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reluctant to accept other cultures other military tactics and forms of government which could have help them. There have been several studies on Sparta. Many writers concern themselves more with Spartan institutions than with the relating of a chronological historical narrative (A. Andrewes, 1954). Sparta's unique social structure and military organizations have also aroused the interests of some who choose to interpret her history in terms of a particular ideology or philosophical orientation.
The more prominent features of Spartan that emerged from these researches and history are its war culture, slavery, a rigid and harsh way of life and that they did not accept changes to their living style. Following a detailed discussion of these aspects followed by the reasons why Sparta was reluctant to accept other cultures.
Sparta and ar
The Spartans lived to fight, and they fought to live. The state structure relieved the citizens of the burdens…… [Read More]
The world is more interconnected now than ever before, both with technological tools and also with population migrations that are occurring on an unprecedented scale. People who grow up in pluralistic, heterogeneous societies like the United States, India, or Canada take cultural diversity for granted. However, many people around the world live in homogenous societies with little contact with other cultures other than through what they read about or see in media. Plurality in a diverse society does not, however, automatically lead to social harmony or understanding. In fact, the United States continues to struggle with racist elements in its own society. Places like India that have for centuries been pluralistic also have problems with xenophobia. Discrimination, stereotyping, and suspicion create innumerable psychological and social problems, which can be remedied simply by changing attitudes and norms. Therefore, it is always important to reiterate the need for cultural literacy and cultural…… [Read More]
In this briefing new employee human resources, we will be considering cultural management issues in the tourist industry and how they impact upon our business. Our company, Beach Bum Ltd. is a travel consultancy Agency which was recently hired to provide a critical analysis on whether or not sustainable tours can attract American ecological tourists to travel to countries such as Tanzania and Namibia. We are a culturally eclectic group of advisors specialising in all aspects of tourism. Cultural sensitivity is not only our watchword, but our bottomline. Please do not feel overwhelmed by all of this information. Some of you may feel as though you are back in college. est assured, the difference between profit and bankruptcy in our business is the ability to sell in that person's culture. People like to feel important and an acknowledgement of their importance is not just being nice. It is also…… [Read More]
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…… [Read More]
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…… [Read More]
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…… [Read More]
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…… [Read More]
The very notion of 'Asian-American' is a false construction, given the distinctive cultures that exist within the region. Moreover, some recent Asian immigrants, such as those from Cambodia or Vietnam, may have more impoverished economic circumstances than individuals from more affluent Asian nations.
Culture is not a static thing: it is constantly in flux, and fuses with other cultures. A second-generation immigrant may passionately identify with certain aspects of his parent's culture, but may also incorporate elements of America into his identity. Every time there is an encounter with another culture, both representatives from each culture will change. A good example of this can be seen in religion: even though the religion of Christianity was imposed upon African-Americans, African-American religious traditions have reconfigured this religion into something positive and uplifting that can serve as a vehicle of political and spiritual mobilization.
The temptation, when viewing a new culture, is to…… [Read More]
There are different styles and measurements that have been used by this model in reflecting on the relationship between culture and leadership. The model proposes and stands by the fact that transformational leadership is a building that is established with the use of an appropriate avenue of culture. The model states and supports the fact that it becomes highly possible to have a genuine basement. This is a basement in which all the possible avenues of performances and attributes are giving to the generalized states of establishing and leading people. Culture can be dominant in some situations. Nonetheless, the establishment and building of culture is because there are many attributes of change and management that will call for the establishment and maintenance of a good cultural background at any given time. According to studies, transformational leadership styles are more effective than transactional leadership styles, and transactional leadership styles are more…… [Read More]
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]
culture might influence the perception of time. Provide an example from two cultures and explain how each culture differs in its members' perception of time.
Perceptions of time: An intercultural comparison
The United States is a clock time-focused society, particularly in regards to business activities. Events during the workday are supposed to happen at an appointed hour, in most instances. hen the local Starbucks posts that it will open at 9am, its customers are restless if it is still closed at 9:15am. In contrast, in many other cultures, specific demarcations of time are not rigorously observed. In other cultures, 'event-based' time is of greater priority -- whatever event happens to draw the focus of the participants in the moment is given greater weight than the fact that the clock says it is time to begin a particular activity (Brislin & Kim 2003: 366).
