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Already, nearly 17% of American healthcare costs are linked to obesity (Bhasha, 2010). Under the new health care reform legislation of 2010, employers are not allowed to deny insurance based on a person's weight; however, there's a caveat in which employees in wellness programs can be charged up to 50% more if their weight exceeds specified levels based on age, gender, and height (Downey, 2010). Whether government should be involved in increasing premiums based on lifestyle choices and weight, or penalizing and restricting "junk" food consumption, is highly controversial; I would argue that this involvement is necessary to control obesity among Americans and control healthcare costs. Furthermore, corporations producing unhealthy foods should be taxed, and healthy foods should be made available at more affordable prices. The sad fact is that poor people often cannot afford healthier options (Osterweil, 2004).
While many Americans will complain and cry "socialism" if these types…
Bhasha, B. (2010, 11-09). Obesity Care Costs Double What Was Previously Estimated. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.bharatbhasha.com: http://www.bharatbhasha.com/health.php/271594
Downey, M. (2010, 03-23). What Does Health Care Reform Mean for Obesity? Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.thedowneyobesityreport.com: http://www.downeyobesityreport.com/2010/03/what-does-health-care-reform-mean-for-obesity/
Fried, E., & Simon, M. (2007). The Competitive Food Conundrum: Can Government Regulations Improve School Food? Duke Law Journal, 1491.
Gordon, R. (2010, 11-13). Mayor Gavin Newsom vetoes fast-food toy ban. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from articles.sfgate.com: http://articles.sfgate.com/2010-11-13/bay-area/24830064_1_toy-ban-toys-in-kids-meals-vetoes
As the Latino community is very family oriented there may be a need to focus the program on mother and daughter events and the like to help these young women transition into a more active lifestyle within the safety of family. There should also be a strong push to further the development of access to healthy foods through expansions, into Latino areas of the already fantastic farmers market programs in California and an emphasis on ethnic foods and cultural celebration should be directed at the appropriate areas, those markets that already provide services to these areas may need to have added support to increase hours of operation, or be moved to areas where access to public transportation is greater, to better meet the needs of a working population.
Day, Kristen. "Active Living and Social Justice: Planning for Physical Activity in Low-Income, Black, and Latino Communities." Journal of the…
Day, Kristen. "Active Living and Social Justice: Planning for Physical Activity in Low-Income, Black, and Latino Communities." Journal of the American Planning Association 72.1 (2006): 88.
Garcia, Robert, Erica S. Flores, and Sophia Mei-Ling Chang. "Healthy Children, Healthy Communities: Schools, Parks, Recreation, and Sustainable Regional Planning." Fordham Urban Law Journal 31.5 (2004): 1267.
Kumanyika, Shiriki, and Sonya Grier. "Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations." The Future of Children 16.1 (2006): 187.
Lindsay, Ana C., Katarina M. Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker. "The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity." The Future of Children 16.1 (2006): 169.
Obesity in Children
Obesity is a growing problem in America with more than 64% of the U.S. adult population identified to be clinically obese or overweight. It is estimated that there are more than 300,000 deaths every year which are directly attributed to obesity. [CDC]. It would not be far fetching to say that obesity has in fact assumed epidemic proportions and is one of the fastest growing healthcare problems of our nation. There is a positive association between obesity and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and other life threatening conditions. A disturbing fact is the increasing rate of obesity among children in the age group of 4 to 16. Unhealthy eating habits and the modern sedentary life style have only aggravated the risk factors leading to a health care crisis. Nurses as community healthcare providers have an important role in increasing the awareness and initiating nutritional programs and exercise activities…
1) Holcomb, Susan Simmons, "Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Guidelines for Prevention and Management," The Nurse Practitioner Vol 29, 8 08-01-2004
2) O'Brien SH, Holubkov R, Reis EC, "Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Obesity in an Academic Primary Care Center," Pediatrics. 2004; Vol 114 (2):
3) Jennifer R. McCarthy, MPH, Mary AnnBurg, MSW, PhD, Kristen Smith, MPH, Cathy Burns, BSN, MA, "Pediatric Obesity in the Clinical Setting: Epidemiology of Childhood Obesity:Primary Care Interventions, and Needs Assessment for Future Prevention," Accessed on September 23rd 2004, Available online at http://www.priory.com/childobesity.htm
Overweight and Obesity -- Literature eview
A report by the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that obesity is among the 10 preventable health risks across the globe. However, this health risk contributes to 300,000 annual deaths in the United States. Obesity is a health risk that is linked to various disorders such as diabetes, liver disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (Wilborn et al., 2005, p.4). Generally, the condition is thought to be simply associated with an imbalance between a person's energy intake and expenditure. However, the findings of more researches demonstrate that behavioral, genetic, and physiological factors play a crucial role in the etiology of this health risk. Moreover, exercise and diet are considered as important components that play a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of this health risk as well as its associated disorders like diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension.
This article will begin with an evaluation or…
Arciero et. al. (2008). Moderate Protein Intake Improves Total and Regional Body Composition
and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Adults. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, 57, 757-765.
Layman et. al. (2005, May 7). Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body
Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women. The Journal of Nutrition, 1903-1910.
overweight or obese simply means simply "carrying excess body fat," measured by a height to weight ratio known as a body mass index, or BMI ("Obesity and Overweight in Adults"). In addition to the physical health consequences of being overweight or obese, including lethargy, high blood pressure, and diabetes, there are known mental health concerns including depression, social anxiety, and low self-esteem. Research has consistently shown that being overweight or obese is "strongly correlated with low self-esteem," (Eddy 1). Low self-esteem can be considered as a cluster of cognitive and emotional variables ranging from perceived self-efficacy to more existential concerns such as "one's capacity to feel worthy of happiness," (Eddy 1). Given there are different types of self-esteem, it may be difficult to absolutely measure the relationship between overweight and self-esteem. Moreover, there will be certain cultural, individual, and contextual variables impacting self-perception regarding body image and body weight. In…
Boyington, Josephine.E.A. et al. "Cultural attitudes toward weight, diet, and physical activity among overweight African-American girls." Preventing Chronic Disease Vol 5, No 2, April 2008, pp. a36.
