aging

Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…… [Read More]


Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]

Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.

Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.

Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
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Health Promotion Strategies and Methods DQ

Words: 2450 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15047224

Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System

Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…… [Read More]


Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.

Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.

Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.

DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Bone Health

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36430380

Bone Health in Children

Bone Health

A healthy, well-balanced diet is essential for normal bone development in otherwise healthy children (Prentice et al., 2006). Sufficient consumption of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats help to build and maintain bones and supporting structures consisting of collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The bone mineral itself consists of calcium and phosphate crystals, but magnesium and zinc are also required. A number of ions are essential, including copper, manganese, and citrate, while vitamins also play an important role, especially vitamin D, C, and K. These minerals, ions, and vitamins are required for the proper development and maintenance of healthy bone mineral and supporting structures.

Genetic studies have provided conclusive evidence of which factors play a role in bone development (Prentice et al., 2006). Naturally-occurring mutations in the vitamin D-receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, insulin-like growth factor, and a number of other genes encoding growth hormones, revealed…… [Read More]


Prentice, A., Schoenmakers, I., Laskey, M.A., de Bono, S., Ginty, F., & Goldberg, G.R. (2006). Nutrition and bone growth and development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(4), 348-60.
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Oral Health

Words: 2715 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90361025

Oral Health

Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…… [Read More]


"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/

Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/

"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors

"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf
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New Ethical Dilemmas in Healthcare

Words: 2702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16425230

3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).

Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.

According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…… [Read More]


Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True

Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from http://www.aamc.org/

Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.

National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649
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Cow's Milk Got Milk This

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19762355

Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).

The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…… [Read More]


Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated

Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.

Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's

Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.
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Enzyme Deficiency Cause Ailments or

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56418955

Lipases digest fat and fat soluble vitamins. Enzyme.com reports, "Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out." Heart disease can come from this.

Cellulase deficiency can lead to sugar or gluten intolerance. Enzyme.com writes, "Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the jejunum and pancreas as well as nervous system conditions such as ell's Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia."

Ethnicity can be related to deficiencies of the body. Emedicine.medscape.com (2010) reports, "Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is most common in Canadian Eskimos and natives of Greenland. They cannot…… [Read More]


Enzymes.com. (2010). "Enzyme deficiencies" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from  http://www.enzymes.com/enzyme_deficiencies.html 

Emedicine.medscape.com. (2010). Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/931041-overview
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Utero Development on the Health

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10393552

The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)

The FIMR Process

FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death

Family Support

Data Collection/Record Review

Maternal Interview

Records Review

Case Review

Community Action

Improved Maternal & Infant Health



Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…… [Read More]


1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html

2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)

3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons

4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
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City of Hope Team Develops

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71921646

The development of a bio-economy capable of supplying the world's energy demand is where the synthetic biologists wish to take this the next step. Additionally, biologists are able to develop a sort of biological acolyte from the principles of synthetic biology, involving synthesizing DNA in combination with the raw building blocks of genetics. A new platform for different biological life form is essentially, what these biologists have discovered.

According to commission chairwoman, and the president of the University of Pennsylvania, Amy Gutmann, "Here's something significant in science, but there's no cause for fear and dread about what is going to happen immediately next." The commission report recommended greater ethical constraint and greater collaboration. Amy Gutmann, further states that ethics training be mandatory for all researchers in the field.

Opponents of the report include Brent Erickson, an executive in the biotech industry. According to the New York Times, Mr. Erickson called…… [Read More]

Indeed, a handful of companies have brought to market new drugs to treat specific diseases including osteoporosis. However, some say this "genome bubble" (Pollack, 2010) has burst and that a lack of pharmaceuticals targeted toward genome modification have not turned out at a high rate. Increases in spending on the genome project exceeded 40 billion in 2009 with no major uptick in the number of available drugs to the population. Additionally, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has increased the testing requirements on the drugs in the pipeline development phase.

Industry executives note that although there is considerable risk and high costs, the project will pay of as a function of time. Assuming they are not out to just keep their job, the idea is as the development stage in its entirety, from drug discovery to marketing to consumers, can approach two decades. Executives at a number of top biotech firms have praised the genome project and its power as an enabler of drug research and drug development.

