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Treatment of osteoporosis revolves around specific calcium and vitamin D medication programs but first and foremost in importance is the institution of regular, healthy and appropriately strenuous exercise. This helps to strengthen both muscle support for fragile bones and improves ambulatory abilities to the end of helping to reduce the likelihood of accidents. Additionally, a lifestyle of activity can have decidedly positive preventative properties as well, serving as one of many imperatives to commit to regular exercise.
So is this also the case with respect to nutrition. Dietary habits are both a significant part of prevention and treatment. ith respect to the latter, sources on dealing with osteoporosis indicate that there are specific eating patterns which one can commit to as a way of fighting the conditions effects. Accordingly, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2004) indicates that "since many nutrients are important for bone health, it is…
Raisz, L.G. (2005). Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 115(12), 3318-3325.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2004). Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office of the Surgeon General. Online at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth/content.html
World Health Organization (WHO). (2003). Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series.
In a healthy adult the skeleton is maintained through a process of complementary bone resorption and deposition (Das & Crockett, 2013). The two cell types responsible for this process are the multinucleated osteoclasts derived from the blood and resident osteoblasts. In the course of normal living the skeleton will develop localized, stress-induced microfractures, which trigger resident osteocytes to signal for help from the osteoclasts. The osteoclasts arrive and begin to degrade old bone, while osteoblasts engage in the regeneration process.
As people age the balance between mineralized bone resorption and deposition can become skewed to favor resorption over deposition (Das & Crockett, 2013). This is especially true for post-menopausal women because estrogen has been shown to be essential for maintaining a healthy balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity. This case study examines a 65-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with osteoporosis using a bone density scan. The meaning and…
ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). (2013). ACOG releases practice bulletin on osteoporosis. American Family Physician, 88(4), 273-275.
Baim, S. & Leslie, W.D. (2012). Assessment of fracture risk. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 10(1), 28-41.
Das, S. & Crockett, J.C. (2013). Osteoporosis -- a current view of pharmacological prevention and treatment. Drug Design, Development and Therapy, 7, 435-448.
FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. (n.d.) World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, UK. Retrieved from http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/tool.jsp?locationValue=9 .
Presentation of the disease
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the body fails to regenerate enough bone to replace the bone mass that is lost when the body reabsorbs the tissue as part of the natural cycle of bone regeneration. "Bone is living tissue, which is constantly being absorbed and replaced" (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Definition). "When you're young, your body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and your bone mass increases. Most people reach their peak bone mass by their early 20s" (Osteoporosis, 2011, Mayo Clinic: Causes). Initially, the disease may not present any symptoms for many years. Some patients do not know they have the condition until they experience an unexpected bone break after a minor trauma or during daily activities. Other symptoms include loss of height, back pain from degeneration of the bone of the vertebrae or stooped posture (Osteoporosis,…
Kanis JA. (2002). Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet, 359(9321):1929-36.
Osteoporosis. (2011), Mayo Clinic. Retrieved:
Virginia Henderson's need theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
More than half of all men who undergo a hip fracture go from the hospital to a nursing home, and 79% of those who endure for one year still live in nursing homes or transitional care facilities.
Osteoporosis is a major threat to more than 2 million men in the United States. In spite of these facts, as per a 1996 Gallup Poll, many men still view osteoporosis as a women's disease. Only very few men know that this disease is a major threat to their mobility and freedom. For a majority of the people, bone mass increases during the third decade of life. Men naturally have gathered more bone mass by this age in comparison to women. After this point, the amount of bone in the skeleton naturally starts declining slowly as removal of old bone surpasses the creation of new bone. Men in the 50s do not undergo…
Fast Facts on Osteoporosis. Accessed 16 September 2005; available at http://www.osteo.org/newfile.asp?doc=fast&doctype=HTML+Fact+Sheet&doctitle=Fast+Facts+on+Osteoporosis
Golde, B. New clues into the etiology of osteoporosis: the effects of prostaglandins (E2 and F2 alpha) on bone. Medical Hypotheses. Vol: 38; No: 2; pp: 125-131. June, 1992. Accessed 17 September 2005; available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1326711&dopt=Abstract
Health care topics: Osteoporosis. Accessed 16 September 2005; available at http://www.doctorsforadults.com/topics/dfa_oste.htm
Medications to Prevent & Treat Osteoporosis. Accessed 17 September 2005; available at http://www.nof.org/patientinfo/medications.htm
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and are, therefore, more likely to break (NOF, 2004). Thus, the common perception that bones are inert structures, like wooden beams, is incorrect. For, a bone is actually a living tissue, which is constantly being remodeled. After age 35, however, on the average a little more bone is lost each year than is gained during this remodeling. Between 40 and 50, men characteristically lose 0.5 to 0.75% of bone mass yearly, while women lose it at more than twice that rate. Bones that were once sturdy may become lighter and fragile, with their interiors resembling lacy honeycombs. The rate of natural loss increases substantially after age 50. If its severe enough, the thinned-out bones become porous, and osteoporosis develops, which literally means bone porosity (Walford, 2000, p. 131).
Consequences and Implications: Osteoporosis is often called the "silent disease" because bone loss…
BBC. (2004, November 25). World Osteoporosis Day: 20 October 2004. BBC Health page.
Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004: http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/awareness/worldosteoporosis.shtml#managing
NOF. (2004). Fast Facts. National Osteoporosis Foundation Web site.
Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004:
This study was a "randomized population-based open trial."
The group in this study (287 women) received cholecalciferol 800 IU plus calcium 1,000 mg for 3 years. The women were all between the ages of 66 to 71 years. The "control group" (306 women) received nothing, no vitamins or calcium. The authors of this article assert in a "working hypothesis" that "daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation have a positive effect on the skeleton in ambulatory postmenopausal women" (Karkkainen, p. 1).