Punctuality is important in the United States,…… [Read More]
Culture is defined by the pattern of collective thoughts and behavior that people living in social groups learn, create and share. Characteristics within culture distinguish different groups from each other and highlight key differences between the human world and the animal kingdom. Anthropology emerged as a field of academic study of human culture in order to understand the diversity of the practices and values of different human populations.
With the advent of advanced technology, communication, and media capabilities, widespread globalization has emerged, resulting in an apparent decrease in the difference between cultures throughout the world. The results of this globalization may be observed in the homogeneity of certain aspects of pop culture, mostly due to media such as television and the internet. Although younger generations of people in different countries on different continents appear to behave similarly in a lot of respects, the question should be addressed as to whether…… [Read More]
e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.
I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.
I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.
Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.
There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…… [Read More]
African Culture: An Overview
As with other cultures, one may find that the African culture is quite different from the culture of the Caucasians, Asians, and Europeans. However, due to urbanization, improvements, and influences that they find in the continuous development of technology, there has been gradual similarities that were created between their culture and that of the other races.
The traditional African culture is basically composed of beliefs that they inherited from their ancestors. Mostly, this includes beliefs in gods and goddesses, as well as in different forms of idols. Their ways of living from day-to-day are based on the principles of their beliefs in gods and goddesses in which their objective is to always please their gods. If one is to visit a conventional African tribe, one can find different statues, valuable goods, and exotic foods that they consider as parts of their lives and are most of…… [Read More]
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…… [Read More]
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]
cultures across time and geographical locations is the universality of symbols and rites, and the construction of social hierarchies. Furthermore, it was interesting to see how certain cultures, like the Luba, governed themselves and how religious, and sometimes supernatural, attributes are often associated with kings. For instance, Lubu kings worked to hide their human qualities, which appears to insinuate that these kings wanted their followers to revere them as gods, or to at least have power similar to a god or power derived from god. This is an interesting concept considering that in many monarchies around the world, kings have claimed that they are second-in-command, only to God. I am also highly impressed by the complex structure of the government and the role assigned to specific individuals. I think it would be interesting to analyze how different cultures (European vs. African) influenced each other or if the formation of a…… [Read More]
Culture is obviously an issue that pervades all aspects of life. This is and remains true even in cultures that are rather homogenous in nature like Japan. Just one of the realms of life that culture pervades is the workplace. Rose Kearney-Nunnery openly explores this from the perspective of nursing. Two of the important concepts that she covers when it comes to the same is cultural competence and cultural humility. They involve the same overall topic but they are actually quite different in terms of their definition and function. While it is possible to get too fixated and focus on what makes people different from a cultural standpoint, not focusing on such things at all is less than wise.
The first term up for discussion is cultural competence. The author mentioned in the introduction briefly summaries the term by saying it is the competent and informed…… [Read More]
If it isn't demons, idols, and black magic, it's sex -- the most repressed impulse in the estern-Christian tradition.