The article is accurate as it is inclusive of key executives holding top positions within the top biopharmaceutical companies in the world. Additionally, input from regulators is also provided. The human genome project and this subsequent research will undoubtedly affect our lives. Disease and ailments will be understood at the genetic level where new medication can address genetic deficiencies that enable these conditions. The relevance of this article to biology is as essential as Gregor Mendel's work on plant genetics.
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National Health Care Reform Type

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18425829

nytimes.com/2009/02/01/business/01unbox.html accessed June 5, 2010

Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's Views of What Ails Health Care." New York Times, September 8, 2007 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/business/08interview.html accessed June 5, 2010

Pear, Robert. "At a House Party on Health Care." New York Times, December 22, 2008 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/23/health/23health.html accessed June 5, 2010

Pear, Robert. "Democrats Woo Abortion Foes." New York Times, March 19, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/20/us/politics/20health.html accessed June 5, 2010

Rabin, Roni. "ig Gains for Young People." New York Times, May 24, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/health/25land.html accessed June 5, 2010

Sack, Kevin. "usiness Group Joins Suit on Health Law." New York Times, May 14, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/15/health/policy/15lawsuit.html accessed June 5, 2010

Urbina, Ian. "ig Insurance Rate Increase for Pennsylvania Poor." New York Times, March 16, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/17/health/policy/17penn.html accessed June5, 2010

End Notes

"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online] http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=health%20care%20reform&st=cse accessed June 5, 2010


Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's…… [Read More]


"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online] http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=health%20care%20reform&st=cse accessed June 5, 2010

Dupree, Janet. "Disruptive Innovation." New York Times, January 31, 2009 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/01/business/01unbox.html accessed June 5, 2010

Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's Views of What Ails Health Care." New York Times, September 8, 2007 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/business/08interview.html accessed June 5, 2010

Pear, Robert. "At a House Party on Health Care." New York Times, December 22, 2008 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/23/health/23health.html accessed June 5, 2010
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Closed-System Perspective on Management Views

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13567019

The age of the family physician or the nurse that saw a family through their life cycle is no more, creating a more impersonal and less psychologically well-informed healthcare system.

Q8. Perhaps the most important factor contributing to employee stability is that of a pleasant work environment. Collegial relationships between employees, managers that actually listen to staff members, and humane working conditions (i.e., not constantly scheduling nurses to work nights and back-to-back shifts) are essential. Workers should also be fairly compensated, given the work that they do and the education demanded by their position. In the case of high-demand and highly-skilled professionals like nurses, salaries and benefits must acknowledge the competitive nature of the field and the fact that many institutions are offering attractive packages to enhance retention. Factors that work against retention and contribute to high turnover include insensitive management, a highly competitive and backbiting working environment, long and…… [Read More]


Clark, Jonathan J. (2005). "Improving hospital budgeting and accountability: a best practice approach."Healthcare Financial Management. FindArticles.com. 11 Feb, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3257/is_7_59/ai_n14817852/

"Open and Closed Systems." Encyclopedia of Management. Ed. Marilyn M. Helms. Gale Cengage, 2006. eNotes.com. 2006. 11 Feb, 2011 http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia / open-closed-systems

"Six Sigma Management." Six Sigma. 11 Feb, 2011

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Preventing Falls Fall Prevention Preventing

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23588868

According to the Centers for Disease Control, muscle-related problems and a lack of exercise account for about 24% of the falls in subacute facilities. Other causes, which can also be easily addressed within subacute facilities, "include wet floors, poor lighting, incorrect bed height, and improperly fitted or maintained wheelchairs" (Falls in nursing homes, 2010, CDC). These types of environmental hazards are estimated to cause 16% to 27% of falls for patients. Even seemingly unavoidable problems such as medications that interfere with coordination can be mitigated by flagging the individual as taking such a drug, and notifying staff that additional care of the patient is required.

In the instances of patients with dementia, or those who cannot care for themselves enough to learn to improve their balance skills to mitigate the risk of falls, measures other than educational endeavors should be undertaken. "Grab bars, adding raised toilet seats, lowering bed heights,…… [Read More]


Barclay, Linda. (2003). Vitamin D may reduce falls in elderly nursing home patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved through Medscape on December 29, 2010 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/716100

Falls in nursing homes. (2010). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved December 28,

2010 at  http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/nursing.html 

Haines, Terry P., Kim L. Bennell, Richard H. Osborne, & Keith D. Hill. (2004). Effectiveness of targeted falls prevention programme in subacute hospital setting: randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328(7441): 676. Retrieved December 28, 2010 at
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YMCA Represents One of the

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58551001

, 2006). This effect has a neurobiological reason behind it. egular exercise decreases certain stress hormones in the body and increases the body's peak oxygen intake, both of which have the effect of relieving depression and increasing energy levels. Exercise alone has a physical effect on the emotional state of persons suffering from a number of psychological and emotional conditions. This study is only one of many that demonstrates that exercise can be as beneficial to many patients as medications (Nabkasorn, Miyai, & Sootmongkol et al., 2006).

Exercise improves the efficacy of many compounds, such as Modafinil, which is used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. Exercise improved the response of Modafinil on bipolar depression in a number of studies (Belmaker, 2007). This is not to say that exercise is a substitute for medication, but even low intensity exercise was found to relieve or cure many psychological conditions in many cases…… [Read More]


Belmaker, R. (2007). Modafinil Add-On in the Treatment of Bipolar Depression.

