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The requirement of sustainable fishing practicing was is now more than ever. There is a need for the endorsement of instruments and approval of programs due to which maritime safety can be promoted. Governments and communities must step forward and work for the protection of environment, reduction of marine pollution and getting rid of environmental damage that is caused by water vessels, both big and small. The rate of the world's fisheries depletion can be compensated only with the application of a bilateral approach (Nuttall).
Overfishing is escalating day by day as fishermen are catching fish and other valuable marine species at a rate that is faster than their reproduction rate. The ever-increasing global demand for seafood along with the meager management of fishing industry and invention of more efficient fishing tools and techniques need immediate measures. If these problems are not given their due importance and attention, the marine…
Allan, J.D., Abell, R., Hogan, Z., Revenga, C., Taylor, B.W., Welcomme, R.L. & Winemiller, K. "Overfishing of Inland Waters." BioScience 55.12 (2005): 1041-1051. JSTOR. Web. 5 Apr. 2013. .
Beckham, E. "Overfishing." Environmental Encyclopedia. 4th ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2011. 1228-1231. Global Issues in Context. Web. 9 Apr. 2013. .
Clover, Charles. "We are fishing our oceans to death: Want to make a real difference? End fisheries subsidies, says CHARLES CLOVER. (Comment)." Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 3 Apr. 2007: A15. Global Issues in Context. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. .
McQuaid, J. "Oceans of Trouble." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock, AR). 19 May 1996: J1+. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 09 Apr 2013. .
For centuries, the seas have been viewed as a limitless bounty, a continuous source of food and resources. However, decades of fishing, pollution and destruction of habitat have taken their toll. Scientists now estimate that some 90% of the oceans have been overfished. ith over 80 species of fish teetering on the verge of extinction, experts liken the continued human consumption of ocean life to the last buffalo hunt.
This paper focuses on the effects of overfishing on one of the most widely-consumed fish species - the tuna. The first part of the paper is an overview of the various tuna species. The next part then examines the reasons behind the depletion of the tuna population. In the last part, the paper details the consequences of this depletion, and the various proposals put forth to help the tuna population recover.
Overview of the tuna population
Commercially speaking, tuna…
ECES News Article." News articles. 7 February 2003. ECES. 1 August 2003 http://eces.org/ec/extinction/marinefish.shtml.
Greenpeace. "Greenpeace launches campaign to save endangered tuna." Archives. 27 March 1997. Greenpeace. 1 August 2003 http://archive.greenpeace.org/~comms/97/ocean/press/march25.html.
Hailes, Julia. "The Trouble with Tuna." BBC News. May 2000. BBC. 1 August 2003 http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/features/pf_jh_tuna.shtml .
Mediterranean bluefin tuna on endangered list." SPC Fisheries Information Newsletter January - March 2002.. 3 August 2003 http://www.spc.int/coastfish/News/Fish_News/100/NIAR_100_3.htm .
Marine Life Extinction Caused by Over Fishing
Our planet consists of 75% life-giving, life-sustaining water. From lakes to oceans, man relies on the waters of this planet to provide nourishment for survival - from drinking water to food to eat. Over the centuries, we have made use of these natural resources, but recently our use has turned to abuse as more and more marine species face extinction due to our over-use of the ocean resources.
Like we are a part of the great food chain in the ecosystem of the planet, various marine animals and species are threatened by extinction and decrease in population due to over-fishing of certain predators and/or members of the food chain that these animals rely on for survival.
Different species of marine life face extinction for various reasons, but the majority are in declined numbers because of over-fishing. Not all animals and fish varieties are…
Conservationists warn grey nurse shark faces extinction. ABC News Online, 18th March 2003. Retrieved from: ABC Sci-Tech, http://abc.net.au/news/scitech/2003/03/item20030310000128_1.htm
Troubled Waters. Environment Magazine, Issue: September 2003, Excerpted from: Pew Oceans Commission press release, 4 June; and Science, 6 June. (S.B.) (Online copy available at: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1076/7_45/107217742/print.jhtml)
Bowen, L. World's leading scientists issue unprecedented plan for protecting ocean and marine life EurekAlert newsletter, 3 June, 2003.