During and after his time in the court of Kubla Khan, one notices an increased tone of rationality in the narrative. Less exoticized details of the life of people in the Orient begin to emerge, such as food and clothing habit, but the earlier sensationalism is not lost entirely -- perhaps cannot be, as it is such an engrained part of the estern perspective when viewing the sights of Asia. He travels to a region he identifies as "Bengala," which according to Latham is likely Bengal but could possibly be Pegu, which was in the process of being conquered during the time of the Great Khan's court (Latham, 189). Though this passage also contains a brief and simple message about the main sources of sustenance for the people in this region,…… [Read More]
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
We…… [Read More]
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Turkey & Culture
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Culture & Marketing in Turkey
Culture is a critical aspect of successful marketing strategies. Marketing firms must perform diligent and thorough research on their prospective consumers for several reasons. Culture is a key factor in determining tastes, aesthetic preferences, behavior, values, and perspectives on other cultures, among other things. As such, it is the responsibility of any marketing department to know the culture to which they intend to market products for consumption. This holds true in any location, though the focus of this paper will be upon the country of Turkey. Turkey is a country that is part of both Europe and Asia, and this trait alone can provide some insight as to the complexity and richness of the culture. This paper will examine the impact of culture on multinational…… [Read More]
Among the best ways to shape organizational culture and still be sure that the employees and their socially diverse cultures are being represented and honored is through ethical leadership models. Three of these models are: P4, Complexity, and 4-V. Each of these models will be discussed here. The P4 model stands for Purpose, People, Planet, Probity (or Purity or Principles) (Ethical, 2014). These four things are the cornerstones of sustaining success when it comes to any organization or business in the modern day, and require those who are in leadership positions to really think about what they are offering to their company, their employees, and their customers and stakeholders (Ethical, 2014). The goal is to show that the organizational purpose is strong, and that it is reconciled with proper care of others in order to keep the company moving forward without causing any harm to the people who…… [Read More]
Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos
PESONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.
My social status is mostly a…… [Read More]
d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).
The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful…… [Read More]
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture…… [Read More]
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is…… [Read More]
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…… [Read More]
In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).
According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…… [Read More]
Culture of Narcissism" By Christopher Lasch
Current paper is a report on 'The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations' written by Christopher Lasch. The book was first published in 1979. The author will focus on why the 1950s were simpler times as compared to modern era. The author will also discuss the theme and topic of the book and critically analyze the depiction of contemporary culture in America by Lash.
The main question of this book was: why it happened that a familiar and serious mental disorder was replaced and dominated by another in United States?. How it emerged that patients having strong symptoms of classic neuroses were reinstated by patients with 'diffuse dissatisfactions'? Why there has been a trend of more and more patients coming with indistinct problem like 'feeling dissatisfied with their lives; feeling that their survival has no reason; with self-esteem and…… [Read More]
There are circumstances as Crane a. And Matten D. (2004)
discussed showing that the compromise on standards is likely to occur owing to the idea of gifts.
Contrary to this notion, in china gifts are not given to influence one decisions but as a norm of appreciating. While no specific standard to the gift is required, the gift works only to share one appreciation of the business undertaken. Looking at the situation at Almond and it potential business relations there is a specific value assigned to the gift expected. This clearly comes out as a measure to influence potential business relation an aspect that Singh J. et al. (2005)
describe as bribery. Singh J. et al. (2005)
argue that, assigning of value to a gift demonstrates bribery that is against international business code. The case for Almond having to give a specified volume of commission is indication of bribery.
Codes…… [Read More]
Such an inclination to dismiss work like Hofstede's might rather be defined as bad science, because the definition of validity that is used in the human sciences now is one that has been imported from the hard sciences in an attempt to transfer to the human sciences the prestige of the hard sciences.
However the concept of validity is not based on a single research methodology. Instead it refers to a specific epistemological approach, which is that to be valid a study has to be able accurately to answer any question(s) that it is intended to provide a response to. Experimental validity arises from the fact that the research methodology and design provide an accurate way to measure what it is intended to measure.
This last specification, which is accepted to the point of being nearly universal, has a certain circular quality to it, and this criticism is as true…… [Read More]
She kills Homer so she will have eternal love, as unreal as that seems, and to placate the townspeople who think she will commit suicide because of Homer's desertion. Southern women had few choices other than marriage, and for Emily, killing Homer was a rational act that gave her control and reason over something. In her town, that would not have been possible for a single, unmarried woman. Her culture limited her, and so she made the only decision she could to remain sane in a limiting and irrational world.
This is a sad story not because Emily lived so long contentedly with a dead man, but because the townspeople were so uninvolved with her and her plight. With some support and understanding, she might have lived a rational and happy life, but the culture did not support that for her or for other women.… [Read More]
Culture, Continuity and Change
The Mayan people
In 800 A.D there existed the Maya Empire that comprised of many powerful city-states that spread south to Mexico and North to Honduras. The Maya culture was at its peak with massive temples lined up However a hundred yeas later the cities were in remains, unrestricted and just left alone for the jungle to reign. It still remains a great mystery of how the Mayan civilization disappeared. This in fact remains as one of the greatest mysteries in history.one among the mighty civilizations in ancient America just fell within a short period of time. No one is certain about what happened to the Maya people. However there are many theories which include varied alternatives that try to give an explanation of this abrupt and mysterious disappearance. Some of these theories will be discussed below.