American Journal of Psychiatry, August 1, 2007; 164(8): 1143-1145. Retrieved

February 5, 2010 from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/8/1143

Fahmy, S. (2008). Low-intensity exercise reduces fatigue symptoms by 65%, study finds.UGA Today. February 28, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2010 from http://www.uga.edu/news/artman/publish/080228_Fatigue.shtml
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Personal Health Mean to You

Words: 458 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65156976

Having friends committed to a healthy lifestyle can also promote healthy behaviors (Thompson 2009).

Q3: Finally, what is needed to maintain optimal personal health throughout one's lifetime?

Maintaining a healthy weight, getting enough sleep, eating a nutrition-dense diet, drinking enough water, exercising, and maintaining a positive social network that encourages healthy habits are all critical to maintaining optimal personal health throughout one's lifetime. These healthy habits should begin during childhood, so that enjoying physical activity and nutritious food in reasonable portions become a routine -- much like brushing one's teeth every day! Having age-appropriate screenings and treatments such vaccinations and screening for scoliosis when one is young; receiving regular screening for diabetes, high cholesterol and heart disease throughout one's life; cervical cancer screenings for women three years after they become sexually active; yearly mammograms for women after the age of forty; colorectal cancer after the age of fifty for both…… [Read More]


Cancer detection guidelines. (2009). American Cancer Society. Retrieved January 4, 2009 at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/ped_2_3x_ACS_Cancer_Detection_Guidelines_36.asp

Healthier U.S.. (2009). Official website of Healthier U.S.. Retrieved January 4, 2009 at http://www.healthierus.gov/

Thompson, Clive. (2009, September 13). Are your friends making you fat? The New York Times.

Retrieved January 4, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/13/magazine/13contagion-t.html
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Development Theory Brought Forth by

Words: 4380 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5101601

For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).

Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…… [Read More]


Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.

Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.

Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.

Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
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Prebiotic Potential of Chitosans Prebiotic

Words: 6463 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28944082


This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.

In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.

Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97-


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Amgen's Bone-Loss Drug Faces Marketing

Words: 492 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91481828

Yahoo has just announced that it will be spending $100 million on a new ad campaign and political candidates spent hundreds of millions on advertising in the recent presidentail election.

So, marketing in the biotechnology is not really different from other industries. The terminology and players may be different, the basic fundamental marketing principles are the same. A company has to have value-based pricing, not pricing based on costs. and, companies must respond to negative statements about their products as well as spend huge amounts of money on advertising to win mind share.


What are the differences between effective marketing strategies in biotechnology and other industries? Is the pricing strategy for biotechnology products different from other products?

Why Important:

It is essential to apply best-practice marketing principles and methods whenever possible to be successful. However, the uniqueness of biotechnology could require modification to this industry's requirements.

How to obtain:…… [Read More]


Robinson, J.C. (2006, October 23). Biotech: Value-based pricing in biotechnology. Health Affairs.  http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2006/10/23/biotech-value-based-pricing-in-biotechnology/ 

Weintraud, a. (2009, Auust 13, 2009). Amgen's bone-loss drug faces marketing hurdles. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_34/b4144034804527.htm
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Logical Mcinery D Q 2005 Being

Words: 1283 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98958607

Check our facts -- yes, it takes time, and one must rely on a basic understanding of sourcing (askyahoo.com vs. Questia research, for instance); understand your source material (bias, their own issues); what words are being used and why; how reasonable and effective is the interpretation? So, what does all that "homework do?"

Well, according to McInerny, it "prepares" the mind for logic. Once the mind is ready, it is now time to put the principles into the logical matrix: relevancy, argumentation, rhetoric, comparisons, and reasoning. By utilizing this matrix, one avoids the trap of illogical thinking, and the premise that one needs someone "external" to provide answers to events, interpretations, and even the answer, to current and past events. It is our own, individual responsibility, to understand our world, and while the process may not be as quick as a "sound bite," it is certainly more satisfying.

Finally, by…… [Read More]


"Most Young People Entering the U.S. Workforce Lack Critical Skills Essential

For Success." (October 2, 2006). Corporate Voices. Cited in:


"Why Does the World Get American Movies but America Doesn't Watch Their
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Restless Leg Syndrome Is Found

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61583215

At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.