Harder, B. Catch zero: what can be done as marine ecosystems face a deepening crisis? Science News, July 26, 2003. (Online Edition, retrieve copy from: (www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/4_164/106423567/print.jhtml)
Carothers, Courtney. "Equity and Access to Fishing Rights: Exploring the Community Quota Program in the Gulf of Alaska." Human Organization 70.3 (2011): 213- 223. Print.
he article points out that the efforts of the United States and Canada with regard to controlling fishing along the Pacific coast have been produced unfair practices toward small businesses and villages. he primary issue is that tribes that rely on the fishing industry have not been allowed to take the level of fish will fill their needs. he programs currently in place require entities to buy "catch shares" which are supposed to balance the total take and help sustain the fisheries for future use. he author explores alternative means of sustainability that will assist smaller groups while maintaining fish numbers. he suggestions range from allowing community groups to cooperate so that they have a larger stake to buy rights, to supporting new legislation which…
The author writes that many species of large ocean fish are disappearing quickly. This article gives numbers to support the notion that swordfish, tuna and shark populations may be decreasing at levels never seen before. Up to 90% of the volume of fish seen in 1950's may now be gone. The culprit is the technological ability of fishing vessels to stray farther from shore and stay out longer. The article also discusses some of the recent measures that international organizations have taken to mediate this decline such as working with Pacific island governments to self-regulate. This particular stance has proven difficult though because the governments are poor and need the fishing license fees to survive.
Wild, Susan. "Sustainability Reporting in Fishing Industry Management -- Regulation vs. Volunteerism." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal 2.3 (2008): 57-70. Print.
Countries, industries and individual businesses are said to be very interested in following a current economic model that supports social and environmental well- being. However, when such programs interfere with the economic good they often take a "back seat." The author looks at these types of programs, which are voluntary, versus actual legislation, both national and international, which would compel responsibility. The article finds that allowing entities to govern themselves has resorted in unsustainable overfishing in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. The issue is that, in the past people have not been willing to voluntarily act; they have needed government intervention to do so. The author looks at the probability of several different programs that would encourage people to act in a voluntary manner to arrest their overfishing activities rather than have the government regulate them further. This solution would help maintain the fisheries and give the fishermen some degree of autonomy from the government.
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
The fact that people express particular interest in particular types of fish means that large fish are likely to be replaced by smaller fish that feed on plankton, especially considering that these fish gradually come to have less and less natural predators. Marine ecosystems are thus significantly altered as the number of predators slowly drops while plankton also drops as a result of more and more plankton-eating small fish having no one to prey on them.
The marine ecosystem no longer functions the same as a series of fish species become seriously affected by fishing. The general public thus needs to acknowledge the critical condition the marine ecosystem and to raise public awareness concerning the impending catastrophe that the world is about to experience.
In addition to the marine ecosystem being affected, overfishing is also responsible for generating economic and social problems throughout the world. "The cod fishery off Newfoundland,…
"Overfishing," Retrieved April 2, 2013, from the GreenPeace Website: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/overfishing/
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
This has also introduced salt water fish and marine life that can exist in fresh water, the many forms of Jellyfish being one of several who have made their way nearly a hundred miles inland on the river (Salazar, 2000). If the dam had not been built the influx of marine life from the ocean would not have occurred, which would have led to a greater stabilization of the fish ecosystem. The many benefits of a fish and water-based ecosystems matter more in countries with lower per capita incomes where the waters are fished for regularly meals instead of for sport. In China, the river is the equivalent of the western world's grocery store. Creating such a huge disruption to the river has in effect contaminated the "grocery store" for millions of residents who rely on the fish for a source of food along the river's bans. Not only has…
Henry C. Alberts, Renee M. Alberts, Mitchel F. Bloom, a. Diane LaFlamme, & Satu Teerikangas. (2004). The Three Gorges Dam Project from a systems viewpoint. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(6), 585.
Joanna Gail Salazar. (2000). Damming the child of the ocean: The three Gorges project. Journal of Environment & Development, 9(2), 160-174.
Manik Suri. (2003). A river in peril: The waters rise at Three Gorges. Harvard International Review, 25(3), 10-11.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
Scientists are unable to determine the amounts of gases that will be released into the atmosphere because the early studies on permafrost melting are no longer accurate.
The melting of the permafrost does not only affect the environment because of the gases that it releases, but also, because it would lead to the erosion of the Arctic coastlines. This would have a devastating impact on the industry present there and on sites that are of great cultural importance. ith the coasts being eroded because of permafrost, sea waves and storms will have better access to the shore. Communities and ecosystems are anticipated to be affected by the floods coming in through the coastal wetlands. The financial costs required for mass movements are colossal, and, in some areas, relocation processes have already taken place. Communities and industrial facilities in coastal areas have had no other solution than to reposition, given the…
1. Brent Carpenter, "Warm Is the New Cold: Global Warming, Oil, UNCLOS Article 76, and How an Arctic Treaty Might Stop a New Cold War," Environmental Law 39.1 (2009).