The total body bone density mass increased "significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group," the author conclude, and hence the evidence shows that by taking Vitamin D daily -- and by taking calcium as well -- can have a positive effect on the skeleton, for women who are postmenopausal.
Osteoporosis in Younger omen: In her book, omen's Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Nadya Swedan explains that some…
Karkkainen, M., Tuppurainen, M., and Salovaara, K. (2010). Osteoporosis Int: effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in women aged 65-71
years: a 3-year randomized population-based trial. Alternative Medicine Review, 15(2),
175. Retrieved from General OneFile.
Lubna. (2010). A survey of osteoporosis risk factors and practices among Jordanian women.
esearch has shown that resistive exercise in strength training increases strength in the extensor lumbar muscles and reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). This demonstrates that resistive strength training prevents the loss of bone mass, maintains bone mass, improves balance and reduces the likelihood of falls (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010). Strength training exercise that is high impact and intense can reduce back pain and improve bone mineral density in the hips and spine for women in their early post-menopausal years that are at high risk of developing osteoporosis (Lirani-Galvao & Lazaretti-Castro, 2010).
However, other types of exercise have been shown to potentially more effective than strength training for the maintenance of bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Stengel et al. (2005) investigated the difference between strength training and power training in their effectiveness as interventions for the maintenance of bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. These…
Lirani-Galvao, a.P. & Lazaretti-Castro, M. (2010). Physical approach for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 54(2).
Nikander, R., Sievanen, H., Heinonen, a., Daly, R.M., Uusi-Rasi, K., Kannus, P. (2010). Targeted exercise against osteoporosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis for optimizing bone strength throughout life. BMC Medicine, 8(47).
Stengel, S.V., Kemmler, W., PIntag, R., Beeskow, C., Weineck, J., Lauber, D., Kalender, W.A., Engelke, K. (2005). Power traiing is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(1), 181-88.
cohort was divided into halves based on median intakes for protein and calcium. Those with high protein intakes would have tended to be high in both meat and dairy, and those with high calcium intakes would have been high specifically in dairy. Potassium absorption was separately analyzed in those above and below the median intakes for the 2 nutrients. Potassium absorption remained above 90% on both sides of the protein and calcium medians (Table 1), and the small differences between them were not statistically significant. From the failure to find a difference at low and high meat and dairy intakes, it can be concluded that potassium is uniformly well absorbed regardless of dietary source.
A notable feature of the calcium economy is that adjustments of calcium absorption and excretion can diminish the impact of a high calcium intake or compensate for a low calcium intake. Quantifying various nutrient and whole-food…
Frassetto, R., Morris, R.C., Sellmeyer, D.E., & Sebastian, a. (2008) Journal of Nutrition 138(1): 419S-425
Rafferty, K. & Heaney, R.P. (2008) Economy: Emphasizing the potassium controversy.
Journal of Nutrition 138(1): 166S-172
Tylavsky, F.A., Spence, L.A., & Harkness (2008). Importance of calcium and acid-base homeostasis in bone health and osteoporosis. Journal of Nutrition 138(1): 164S-166
They are most effective in the spine, which is the most common site of osteoporotic fracture. The role of adequate calcium intake has always been mentioned as most essential in the growth and development of all normal tissues, including bone. A low-calcium diet restricts the intake of dairy products, has low amounts of fruits and vegetables, and includes a high intake of low-calcium beverages. Other dietary factors can also affect bone health and accrue to the development of low bone density. Among these are a high-sugar diet, refined grains and flours, caffeine, alcohol and excessive intake of calcium, phosphorous and sodium. Soy has been attracting interest for its likelihood in producing positive effect on bone health. Soybeans contain phytoestrogens called isoflavones and diadzein. Soy is the only dietary source of daidzein. Soy appears to increase the length of the menstrual cycle by one to five days and thus assert a…
1. American Family Physician (2004). Osteoporosis. American Academy of Family Physicians
2. AORN Journal. (2004). Many Women Don't Take Precautions Against Osteoporosis. Association of Operating Room Nurses, Inc.
3. Ference, J.D. (2006). Ibandronate for Treatment and Prevention of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians
4. French, L. et al. (2002). Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Journal of Family Practice: Downden Health Media, Inc.
Therefore, bone density may increase. The goal of treatment with antiresorptive medications is to prevent bone loss and lower the risk of breaking bones (Osteoporosis what is it?, 2008).
Teriparatide, a form of parathyroid hormone, is the first osteoporosis medication to increase the rate of bone formation in the bone remodeling cycle and is in a distinct category of osteoporosis medications called anabolic drugs. This is currently the only osteoporosis medication in the U.S. that rebuilds bone. The goal of treatment with teriparatide is to build bone and lower the risk of breaking bones (Osteoporosis what is it?, 2008).
Other drugs available to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis in older individuals are Alendronate, Risedronate, Raloxifene, and Boniva.
