Paradigm Shift Essays (Examples)

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The Wayfinders Wade Davis Discussion

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20984107

Wade Davis’s talk “The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World” covers topics like paradigm shifts and advancements in human consciousness. Davis also talks about the fiction of race and the genetic unity of all human beings. Using an anthropological approach, Davis shows how different cultures throughout time have always developed deep wisdom. Davis’s premise is that human wisdom is not linear or even progressive. Every culture is a “unique answer to a fundamental question,” states Davis. The Eurocentric view of the world is that “primitive” societies need to advance via urbanization or technological modernization, and this attitude has led to devastating results and genocide. Davis discusses dying languages and cultures, claiming that on average every two weeks a language dies. With the death of languages comes the death of culture, and with the death of culture comes the death of wisdom.
Davis is fascinated and in awe…… [Read More]


Davis, W. (2009). The Wayfinders. Toronto: Anansi.
Davis, W. (2013). The Wayfinders. YouTube. Retrieved online: 

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Thomas Kuhn's Paradigm Theory

Words: 2840 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67219198

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996) was an American scientist, historian and philosopher who wrote a controversial book in 1962 called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and from an early age expressed interest in science, particularly physics; obtaining his BS degree in physics from Harvard in 1943. He stayed at Harvard for his MS and PhD, and credits the period of the late 1940s in helping him develop his views on the history and philosophy of science. He taught at Berkeley until 1964, and then moved to Princeton from 1964 to 1979, moving to MIT until 1991. Kuhn died in 1996 from lung cancer, but left a long tradition of scientific articles, books and student input (Fuller, 2000)

This book introduced the term "paradigm shift" and made several claims surrounding the manner in which we understand scientific knowledge, process that knowledge, and use that knowledge to come…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains. (2011, June). Retrieved from 

Fuller, S. (2000). ThomasKuhn: A Philosophical History From Our Time.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gould, S. (2007, March). Puntuated Equilibrium. Retrieved from
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Kuhn's Concept of the Paradigm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73905277

An article of the Physics Department at the Weber State University argues that Kuhn's complicated view is due to the essential nebulous character of the paradigm itself. Given this situation then, the authors at the Weber University argue that Kuhn's model is not entirely applicable as one cannot entirely know the features and characteristics of a paradigm, such as its components or its evolution. They go on by offering the example of the atoms, which, despite the extensive years of research and analysis, continue to be used in terms of assumption and controlled experiments. Given this situation, in which it may be difficult to control and foresee the movement and actions of atoms, the professors at Weber conclude that it is rather impossible to foresee the evolution of science as a whole, and even less so include it in a paradigm.

The final critique brought to Kuhn relies in the…… [Read More]

James Franklin (2000) looks at Kuhn's work from a different angle, and finds that the paradigm theory is the same in science as it is in terms of human interactions: "Kuhn's thesis is that scientific theories are no better than ones in the humanities. The idea that science is all theoretical talk and negotiation, which never really establishes anything, is one that caused trouble long ago for Galileo." Furthermore, Franklin looks at the content of the book and finds several inconsistencies. Probably the most relevant example in this sense is constituted by the classification of several "unsustainable" theories. The author of the article points out that Kuhn did not clarify the understanding of the appellative "unsustainable," nor its context, be it logic or philosophical. Either way, Franklin argues that the use of this adjective in the given context is inappropriate. "If it means that there are a number of observed results that would be unlikely if the theory were true, then one is back in the realm of logic, of the bad old philosophy of science that studied the relation of evidence to hypothesis. Naturally, Kuhn is not keen to emphasize that direction. But if "unsustainable" is a purely psychological matter, a kind of collective disgust by a salon des refuses of younger scientists who simply think their elders are too smug, then it is impossible to see why it should have any standing as science" (Franklin).

An article of the Physics Department at the Weber State University argues that Kuhn's complicated view is due to the essential nebulous character of the paradigm itself. Given this situation then, the authors at the Weber University argue that Kuhn's model is not entirely applicable as one cannot entirely know the features and characteristics of a paradigm, such as its components or its evolution. They go on by offering the example of the atoms, which, despite the extensive years of research and analysis, continue to be used in terms of assumption and controlled experiments. Given this situation, in which it may be difficult to control and foresee the movement and actions of atoms, the professors at Weber conclude that it is rather impossible to foresee the evolution of science as a whole, and even less so include it in a paradigm.

The final critique brought to Kuhn relies in the actual choice of words. Critics argue that the concept of paradigm is generally vague, and as such fails to offer consistency and reliability throughout the research and theory formulation process. Despite this criticism however, the author of the Structure of Scientific Revolutions promoted the concept of paradigm in its understanding of "a collection of beliefs shared by scientists, a set of agreements about how problems are to be understood" (Emory University, Division of Educational Studies).
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Kuhn's Concept of the Paradigm

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94016560

He describes Kuhn's specific concepts and shows the philosopher's evolution in thought on the topic. The Encyclopedia of Social Theory has as its objective the education of people searching for information on a specific topic. As such, the site is useful for those looking for information on Kuhn. The site also appears reliable, as it is part of a large network of articles. The author also cites a variety of sources as the basis of his writing.

ilson, Kenneth G. (2001). Review: The Road since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview and Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History of Our Times in Physics Today:

The review begins by addressing the issue of history and how it relates to science. This is made relevant to Kuhn's concept of the paradigm, and how paradigm shifts are a necessary part of historical development. It is a useful site, in that it…… [Read More]

Wilson, Kenneth G. (2001). Review: The Road since Structure: Philosophical Essays, 1970-1993, with an Autobiographical Interview and Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History of Our Times in Physics Today:

The review begins by addressing the issue of history and how it relates to science. This is made relevant to Kuhn's concept of the paradigm, and how paradigm shifts are a necessary part of historical development. It is a useful site, in that it provides not only an overview of current works relating to Kuhn's views, but also a multiplicity of dimensions relating to these views. Indeed the review describes potential shortcomings in Kuhn's concept, in that it does not address a very wide range of actions needed to accomplish a true paradigm shift. The author does concede Kuhn's vast contribution to the field of studying science. In general, the Physics Today site exists to inform students of science regarding developments and studies in the field. Hence I believe that it is both a useful and legitimate site, in that it addresses more than one point of vies relating to Kuhn's concept. The site is legitimized not only by the fact that it appears in Physics Today, but also by the fact that it focuses on the sources reviewed, rather than solely on the author's opinions.
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Transportation Paradigm Changes Logistics Changes

Words: 1541 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16534873

Private companies, however, must begin to take more of this burden on themselves in order to streamline procedures at these points of entry; the more prepared and well-documented each vessel is, the less time (and therefore money) they will have to spend at the various points of entry proving their compliance and security reliability (Lake 2004).