Eddy, Meaghan M. "Promoting Self-Esteem in Overweight and Obese Girls." Women's Healthcare. Retrieved online: http://npwomenshealthcare.com/promoting-self-esteem-in-overweight-and-obese-girls/
Israel, Allen C. and Ivanova, Masha Y. Global and dimensional self-esteem in preadolescent and early adolescent children who are overweight. International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 31, No 4, 21 Mar 2001, pp. 424-429.
Klaczynski, Paul A, Goold, Kristen W. and Mudry, Jeffrey J. "Culture, Obesity Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and the 'Thin Ideal': A Social Identity Perspective." Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol 33, No 4, Aug 2004, pp. 307-317.
Obesity and Discrimination
Bias against overweight and obese individuals is perhaps the last form of acceptable discrimination. Overweight people are subject to both subtle and blatant forms of discrimination, from childhood to adulthood. Discrimination occurs in family, social and professional situations as well.
This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach to the issue of weight-based discrimination and harassment, drawing on diverse literature from fields including psychology, law, pediatrics and economics. The extent of discrimination is explored through a critical survey and integration of current research on the social and professional effects of obesity.
The first part of this paper looks at the varying definitions of the terms "overweight," "obesity" and "discrimination."
It highlights the limitations of these definitions and how these terms can be misapplied.
The next part looks at statistics regarding the growing number of overweight and obese people in the United States. Recent studies show an alarming rise in…
Bellizzi, J.A. And Hasty, R.W. (1998), "Territory assignment decisions and supervising unethical selling behavior: the effects of obesity and gender as moderated by job-related factors," Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, (18) 2: 35-49.
Berg, Frances M. (1997). Afraid to Eat: Children and Teens in Weight Crisis. Hettinger, ND: Healthy Weight Association.
Brown v. New York State Division of Human Rights, 1997 WL 773684 (Slip Copy, Ct. App., NY)
Brownell, Puhl R. (2001). "Bias, discrimination, and obesity." Obesity Research 9(12):788-805
Overweight: Scaling Back on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a growing source of concern in America. Before 1980, 6.5% of children between 6 and 11 years of age were overweight or obese and 5% of children between 12 and 19 years old, but, by 2004, those numbers increased to 18.8% and 17.4%, respectively (Lawrence, Hazlett, & Hightower, 2010). The tripled rate of obesity combined with the impact of being overweight or obese during childhood is a major public health issue.
Being obese or overweight during childhood increases the risk for developing chronic diseases such as depression, hypertension, respiratory problems, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). Obese adolescents are more likely to become obese adults (DiMattia & Denney, 2008). Obesity expenditures were 8%, or $69 billion in 1990, grew to $92.6 billion, or 9%, by 2002, and are projected to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(SS-5), 1-136.
DeMattia, L. & Denney, L. (2008). Childhood obesity prevention: Successful community-based efforts. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 615, 83-99.
Fisher, C., Hunt, P., Kann, L., Kolbe, L., Patterson, B., Wechsler, H. (2003). Promising Practices in Chronic Disease Prevention and Control. Atlanta: CDC.
Francis, L.A., Ventura, A.K., Marini, M., & Birch, L.L. (2007). Parent overweight predicts daughters' increase in BMI and disinhibited overeating from 5-13 years. Obesity, 15, 1544-1553.
It is well established that obesity is a major public health epidemic and that its consequences impact all areas of the healthcare system. When discussing the issue of obesity, the focus is usually on the health impact of obesity on the patient and how that impacts not only the patient, but also others in society. Less frequently discussed, but of critical importance in healthcare planning, is the fact that obesity is taking a tremendous financial toll upon the American healthcare system. Obesity is linked to a number of diseases that are not only dangerous, but also costly. These diseases include, but are not limited to: hypertension, heart disease, Type II diabetes, and hormonal imbalances. Obesity-linked diseases can create significant financial hardships for their sufferers, but they can also take a tremendous financial toll on society.
From an individual perspective, the financial health costs of obesity can be so overwhelming…
Bowden, M. (2014). The effects of obesity on your pocketbook. Retrieved April 4, 2014 from Bankrate website: http://www.bankrate.com/finance/personal-finance/the-effects-of-obesity-on-your-pocketbook-1.aspx
Dykman, A. (2011, July 27). The financial cost of obesity. Retrieved April 4, 2014 from Forbes website: http://www.forbes.com/sites/moneybuilder/2011/07/27/the-financial-cost-of-obesity/
Finkelstein, E., Trogdon, J., Cohen, J., & Dietz, W. (2009). Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: Payer-and-service specific estimates. Health Affairs, 28(5): w822-w831.
Maciejewski, M. & Arterbum, D. (2013, August 21). Cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery.
Implications and ecommendations
The implication of the collective weight of empirical research into factors affecting childhood obesity strongly support the approach of positively reinforcing healthier food choices and also of positively reinforcing the voluntary selection of active play activities instead of sedentary play activities in children who are either at risk of obesity or already obese. (Epstein, Paluch, Gordy, et al., 2000; Epstein, Paluch, Kilanowski, et al., 2004). Since highly obese children are less capable of being motivated in those directions than moderately obese and non-obese children (Epstein, Kilanowski, Consalvi, et al., 1999), it would also seem especially important to intervene before children reach the point of extreme obesity. Ultimately, both methods should be widely incorporated into contemporary childhood education and healthcare responses to overweight and obesity.
Epstein, Leonard H., Kilanowski, Colleen K., Consalvi, Angela ., and Paluch, occo a.
"einforcing value of physical activity as a…
Epstein, Leonard H., Kilanowski, Colleen K., Consalvi, Angela R., and Paluch, Rocco a.
"Reinforcing value of physical activity as a determinant of child activity level."
Health Psychology, Vol 18(6), Nov, 1999. pp. 599-603.