Medicare Fracture Prevention and Osteoporosis Testing Act of 2009
In an effort to protect access to osteoporosis testing, legislation was introduced to reverse the drastic cuts in Medicare reimbursement for DXA. Medicare…
The symptoms become clear when an individual experiences dull pain in the neck and lower back. As the disease develops in an individual, the individual becomes more prone to experiencing sudden pains which cause intense pain in this disease. The pain may continue for more than a couple of months. The disease is also likely to spoil the structure of the body. It is responsible for causing spinal compression and stooped posture. The disease mainly affects the lower back and the waist; people suffering from this disease are likely to facture either their hip or the waist. This usually occurs because of a fall and results in the facture of the hip or the waist. This would not happen in an individual who is not affected by the disease, in the sense that a fall would not be as devastating in an individual who is not suffering from this disease.…
Osteoporosis Causes. In E-Medicine Health. Retrieved on 11 December 2008 at http://www.emedicinehealth.com/osteoporosis/page2_em.htm
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Prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis. In Duke Health. Retrieved on 11 December 2008 at http://www.dukehealth.org/HealthLibrary/AdviceFromDoctors/YourChildsHealth/osteoperosis_in_children
Approximately 8 million people in the United States are affected by osteoporosis (Ray, Chan, Thamer, et al., 1997). Of these, 80% are older women (Ray, Chan, Thamer, et al., 1997). In addition to this problem, another 17 million people in this country have low bone mass, which puts them at an increased risk for developing osteoporosis as they get older (Ray, Chan, Thamer, et al., 1997). Every year, 1.5 million broken bones, 500,000 of them spinal fractures and 300,000 of them broken hips, are caused by the disease (Ray, Chan, Thamer, et al., 1997). It has been predicted that 50% of women and 20% of men who are over the age of 65 will have a fracture or broken bone related to osteoporosis at some time throughout their lives (Ray, Chan, Thamer, et al., 1997). The population of the world is increasing, and the life expectancy for people in…
Ray, NF, Chan, JK, Thamer, M, et al. (1997). Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: Report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Endocrine Practice, 12: 24-35.
Riggs, BL, Melton, LJ, III. (1995). The worldwide problem of osteoporosis: insights afforded by epidemiology. Bone, 179(Suppl 5): 505S-11S.
Neer, RM. Osteoporosis. (1995). In: DeGroot LJ, ed. Endocrinology, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, Co: 1228.
Kanis, JA & Pitt, FA. (1992). Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Bone, 13(Suppl 1): S7-S15.
5 SD below Osteoporosis > 2.5 SD below Severe osteoporosis and fragility fracture > 2.5 SD below BMD = bone mineral density; SD = standard deviation
Beck and Shoemaker (2000) state that "calcium consumption alone is not considered adequate protection against osteoporosis" however calcium does play "an important role in the prevention and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. " Optimal calcium intake as stated by the National Institutes of Health are those stated for the age and intake as follows:
Hormone Status Age in Years Recommended Daily Calcium Intake (mg)
Premenopausal 11-24 1,400
Premenopausal 25-50 1,000
or lactating 25-50 1,400
Estrogen 65 1,500
Calcium intake effectiveness is dependent upon the proper levels of calcium being absorbed by the human body. Vitamin D must be present in the body in sufficient levels in order for the body to absorb calcium. Sunlight results in the synthesis of vitamin D…
71+ 600 IU (15 micrograms)
Also important to combat osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and as well bisphosphonates including: (1) alendronate sodium; (2) etidronate disodium; (3) pamidronate disodium; and (4) risedronate sodium, also decrease bone resorbption. Of these, alendronate is stated to show the "greatest efficacy in increasing BMD and preventing fractures and is the only FDA-approved bisphosphate for osteoporosis." (Beck and Shoemaker, 2000) Prevention dose is stated at 5 mg and treatment of established osteoporosis dosage is stated at 10 mg.
The work of Hellekson (2002) states that a consensus statement released by the National Institutes of Health states that Although residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are at particularly high risk of osteoporosis-related fracture, men and women experience an age-related decline in bone mineral density (BMD) starting in midlife. Women experience more rapid bone loss in the early years after menopause, which places them at earlier risk for fractures. An important risk factor in men is hypogonadism. Men and perimenopausal women with osteoporosis more commonly experience secondary osteoporosis than do postmenopausal women." (Hellekson, 2002) Hellekson additionally states: "The bone mass attained early in life is perhaps the most important determinant of lifelong skeletal health. Individuals with the highest peak bone mass after adolescence have the greatest protective advantage. Nutrition, exercise, gonadal steroids, and growth hormone and body composition all play a role in bone density. Building good eating habits early in life is important. In particular, getting enough calcium and vitamin D is crucial. Exercise, particularly resistance-based and high-impact exercise, is also beneficial because it helps increase bone density. In addition, sex steroids (estrogen, testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I) secreted during puberty substantially increase BMD and peak bone mass." (2002) Conclusions related to osteoporosis stated by the National Institutes of Health include the following: (1) Osteoporosis occurs in all populations at all ages; (2) Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake are crucial to develop optimal peak bone mass and to preserve bone mass throughout life; (3) Gonadal steroids are important determinants of peak and lifetime bone mass in men, women, and children; (4) Regular exercise contributes to development of high
Osteoporosis is a disease which effects bone density in the human body. This increases the risk of fracture. Osteoporosis, means "porous bones," and is essentially a condition that arises when the amount of calcium necessary for bone density and structure slowly decreases and therefore makes the body more vulnerable to fractures. (Osteoporosis) This disease affects a large number of people every year. While commonly those over the age of fifty are most at risk, osteoporosis can also affect much younger people. Statistic show that In the U.S. today,
million individuals already have osteoporosis and 18 million more have low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for this disease. One out of every two women and one in eight men over 50 will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime."
Osteoporosis does not affect the organs as such but affects the bone structure and density of skeleton.…
Bennett, B. The Low-Down on Osteoporosis. 2003. August 15, 2005. http://www.nih.gov/news/WordonHealth/dec2003/osteo.htm
Osteoporosis. Brown University. August 14, 2005. http://www.brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/general_health/wh_osteoporosis.htm
Osteoporosis Overview. August 13, 2005. http://www.osteo.org/osteo.html
Veracity D. Bone density sharply enhanced by weight training, even in the elderly. News Target, August 15, 2005. http://www.newstarget.com/010528.html
Therefore, differences caused by calcium supplementation may not be notices. Differences that are more noticeable may be found in a population of women that is calcium deficient prior to the supplementation program.