In the ever-changing world of the twenty-first century, corporations and other business entities must begin to shoulder more of the burden of both world and personal security, as their resources far outstrip those of even some of the largest governments, especially when it comes to the ability to deal with their own specific products, vessels, and issues. This new security paradigm does not eliminate the need for government intervention in security -- far from it, in fact -- but it does require a greater deal of planning and cooperation with business entities.


Intergraph…… [Read More]


Intergraph (2009). "Transportation: Secure, manage, and maintain your transportation network." Accessed 24 October 2009.

Lake, J. (2004). 'Border and Transportation Security: Overview of Congressional Issues." Congressional research service. Accessed 24 October 2009.

Puget Sound Business Journal (PSBJ) (2009). "Logistics & transportation news." Accessed 24 October 2009.
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Represents Several Different Paradigms The

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61118855

First, recent evidence has indicated that there are many different ways that students of all ages learn, and this is certainly true for adult learners just as much as it is true for those who are learning things at a younger age. Because there are inherent differences in the ways that students learn, when they are all taught in the same way their grades suffer. Some students certainly excel, but others struggle. When they are taught differently, they begin to improve and they have fewer problems with the material. That indicates that it is not the fault of the student, nor is it the fault of the material. It is really not even the fault of the teacher, but of the educational system itself, which does not really work in the way that it was designed to. Studies have shown that, despite the fact that the United States spends more…… [Read More]

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Sustainability the New Paradigm in

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58885814

Edwards (2005) writes, "This principle asks businesses to use foresight in the development of new products and processes and, if these are deemed potentially dangerous to society, to refrain from further action" (p. 55). This ethical concept shifts responsibility from the consumer and regulators to the business itself. The burden lies with the company to prove that technologies, chemicals, or practices are sustainable and safe. This is important because many companies view the requirement of proving non-hazards as an obstacle to technological advancement.

Maybe the most important concept in sustainability is that economic development is human development. This view integrates culture and economy. "The economy represents our societal metabolism; it processes resources and information and circulates the resulting products throughout" (Goerner et. al., 2008, p. 157). Prosperity is a function of human capital and local networks of collaboration. This is important since it reverses top-down notions which promote material means…… [Read More]


Edwards, a.R. (2005). The sustainability revolution: portrait of a paradigm shift. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society.

Goerner, S.J., Dyck, R.G., & Laterroos, D. (2008). The new science of sustainability: building a foundation for great change. Chapel Hill, NC: Triangle Center for Complex Systems.

Hawken, P., Lovins, a., & Lovins, L.H. (1999). Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Brown: Little, Brown, and Company.
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Philosophy of Science Paradigm Epistemology and Ontology

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91087650

Philosophy of Science, Paradigm, Epistemology, and Ontology

Note that defining philosophy of science is different from asking you about your personal philosophy of your discipline, such as your philosophy of education, or your philosophy of management.

• The distinction between and among these terms

• n explanation of why these terms are important for researchers to know

Philosophy of science, paradigm, epistemology, and ontology

Philosophy as a discipline concerns itself with understanding the pursuit of knowledge: how we know things and what we can know. The branch of philosophy specifically known as the philosophy of science is concerned with how knowledge deemed to be 'scientific' is constructed. It concerns itself with questions about what constitutes science (versus art, commonsense knowledge, speculation, and superstition); how scientific knowledge is created; and the standards for establishing scientific principles (Definition of philosophy of science, 2013, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia).

lthough scientific knowledge is often viewed…… [Read More]

Although scientific knowledge is often viewed as 'objective' or at least more 'objective' than subjective opinion, the ways in which scientific knowledge is created are not written in stone. The notion of a paradigm shift, which "refers either to a model or an example to be followed or to an established system or way of doing things," was developed by Thomas Kuhn to explain how science progresses and changes (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). Another way of defining a paradigm might be that of a 'lens' or the particular way in which a group of persons within a specific discipline sees the world, consciously and unconsciously filtering the stimuli around them. But Kuhn's concept of the scientific paradigm was a departure from previous ways of looking at science. "As a reaction against philosophies of science that prescribed the appropriate scientific method, such as Popper's falsificationism, Kuhn (1970) focused on the practices of communities of scientists" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004). Instead of science developing in a linear fashion in a quest for ' truth,' Kuhn saw scientific developments as a series of ideological changes, in which there was a radical break with the past when the scientific community as a whole was willing to change long-standing approaches to generating knowledge. Kuhn saw scientists as engaged in a constant negotiation "consisting of their views of the nature of the reality they study (their ontology), including the components that make it up and how they are related; the techniques that are appropriate for investigating this reality (their epistemology); and accepted examples of past scientific achievements (exemplars)" (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Futing 2004).

Previously, the philosophy science was viewed primarily through a positivist framework: "in a positivist view of the world, science was seen as the way to get at truth, to understand the world well enough so that we might predict and control it" (Trochim 2006). (This is what Popper meant when he said that if a claim could not be proven false, it could not be proven true, either). Kuhn took what came to be known as a post-positivist view, suggesting that science could be affected by history and a willingness of people (who happened to be scientists) to change: "Post-positivists reject the idea that any individual can see the world perfectly as it really is" (Trochim 2006).