Epstein, Leonard H., Paluch, Rocco a., Gordy, Constance C., Saelens, Brian E., and Ernst, Michelle M. "Problem solving in the treatment of childhood obesity."
The problem is however that results appear less promising in the long-term. The most effective period for weight loss occurs during the first six months, whereas weight gain once again appears after this time.
hile it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
While it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
She is trying to alter the perception of the surrounding society that fat people are lazy slobs, However, she has to be careful not to excuse medically dangerous obesity ("Fat and proud, part 3" 2010). In part 4 of the video, Mandy tries to use the kiss-a-gram to change the master status (successfully) of her aunt Elsa as a fat person by bringing her along to a job. This is also the case with women who are fat going on a skating night. This attacks the idea successfully that fat people can be fit ("Fat and proud, part 4" 2010). The fat calendar memorializes that change in master status permanently with a calendar shoot, so it does so successfully in a permanent fashion ("Fat and proud, part 5" 2010.
The approach of the Biggest Looser is not successful because it is begin imposed from the outside. So often, people who…
Adler, P., & Adler, P. (2012). Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th
ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
The biggest loser - season 6 supertease (2008, August 15). The Biggest Loser. [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwvW_yeOBqs ,
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
Weight and Obesity
The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta
In spite of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population, little attention has been paid to immigrant communities, which are at a greater risk of weight gain compared to the majority. This is quite disturbing given the increased rate of migration from low-income countries. Lack of epidemiological data relating to overweight and obesity is particularly true for women of sub-Saharan African origin living in Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada. This study will involve a cross-sectional survey, to fill this gap in literature. A sample of 100 subjects is deemed to be representative of the target population. Knowledge of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population will be important for designing weight management interventions for this group, thereby reducing the risk of overweight and obesity as…
Adhikari, A., (2014). Prevalence of obesity among immigrants living in Canada. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2(1): 35-39.
Choi, J. (2012). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(6), 1112-1118.
City of Grande Prairie (2015). Census population. Retrieved from: http://www.cityofgp.com/index.aspx?page=2507
Gele, A., & Mbalilaki, A. (2013). Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo. BMC Research Notes, 6: 119.
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
nutritional and nutrition-related health problems of adolescent obesity and being overweight. The writer explores the issues of obesity as it relates to adolescence and discusses strategies that have the potential to impact the issue. The writer also reports the effectiveness of some of the strategies. The final section identifies the most effect strategy to combat obesity in adolescents.
"ates of childhood and adolescent obesity have increased dramatically in the past decade. According to a recent article in the Journal of the American Medical Association based on results from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), more than 15% of youths ages 6 through 19 were obese, and more than 10% of children ages 2 through 5 were obese (Ogden et al., 2002). The percentages of obese children and adolescents were relatively stable over NHANES I (1971-1974) and II (1976-1980) but doubled to 11% during NHANES III (1988-1994) and…
Psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity: a review of the past 10 years.(Research Update Review)
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2/1/2004; Munson, Suzanne
Development of the Australian standard definition of child/adolescent overweight and obesity. (Original Research).
Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the Dieticians Association of Australia; 6/1/2003; Baur, Louise A.
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…
Early Release / Vol. 59 August 3, 2010. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm59e0803.pdf.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2009). Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth. Prevention Science 10: 376 -- 386.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2011). The Differential Prevalence of Obesity and Related Behaviors in Two- vs. Four-Year Colleges Obesity 19: 453 -- 456.
Nelson, M.C. et al. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: an overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity 16: 2205 -- 2211.
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…
CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.
Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html
-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=58057&tocid=Oquery=obesity&ct=
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention.
There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in BMI at the 9-month assessment, but none at the 15-month follow-up (McCallum et al., 2007). However, family reports of enrolled children engaging in more exercise and eating healthier did reach statistical significance at both time points. The authors of this report argue that these findings are too preliminary to draw hard conclusions. Moodie and colleagues (2008) mention that a much larger LEAP study is underway. The short time-span of the intervention may also be a problem, since a 2-year…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012). 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics. Table 59. Estimated resident population by single year of age, Australia. ABS.gov.AU. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/3101.0Jun%202011?OpenDocument .
BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2012). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. BLS.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers.htm .
Manger, William, M., Manger, Lynn S., Minno, Alexander M., Killmeyer, Mike, Holzman, Robert S., Schullinger, John N. et al. (2012). Obesity prevention in young schoolchildren: Results of a pilot study. Journal of School Health, 82(10), 462-468.
McCallum, Z., Wake, M., Gerner, B., Baur, L.A., Gibbons, K., Gold, L. et al. (2007). Outcome data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) trial: A randomized controlled trial of a primary care intervention for childhood overweight/mild obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
Learning Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency
Popular vs. scientific press: Weight loss studies
The popular media often sensationalizes the cautious findings of scientific research, in an effort to catch the casual reader's attention at all costs -- even if the cost is the truth. This can be seen in the CNN piece "Exercise lengthens your life -- even if you're overweight," a title designed to communicate an unequivocally positive message in an America where the majority of the population is overweight or obese. CNN reports the findings of a recent scientific journal article in which researchers suggest that moderate exercise can add years to a person's life, regardless of weight status. Although the CNN article does not directly misstate the findings of the original journal article on which it was based, it neglects to mention some of the caution of the studies' authors regarding an excessive BMI.
Hagan, Caitlin. (2012). Exercise lengthens your life - even if you're overweight.
CNN. Retrieved: http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/11/06/exercise-lengthens-your-life-even-if-youre-overweight/
Moore SC, Patel AV, Matthews CE, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Park Y, et al. (2012).
Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: A large pooled cohort analysis. PLoS Med 9(11): e1001335.
Poverty and Obesity
Evidence is mounting that many Canadians are not getting enough to eat. Among the most vulnerable are people living with poverty . The following statistics begin to paint a picture of poverty in Canada.
• In 1998 -- 99, the Statistics Canada National Population Health Survey (NPHS) reported that 2.4 million Canadians were food insecure -- or unable to get enough or the appropriate kinds of food (ainville and Brink 2001).