The Wallace & Ballard study concluded that physical activity and calcium intake could increase bone mass. However, in absence of clinically significant dosage, the results of the study remain subjective. It is not known if patients were able to assess accurately their calcium intake accurately, or if they accurately reported their physical activity.
Both of these studies have merit, even though they reached opposing conclusions about the importance of calcium intake and BMD. Both studies contained numerous confounding variables that could have affected the results and that could have influenced interpretation of the results. From a clinical standpoint, the experimental design is more conclusive. However, these results may have been influenced by a number of confounding variables, such…
Wallace, L. & Ballard, J. (2002). Lifetime Physical Activity and Calcium Intake Related to Bone
Density in Young Women. Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine. 11
Winters-Stone, K. & Snow, C. (2004). One Year of Oral Calcium Supplementation Maintains
EMPHASIS ON ONE HEALTH
Osteoporosis is a condition wherein bones turn weak and become prone to fracture (Ma, 2013). It is the most common bone affliction. Statistics say that about half of all women older than 50 will suffer from some fracture of the hip, wrist or spine from this age onward. One's existing bone is always being replaced evey 10 years. When this does not occur, osteoporosis develops or when the body reabsorbs too much of existing bones, or both (Ma).
These are genetics, insufficient calcium intake, smoking, childhood or adult diseases, and reduced estrogen in women or testosterone in men (Ma, 2013). Osteoporosis can be passed on from parents to children. The lack of calcium can lead to osteoporosis as calcium is one of the most important minerals used by the body to form bones. Vitamin D is another important element. Without these two, one…
Ma, B.C. (2013). Osteoporosis. PubMed Health: A.D.A.M., Inc. Retrieved on February 26, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001400
Office of the Surgeon General (2004). Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved on February 26, 2015 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45506/
A 60-year-old female patient has been diagnosed with osteoporosis according to a recent bone density examination. A patient can be diagnoses with osteoporosis condition after bone density measurements, which usually differ based on the size, machine, and placement of region of interest. These measurements also involve studying overlying material where it is measured and the lack of normal structures such as laminectomy. Given that this condition affects a huge number of people in the United States and results in more than 1.5 million fractures annually, it is important for patients to measure bone mineral density. The diagnosis of the condition should be made before the initial fracture takes place, since once a fracture occurs in osteoporosis the risk of another fracture is relatively high (ichmond, 2003, p.353). This diagnosis is important in order for the patient to undertake necessary lifestyle changes and treatment procedures that help in preventing fractures.…
Richmond, B. (2003, April). DXA Scanning to Diagnose Osteoporosis: Do You Know What the Results Mean? Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 70(4), 353-360. Retrieved from http://www.ccjm.org/content/70/4/353.full.pdf
Kleerekoper, M., Rosen, C.J., Mudler, J.E. & Villalba, C. (2013, June 28). Patient Information:
Bone Density Testing (Beyond the Basics). Retrieved August 31, 2014, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/bone-density-testing-beyond-the-basics
Preventative measures can help keep bones strong and healthy. Calcium, phosphorous, and Vitamin D absorption are keys to preventing osteoporosis as well as treating the condition to prevent injury. Cigarette smoking and heavy drinking may exacerbate osteoporosis, and refraining from smoking and drinking can also prevent the condition from developing. Some medications have been developed specifically to increase bone density and prevent osteoporosis from worsening. Treatments for osteoporosis include exercise, which bolsters muscle strength and takes stress off of bones. Vitamin supplementation and dietary habits may also help minimize bone density loss. Some medications and surgical procedures can also remedy bone loss.
National Osteoporosis Foundation. "Osteoporosis: A Debilitating Disease that can be Prevented and Treated." Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/index.htm
Shiel, .C. "Osteoporosis." MedicineNet.com. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from http://www.medicinenet.com/osteoporosis/article.htm
Osteoporosis is a condition that one has when bones lose their density. They become porous like a fossilized sea sponge. Anyone who has ever been to the beach and found one of these knows how brittle and fragile they are. They slightest bump and they can break or shatter into a hundred pieces. When you have osteoporosis, this is what your bones are like. As Ferrara (2016) points out, bones are living tissues. Like the exterior of bodies, which replaces dead tissue with new tissue, bones replace old bone with new bone. In order to keep that process going, we have to keep our bodies in excellent shape.
What causes osteoporosis? It can have a number of causes. Sometimes it occurs in older women after menopause, when the body goes through a major change (Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine, 2009). Sometimes people develop it at an earlier age because…
Boron is a mineral that has seen some controversy in the past. Seen as a poison for bug eradication and a cleaning agent in laundry, boron is often seen as something that should not be ingested when it is called ‘Borax’. However, boron has several uses and ingesting the mineral can be beneficial for those dealing with problematic bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Several new studies have shown boron’s positive effect on bone metabolism in both human studies and rat studies.