The question of epistemology, or how knowledge can be established, is quite critical to science, given that modern science often attempts to answer questions about the physical world in a manner that can have a demonstrable material impact upon human lives: for example the conditions for demonstrating that
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Different Paradigms of Transformational Leadership

Words: 2410 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85251963

Implanting Total Quality Management in healthcare: The critical leadership traits" by Nwabueze (2011), TQM is an increasingly critical part of ensuring cost-effective management of healthcare in the modern economic environment. However, there are often substantial institutional and personal obstacles to realizing its benefits. "TQM leadership is therefore about presence, and a process carried out within an organizational role that assumes responsibility for the needs and rights of employees who choose to follow the leader in achieving results" (Nwabueze, 2011, p.331). In the article, leadership in general is conceptualized as motivating people to do what you want them to do of their own free will without constant supervision and coercion and TQM in particular is a values-based system (Nwabueze, 2011, p.332). The concept of zero defects and continuous improvement must be instilled within all employees on a consistent basis throughout the organization and this requires a transformation of past ways of…… [Read More]


Antonakis, J., Fenley, M. & Liecht, S. (2011). Can charisma be taught? Tests of two

Interventions. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10 (3) 374-396.

Baker, J. (2014). Leadership: A concise conceptual overview. Center for International Education

Faculty Publications, 18.
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Addictive Paradigm a Paradigm Is a Conceptual

Words: 1959 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91359822

Addictive Paradigm

A paradigm is a conceptual model. It puts a frame around ideas and assumptions in order to give a sense of direction for understanding and action. In the field of alcoholism and addiction, the frames of reference most commonly used until recently have encased pictures in the frames of the personal: struggles, challenges, control and acceptance that come with looking alcohol and what it does to one as an individual. It is the "me" who is powerless against this mysterious (though possibly biochemical) force of compulsion, and thus it is "I" who must come to terms with the reality it imposes. The step programs that most people know reflect this understanding and take the initiative to bring together people who are framed by a similar life.

A different picture gets framed when one looks at the issues of drugs and addiction from a social constructs perspective; a conceptualization…… [Read More]


Adams, J. (2008). Fragmented Intimacy: Addiction in a social world. Springer Science. Auckland, NZ.

Wikipedia (2011). Framing (Social Sciences). Viewable at
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Crossvergence Questioning the Hofstede Paradigm One of

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85492557

Crossvergence: Questioning the Hofstede paradigm

One of the most well-known and popular methods of analyzing differences between cultures is that of Geert Hofstede's framework, which conceptualizes different cultures as having fundamental, core values regarding power distance, masculine and feminine norms, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation. However, Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley (2006) in their article "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors" criticize the Hofstede framework as overly rigid and static. Cultures are not enclosed entities, but rather are permeable structures. The authors apply the concept of crossvergence to the Hong Kong and Chinese banking sectors, comparing the cultural differences between Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the United States -- the latter "an often assumed, dissimilar region" from these Asian nations -- during the years 1985-2000 (Kelley, MacNab, & Worthley 2006: 68).

One of the problems with using Hofstede's framework when…… [Read More]


Hofstede, G. 2011. Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede Model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and culture, 2 (1): 1-26. Available: [15 Jun 2013]

Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. 2006. "Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors." Journal

of International Management, 12 (1): 67 -- 84.
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Education Mcintyre Discusses Various Paradigms

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27052424

The rules of this paradigm are that government usually perform formal inquiries because they hope to establish trends for funding or new educational models, while social research does not have to follow these rules, instead, they study social problems and divides that affect adult and distance learners, and seek to solve those problems through social change and reorganization.

Finally, the paradigm that exists between the institution and the adult learner is often one of opposition, rather than support. Research shows that the institution has certain requirements or "rules" that the student must follow, such as number of credits taken, types of classes to take for a degree, and even counseling and number of lessons per course requirements. These all tend to serve the institution's needs and perspectives, while ignoring the needs and perspectives of the learner. This paradigm needs to change as well, because it does not create a framework…… [Read More]

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Art Theory Paradigms Modernism and

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27015664

"This means that there will be as many different forms of postmodernism as there were high modernisms in place, since the former are at least initially specific and local reactions against those models."

One of the key transitional moments from modernism to postmodernism, frequently cited by a number of sources, is Marcel Duchamp's decision to display a urinal in an art gallery; this disruptive moment effectively shattered previous paradigms, thus giving way to an "opening up" of boundaries in art that Duchamp perceived as restrictive.

In art, one of the more recognizable features of postmodernism is pastiche.

Pastiche is contingent on the paradigm of "the death of the author," or the end of individualism, as it was previously known under Modernism. As it is impossible to be original, to have a unique style because "everything has been done before," postmodernist discourse is concerned with using previous styles in a playful…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jameson, Frederic. "Postmodernism and Consumer Society." Retrieved May 14, 2008, at .

Kermode, Frank. The Sense of an Ending. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Kermode, p. 24.

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Family and Systemic Therapies Shift From First-Order to Second Order

Words: 2684 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81794575

Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies

The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…… [Read More]


Asen, E. (2004). Outcome research in family therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, pp. 230-238

Asen, K.E., Berkowitz, R., Cooklin, A., et al. (1991). Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers. Family Process, 30, 3-20.

Baron, P. (2007). Ecosystemic psychology; first and second order cybernetics.

Baucom, D., Shoham, V., Mueser, K., et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 53-88.
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People Often Shift to Other Jobs When

Words: 3184 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16639928

People often shift to other jobs when they feel unsatisfied. This is the case for nurses. Nurses have a high turnover rate in not just one country, but internationally. There is growing shortage of nurses because of lack of job satisfaction. Abualrub & Alghamdi performed a study back in 2012 determining whether leadership style had an impact on job satisfaction and retention rates. The article titled "The impact of leadership styles on nurses' satisfaction and intention to stay among Saudi nurses," pinned transactional leadership style against transformational leadership style, to see if one was more effective at creating higher job satisfaction in Saudi nurses. The authors used a myriad of tests for analysis, the response rate (slightly over half), generated a result that shows Saudi nurses favor transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style.