The famine theory
Preclassica Maya (1000B.C -300 AD) carried…… [Read More]
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…… [Read More]
Not meeting them is not only a sin according to the tenets of the religion, but it also causes damage to the spouse with whom a partnership was made and the children that are a result of that partnership.
More precisely, failing to live up to familial obligations is a sin because it causes damage to the spouse and children. Jewish daily life, as Mrs. Baron explains, is built around a constant devotion to God. Cooking, eating, sleeping, waking, bathing, and almost every other common task of everyday life is associated with some ritualistic elements and/or prayer to remind each person that every bit of good done is in service to God. Making sure your family is cared for in the best manner possible is part of this, and this explains the different roles that exist in her family. She acknowledges that the roles have changed somewhat since her grandparents…… [Read More]
2. Someone kicks a dog.
esponse: The person should go back and check if the dog is okay! This person may either drunk or extremely cruel and hates dogs. In any case, it is wrong to kick a harmless dog.
3. A woman carries a heavy jug of water on her head while her husband walks in front of her carrying nothing.
esponse: He should stop and help her with the jug of water. Her husband is not being a gentleman. He is not being a very good husband if he makes his wife carry heavy items and walks ahead of her though he not carrying anything, himself.
4. A male guest helps a female host carry dirty dishes into the kitchen.
esponse: The male guest should be thanked by the hostess because he is being courteous and polite by helping her carry out the dirty dishes.
5. A young…… [Read More]
Cultues in Conflict & Change
William Faulkne leaves us in suspense at the end of a tubulent sequence of events titled "Ban Buning." Who killed whom? We could speculate fom othe books pehaps but those wods ae outside this stoy. Given that stict constaint, we don't eally know. Saty watches De Spain and his hose vanish in the distance and heas thee shots, which he assumes kill his fathe at least, and pehaps olde bothe. This is the widest possible assumption but a fulle analysis would have to exploe othe possibilities. The esult fo Saty is the same: He uns away fom fathe, bothe and the women's cultue egadless who pulled which tigge(s) at the De Spain ban. Abne Snopes will appea hee as 'AS,' De Spain as 'DS' and 'Saty' as 'CSS' fo bevity, but also abstaction, because Faulkne ('WF') sets up abstactions, though symbolic equations that pemeate the…… [Read More]
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…… [Read More]
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…… [Read More]
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…… [Read More]
In this instance, the stronger culture can easily consumer the lesser culture. Employees tend to be more receptive due primarily to the lack of culture and also by the prestige and power of the acquiring firm. Assimilation often occurs will smaller, less established companies being acquired by much larger competitors. As the company is just beginning to emerge, many culture qualities have not become entrenched. Assimilation however, is very rare in the context of mergers.
What is a more common strategy is that of deculturation. This is due primarily to the fact that employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the…… [Read More]
Interviews with company leadership and project team leaders, when they can be identified and have availability for such interviews, will also be conducted along the same lines, though with more purposeful and direct questioning regarding their desires for progress in project management and their view of organizational culture and structure.
The research proposed herein will build on current understandings of project management, enhancing the current body of literature by taking a comprehensive view of leadership styles, organizational culture, and organizational structure as they relate to project management. The broad scope and qualitative nature of the proposed research will ensure that it reliability and validly describes the very human situations that the research will encounter, leading to effective recommendations for organizational behavior and for future research.