One study aimed to understand potential effects of daily boron on postmenopausal women. They saw a positive effect from daily boron use. “Serum osteocalcin level in the CC genotype was significantly higher compared to the TC genotype in boron-exposed group (P???0.05). Our study suggests that daily boron intake of 1?mg/L may affect bone metabolism in postmenopausal women positively” (Boyacioglu, Orenay-Boyacioglu, Yildirim, & Korkmaz, 2018, p. 52). Boron allows the minerals…
Osteoporosis and the Health Belief Model
Discuss the Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model was initially a systematic mode of predicating and thus preventing health behavior. By focusing on the relationship between the practices and the behaviors of health services it aimed to create a theoretical presentation of the same. Later it was revised to motivate the general health for the 'purpose of distinguishing illness and sick-role behavior from health behavior'. [Brown, 1999] The HBM is essentially a concept that integrates psychological motivators with physical and social settings. Its said to have been initiated in 1952 by three socio-psychologists, Godfrey Hochbaum, Stephen Kegels and Irwin osenstock. During the 1950's the society realized a need to prevent disease rather than cure it. The U.S. Public Health Service was more concerned with preventing outbreaks which would have a nationwide impact than with trying to solve and cure the symptoms that individuals…
Brown, Kelli M. [January 11, 1999] HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Community and Family Health University of South Florida
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999a). NOF Physician's Guide: impact and overview [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/physguide/impact_and_overview .
National Osteoporosis Foundation [NOF]. (1999b). Osteoporosis Fast Facts [Online]. Available: http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/ stats.htm.
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
Hence calcitonin has been found to reduce the turnover of bone and pain in Paget's disease patients.
It is found as an injection: 200 units/ml administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Also available is intranasal spray: 200 units/activation (0.09 ml/puff) which is administered into the nostril. There are no adequate studies of calcitonin in pregnant women and nursing mothers. Calcitonin salmon helps treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone but does not cure them. Patients should continue using calcitonin salmon even if they feel well and should only be stopped by the doctor. Using calcitonin salmon for osteoporosis, it is also essential to get enough calcium and vitamin D
Calcitonin salmon may cause side effects such as stomach upset, vomiting, redness, swelling, or irritation at the site of injection, flushing of the face or hands, increased urination at night, itching of the ear lobes, feverish feeling, eye pain, decreased appetite, stomach pain,…
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…
Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.
Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.
Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…
Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.
Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.
Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.
Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
As a woman enters her geriatric years, many unique problems are also faced. Her post-menopausal period leaves a woman with increased risk of osteoporosis, and hormone-replacement therapy may need to be considered or dismissed depending upon the needs and wellness of the individual women. Additionally, increased risk for obesity begins nearly at the adolescent period, when women's hormone loads change and often activity of childhood decreases. The incidence of obesity and overweight among women perpetually increases with every year of life. ("Overweight, Obesity Threaten U.S.," 2002, p. 8)Obesity and overweight, as one of the most significant conditions associated with several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke and hypertension should be developed as a lifespan issue, as the needs of intervention and prevention change as women age and go through various stages of life.
While women have functional characteristics that require specialized health care,…
Blackwell, Daria, 2002. Women in the Healthcare Industry Reaching for the Top. Medical Marketing & Media, Dec2002, Vol. 37 Issue 12, p44, 8p.
Fleming, Carl, 2004. Healthcare Access: Conflicts of Interest Presented by Managed Care Icu Bedside Rationing and Their Impact on Minorities and Women. Georgetown Journal of Gender & the Law, Spring2004, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p663-676.
Heyman, B., & Henriksen, M. (2001). Risk, Age and Pregnancy: A Case Study of Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing / . New York: Palgrave.
Lueck, T.L., & Chang, H. (2002). Tribune's 'WomanNews' Gives Voice to Women's Issues. Newspaper Research Journal, 23(1), 59.
Mechanisms of Aging
Mechanism of Aging
Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)
Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…
Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.
Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.
Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 11% of EVISTA®-treated women and 9% of placebo-treated women. Common adverse events related to EVISTA® therapy were hot flashes and leg cramps. Hot flashes were most commonly reported during the first 6 months of treatment and were not different from placebo thereafter.
Cholestyramine causes a 60% reduction in the absorption and enterohepatic cycling of raloxifene after a single dose. Thus, co-administration of cholestyramine with EVISTA® is not recommended.
Overall, raloxifene exerts similar positive on bone mineral density and bone turnover as other SEMS and estrogen therapy. However, the reduction in fracture risk is improved with SEMs vs. estrogen (Nakamura 632).
Overall, administration of calcium and vitamin D is more effective and economical than any approved drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The annual cost of calcium and vitamin D treatment is $22 compared to $255 for estrogen,…
Barrett-Connor, E., et al. "Risk-Benefit Profile for Raloxifene: 4-Year Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (More) Randomized Trial." J. Bone Miner Res 19.8 (2004): 1270-5.
Borgstrom, F., et al. "Cost Effectiveness of Raloxifene in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Sweden: An Economic Evaluation Based on the More Study." Pharmacoeconomics 22.17 (2004): 1153-65.
Bryant, H.U. "Mechanism of Action and Preclinical Profile of Raloxifene, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2.1 (2001): 129-38.
Cranney, a., et al. "Meta-Analyses of Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Iv. Meta-Analysis of Raloxifene for the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis." Endocr Rev 23.4 (2002): 524-8.
Fall Among the Elderly Age Group
Falls among the Elderly Age Group
Expected falls and unexpected falls
isk Elements for Falls
Outline of Several Different Strategies
Counseling and Health Education Strategies
Exercise and physical activity 8
Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness
Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem
Schedule an appointment with your Medic
Wear sensible shoes
According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased…
A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.
Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.
JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.
Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.
Calcium potentiates the effect of estrogen and calcitonin on bone mass," (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998) and "Calcium and Osteoporosis" (New Zealand Vegetarian Society web site). oth articles, while dealing with the same issue, had differing viewpoints leading to my concluding that there are many more variables involved in the prevention of osteoporosis than depletion of calcium in the body.