This essay is not only a critique of the article but it also examines it through…… [Read More]


Andrews, D., Richard, D., Robinson, P., Celano, P., & Hallaron, J. (2012). The influence of staff nurse perception of leadership style on satisfaction with leadership: A cross-sectional survey of pediatric nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(9), 1103-1111. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.03.007

Bhandari, S. (2014). The Ancient and Modern Thinking about Justice: An Appraisal of the Positive Paradigm and the Influence of International Law.Ritsumeikan Annual Review Of International Studies, 13, 1. Retrieved from 

BROWN, P., FRASER, K., WONG, C., MUISE, M., & CUMMINGS, G. (2012). Factors influencing intentions to stay and retention of nurse managers: a systematic review. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 459-472. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01352.x

Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2012). Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more critical interpretation. Nursing Inquiry, 20(1), 11-22. doi:10.1111/nin.12006
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Nursing Leadership Two Paradigms in Its Earliest

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99539296

Nursing Leadership: Two Paradigms

In its earliest incarnation as a profession, nurses were often conceptualized as attendants and helpers to physicians and patients, not as leaders. However, nurses over the years have attempted to eke out a unique sphere for themselves within the healthcare profession in the manner in which they integrate a patient's physical, social, psychological, and environmental needs. Today nurses are increasingly called forth to take on leadership positions within organizations, often as a result of cost-cutting efforts that shift responsibilities to nurse leaders that were once relegated to doctors and administrators.

The current available leadership models offered to nurses and to the leaders of healthcare organizations are numerous, and often draw from the literature of the business world as well as healthcare. "Now more than ever nursing needs vibrant and dedicated leaders…Leadership does not rest merely with administrators and high-level managers, but also can be developed and…… [Read More]


Domrose, Cathryn. (2002). A guiding hand. NurseWeek. Retrieved September 12, 2011

Roy, Josie. (2007). Horizontal Violence. ADVANCE for Nurses. Retrieved September 12, 2011

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Industrial Revolution Heralded a Shift in the

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20190766

Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.

In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Curry, A. (2003). Why we work. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from

Crowley, M., Trope, D., Chamberlain, L. & Hudson, R. (2010). Neo-Taylorism at work: Occupational change in the post-Fordist era. Social problems. Vol. 57 (3) 421-447.

eNotes. (2010). Industrial Revolution. eNotes. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from

Ferrante, J. (2005). Sociology: A global perspective. Cengage.
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Giddings & Lewis Shifted to

Words: 385 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44879930

Question 2: Processes

According to the Focus Paradigm, for Giddings & Lewis, a process strategy of a high focus on product quality, high levels of mechanization and standardization to take advantage of economies of scale and capitalizing upon ability to produce at high volume while still maintaining high quality would be advisable. The ability to tailor products to customer needs, especially in this era of globalization, given the large range of resources available to the newly expanded company would also be desirable. Since low, low cost pricing is not the focus, reforming processes to improve quality and meeting customer demands might be a better process strategy. In contrast, a focus on a large range of customers and meeting customer's low-cost needs at Cincinnati would be desirable and using mechanization to improve processes to reduce costs rather than focusing on improving quality would be advisable. To reduce costs further, some additional…… [Read More]

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Values and Practices That Comprises

Words: 1606 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39503238

The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)

To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…… [Read More]


Caldwell, Roger. C. "Paradigms - the Big Changes and Shifts in Society" Retrieved from . Accessed on 2 February, 2005

Jeantheau, Mark. "Paradigm Shift-How Some Try to Win by Changing the Rules of the Game" Retrieved from -- how-some try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html -- howsome try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html Accessed on 2 February, 2005

McNamara, Carter. (1999) "New Paradigm in Management" Retrieved at Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Paradigm Shift" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
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Embedded in Schooling Relate to

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5073898

The experience with law enforcement also shows similar models of paradigm shift. The leaders within the industry typically posed resistance to changes. Changes instead were driven by the needs of other stakeholders -- by politicians who shifted laws, funding and emphasis; by communities that demanded specific paradigm shifts such as improving the ethnic diversity of police forces. The ar on Drugs is one example of externally-driven paradigm shift. Politicians drove this change in emphasis that shifted the priorities of law enforcement. Some law enforcement agencies eventually have taken some of that paradigm shift back, choosing not to focus on petty drug crimes. In those cases, the paradigm shift is internally driven at the micro level by individual members of law enforcement leadership.

Paradigm shifts in law enforcement have traditionally been the result of leaders in the field reacting to changes in the external environment. The pace of change has not…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rogers, D. (2000). A paradigm shift: Technology integration for higher education in the new millennium. Educational Technology Review. Spring/Summer 2000, pp. 19-33

Helmi, a. (2001). An analysis on the impetus of online education: Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia. The Internet and Higher Education. Vol. 4 (3-4) 243-253.

Langerman, a. (2007). A force united: Information sharing across law enforcement. Retrieved May 29, 2010 from -- Information-sharing-across-law-enforcement/1$37,891
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Global Changes in the Missiology

Words: 9755 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77300433

" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)

Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:

(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;

(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]


Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.

Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.

Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.

Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.
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Kuhn Describe What Kuhn Really

Words: 481 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69006198

Cox communications has grown due to pushing the perceived envelope of knowledge. The fundamental foundation of the company is the paradigm shift. Technology of any type, particularly high tech such as communications have their progress predicated upon the changes occurring in organizations based on dynamics of this technology.

This is especially true in communications technologies over the internet. Cox Communications got into broadband starting in 2001 after cutting its teeth in basic internet technologies. Then in 2004, they expanded into Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) and into cable broadband and telephony in 2006.("Cox communications, inc.," 2011).