• In the 2000 -- 01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS),8.2percent of BC residents reported "sometimes" or "often" not having enough to eat due to lack of money; 11.6% reported "sometimes" or "often" worrying that there wouldn't be enough to eat; and 14.8% reported "sometimes" or "often" not eating the quality of food they wanted (Statistics Canada, 2001 -- 02).
Parallel to the persistent and growing poverty in Canada is the escalating crisis of obesity. Obesity…
Rainville, B. & Brink, S. (2001). Food insecurity in Canada 1998-1999. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
hrdc.arhc.gc.ca/sp-ps/arb-dgra / publicationa/research/2001docs/R-01-02/R-01-2_E_abs.shtml
Statistics Canada. (1997). Selected leading causes of death by sex. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
elationship Among Self-Esteem, Stress, Coping, Eating Behavior, and Depressive Mood in Adolescents
What is the research problem? Is the problem statement easy to locate and is it clearly stated? Does the problem statement build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study?
The research problem explores the relationship between coping strategies, emotional problems and the tendency to overeat in adolescence. The problem statement is easy to identify and is contained in a properly labeled separate section located at the beginning of the study. The problem statement uses statistical data about the need to control obesity and adolescents as the key persuasive argument for the study.
Does the problem have significance for nursing? How might the research contribute to nursing practice, administration, education, or policy?
The study has significance for the nursing profession due to the health related problems that are caused by obesity. The problems do not end with…
Martyn-Nemeth, P., Penckofer, S. & Gulanick, M. et al. (2009). The relationships among self-
esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents. Res. Nurs. Heatlh. 2009 Feb;32(1):96-109.
Many overweight people refrain from normal daily activities. Thousands are afraid to eat and wear what they want in public, "(Coleman 203). Many people find it near impossible to loose significant weight. Heredity is a major cause of obesity, which makes loosing weight extremely hard. Another deterrent for physical exercise is the ridicule many overweight people receive when they are out in public exercising.
Many who suffer from weight issues play off their pain like the ridicule does not bother them, "Fat people aren't really jolly. Sometimes we act that way so that you will leave us alone," (Coleman 203). eight discrimination is a learned process like all other forms of discrimination, showing that there is some hope if society realizes what it is doing to its own.
Coleman, Jennifer. "Discrimination at Large." Between Perception. You need to include your textbook's publication info and…
Coleman, Jennifer. "Discrimination at Large." Between Perception. You need to include your textbook's publication info and edition number here.
A parks recreational leader can encourage visitors through a brochure or other handout to talk with their doctors about their health and wellness. On the other hand, park recreational leaders can also talk with healthcare providers and team up. By doing this, recreational parks may provide some tests for visitors, like blood pressure checks or physical fitness and body mass index checks that offer visitors or those staying at the recreational facility an opportunity to find out whether they are in shape, and if not, what they can do about it.
Park leaders can also organize events like marathon races or shorter races like a 3k race for children and adults with various small prizes or tokens like a ribbon for the leader. They can encourage visitors to fill out forms or surveys where they would have an opportunity to write down what types of physical fitness activities they would…
Allen, L. (2005 Mar) Becoming good sports: professionals need to exercise their power by helping community youth develop through parks and recreation. Parks & Recreation Online, Available: BNet Research Center, March: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1145/is_3_40/ai_n13787656
Parks & Recreation
Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy
of needs. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Evaluation, [ED421486], accessed October 25, 2007
Pattern of Development: COMPAE AND CONTAST
Is it even a mystery how we have become the fattest country in the world (Sturm 2007)? Why do we have such poor choices for food? Enter Derrick. Derrick is a 15-year-old male from Jackson, Mississippi who has been clinically diagnosed as being "Class II Obese" or "Morbidly Obese" with a BMI of 37. His poor food choices at any given time during the day, along with his extremely low-level of activity, can be easily sighted as the determining factors regarding his alarming condition (Whitlock et al. 2009). Why does he make such unhealthy choices? Enter Dino. Dino is also a 15-year-old male, but he is from Zurich, Switzerland. Dino has a BMI of only 8 and is not obese, nor is he even overweight. Is this simply due to the relative abundance of healthier food choices and having a non-sedentary lifestyle,…
Rosenheck R (November 2008). "Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk." Obes Rev 9 (6): 535 -- 47.
Sturm R (2007). "Increases in morbid obesity in the U.S.A.: 2000 -- 2005." Public Health 121 (7): 492 -- 6.
Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, et al. (March 2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900-000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies." Lancet 373 (9669): 1083 -- 96.
This association between education, socioeconomic level and obesity has not yet been fully explored, and may be false, since rates of obesity are increasing in high and middle income groups as well.
Medical issues may lead to weight gain, and must be considered in the differential. Conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome are often associated with weight gain. Lack of knowledge surrounding the condition may also contribute to rates of obesity. In a recent study published in American Family Physician (2007), Americans were surveyed asking to report approximate height and weight, which was then used to calculate BMI. esponses showed 20% of Americans were obese and 38% were overweight. Since this study is based on self-report, it is quite possible that there is an even higher degree of obesity, since many people underreport their weight. These figures certainly differ from objective data gained from the Centers…
International Obesity Task Force (2007) Global Rates of Obesity, 2006. Accessed on the Internet on 14 October 2007 at http://www.iotf.org/database/GlobalAdultTableJune07.htm
Davidson M, Knafl KA. (2006) Cultural Analysis on the concept of Obesity. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 3, 342-350
No Author Listed. (2007) Poll Shows Americans Underestimate Obesity Problem. American Family Physician. 2; 15-16.
Katz DL, O'Connell M, Yeh MC, Nawaz H, Nijke V, Anderson LM, Cory S, Dietz W. (2007) Public Health Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Overweight and Obesity in School and Worksite Settings MMWR,
Obesity a Disease?
Introduction, Background, and Definition
Persuade the scientists
Persuade the advocacy groups
Persuade the federal agencies
Persuade the insurance companies
Persuade the drug makers
Recommendations & Conclusions
Is Obesity a Disease?
hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.