2. Hassol, Susan; Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2004). "Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment." Cambridge University Press.
3. Sommerkorn Martin & Hassol Susan Joy, "Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications EXECUTIVE SUMMARY." Retrieved April 21, from the WWF China Web site: http://www.wwfchina.org/wwfpress/publication/gdl/arcticreport.pdf
4. "IPCC Report The Arctic: Thawing Permafrost, Melting Sea Ice And More Significant Changes." Apr 11, 2007. Retrieved from the Science Daily Web site: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070410140922.htm
" (SD, 1)
McClintock goes on to connect this to pointedly negative consequences for marine life, arguing that many invertebrates are distinctly vulnerable because their protective shells require many of the nutrients naturally available in their surrounding water to maintain hardness or to develop at all. This is a concern which is also raised in the article by Monroe (2009), where the results of an experiment designed to confirm this effect were as expected. Accordingly, "[Victoria] Fabry, a biological oceanographer and visiting researcher at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego, studies the effects of ocean acidification on the mollusks known as pteropods. In one experiment, only 48 hours of exposure to slightly corrosive seawater caused normally smooth shells to become frayed at the edges on their way to eventual dissolution, severely diminishing their owners' chances of survival." (Monroe, 1)
This demonstrates that the increased acidification of the ocean's…
ANI. (2010). CO2 Negatively Affecting Environment of World's Oceans. Thaindian News.
Monroe, R. (2009). Carbonated Oceans. Explorations: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Pechenik, J. (2004). Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math.
Pinet, P.R. (2009). Invitation to Oceanography. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
When finished, it will produce enough energy to power 8,000 Oahu homes and reduce carbon dramatically. The Kaheawa Wind Power farm expansion now has 14 more turbines which will make it a 50 megawatt production center with some capability for overnight battery storage. Even with the advances in technology, the idea of using wind -- a free resource that simply needs funding for equipment and maintenance, is increasingly important ("enewable Energy Sources," 2010).
Other companies are exploring the combination of solar and wind to produce energy for smaller projects. For example, alternative power generators could drive down the need for energy if just 20% of corporations used renewable energy. One case in point is the Parker ang, using a combination grid and tracking system that literally turns cells toward the sun and aims the wind turbines. This system was built in just 5 months, and will completely pay for itself…
"Hawaii Small-Scale Energy Projects," (2010). Power-Technology.com. Cited in:
"Hawaii Wind Energy News," (2010). Wind Energy Industry Today. Cited in:
This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.
Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.
Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.
Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.
Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward
Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…
The year 1858 had been the most successful when concerning the amounts of money made over guano. Subsequently, people lost their interest in guano, since it seemed to have lost its fertilizing superiority. It appears that the success experienced by guano had been owed to several intervening factors. Firstly, guano had no serious competitors at the time when it became known around the world. Secondly, the fact that its British supporters had promoted it brought confidence to the farmers. The industry only lasted for a few decades, as people had focused their attention on alternatives. Farming changed along with the coming of artificial fertilizers, which surpassed guano both in price and in efficiency.
Not only did guano have to suffer as a result of better fertilizers emerging, but it also lost important ground because of its reserves being consumed. It seemed that all hope had been lost when concerning guano…
1. Goodman, Jordan. "Guano Happens (Sometimes): The Discovery during the Mid-19th Century That Bird Droppings Could Be Used to Reverse Falling Crop Yields Saw Governments around the World Join a Frenzied Rush to Annex Any Guano-Encrusted Outcrop They Could Get Their Hands on. Jordan Goodman Delves into the History of the Excreta Change the World." Geographical, Vol. 78, November 2006.
2 W.M. Matthew. "Peru and the British Guano Market." 1840-1870. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Apr., 1970)
3 W.M. Matthew. "Foreign Contractors and the Peruvian Government at the Outset of the Guano Trade ." The Hispanic-American Historical Review, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Nov., 1972)
4 W.M. Matthew. "A Primitive Export Sector: Guano Production in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Peru." Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1 (May, 1977).