Cheng, M.; Su, C. & You, H. (2003). "Optimal Project Organizational Structure for Construction Management." Journal of construction engineering and management 129(1), pp.…… [Read More]
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…… [Read More]
Culture Capital and Its Impact
Summary and response
The article deals with the concept of cultural capital and tries to weigh the validity of the claim that cultural capital affects students academic performance in the light of some recent researches and author' own research. The article is highly informative and offers an insight into the various socio-cultural factors that affect one's educational performance and success in practical life. It has often been argued that certain discriminatory factors influence the academic performance of students of lower class due to which the social division remains static and the gap widens instead of narrowing with the passage of time. However this article reveals that instead of discriminatory factors, culture capital is believed to be the asset that determines the academic performance of various social groups. The author presents findings from various important studies in this area and introduces us to concepts that are…… [Read More]
The rise of globalization has been a contentious issue both economically and politically. Aspects such as tax incentives for overseas operations, repatriation of dollars earned in foreign markets, and potential currency wars used to devalue exchange rates, are all problems plaguing a globalized society. Add the possible threat of cyber terrorism, and global companies have a cacophony of threats that are as difficult to enumerate as they are to understand. However, through these threats, society has generally benefited for the technological advances and financial globalization of enterprise. For one, capitalism continues to spread all around the world. This provides incentive for society to innovate, and improve the overall quality of life for everyone involved. Financial globalization provides the needed capital to overseas ventures that are deemed worthy of investment. Through transparency initiatives, emerging markets are now better able to secure vital funding needed to innovate. Language adoption has facilitated…… [Read More]
This would become the basis of a profound shift in European knowledge: classical mechanics (Hooker).
Francis acon (1561-1626), added a key element to the genesis of the mechanical universe in his attacks on traditional knowledge. He proposed the Aristotelean model of induction and empiricism as the best model of human knowledge. This model of systematic empirical induction was the piece that completed the puzzle in the European world view and made the scientific revolution possible (Hooker).
The mechanical universe would emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work (1642-1727). He based his entire view of the universe on the concept of inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object; every object in motion stays in motion until redirected or stopped by another object. He argued that all the planets and other objects in the universe moved according to a physical attraction between them, which is called gravity; this mutual…… [Read More]
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…… [Read More]
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…… [Read More]
Culture and media cannot be separated and hence advertising has a strong impact on culture and vice versa. It is interesting to see how media influence behavior and at the same times, accepts cultural changes and reflects the impact through advertising. One major example of this is the use of wireless communication. With increase in use of all wireless devices like ipods, iPhones and cell phones, the advertising has also taken on a new meaning ad method. Mobile advertising is now a common phenomenon where people get offers and deals even simple advertising messages through their wireless devices.
This shows how cultural changes impact advertising and how advertising in turn affects cultural trends. Advertising serves a very important purpose whether we admit it or not. It allows us to choose from a wide variety of alternatives. But what happens when advertising becomes a little too invasive. There is a good…… [Read More]
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.
Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]
I longed for a mother with a scarf on her head and a skin so dark that I never would have to be afraid at night again that the sun would ever burn me" (350). It is this sense of personal shame of having a white mother, caused by the teasing of her peers, that perhaps drives the daughter's longing to travel to Surinam someday to meet her extended family and learn of her black father's roots. "… I began to think about everything, about who my parents were, about my mother, about where my father is from, about what I am, about who were are together" (349).
Her parents are reluctant to allow their daughter to go, but finally give in when it is the summer of the grandmother's eightieth birthday. The father and daughter make the long trip to Surinam. "I knew that we were flying away from…… [Read More]
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central constructs" around a policy that hopefully would help children that were "shackled by the chains of disadvantage which bind them to a life of hopelessness and misery" (Stein, 2004, xiv).
Schools were a "promising site for government intervention" because the field of education could "…interrupt the otherwise intractable poverty culture," Stein continued, reviewing the federal government's attempt to end poverty. By funding programs to help low income students, the government set out to "…impart middle-class norms, and break the chains of poverty and disadvantage," for poor students, blacks, Latinos, immigrants and others who were seen as "victims of cultural deprivation," Stein continues on page xv. But the problem with the government's intervention was that the "very characterizations of 'disadvantaged youth'…functioned in ways…… [Read More]
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]
Culture and Health Care |
A eview of Culture on Health Disparities, Health elated Practices and Healthcare Outcomes
The social status of an individual refers to the rank one holds within a group or community; and requires conformance to such rights, lifestyle, and duties as understood by prestige and social hierarchy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Status may be attained or ascribed in different ways. One, for instance may inherit such status at birth as it happens in monarchies and Kingships. This kind of status climb has nothing to do with one's innate abilities or skills. Ascribed status is based on such factors as age, family relations, lineage, birth, sex, and similar considerations while acquired status is earned. It may be based on such factors as the level of education, marital status, occupation and similar factors that come with accomplishment of certain feats that required some practical effort.