By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…
Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm .
Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term= .
Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml .
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
The closed meetings would consist of 15 or fewer members, would be conducted on a weekly basis for approximately 2 hours in a private university classroom or meeting area, and informed consent, eligibility screening and other relevant issues would be addressed in a meeting to be conducted prior to the first formal group meeting.
Possible Social Change Impact
The possible impact of this initiative is difficult to gauge without a comprehensive longitudinal study of the participants involved; however, the importance of regaining lost self-esteem and a sense of self-worth to each person is immeasurable.
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). elations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex oles: A Journal of esearch, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows…
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). Relations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Human Ecology, 33(3), 21.
A recent article shows that such an approach "brings the company direct economic benefits" (Zwetsloot, p. 115).
The program can also provide educational information for the employees to further prod them in their efforts to become healthy. Such information can include items on illnesses, diseases and the effects of ill-health that being obese or overweight exacerbates.
A recent study shows that "chronic exposure to stressful situations such as work overload, poor supervisory support and low input into decision-making have been cross-sectionally and prospectively linked to a range of debilitating health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, emotional exhaustion, immune deficiency disorders and cardiovascular disease" (Noblet, p. 347). A program such as the one being proposed can help to alleviate such outcomes.
The opportunity exists for the company to expand its intranet services, using the provided services not only to track the individual employee's progress, but provide each of them a personalized report…
Noblet, a., LaMontagne, a.D., (2006) the role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress, Health Promotion International, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 346-353
Zwetsloot, G., Pot, F., (2004) the Business Value of Health Management, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 115-124
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…
Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L.M., & Dwyer, DH (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603-614.
Abell, S.C., & Richards, M.H. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 691-703.
Crawford, D., & Worsley, a. (1987). Present and desired body weights of Australian adults: A cause for concern. Community Health Studies, 11.
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
Dominican Fantasies, ritten and Unwritten:
The use of science fiction in the Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao
Juan Diaz's novel The Brief ondrous Life of Oscar ao details the life of an overweight Dominican boy who has aspirations of being a romantic hero that are continually thwarted by his great size and unattractive physical appearance. However, one of the dominant themes of the book is that appearances can deceive. Despite the fact that he is ugly on the outside, Oscar has a beautiful soul. His inner life is at odds with his outer life. One way in which Oscar deals with this is by escaping into a world of fantasy novels and characters. Diaz's coming-of-age novel is thus very much a book 'about' other books, just as much as it is a book about a man's life. Its postmodern nature is clear in the sense that the novels and…
Diaz, Juan. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. New York: Riverhead, 2008.
Lingam, John. Review of The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao.
The Quarterly Conversation, 2008. [7 Dec 2012]
; And, 3) The individual must believe that the recommended action can be adhered to successfully. (TC, 1)
Prevention: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary (diet, exercise, immunizations, screenings)
The Health Belief Model would contribute to a lesson in prevention of the condition's worsening severity. Here, the primary level of prevention is seen as dietary. The secondary level is seen as exercise and the tertiary level is viewed as immunizations and screenings.
Teaching strategies will included the use of visual aids and literature materials as well as the applied discussion of realistic dietary and exercise goals.
Resources to be used in supplement to the education of the patient will include pamphlets regarding the implications of diabetes, the distribution of kits with required self-treatment materials, the compilation of useful web resources, nutritional dietary recipe kits and preliminary exercise regimen diagrams.
Methods of Evaluation
The effectiveness of the proposed teaching learning plan…
TCW. (2006). Health Belief Model. Universitie Twente. Online at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/.
Target Group and their Local Government
To determine the actual effects of diabetes on the indigenous population, you must examine the areas where many of these individuals live. This will provide insights as to possible issues that could be contributing to the problem by: examining the policies of the local government, looking at relevant health statistics, determining fruit / vegetable consumption and looking at the different support services / infrastructure. These different elements are important, because they provide insights about how the local community could be contributing to the problem. If you can see how these factors are affecting a particular community, then the government can begin to design intervention strategies to reduce the overall effects. Once this takes place, is when you can see how this demographic of 25 to 64-year-olds can be effectively targeted for an intervention.
A description of the Local Government and relevant socio-demographic characteristics of…
Aborigonal Health, 2010, MMHR, viewed 16 August 2010
Age Structure, 2009, City of Onkaparinga, viewed 17 August 2010
Australia's Health, 2008, AIHW viewed 15 August 2010,
Chronic Conditions, 2009, City of Onkaparinga, viewed 17 August 2010
Marketing Case Study
Explain what you think would be an appropriate promotions strategy for both of them. In doing so compare and contrast the two promotions strategies explaining why you think they would be similar or different.
NINE POSSIBLE PODUCT -- MAKET COMBINATIONS
POSSIBLE TAGET MAKETS
GAY MEN O WOMEN
BLACK WOMEN AGED 18-30
NON-LETHAL PESONAL SECUITY PODUCTS
FITNESS / EXECISE PODUCTS
More than one billion adults worldwide are overweight. In the United States alone obesity is responsible for an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. What's interesting is that nearly all of these deaths are preventable through proper exercise and nutrition. As such, fitness is a very contentious issue plaguing many of the developed nations worldwide. Statistics indicate that nearly 33% of all Americas are obese. This bodes very well in regards to marketing as 1 in 3 Americans could use the fitness and exercise related…
1. Swarming the shelves: How shops can exploit people's herd mentality to increase sales." The Economist. 2006-11-11. p. 79-90.
2. Kotler, Armstrong, Philip, Gary. Principles of Marketing. (2011)Pearson education.
3. Joshi, Rakesh, (2005) International Marketing, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York ISBN 0-19-567123-6
predicaments associated with the modern way of life unfortunately consist of many different natures. ut perhaps the most pressing genre is that of deteriorating health conditions. People are generally susceptible to a number of hazardous medical conditions and the prime reason for that is the type of diet that everyone adopts. According to the research conducted by Young and Nestle, "Overweight and obesity have increased sharply since the early 1980s in the United States and worldwide." (Young and Nestle 1) This is a source of major concern since weight problems simultaneously give rise to chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease, thereby reducing general level of life expectancy.