The first article presents as fact the evidence of 31 studies that found that postmenopausal women who took estrogen had an average increase of 1.3% in spinal bone mass, while those who took a combination of estrogen and calcium supplements had an average increase of 3.3%. Contra to this, the second article refers to evidence extracted from a different body of research studies published by reputed journals such as the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal Clinical Investigation and Science magazine, to establish as fact that there is "no…
Bone of Contention." The News and Observer. July 4, 2002. Health World Online. URL:
Calcium and Osteoporosis." New Zealand Vegetarian Society web site. URL:
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Menopause and Its Consequences
Menopause is that inevitable and irreversible time when a woman's reproductive cycle and menstruation periods gradually end, as her ovaries cease to respond to male gonadotropins and her capacity to become pregnant stops (Mayeux, Jr. 1997). This spontaneously occurs between 45 and 55 in American women, with 51 as the median age.
A woman's ovaries at the menopause are nearly empty of primary follicles - which, in child-bearing age, are abundant, mature and can be fertilized by the male sperm cell, resulting in conception and pregnancy. At menopause, the ovaries' production of the hormone called estrogen becomes very minimal, and this altered condition of a lack of estrogen produces many unpleasant symptoms in approximately 70% of all postmenopausal women (Mayeux, Jr.). These symptoms include hot flushes and extreme warmth, profuse sweating, tremor, irritability, and depression. Physically, the female reproductive organs shrink and lose…
1. American Medical Women's Association. (1999). Q & A on Hormone Replacement
Therapy and Breast Cancer. (accessed 02-01-03). http://www.amwa-doc.org/healthtopics/hrt_breastcancer_qa.htm
2. Hempel, Karl. (1996). Estrogen Replacement Therapy. The Health Gazette.
A accessed 02-01-03). http://www.freenet.scri.fsu.edu/HealthGazette/ert.html
Soy Protein and Bone Health in Women
Soy, a protein-rich legume, has been prominently featured in the traditional cuisines of Far Eastern cultures for thousands of years. In addition to its high protein content, soy also contains the other two macronutrients, carbohydrates and fats, as well as many vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients such as calcium, folic acid, and iron. Dietary sources of soy protein include soybeans, tofu, beans curd, tempeh, miso, and soymilk. Since it represents a vegetable source of high quality complete protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, soy is particularly valued by vegetarians, who must derive all their dietary protein from vegetables rather than from animal products.(DGPL)
Soy has yet to become as integrated into American cuisine as it has always been in the Far East, but its sales have gradually increased over the last ten years, to approximately $3 billion and almost one third…
Boyles, S. (2002) Soy Doesn't Improve Bones in Young Women: Benefits May Be Confined to Those Who are Menopausal and Older. WebMD Inc.
Medical News Archive; Accessed March 21, 2004 at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/53/50459.htm
Messina M, Hughes C. (2003) Efficacy of Soyfoods and Soybean Isoflavone Supplements for Alleviating Menopausal Symptoms is Positively Related to Initial Hot Flush Frequency. Journal of Medicinal Food 6:1-11.
Rubin, K.W. (2003) Meat, Legume or Both?: Soy and Health. (Nutrition Update)
Vol. 4. 145-56.
In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).
o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).
McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…
Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.
His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).
Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
Chapter 10: Direct to Consumer Advertising
Television advertising has caused a rift in traditional doctor-patient relationship.
Patients arriving for doctor visits with a firm, fixed idea of outcome -- prescribe me the drug because I saw it on television! Encourage consumers to think buying drug like buying soap.
End of expectation that individual doctor knows best and best medical care emerges from open discussion of patient symptoms, concerns, and exam and consideration of the options, some of which may involve lifestyle changes not drugs
1. Even in car, hear about medical miracles that can change your life. Unending assault on consumer ears through various media.
There are financial ties between many of the supposedly most trusted medical experts and the medical industry
Medical 'news' or advertising masquerading as news
Studies on real news shows, funded by drug companies are presented as objective
Inadequate medical coverage and…
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
Additional skeletal clues referring to development are that female skeletons tend to mature faster than males, with a hardening of the cartilage occurring at a younger age, by age 18 for females and age 21 for males. This may be due to the reproductive advantage conferred on the species if a female body is strong enough to support a child in utero at an earlier age (Liu, Sartor and Nader).
The age of the skeleton also provides clues relating to development. While younger children and infants may be hard to tell apart in gender, the elderly skeleton may be show osteoporosis in the female skeleton as compared to age-matched males, as the lack of estrogen contributes to decreasing bone density with age. The male skeleton, due to the presence of testosterone, may simply not degenerate as fast in terms of osteoporosis as a female's would (Kim, Sung and Song).
Baum, NH and CA. Crespi. "Testosterone replacement in elderly men." Geriatrics 62.9 (2007): 15-18.
Kim, T, et al. "Sex Difference between Body Composition and Weight-Bearing Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adult Twins: Healthy Twin Study." Calcified Tissue International 88.6 (2011): 495-502.
Liu, D, et al. "Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation." BMC Genomics (2011): PMCID: PMC3091777 .
Silva, RF, et al. "Human identification based on cranial computed tomography scan: a case report." Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology (2011): 257-261.
Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…
The Dietary Supplement Pyramid." (2006) Council for Responsible Nutrition Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/about_pyramid.html
Heinz, Agnes. (1 Aug 1992) "Osteoporosis." American Council on Science and Health. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.864/pub_detail.asp
Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation." (15 Feb 2006) Press Release: Council for Responsible Nutrition. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/prpdfs/PR06_WHI_CalciumVitD021506.pdf
Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition which impacts the human thyroid gland. Excessive production of the thyroid hormone engorges the gland and it continues to grow. Because of this, there can be many adverse affects to the person's health, particularly in terms of ophthalmological and dermatological symptoms. The exact cause of the condition has not been determined nor has a cure for the disease. However, there are treatment methods available which can alleviate symptoms and even prevent further hyperthyroidism in the patients.