Status is…… [Read More]
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…… [Read More]
He realizes that Magnus' rage is not simply conservative, but has a nationalist and liberal ethos behind it, however misguided the man's anger may occasionally seem to Owen.
But even at the beginning of Act III, as Owen is beginning to soften, his strategies of going back to the original names of places, before local shortening and slang, suggest to the viewer or reader that such a strategy may be no more effective than keeping things as they are -- the play suggests that there is no perfect translation, no way to perfectly preserve a pristine Irish past, as Magnus wishes to do, nor to create an Irish future in English, without some sacrifice of power to the linguistic tyranny of England. Owen begins his translation project seeing the initial resistance he experiences as part of the Irish people's almost instinctive fear of change, rather than an exhibition of true…… [Read More]
I find the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture to be parochial, offensive and ill-formed, the product surely of American thinking. Nobody from any other culture would see the world in that light, because they are actually informed about the non-American world. Writers arguing in favor of the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture are laughably ill-informed. They make heroic errors in judgment in their arguments. The reality that there is some evidence of globalization, but only in the most superficial ways has this actually made its influence. Consider a moment the supposition that food and entertainment are changing -- not only is this a great leap but food and entertainment are rather superficial when one considers the depth and breadth of individual cultures.
The first thing to point out is that culture runs rich and deep. America is an…… [Read More]
hen Europeans colonized Brazil, for example, the indigenous peoples intermarried or otherwise bonded intimately with those Europeans and the result was a hybrid identity, "mestizaje," which Noh refers to as a native Brazilian combining his or her identity with a Portuguese identity.
Hence, in the twentieth century hybridity has been transformed into a "…cultural phenomenon" which is now explored by anthropologists and other social scientists -- and it means that growing volumes of people are moving "…from one place to another" and as they move they create "…new cultural and sociodemographic spaces and are themselves reshaped in the process" (Luke, 2003, p. 379). The point of Noh's article -- boiled down to a safe overview -- is that cultural borders between countries and regions "…have been blurred" and in their place is an "intercultural mixture" because "…all cultures are involved in one another" (p. 7). In fact some scholars insist…… [Read More]
Culture and Visual Identity:
The art piece chosen is "Soliloquy: Life's Fragile Fictions" painted by Moyo Ogundipe in 1997. Ogundipe is from Nigeria and belongs to the Yoruba culture. Many of the elements within the painting express the ideas and customs of the Yoruba people. The Yoruba people founded their particular part of Nigeria in approximately the 12th century AD. Art was a very important part of the culture; they were especially known for their statues featuring images of human beings. Yoruba religious practices and natural elements were also common characteristics of artwork from the region. The Yoruba were primarily an agricultural people who were harvesters rather than hunters (Mullen). Everything that possessed a life force was considered of equal importance to the Yoruba. They would take the same amount of effort in naming their children as their pets, putting both through a special ceremony.
According to researchers,…… [Read More]
Whether the rejecter's brain functions differ was not studied in their research, but in the future merging neurobiology with cultural psychology would yield even more fruitful results about the extent to which our culture does and does not produce specific responses in terms of how we think and act.
Delude, Cathryn (2008).Culture influences brain function, study shows. MIT News.
etrieved October 9, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/psychology-0111.html
Fischer, onald & Shalom Schwartz. (2011). Whence differences in value priorities?:
individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Hofstede, Geert. (2001). Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA.
Leung, Angela K.-Y. & Dov Cohen. (2011). Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100 (3): 507 -- 526.
Nauert, . (2010). Cultural environment influences brain function. Psych Central. etrieved on…… [Read More]