Cox Communications is now the third largest cable multi-system operator in the U.S. Cox was founded in 1962 in the cable television industry. The company's expanded from initial markets included Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone in Pennsylvania. From then until now, Cox has become a multi-service broadband communications provider and is currently the cable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cox communications, inc.. (2011). Retrieved from

Kuhn, T. (1996). Structure of scientific revolutions. (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL:

University of Chicago Press. Print.
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Ontology 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology

Words: 3653 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75331223

The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.

Ontological Basis

Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .

Epistemological Basis

The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.

Interpretive Paradigm

An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).

Ontological Basis

The researcher acknowledge existence…… [Read More]


Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Response to Intervention RTI

Words: 6803 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43957081


esponse to Intervention

esponse to Intervention (TI)

Over the past decade, rapid changes have occurred in general educational practice to increase the focus on early identification of and intervention for students considered at risk. The aptly named response-to-intervention (TI) model of service delivery is generally described as a multi-tiered model whereby students receive interventions of increasing intensity, with movement from one level to another based on demonstrated performance and rate of progress (Gresham, 2007). This sizable paradigm shift has been influenced in part by recent special education legislation, which allows the practice of TI as an alternative to the traditional "IQ- achievement discrepancy" model of learning disability identification and allows 15% of federal special education funding to be allocated toward early intervening services (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004). Moreover, TI has gained favor in light of mounting evidence suggesting that intensive intervention during the primary grades is…… [Read More]


Aikens, N.L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 235 -- 251.

Barnett, D.W.,VanDerHeyden, A.M.,&Witt, J.C. (2007).Achieving science-based practice through response to intervention: What it might look like in preschools. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17, 31 -- 54.

Berkeley, S., Bender, W.N., Peaster, L.G., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of response to intervention: A snapshot of progress. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 85 -- 95.

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2005). Response to intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 485 -- 486.
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Curriculum of Nursing Education

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71152410

Dynamic curriculum offers diversity, growth, caring, self-care, development, adaptation, the nursing process, evidence-based practice, and a way in which relevance for future practice can be identified. By including all the important concepts, the curriculum is better able to provide exactly what is needed for nurses who want to provide the best care to their patients. The competencies that are studied and the knowledge that is required are both centered around how nurses get their education and what they do with their knowledge once they have acquired it. There are several current trends in health care that affect the development of curriculum and the outcomes of the programs nurses must take. These include understanding the increasing severity of patient illnesses in both community-based and acute care settings, along with the rising demand for affordable prices and good care. Quality assurance and safety for the patients is another area where emphasis is…… [Read More]


Billings, D., & Halstead, J. (2009). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (3th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders.

Billings, D., & Halstead, J. (2012). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.

Faison, K., & Montague, F. (2013). Paradigm shift: Curriculum shift. ABNF Journal, 24(1), 21-22.

Morris, T.L., & Hancock, D.R. (2013). Institute of medicine core competencies as a foundation for nursing program evaluation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(1), 29-33. Retrieved from
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Organization Work Familiar The Expected Word

Words: 3460 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42084868

organization work, familiar . The expected word count assignment 3300 words length.

According to Baines (2011)

relationship marketing is a marketing style that emphasizes customer satisfaction and retention, rather than focusing dominantly on sales transactions. It focuses mainly on continuous nurturing of customer relationships, instead of focusing mainly on them for one-time purchases. The idea behind relationship marketing is for a company to develop emotionally strong connections with their existing customers, and convert them to be the company's loyal advocates. This is not only fun, but it is more profitable. One will require fewer resources to sell to someone who trusts, likes, and knows your company products than selling to a stranger. elationship marketing recognizes a customer's long-term value to the company and offers communication that goes beyond sales promotional messages and intrusive advertising.

Apple Inc. is a Multinational Corporation based in Cupertino, California. The company deals with consumer electronics,…… [Read More]


Baines, P., Fill, C. And Page, K. (2011). Marketing (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gronroos, C. (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing. Management Decision, Vol. 32(No. 2), 4-20.

Harker, M.J. a. E., J. (2006). The past, present and future of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 22, 215-242.

Kumar, V. a. S., D. (2004). Building and sustaining customer loyalty for the 21st century. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 80(No. 4), 317-330.
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Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific

Words: 1902 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93853295

The concept of the paradigm shift, however, negates the very idea that truth could ever actually be reached. Each paradigm -- which only gives way to another paradigm, leaving all knowledge and understanding ultimately tied to some semblance of foundational assumptions. There is no getting beyond the assumptions, as they are a necessary component (in Kuhn's view) of establishing any sort of causal understanding at all. Science is then, taking Kuhn's theory of paradigm shifts to its logical conclusion, ultimately and always doomed to failure if its goal is defined as the determination and explanation of truth. The goal of science must itself be redefined as a result of Kuhn's concept of the paradigm shift, unless a competing theory proves as effective in explaining scientific progress -- and captures the attention of the scientific community as well. Such paradigm shifts do not come easily, however.


Few -- if any…… [Read More]


Blunden, a. (1998). "On the nature and necessity of scientific revolutions." Accessed 20 February 2010.

Bird, a. (2004). "Thomas Kuhn." Accessed 20 February 2010. 

Eng, L. (2001). "The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and the Structure of Scientific Revolutions." 

Forster, M. (1998). "Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Accessed 20 February 2010.
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Thomas Kuhn's Book - The

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97415676

esearch can be added to the paradigms through discovery, without an actual paradigm shift, or the paradigm can be completely replaced through crisis.

Scientific revolutions are sometimes so great that it can be said that with the advent of a paradigm shift, the world itself changes. However, as Kuhn (1996) sustains, the world does not actually change every time a paradigm shift occurs, although it can be said that the world does become a different place for the ones who perceive it from the point-of-view of a different paradigm. (p. 111)

In the light of Kuhn's theory, the history of past science as well of the structure of the present science and the forecast of the future developments can be defined or predicted.