Due to the rapid augmentation of such concerns, the government of the United States has brought forward certain regulations that control portion sizes offered in restaurants. The implementation and reception of such a decree are open to debate, but…
Condrasky, Marge, Ledikwe, J.H., Flood, J.E. And Rolls, B.J. "Chef's Opinion of Restaurant Portion Sizes." Obesity Vol. 15 (2007): n. pag. Web.
Raats, Monique M., and Wills, J.M. Food Consumer Behavior and Health. Proc. Of Consumer Response to Portion Information on Food and Drink Packaging. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 1-23. Print.
Thomas, Lionel, Jr., and Mills, J.E. "Consumer Knowledge and Expectations of Restaurant Menus and Their Governing Legislation: A Qualitative Assessment."Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management (006): n. pag. Web.
Young, Lisa R., and Nestle, M. "Portion Sizes and Obesity: Responses of Fast-Food Companies." Journal of Public Health Policy (2007): 238-48. Web.
Food Served in Public Schools
he school nutrition environment, consisting of school meals and competitive meals, has actually properly gotten terrific attention due to the fact that kids eat, usually, one-third of their everyday calorie consumption at school (Briefel et al., 2009).
Improving the dietary consumption of our country's kids is of crucial value given that one-third of school-age kids are obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Paper's Scope and significant areas:.
his research will clarify Kid Nutrition Reauthorization from FRAC. he research addresses school meal quality and gain access to (Hartline-Grafton, 2010). Moreover, the present research concentrates on competitive meals, which are extensively readily available in schools, mostly exempt from federal nutrition criteria, and have an unfavourable influence on the wellness and health of all pupils, particularly pupils from low-income households.
he semi-structured type of interview is utilized in the research in addition to the standardized…
Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html . Accessed April 20, 2013.
Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of School Health, 78(5), 245-251.
Please make sure to show all work for each problem requiring calculations. Please highlight final answer.
What is the level of measurement for each of the following:
a) Final grades in this class ____Ordinal
b) Weights of newborn babies ____Nominal
c) Seasons of the year ____Interval
d) Boiling temperatures of different liquids ____Ratio
Types of sampling used:
a) I collect data from my class ____Simple
b) Data from every fourth patient in the hospital ____Stratified
c) Data from 400 randomly selected students from those majoring in business, 763 randomly selected students from those majoring in education, and 392 randomly selected students from those majoring in criminal justice. ____Cluster
d) Data from 4230 adults after phone numbers were randomly generated ____Quota
3. The following data were collected on amounts of lawn debris after the major storm this past summer:
According to guissinguer (2003) anorectics, "...react to loss of body weight by displaying adaptive responses that originally evolved to facilitate leaving food depleted areas." Discuss.
Anorexia is a disorder attributed to attempts to attain a fashionable shape, but numerous studies suggest that it is possible for psychological and societal factors to contribute in the development of this disorder. According to Kaye et al. (1998), anorexia is a disorder characterized by unusual feeding habits, weight control, perceptions of weight and shape, and the view of body shape. In this context, the people involved diet because they fear gaining weight. Nevertheless, the etiology of anorexia is complex, but numerous studies suggest that social, biological, and developmental process influence its growth.
Interestingly, the manner in which these processes interact to enhance its growth remains a mystery. Apparently, views towards the levels of attractiveness in a given society may influence the psychopathology of…
Appetite. (2006). Monographic: Evolutionary perspectives on overeating and overweight. Appetite, 47 (1), pp. 1-35.
Eisler, I. (2005). The empirical and theoretical base of family therapy and multiple family day therapy for adolescent anoxeria nervosa. Journal of Family Therapy, 27, pp. 104-131.
Fredrickson, B.L., Roberts, T.A., Noll, S.M., Quinn, D.M., & Twenge, J.M. (1989). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, pp. 269-284.
Guisinguer, S. (2003). Adapted to Flee Famine: Adding an Evolutionary Perspective on Anorexia Nervosa. Psychological Review, 110, pp. 745-761.
Jill Watson is an employee of Telecommunication Company and has been working for the company for approximately 7 years. Within the past few years, Jill has organized numerous health-fairs as well as countless health help sessions. She also regularly posted information on the company central bulletin boards about health and well-being. Moreover, she assists in providing screening program for many sick people. The goal of her health promotion is to enhance positive lifestyles and behavioral changes for people. Despite her promotional effort, many people still engage in smoking habits, do not engage in physical exercise, and are still overweight. While health promotion may be essential, however, providing health information is not sufficient to facilitate positive lifestyle or behavioral changes.
The objective of this study is to use the self-determination theory to assist Jill to understand the strategy to facilitate positive behavioral or lifestyles changes among her clients.…
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (2013). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 1 Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.
Niemiec, C.P., & Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144
Patrick, H. & Williams, G.C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. Int J. Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9: 18.
" (Dietz, 1998). Obese children are often taller than their non-overweight peers, and are apt to be viewed as more mature. This is an inappropriate expectation that may result in adverse effects on their socialization. (Dietz, 1998). Overweight children and adolescents report negative assumptions made about them by others, including being inactive or lazy, being strong or tougher than others, not having feelings and being unclean. (American Obesity Association, 2000).
This epidemic did not occur overnight. Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions.
This study was concerned with genetics, family dynamics and parenting, and nutrition and dietary intake, all three of which contribute to childhood obesity. Specifically the researcher will attempt to determine what factors are contributing to the nations epidemic rises in obesity among children and what the effects are of the growing girth that is plaguing the nations children. The objective of the research study will be…
American Obesity Association. (2004). Childhood Obesity. Retrieved March 20th, 2005, on the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevalence.shtml.
American Obesity Association. (September 1999). Obesity in Youth. (Conference outcomes). Washington, DC: Author retrieved March 20th, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.com/Obesity_Youth.htm.