Overview and Brief History of the Condition:
Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder which most commonly affects the thyroid gland and results in hyperthyroidism, or over activity of the gland. Patients with this disease experience various symptoms but have a shared epidemiology. This condition creates antibodies which impact receptor activation within the thymus.
The specific cause of Grave's disease is as yet unknown; however there are theories…
Agabegi, E. & Agabegi, S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Hagerstown, MD. 157.
Bunevicius, R. & Prange, AJ. (2006). Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism:
pathophysiology and treatment options. CNS Drugs. (20:11). 897-909.
Cawood, T., Moriarty, P., & O'Shea, D. (2004). Recent developments in thyroid eye disease.
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
Vitamin D Supplementation
Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.
An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.
In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…
ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163
Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient
Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005
Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).
The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…
Compton, B., Galaway, B., & Curnoyer, B.R. (1994). Social work processes (7th ed.).
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Fadiman, Anne (1997) the Spirit Catches You, and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown
And one cannot stop wondering: in a world where there are enough dangers among which drugs, murders etc., do we really want our children to become addicted to some product even from infancy? In a world where there are other addictive factors such as TV, computer games, fast-food, and which, combined, produce illnesses (both physical and psychical) are we to let our children drink coca cola? Are we to add another product to the list of things which tend to destroy our children health?
Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html
LaBudde, obert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007 http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html
Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm
Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/
Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html
LaBudde, Robert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007 http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html
Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm
Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
The conclusion of Marks (2010) was that nominal physical activity and exercise on the level of the individual can help in reducing the prevalence of hips fractures and should be encouraged. "Young adults everywhere need to be appraised of their future risk for hip fracture in later life and encouraged to follow healthy active lifestyles." (p.12)
1. Quoting Wehre and Magaziner (2003), Marks (2010) says that annual incidence of hip fractures will likely increase rather than increase. May this be due to the unprecedented growth of the elderly population, or rather due to the fact that people are less inclined to engage in physical activity? and, if you think the latter may be the cause why is this s more so now than in previous times?
2. What is the best way to formulate a physical activity program that can encourage people to follow it?
3. Marks (2010)…
Marks, R. (2010) Physical activity and hip fracture disability: A review Journ. Of Aging Research, 223-279
Wehre, L & Magaziner, (2003) J. Hip fracture: risk factors and outcomes, Current Ost. Reports, 1, 78-85
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…
Davidson, Alan. (1989). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ling, Wen Hua, et al. (2001). "Black and Red Rice Decreases Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Increases Antioxidant Status." Journal of Nutrition. Vol. 131. 1421-26.
London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
A review of the existing scientific literature
The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…
Battisti, E., Albanese, A., Bianciardi, L., Piazza, E., Rigato, M., Vittoria, A., & Giordano, N.
(2007). Efficacy and safety of new TAMMEF (therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields) system in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
Environmentalist, 27(4), 441-445.
Cadossi, R., Setti, S., & Fini, M. (2011). Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields: I-ONE therapy. Environmentalist, 31(2), 149-154
Evaluating the program's progress and results will be an ongoing concern for this study; many of the tools necessary to do so are relatively simple to create and implement. The process for doing so includes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative method will include hard numbers and percentages based on initial testing, ongoing evaluations and a comparative test at the end of the study that will be used to determine results and outcomes. The qualitative method will be based on the perceptions, thoughts, ideals and beliefs of the participants of the study and how they have changed in either negative or positive ways.
The instructional problem that this paper will address is "can instructing students in the area(s) of fitness and diet improve the student's capabilities and understanding in regards to how they influence the student's overweight or obesity issues?" Previous research has shown…
Hua, V.; (2010) A strategy worth watching, THE Journal, Vol. 37, Issue 5, pp. 26-31
Kastner, M.; Li, J.; Lottridge, D.; Marquez, C.; Newton, D.; Straus, S.E.; (2010) Development of a prototype clinical decision support tool for osteoporosis disease management: A qualitative study of focus groups, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 10 Issue 1, pp. 40 -- 54
Rivera, M.L.; Donnelly, J.; Parry, B.A.; Dinizio, A.; Johnson, C.L.; Kline, J.A.; Kabrhel, C.; (2008) Prospective randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 8, Issue 1, Special section, pp. 1 -- 7
Rumsey, S. & Loureiro-Koechlin, C.; (2010) The role of an entity registry in scholarly communication: Exploring creative uses of research activity data, New Review of Academic Librarianship, Vol. 16, pp. 17 -- 27
Search for 'Nutrition for a Healthy Body' could lead to Analysis Paralysis!
There has been a lot of social attention on 'right nutrition' in recent years, leading to experimenting in different types of foods including herbal preparations. hile I have no doubt that such heightened social consciousness and continued scientific investigation will ultimately benefit humankind, right now one can't help feeling that too much information can be self-defeating. hy or how am I saying this? Ah! Herein lies a story. You see, the spotlight on 'healthy living' had initially led me to doubt as to whether I knew enough about nutrition.
So, I decided to embark on a quest for more information on healthier nutrition and living. I did my research on the web, where I found approximately 221,000 results to my query. Never one to back away from a task that I set my mind on, I sallied forth…
Organic Foods: Growers, Buyers and Bugs." "Safe and Sound." November-December 1998. Resource web site. URL:
Tea may help protect against heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis." Healthy eating club newsletter. June 2002. URL:
Physiological Changes Associated With Aging
Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…
Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]
Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.
Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.
Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
Nursing Case Study and Theoretical Knowledge of Healthcare System
Significant evidence shows that the responsibilities of the primary and acute care nurses vary significantly. The variation creates differences in the scope of work for the nurses, as they are engaged in different job perspectives. Primary and acute care nurses provide an array of services that aim at promoting health, preventing the occurrence of diseases, treating the sick, and providing the e clients with services, meeting their needs alongside creating public awareness to issues that affect their health and well-being. The difference of the services provided by the two becomes evident by the fact that the acute care nurses provide their services to patients who are critically sick, creating continuum variation in the services provided. In addition, nurses involved in the provision of nursing care services in the acute setups require specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise that allows them to provide…
Brown, L., Burton, R., Hixon, B., Kakade, M., Bhagalia, P., Vick, C., et al. (2011). Factors Influencing Emergency Department Preference for Access to Healthcare. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13(5), 410-415.
Brown, S., & Stenner, P. (2009). Psychology without foundations history, philosophy and psychosocial theory. London: Sage Publications.
Crowe, M., & Carlyle, D. (2003). Deconstructing risk assessment and management in mental health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 19-27.
DiClemente, R.J., Crosby, R.A., & Kegler, M.C. (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bone Health in Children
A healthy, well-balanced diet is essential for normal bone development in otherwise healthy children (Prentice et al., 2006). Sufficient consumption of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats help to build and maintain bones and supporting structures consisting of collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The bone mineral itself consists of calcium and phosphate crystals, but magnesium and zinc are also required. A number of ions are essential, including copper, manganese, and citrate, while vitamins also play an important role, especially vitamin D, C, and K. These minerals, ions, and vitamins are required for the proper development and maintenance of healthy bone mineral and supporting structures.
Genetic studies have provided conclusive evidence of which factors play a role in bone development (Prentice et al., 2006). Naturally-occurring mutations in the vitamin D-receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, insulin-like growth factor, and a number of other genes encoding growth hormones, revealed…
Prentice, A., Schoenmakers, I., Laskey, M.A., de Bono, S., Ginty, F., & Goldberg, G.R. (2006). Nutrition and bone growth and development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(4), 348-60.
Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…
"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/
Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/
"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors
"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf
3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).
Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.
According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…
Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True
Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from http://www.aamc.org/
Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.
National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Champe, P. (2008). "Introduction to Carbohydrates." Lippincott's Illustrated
Reviews: Biochemistry. Williams and Williams.
Chen, H., et.al. (2007). "Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's
Disease." American Journal of Epidemiology. 165 (9): 998+.
Lipases digest fat and fat soluble vitamins. Enzyme.com reports, "Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out." Heart disease can come from this.
Cellulase deficiency can lead to sugar or gluten intolerance. Enzyme.com writes, "Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the jejunum and pancreas as well as nervous system conditions such as ell's Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia."
Ethnicity can be related to deficiencies of the body. Emedicine.medscape.com (2010) reports, "Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is most common in Canadian Eskimos and natives of Greenland. They cannot…
Enzymes.com. (2010). "Enzyme deficiencies" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.enzymes.com/enzyme_deficiencies.html
Emedicine.medscape.com. (2010). Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/931041-overview
The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)
The FIMR Process
FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death
Data Collection/Record Review
Improved Maternal & Infant Health
Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…
1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html
2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)
3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons
4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
The development of a bio-economy capable of supplying the world's energy demand is where the synthetic biologists wish to take this the next step. Additionally, biologists are able to develop a sort of biological acolyte from the principles of synthetic biology, involving synthesizing DNA in combination with the raw building blocks of genetics. A new platform for different biological life form is essentially, what these biologists have discovered.
According to commission chairwoman, and the president of the University of Pennsylvania, Amy Gutmann, "Here's something significant in science, but there's no cause for fear and dread about what is going to happen immediately next." The commission report recommended greater ethical constraint and greater collaboration. Amy Gutmann, further states that ethics training be mandatory for all researchers in the field.
Opponents of the report include Brent Erickson, an executive in the biotech industry. According to the New York Times, Mr. Erickson called…
Indeed, a handful of companies have brought to market new drugs to treat specific diseases including osteoporosis. However, some say this "genome bubble" (Pollack, 2010) has burst and that a lack of pharmaceuticals targeted toward genome modification have not turned out at a high rate. Increases in spending on the genome project exceeded 40 billion in 2009 with no major uptick in the number of available drugs to the population. Additionally, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has increased the testing requirements on the drugs in the pipeline development phase.
Industry executives note that although there is considerable risk and high costs, the project will pay of as a function of time. Assuming they are not out to just keep their job, the idea is as the development stage in its entirety, from drug discovery to marketing to consumers, can approach two decades. Executives at a number of top biotech firms have praised the genome project and its power as an enabler of drug research and drug development.
The article is accurate as it is inclusive of key executives holding top positions within the top biopharmaceutical companies in the world. Additionally, input from regulators is also provided. The human genome project and this subsequent research will undoubtedly affect our lives. Disease and ailments will be understood at the genetic level where new medication can address genetic deficiencies that enable these conditions. The relevance of this article to biology is as essential as Gregor Mendel's work on plant genetics.
National Health Care Reform
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On March 23, 2010, President Barrack Obama signed into law the first piece of major health care legislation in decades.
This follows a long uphill battle that both sides went through, where a series of initiatives were proposed over the years. Yet, none were never fully enacted out of the possible fears surrounding what they could do to: competition, the overall quality of care and costs. As time went by the overall levels of health for millions of Americans would become worse, as the number of uninsured continued to increase.
Then, when you consider the fact that a large portion of the population is becoming older and more people are suffering from preventable diseases such: diabetes, obesity and hypertension, only made the situation worse. This is because treating these different conditions requires more use of health care services and prescriptions drugs. As…