The Structure of Scientific evolutions is a great step towards an understanding of the past of science as well as of the manner in which it evolves.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Kuhn, T.S. (1996) The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
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Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of

Words: 3200 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14073607

What they had regarded as the most certain of all theories turned out to be in need of serious revision. In reaction, they resolved never again to bestow their faith in scientific truth unconditionally. Skepticism, not certainty, became their watchword. (ibid)

The implication of Kuhn's work was that science was seen to be dependent on history. It was no longer superior to historical analysis but could only be understood within the context of history. This too is another post-modern concept which is very important in deconstruction theory. "Philosophers therefore turned to a more serious study of history than they would have considered desirable even a few years earlier. They also learned more about the internal workings of the sciences than their earlier, much more abstract epistemological approach would ever have justified or even tolerated." (ibid)

3. Postmodern thought

Thomas Kuhn's groundbreaking work in the field of the philosophy of science…… [Read More]


Bernstein, Richard J. Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Boon, Timothy. "Making the Modern World" History Today Aug. 2001: 38. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004

Borradori, Giovanna. The American Philosopher: Conversations with Quine, Davidson, Putnam, Nozick, Danto, Rorty, Cavell, Macintyre, and Kuhn. Trans. Crocitto, Rosanna. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Burns, Tony. "Zamyatin's We and Postmodernism." Utopian Studies 11.1 (2000): 66. Questia. 10 Dec. 2004
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Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36443466

As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.

Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…… [Read More]


Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.

Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.

Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech:
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Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning How

Words: 7785 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11517163

65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.


What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?

Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…… [Read More]


About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from / landing2_about.htm.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:

Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.
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Learning Theory and Its Implications for the

Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78224639

Learning Theory and Its Implications for the Theory and Practice of Instructional Design Paradigm Shift in Instructional Learning Theory


ecause of the global changes transforming every aspect of life there is a need to transform traditional instruction into learner-centered instruction. This requires a re-thinking of the roles played by the teacher and the students in the learning process which involves a major change in one's basic assumption on how people learn.

According to Chickering and Gamson (1987 p. 3) "learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by just sitting in a class listening to teachers memorizing prepackaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, related it to past experiences, apply it to their lives."

Research on cognition reveals that students who reflect on their learning are better learners than those who do…… [Read More]


Reigeluth, Charles M. 1999. Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Vol. II. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

ERIC Digest. A Paradigm Shift from Instruction to Learning. What Is the New Paradigm of Instructional Theory by Reigeluth, Charles M. Indiana University . Instructional Design Theories and Models. Vol II by Charles M. Reigeluth, Editor. 1999. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behavior -- Globalization and

Words: 4864 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55372204

Organizational Behaviour

Organizational behavior -- globalization and diversity

Diversity is becoming more present within the contemporaneous business climates and it is necessary that economic agents devise and implement the most adequate strategies in responding to the challenges of diversity. Diversity in itself is not only a constant presence, but also a generator of impacts and organizational change. A relevant example in this sense is offered by the fact that diversity forces changes at the level of the leadership styles. Furthermore however, diversity also impacts organizational bottom line and productivity.

In light of the new evolutions at the level of the business climate, numerous changes occur in the previous paradigms. Specifically, one can easily observe shifts in organizational paradigms and to exemplify these, the cases of several Malaysian firms are introduced. Finally, the concept of organizational culture is detailed and emphasis is placed on the strategic strengthening of organizational culture.

Table…… [Read More]


Barak, M.E.M., 2010, Managing diversity: toward a globally inclusive workplace, SAGE

Brooks, M.B., 2009, Diversity is about the bottom line, Major Ben's Consulting, / last accessed on May 4, 2011

Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price, Documentary

Jaya, P., Pinang, P., Bahru, J., Marketing the key too success in Malaysian business development, Malaysian Institute of Management, last accessed on May 4, 2011
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Leadership and Social Advocacy

Words: 5374 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42281879

Social Advocacy in Counseling

Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.

Social Justice

Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]


American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.

Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
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Self-Advocacy Steps to Successful Transition

Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38290680

Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)

This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).

Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at

Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.

Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
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Marx Capitalism Is an Economic

Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67946811

This is one, alternative explanation for the Neoclassical Revolution -- even without Marxism, to help understand the way that producers maximized value in an industrial society, a new way of understanding manufacturing was essential. Still another explanation for Neoclassical economics might follow as thus: Classical economics is fundamentally flawed, but not as Marxists might suggest. Instead, this explanation suggests that Classical theory is based upon an idealized conception of 'economic human' who moderates his or her desires solely according to price, and a producer who perfectly calculates the correct cost or value an item, based upon demand. Phenomenon such as seasonal rises in demand not based upon price or scarcity, consumer psychology, and irrational consumer whims are all not explained in Classical Theory, and even Neoclassical Theory and Marxism only began to scratch the surface of such challenges to pre-existing paradigms. Thus, just as Kuhn asserts, when a paradigm is…… [Read More]

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Net-Centric Computing Computers More Specifically

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12806280

Access to all the tools necessary to succeed academically allows for access to someone 24/7 who can assist in specific needs. There is an online library that has a huge collection available for electronic delivery (immediate) or access to other databases and materials delivered through email or mail; no residency requirement, no commute, and the ability to build unique and individualzed ways of synthesizing the learning experience between classes (Experience the Trident University Advantage, 2011).

This view of aggressively encouraging and utilitzing net centric principles is now no longer a "wish" or nice to; it is clear adirectieve based on research and efficacy, that netcenter operations be made pervasive at the Naval War College, the Naval Academy, and Naval Postgraduate School, just as example. This program paradigm is so perfect for the military, that the top Naval educational peronnel see it as a way to actualize more personnel in a…… [Read More]


Experience the Trident University Advantage. (2011, January). Retrieved January 2011, from Tufts University:

Griffiths, P. (2006). The Netcentric Curriculum. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Intellectual Capital & Knowledge Management. Santiago, Chile: Pontifica Universidad.