Axmaker, L. (2002). "Childhood obesity should be taken seriously." In Blasi, M.J.
2003). "A burger and fries: The increasing dilemmas of childhood obesity," Childhood Education, 79(5).
Indeed, obesity among children and adolescents is even associated with an increase in economic costs. It is estimated that the hospital costs for obesity-related disease among children and adolescents increased from $35 million in 1979-1981 to $127 million in 1997-1999, which represents more than three times the costs of 20 years ago (Wang & Dietz, 2002).
Numerous obesity-related health complications such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type II diabetes mellitus, coronary plaque formation, and serious psychosocial implications, are also affecting children and adolescents (Freedman & Stern, 2004; Pinhas-Hamiel, Dolan, Daniels, Standiford, Khoury & Zeitler, 1996; Ludwig & Ebbeling, 2001; Dietz, 1998; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2002). Since the increase in such health problems has generally paralleled that of the obesity epidemic, Anderson and Butcher (2006) remarked that there should be an association between these health problems and childhood obesity.
Guo, Wu, Chumlea & oche (2002) indicated that overweight children…
Adkins, S., Sherwood, N.E., Story, M. & Davis, M. (2004). Physical Activity among African-American Girls: The Role of Parents and the Home Environment. Obesity Research, 12: 38S-45S.
Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J.M., Goldenberg, E., Fein, A., Yoshida, K.K., & Boutilier, M. (2005). Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation. Adolescence, 40 (157) [HIDDEN]
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Soft Drinks in Schools. Pediatrics, 113 (1): 152-154.
American Heart Association (2004). Overweight and Obesity -- Statistics. Retrieved in June, 2011 from the internet website: http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1136820021462Overweight06.Pdf
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Translation of esearch in Evidence-Based Practice
Nursing involves men and women who are willing to help the patients with their skills like health maintenance, recovery of ill or injured people and the treatment. They develop a care plan for the patient sometimes in collaboration with the physicists or therapists. This paper discusses the current nursing practice in which I am involved and needs to be changed.
Identification of a Current Nursing Practice equiring Change
Description of the Current Nursing Practice
Children of all age groups are facing a grave problem these days: obesity.
Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for future health problems, in addition to being a significant public health problem, given the evidence available in research literature. Literature properly documents the risk factors and multi-related factors associated with childhood obesity and overweight that threatens public health.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…
Action for Healthy Kids. (2004). The Learning Connation: The value of improving nutrition and physical activity in our schools. Retrieved 9.12.08 from www.actionforhealthykids.org/.
Barlow, S.E. & Expert Committee (2007). Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: Summary report. Pediatrics, 120, S164-S192.
Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (2007). Health, United States (PHS, 2007-1232, GPO Stock Number: 017-022-01604-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
client on Ben Blackall and his specific needs regarding his obesity. Ben Blackall is an 8-year-old boy who is unable to join in any sports at school because of his obesity. He weighs 70 kilos and is 140 cms in height. His family including his 2 brothers are all overweight or obese. This paper will explore the short-term and long-term implications of such an illness. This study will look at interventions that can be implemented into the child's life in hopes of prevention of continued obesity.
The impact of adolescent overweight extends into adulthood. Adolescents who are overweight have an increased risk of morbidity from coronary artery disease and arthritis in adulthood, independent of their weight as adults, and are more likely to be overweight as adults. Obesity in adulthood is perhaps the most serious of all consequences because it is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from a variety…
(2001, March 1). Obesity and Health. Bandolier Web site. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band85/b85-4.html
(2004, March 9). Childhood Obesity and 'The Ticking Cancer Timebomb'. FemaleFirst.co.uk. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.femalefirst.co.uk/health/392004.htm
(2005, April 28). Cancer Prevention: A Resource to Support Local Action in Delivering The NHS Cancer Project: Chapter 3: Reducing Overweight and Obesity. Health Development Agency Web site. Retrieved August 8, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.had-online.org.uk/html/resources/cancer_prevention/chapter3.html
(2005, May 2). Childhood Obesity. American Obesity Association Web site. Retrieved August 9, 2005 from the World Wide Web:http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevention.shmtl
Maternal Perceptions of Weight Status of Children
Maynard et al. 2003
You asked for an outline to put on a PowerPoint presentation. You can bullet most of these points and put them right in a presentation:
Previous studies have found that a significant percentage of mothers with overweight preschool children failed to see the child as being overweight. These findings appear dependent on education with mothers with a high school education or less being more likely to misperceive their children's weight than those with a college education.
Such investigations are believed to be directly relevant to the success or prevention of overweight prevention or weight intervention programs as mothers who do not perceive a problem are less likely to take action for their children
(Good discussion point here is that mothers who misclassify children's weight use less negative descriptions of children such as "thick" or "solid")
esearchers wanted to better…
Maynard, M.L., Galuska, D.A., Blanck, H.M., & Serdula, M.K. (2003). Maternal perceptions of weight status of children. Pediatrics, 111(5), 1226-1231.
(1996). In this study, weight, height, and dietary patterns were obtained from 540 adolescent girls aged 12 to 18 years. These researchers used the body mass index of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESI) as their reference for adolescence (Madani et al., 1996). The respective prevalence rates among this sample was found to be 14.7% underweight (85th percentiles). Based on these findings, Madani and his associates posited that the dietary practices of Saudi adolescents were comparable to their peers in other developed countries in the West and may reflect a tendency on the part of Saudi youth to adopt more Western-like lifestyles.
Al-Abbad (1995) assessed the prevalence of obesity and a number of the condition's associated risk factors following the same criteria used in the Madani et al. (1996) study. In Al-Abbad's analysis, 700 randomly selected students from six female intermediate and high schools in Al-Khobar city ranging…
Al-Abbar, F.A. (1995). Prevalence of obesity and risk factors among single female intermediate and high school students in Al-Khobar, Eastern Province Saudi Arabia. College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, 1995 (unpublished fellowship dissertation).