" The answer is not yet known, as the matter is divisive, with some people disregarding the effects that their actions have on the environment while a few others struggle to have the whole world understand and fight for the planet's well-being.
All things considered, humans depend on the global ecosystem and its balance, and, as long as we want to provide the future generations with a healthy life in a healthy world, we have to help nature regain its former glory.
Ecosystems are yet another proof that nature is clever and that it can use a multitude of factors to create perfect environments. It is almost a miracle how ecosystems have worked together to create the present day world, where countless organisms live together and depend on each other.
1. Barnthouse, Lawrence . Suter, Glenn . (1993). "Ecological risk assessment." CRC Press.
2. Hugett, Richard John. (1998).…
1. Barnthouse, Lawrence W. Suter, Glenn W. (1993). "Ecological risk assessment." CRC Press.
2. Hugett, Richard John. (1998). "Fundamentals of Biogeography." Routledge.
3. Corvalan Carlos, Hales Simon, McMichael Anthony J., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program), World Health Organization. (2005). "Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis." World Health Organization.
4. "Aquatic Ecosystems." Retrieved September 28, 2009, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site: http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/ecosystems.html&edu=elem
if, however, that actor acts with the greatest good for the greatest number in mind, they will be more environmentally responsible. If each person, corporation and government acts in such a manner, the common good will be protected. If not, one actor or group can contribute significant damage to the commons at the expense of the others.
3) There are many causes of environmental pollution and depletion. Land use decisions contribute to deforestation, overgrazing and other problems. Urban sprawl swallows land useful for farming. esources are depleted through exhaustive mining. Overfarming and overfishing contribute to depletion. Excessive water use is diminishing our supply of fresh water. The product of toxic substances further poisons the Earth. Carbon dioxide emissions as a result of the internal combustion engine are contributing significant pollution. Nearly ever facet of human activity contributes in some way to the pollution and depletion of the planet's…
Resources are depleted through exhaustive mining. Overfarming and overfishing contribute to depletion. Excessive water use is diminishing our supply of fresh water. The product of toxic substances further poisons the Earth. Carbon dioxide emissions as a result of the internal combustion engine are contributing significant pollution. Nearly ever facet of human activity contributes in some way to the pollution and depletion of the planet's resources.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
Ironically, only 1% of the world's fresh water is readily accessible for direct human use. Translated into something we can understand readily: one American taking a 5-minute shower uses more water than the typical person living in a developing country slum uses in an entire day -- and most Americans take far longer than 5-minute showers. This is a crisis that must be addressed, if it is not, over the next two decades the average supply of water per person will drop by over 30%, condemning millions of people and animals to death (Atlas of a Thirsty Planet).
This assignment opened my eyes to a new way of looking at food -- I will be unable to go into a grocery store and look at rows and rows of perfect fruits and vegetables; knowing that half are thrown out while people starve. In the same manner, knowing that each American…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. May 2012. .
Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class and Sustainability. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 2011. Print.
Holt-Gimenez, E. And R. Patel, Food Rebellions: Crisis and the Hunger for Justice. Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 2009. Print.
Local Harvest. "Family Farms." March 2009. Localharvest.org. May 2012. .
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
Atlantic Blue fin tuna is a pat of the Scombidae family and its scientific name is Thunnus Thynnus. It is also known as Nothen Blue fin tuna and is closely elated to the Pacific blue fin tuna and the Southen blue fin tuna. They ae a highly evolved fish species that have an aveage life span of 15 to 30 yeas.
The Atlantic blue fin tuna is one of the lagest fishes alive today. It has a metallic blue colo on top and a silvey white at the bottom to camouflage it in the deep oceans against pedatos such as whales and shaks. Thei body is shaped like a topedo and this gives them the speed to get away fom pedatos as quickly as possible despite thei big size and weight. An aveage Atlantic blue fin tuna can gow to about 6.5 feet in size and weigh a…
references, and Thermal Biology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna." Science. 293.(17 August 2001): 1310-1314.
Shwartz, Mark. "Migration Study finds that sweeping management changes are needed to protect Atlantic bluefin tuna." Eureka Alert. 27 April 2005. Web. 28 March 2012.
It can be influenced by winds and tides. Infrequent episodic oxygen depletion occurs less than once per year. It is the first signal a system has reached a critical point of eutrophication, which combined with physical processes causes hypoxia. Persistent hypoxia occurs in systems prone to persistent stratification. It accounts for 8% of the dead zones (Diaz).