National Research Council. (2000). Nework Centric Naval Douces: A Tramsotopm streguoooooooooo. Washington, DC: Naval Studies Board.

O'Regan, G. (2008). A Brief History of Computing. New York: Springer.
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Spencer Education for the New

Words: 1339 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7065914

Granted it is argued that not all new employment opportunities are managerial in nature, but even if the 20% figure frequently quoted regarding the percentage of managerial occupations open today, competent lower-level employees who can deal with problems and the public in a creative fashion and perform the secondary and tertiary activities in a manner to make customers want to return cannot be undervalued. Reduced job security also makes it a moral and social imperative for government educational paradigms to focus on making an investment in people, not viewing people work products. Even if not all workers entering the workforce can be classified as "knowledgeable workers," all workers have to have some knowledge to do their job and to learn new knowledge at their job every day. The knowledge of learning from experience can be fostered in quality adult education programs that are not merely technical in nature. Basic skills…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atwood, Jim. (2007. Jun 26). Learning, or learning how to learn. Coding Horror. Retrieved 6 Oct 2008 at

Loher, Steve. (2005, Dec 2005). At Google, cube culture has new rules. The New York Times. Retrieved 7 Oct 2008 at

Schlosser, Eric. (1998). Fast-food nation: The true cost of America's diet. Rolling Stone

Magazine. Retrieved 7 Oct 2008 at
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History of Economics the Way

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653031

These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.

Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…… [Read More]


Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001

Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, accessed on February 4, 2009

Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
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Educational Research What Do You

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8573025

Policy assessments must be based on the most appropriate data sets. Qualitative data is the most appropriate data set in educational research.

Interactions abound in education. Those interactions create a complex matrix of issues affecting education effectiveness: class, gender, and learning style all impact learning but those variables also interact with classroom environment and peer group issues. Education is a process of communication, communication between the learner and his or her environment. The teacher is only one part of that student's environment. Qualitative research allows the ubiquity of interactions to be examined in a scientific framework.

As the accepted processes of educational science change, educational policy will too. The next generation of educators need to pressure their coworkers and community activists to lobby for wholesale changes in the government. Parents must also begin expressing their discontent with No Child Left Behind more vehemently. Until then, scholars of education need to…… [Read More]

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Chrysler the Primary Goal of

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39966252

While all these changes integrate to bring the company to its high performance level during the 1990s, I believe the component that contributed most to this is the reduction in production time. This is the main problem identified in the beginning. The other improvements support the effects brought about in this way.

3. Chrysler's new approach to supply chain management involves replacing the old, bidding system, based upon price, with the new system based upon performance. Suppliers may then experience the difficulty of a paradigm shift from cost-focus to performance focus. Organizational culture changes needed in order to accommodate the new paradigm would relate to enhancing the quality of product and service rather than focusing on reducing cost as far as possible. In the end the advantage of this is a better final product for Chrysler and finally a better product for satisfied, returning customers. Furthermore, suppliers will also need…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Career How Will This New

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45479853

Criminal Justice Career

How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?

Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.

How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?

When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…… [Read More]


Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from

CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from

Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011

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Nurse Training in Cardiac Procedures

Words: 9322 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74651339

The procedure itself and the hospital stay associated with it is only one small chapter in the patient's life. They will eventually go home and will have many years after the procedure. It is important for the nursing staff to make a positive impact on how they feel about the procedure. The procedure will represent a lasting memory to the patient. If the patient perceives this to be a time of strength and care from nurturing individuals then it will help them to be able to develop the coping mechanisms necessary to learn to live with the after-effects of the procedure.

If the patient sees this as a negative experience, then it could produce unwanted effects such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other emotional problems that could have an effect on their ability to cope with the life changes. Those that develop appropriate coping mechanisms will be more likely…… [Read More]


Knoll, N., Rieckmann, N., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Coping as a mediator between personality and stress outcomes: A longitudinal study with cataract surgery patients. European Journal of Personality, 19, 229-247.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Initiation and maintenance of physical exercise: Stage-specific effects of a planning intervention. Research in Sports Medicine, 12, 221-240.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Behavioral intentions and action plans promote physical exercise: A longitudinal study with orthopedic rehabilitation patients. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 470-483.

Lippke, S., Ziegelmann, J.P., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Stage-specific adoption and maintenance of physical activity: Testing a three-stage model. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 6, 585-603.
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Memory Search and Amnesia Memorysearch the Concept

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308569

Memory Search and Amnesia


The concept of the central nervous system suggests that the brain and nervous system is an immutable object within the body that once developed, cannot change. However recent discoveries within the field of neuroplasticity have shown that the brain is indeed mutable and changing. Even following injury the brain has the ability to create modified functional structures and to create new synapses and electrical connections. The purpose of this paper is to explore the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuroplastic phenomena in the brain and to relate them to memory, learning and function throughout the body.

Historically neuroscientists and biologists believed the brain was a rather immutable structure that once developed, could no longer change much. The brain could retain information, memorize and learn, but past childhood the brain did not have the ability to form map new synapsis and electrical connections. Thanks to the discovery…… [Read More]


Bergado-Rosado, JA, Almaquer-Melian, W. (2000 Dec). Cellular mechanisms of neuroplasticity.

Rev Neurol. 1-15:31(11): 1074-95.

Chakraborty, R., Chatterjee, A., Choudhary, S. & Chakraborty, PK. 2007 Sept. Neuroplasticity a paradigm shift in neurosciences. Journal Indian Medical Association. 105(9): 513-4, 520-1.

Rossi, E.L. (2003). Gene expression, neurogenesis, and healing: Psychosocial genomics of therapeutic hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis.
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Technology Changes from 1795 to 1861

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84599209

Technology from French Revolution to U.S. Civil ar

Attention Sentence: Only about sixty to seventy years passed from the French Revolution in the late 1700's and the United States Civil ar in the 1860's. However, the technology and methodologies that were used during the two conflicts were quite different despite only three generations passing in between

Given the necessity for bigger and better technology, the advent of the Industrial Revolution and other factors, there was a mind-blowing amount of technology progress in the United States from 1790 to 1861 and the upgrades and updates run the gamut in terms of sources, benefits and reach.