Al-Nuaim a, Bamgboye E, Al-Herbish a. (1996). The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi
Arabian male school children. International Journal of Obesity, 20, 1000-1005.
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Also, there have been cases of people having a life that they have only dreamed of in the past because they have experienced considerable weight losses. (Evening Chronicle)
Even though most people are not aware of it, obesity is one of the most dangerous problems they face. Obesity is surpassed only by smoking when considering the main cause of death worldwide. One of the most disastrous diseases that overweight can lead to is diabetes. This is obvious through the fact that most people that have diabetes are usually overweight. (Mark Kimathi)
Overweight problems are certainly underestimated, with people believing that there is nothing wrong with a few extra pounds. In reality, overweight has terrible consequences on the human body. Among numerous other diseases, overweight people face the risk of developing various forms of cancer. All in all, overweight can lead to a lot of life-threatening affections, and, among the only…
1. Hamilton, Linda. "Appearance and Health: A Sensible Approach to Weight Loss." Dance Magazine, Vol. 71, November 1997.
2. Kimathi, Mark. (2006). "8 Reasons to Lose Weight Now." Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Ezine Articles Web site: http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Reasons-to-Lose-Weight-Now&id=169909
3. Papazian, Ruth. "Should You Go on a Diet?." FDA Consumer, Vol. 27, September 1993.
4. "We'll Pay You to Lose Weight." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 24, 2008.
Childhood Obesity Focused on 6 to 11-Year-Olds in Tyler, Texas
Obesity is associated with a condition of calorific imbalance in which the ratio of consumption of calories consumed and the ones expended is skewed such that the amount of the ones spent is much lower than the amount consumed. The condition is influenced by a range of factors that include genetics, behavioral patterns, and environmental influences. In data availed by the Centre for Disease Control, children between the age of 6 to 11 with obesity condition stood at 7% in 1980 and increased to almost 18% in 2012. In 2014, figures from the Obesity Prevalence Map from the CDC showed that all states had obesity prevalence rates of 20% and above. Three of the states reflected an alarming 35% prevalence in their populations. The state of Texas was rated as having 30 to 35% people with obesity. Two states among…
Arons, A. (2011). Childhood Obesity in Texas, The Costs, The Policies, and a Framework for the Future. Retrieved from http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.pdf on 28 February 2016.
Center for Disease Control, (CDC). (last updated: June 19, 2015). Childhood Obesity Facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/data/childhood.html on 28 February 2016
City-data.com, (n.d). Tyler, Texas. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/city/Tyler-Texas.html on 28 February 2016
Fleischhacker, S.E., Evenson, K.R., Rodriguez, D.A. & Ammerman, A.S. (2011). A systematic review of fast food access studies. Obesity Reviews, 12, 460-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00715.x.
Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).
The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).
This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…
Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20
Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
Obesity in Americans has been a topic of debate over the last decade. Americans are among the most obese people in the world. Obesity causes a variety of health problems that cost American billions each year. In recent years there has also been an increase in obesity in children. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate obesity in children. The discussion will focus on poor eating habits and lack of exercise as the primary causes of obesity in children. The paper will also focus on ways to prevent childhood obesity.
Obesity in Children
According to an article found in Childhood Education there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in children over the past few decades. The article reports that the increase in obesity has occurred over all ethnic, racial, gender and age groups (Hoot & Lynn-Garbe). In addition nearly 10% of children from the ages of…
Childhood Obesity. American Obesity Association. 27 October 2005 http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevention.shtml
Department of Education. 2004. Carol M. White Physical Education Program
Grunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Lowry, R., et al.. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(SS-2), (2004) 1-95.
Irwin, Carol C., Cynthia W. Symons, and Dianne L. Kerr. "The Dilemmas of Obesity: How Can Physical Educators Help?." JOPERD -- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 74.6 (2003): 33+.
Fast Food and Child Obesity
This study identifies the underlying correlation of fast food consumption and the increasing rate of child obesity. The system of fast food is prevalent in all countries, with each country having its own variations of types of items served and the nature of establishments serving. The popularity of fast food is due to the convenience of fast service, packaged food and low cost. Now major fast food industries try to make their product seem as healthy as possible. It is likely that the convenience is influencing the growth of childhood obesity in the United States. In addition, the factors of media, family, and environment bring about differences within our community. Understanding the correlation between these factors is vital in producing a solution. However, there needs to be a better support for causation, not just correlation. The children and youth will one-day influence the…
Chou, S. (2008). Fast Food Restaurants Advertising on Television and its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics, 51, 599-618.
Darwin, A. (2008). Childhood Obesity: Is it Abuse? The Children's Voice, 17, 4-24.
Eagle, T. (2012). Understanding Childhood Obesity in America: Linkages between Household Income, Community Resources, and Children's Behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Fraser, L. (1998). Fast Food and Obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-248.
Many Americans would rather die or cut off a limb than be fat... (Worley). There is an underlying prejudice towards the excessively overweight that has, to a large extent, become an accepted part of society. As Worley states, it has become "...acceptable to shun fat people and make them the butt of cruel jokes" (Worley). Worley, Schwartz and others also emphasis the negative way that fat people are treated in public, as well as by family members. This leads to feelings if shame and a loss of self-esteem, with all the negative psychological aspects that this implies.
However, there are organizations that have realized the extent of this problem and who actively involved in raising public awareness about unfair prejudice and in helping combat such prejudice in society. The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) has reacted against this innate prejudice in society by providing a platform and a…
Hearne. S. et al. F as in Fat: How obesity policies are failing in America. April 20, 2008. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:pbbUEelBegwJ:healthyamericans.org/reports/obesity/ObesityReport.pdf+the+Centers+for+Disease+Control+reports+only+eight+percent+of+elementary+schools+offer+daily+physical+education+classeshl=en
Kreulen G. Informing the Debate. 2002. April 18, 2008.:
NAAF Policy: ADOPTION DISCRIMINATION. April 18, 2008. http://www.naafa.org/documents/policies/adoption.html