Phase one of coastal hypoxia enhances the deposition of organic matter that promotes microbial growth and respiration and produces greater demand for oxygen. DO levels deplete with stratification. Phase two hypoxia will become transiently causing mass mortality of benthic animals. Phase three, after time and continued buildup of nutrients and organic matter, hypoxia becomes seasonal or periodic. Phase four, if conditions persist, causes the hypoxia zone to expand and, as DO levels fall, anoxia establishes and releases microbial generated H2S. The critical point is the appearance of severe seasonal hypoxia.
Diaz, R.J. & Rosenberg, R. "Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems." Science, vol 321 (2008): 926-929. article.
Just this past week, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the effects and reality of global warming. In the investigative commission that yielded the findings, an admission was submitted that there is no way to fully determine how much of the planet's climatic change has been due to natural variation in weather and temperature patterns. However, the report did assert the certainty that global warming is in large part due to human behavior and environmental practices. Particularly, global warming is partially the result of extensive burning of fossil fuels such as oil, thus placing a great deal of blame on an international practice upon which economies and political systems have operated for a great many years. And it has been in the last two decades that these proclivities have begun to catch up with environmental conditions and, subsequently, various ecosystems and the broader social structures that are dependent…
Managing Fisheries and How Perceptions Affect the Management of Ecosystem Services Provided by Fisheries in the Pacific Ocean
Carl Safina is the host of the Public roadcasting Service 'Saving the Ocean" and as well has written several books and at focus in this work is the book of Safina entitled "Song for the lue Ocean." Safina emphasizes how the oceans are the last and dying unconquered territories on earth. Safina brings to the attention of the reader that threats that are caused to the oceans in the name of progress and growth for the human race.
Safina's book reports a truth seeking mission as he traveled the world's oceans. Safina relates in his book that "the scientists grossly underestimate the numbers" of bluefin tuna in the northern Atlantic and relates that the "legendary great shoals of cod…along the Grand anks of Canada…have been decimated, causing the government of…
Safina, C. (nd) Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas, Henry Holt and Company.
Norse, EA (nd) Review of the book "Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's
Coasts and Beneath the Seas,' by Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://mcbi.marine-conservation.org/publications/pub_pdfs/Norse_NaturalHistory_1998.pdf
"Song for the Blue Ocean: Encounters Along the World's Coasts and Beneath the Seas" (nd) Carl Safina. Retrieved from: http://carlsafina.org/publications/books/song-for-the-blue-ocean/
roll the can, does it wobble back and forth as it slows down?
What kind of sound does the can make when you slowly turn it upside down and right side up again?
My hypothesis is that the can is a can of fruit. Some of the answers given were that the can has solids packed in liquid, at least from the sound the can makes when shaken. It is a regular can shape, cylindrical so things like tuna or canned vegetables are out because they would be shaped differently. A can of beans has fairly gelatinous liquid so the sound made would be more muffled and vegetables tend to be packed tightly with little water in it. Fruit however, has a lot of liquid with some fruit packed in it and serial numbers on both ends. Also canned fruit is more common than other things and the can was…
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Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
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Life Span of io Grande Cutthroat Trout
Mature io Grande Cutthroat Trout live between six and eight years, about average for their species (Spaete, 2006). They are stream spawners, and their average age of sexual maturity is between five and seven years of age, with breeding occurring only once or twice during the lifespan (Spaete, 2006). In general, breeding season is between spring and early summer, with offspring in the 1000 to 2000 range (Spaete, 2006). Environmental factors including temperature and food availability will impact the breeding cycle as well as overall size of the individuals.
Habitat Management for io Grande Cutthroat Trout
The io Grande Cutthroat Trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat living primarily in the rivers of Colorado and New Mexico. In addition to the io Grande itself, the Pecos iver and the Canadian iver are its native habitats. The io Grande Cutthroat Trout thrives when it…
Pritchard, V.L. & Cowley, D.E. (2006). Rio Grande Cuthroat Trout. USDA Forest Service. 28 July, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5206803.pdf
Rinne, J.N. (n.d.). Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout." Chapter 3. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr256/rm_gtr256_024_027.pdf
"Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Conservation Strategy," (2013). Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved online: https://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/NewMexico/documents/RGCT_conservation_strategy_final_12-10-13.pdf
Spaete, L. (2006). Oncorhynchus clarkia. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved online: http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Oncorhynchus_clarkii/
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
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CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
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