David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…… [Read More]


David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)

Hoffman, p. 56

Balch, p. 390
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Online Scientific Publication for Current

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52506695

The article stated: "To be able to renew itself, most tissues have a reservoir of specific adult stem cells. These stem cells don't divide as frequently as other cell types since they need to maintain the integrity of their DNA, and multiple divisions lead to natural breaks in DNA. But when these stem cells are needed, their progeny can rapidly divide and are able to replenish the tissue with new cells." Without such replenishment, the mice without the normal reserves of ATR had graying hair and hair loss, and osteoporosis, within three to four months. The "10 to 20% of cells that escaped ATR deletion were able to reconstitute tissues in the engineered mice, at least initially. However, it appears that in the long run, even these cells were insufficient to maintain tissue integrity." The ATR deletion speeded up the slow loss of stem cells that come with aging. Of…… [Read More]

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Anti-Aging Diet the Quest for

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59373954

Although human calorie restriction has been shown to improve blood pressure, blood lipids, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance; there are risks associated with this diet.

here are a variety of risks that are associated with calorie restriction diets. hese include: loss of muscle mass, reduced bone density, memory loss, anemia, dizziness, and depression. Due to the reduced caloric intake, malnutrition is also a concern, with inadequate intakes of vitamins and nutrients leading to heart failure and death ("Calorie restriction," 2007). Of primary concern is the reduced intake in fatty acids, which is often associated with a low-fat, calorie restricted diet (sai et al., 2004).


As humans continue their pursuit of evading the aging process, one method has gained considerable scientific interest -- the calorie restriction diet. By reducing the amount of calories consumed by 20 to 40%, studies have shown an increase in life span in organisms from yeast…… [Read More]

Tsai, E., Brown, J., Veldee, M., Anderson, G., Chait, A., & Brunzell, J. (2004). Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth, 4. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.

Wei, M., Paola, F., Hu, J., Ge, H., Cheng, C., Li, L., & Long, L. (Jan 2008). Life span extension by calorie restriction depends on Rim15 and transcription factors downstream of Ras/PKA, Tor, and Sch9. PLoS Genetics, 4(1). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.

Zelman, K. (2009). The anti-aging diet. Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://www.webmd.com/healthy-aging/guide/anti-aging-diet.
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Carbohydrates the Macronutrient Carbohydrates Are

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3988465

The amount of carbohydrates, rather than the source, is the primary concern. lood glucose levels are influenced by the food preparation process, the amount of food, sugar absorption and the combination of foods.

Carbohydrate counting assigns certain carbohydrate grams or exchanges these with specific foods. Computations determine insulin need, which lead to a better control of blood glucose levels over a broad range of foods. Diabetics may even add moderate amounts of sugar as long as these are carefully monitored (Rasberry).#


Jenkins, Emma. Carbohydrates Counting: Successful Dietary Management of Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing S.. Communications, 2006.

Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_14_10/ai_n16689691/?tag=content;col1

Parcell, Allen C., Drummond, M. & Christopherson, D., et al. Glycemic and Insulin

Response to Popular Protein Supplements. Nutrition Research Newsletter: Frost & Sullivan, 2005. Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968070/tag-content;col1

Raspberry, Catherine N. Carbohydrates. Nutrition and Well-eing a-Z:

Gale, Cengage Learning,…… [Read More]


Jenkins, Emma. Carbohydrates Counting: Successful Dietary Management of Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Nursing S.B. Communications, 2006.

Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_14_10/ai_n16689691/?tag=content;col1

Parcell, Allen C., Drummond, M. & Christopherson, D., et al. Glycemic and Insulin

Response to Popular Protein Supplements. Nutrition Research Newsletter: Frost & Sullivan, 2005. Retrieved on April 9, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968070/tag-content;col1
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Vitamin D Supplementation Health &

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35223853

On the other hand, too much of a good thing can sometimes be even more harmful than too little. In that regard, it is very important to understand the role of vitamin D, both because of its role in maintaining our health, as well as because of the potential for harm associated with excessive supplementation.

Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D is not readily available through diet because its primary source is natural sunlight. The U.S. FDA recommends a daily dose of 200 IU, which according to medical authorities, is sufficient to protect against osteomalacia, a medical condition characterized by softening of the bones. However, because vitamin D requirements fluctuate depending on how much sunlight a person receives and are difficult to satisfy through diet alone, 200 IU is considered the RDA in the absence of regular exposure to natural sunlight.

Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption…… [Read More]

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Discrimination Against Women in California

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10108592

Discrimination Against Women in California Health & Medical Contexts

Gender Discrimination: "ED medications are for men only; prescription birth control is for women only. Legislators who permit health plans to operate under a double standard are engaging in gender discrimination against women."

Gender Inequality in California Health Issues

In how many areas of healthcare in California are there disturbing injustices for women? The answer will be the basis for this research effort. This paper will review and analyze several of examples of unfairness to California women in healthcare matters, and reference critics who have challenged the policies that lead to a lack of fairness.

Insurance discrepancies give women the shaft: The California National Organization for Women (CANOW) sites the fact that "women pay much more than men of the same age for individual [health] insurance policies providing identical coverage" (www.canow.org).Writing in the New York Times, Robert Pear echoes the claim…… [Read More]