Major Points Supporting Thesis: There was a paradigm shift in terms of technology from the late 1700's to the mid-1800's. Everything improved greatly including transportation, weaponry, transportation, energy and other things.

Major Point One - Battle from Sea

a. There were a number of major changes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AP Study Notes. "A Growing National Economy - AP U.S. History Topic Outlines - Study Notes." Apstudynotes.Org, 2016,

Glass, Brent. "Technology Of The 1800S - The Gilder Lehrman Institute Of American History." Gilderlehrman.Org, 2016,

Marshall, Michael. "Timeline: Weapons Technology." New Scientist, 2016,
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Product Place Promotion and Price

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43205496

Part 2: A manufacturer of computer chips has been unable to convince her dealers to give her the names and addresses of the end consumer. She understands CM and wants to implement a plan that includes both the dealers and the end users. Define an approach that the manufacturer can take to build a CM environment that provides optimal flow of all relative information in support of the company-consumer relationships. The response should take into account the company's culture, size, structure (functional, brand alignment, geographic, account management, industry category, matrix, by customer), technology, and processes.

The manufacturer needs to realize that the relationship of the dealer to their customers can and should be considered part of their value as a member of the distribution channel. The value-add then of the dealer is in nurturing and assisting with the development of these relationships including understanding their unmet needs to ensure manufacturers…… [Read More]


Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.  (Accessed April 13, 2008).

Andreas Birnik, Cliff Bowman. (2007). Marketing mix standardization in multinational corporations: A review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9(4), 303-324. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1388991701).

Constantinides (2006). The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(3,4), 407-438. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1057129551).

Terry Grapentine (2006). MARKETING MIX. Marketing Research, 18(1), 4-5. Retrieved April 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1035196971).
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Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific

Words: 2630 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36451192

This was based on what little normative science could be carried out through crossing different animals. It was an accepted fact to many in the animal husbandry business. The first creative breakthrough occurred in 1868 when a young Swiss physician, Freiderich Meischer, isolated something that had not been seen before. This creative scientist isolated nucleic acid, a compound found in both DNA and RNA (Fredholm). This discovery sparked a quest to understand more about nucleic acid and its connection to Mendel's pea experiments just two years earlier. Mendel believed that the traits seen in peas were passed on through "packages" that contained the information (Fredholm). These packages later turned out to be DNA.

These discoveries led to the normal science processes and a quest to learn more about DNA and its connections to selective breeding. However, in mainstream practice, many had not heard of DNA yet, it had not reached…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fredholm, L. The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix. 2003.


Accessed July 3, 2009.
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Co-Creation Does Not Exist in

Words: 4824 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85472649

As these preferences are determined, the algorithm then determines the best invitations to treat to present to the consumers. Today, these processes are powerful and can drive business at these websites, but they do not yet constitute bona fide interaction between the travel provider, the agent (website) and the consumer. Rather, the algorithms merely produce smarter sales pitches. At such a point when algorithms can literally cater to consumers' needs based upon the consumers' interactions the travel industry will be on the cusp of experiencing genuine co-creation. Co-creation at this point, however, is not an automated process. It must be conducted by humans. Given that more people are purchasing travel online than ever before, this would point to a decline in co-creation. It may be, however, that this technology will emerge in the next few years and truly transform the travel industry into one where co-creation is the norm.

Li…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Binkhorst, E. (no date). The co-creation tourism experience. Unpublished. In possession of the author.

Prahalad, C. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 18 (3) 5-14.

Porter, M. (1980). Porter's five forces. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from 

WTO. (2009). Tourism highlights, 2009 edition. United Nations World Tourism Organization. Retrieved May 1, 2010 from
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Peaceful Planet

Words: 1852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13974231


As Masciulli (n.d.) points out, "few consistently peaceful societies and cultures exist or have existed historically, and clearly none that has been a macro culture or civilization," (332). Human nature also has a clear tendency toward patterns of behavior that can incite antagonism or violence. Defensiveness, protectionism, predation, and self-preservation are innate behaviors rooted in animal instincts. Peacemaking and peacekeeping efforts worldwide can alleviate suffering and ameliorate the effects of violence, but even these well-meaning efforts do not constitute an overall shift in global consciousness. Therefore, it is unrealistic to expect global peace in this lifetime but it is becoming increasingly possible to envision a world that becomes more peaceful one generation at a time. Peace, if it is possible in this lifetime, depends on radical paradigm shifts.

The first step toward achieving peace is realizing that violence is a state of mind, and that state of mind can…… [Read More]


Ackerman, P. & DuVall, J. (n.d.). The mythology of violence. Chapter 13 in A Force More Powerful.

Galtung, J. (n.d.). Peace, music, and the arts: In search of interconnections. Chapter 4.

"Masciulli, J. (n.d.). From a culture of violence to a culture of peace. Chapter 15.

Pinker. Inner Demons. (n.d.). Chapter 8
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Ethics of a Prescribed Curriculum

Words: 2316 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74354717

Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) spoke 'initiation' and 'induction' as learning functions and held that these forms of learning effectively reached further than 'training' and 'instruction' which are instrumental learning. The initiation stage of learning is an independent learning stage where the learner grasps and understands for themselves the object of learning and in which the learner's dependence upon both the teacher and upon learning structures are lessened. A higher stage of independent learning was referred to by Stenhouse as 'induction' and is a stage of learning in which the learner has come to the place of owning, valuing and believing in the object of learning for themselves. Stenhouse affirmed the need for foundational knowledge upon which the higher learning skills can be constructed and held that the functional knowledge must be solidly in place before higher learning functions could begin.

Curriculum, according to the work of Grundy "is often written and…… [Read More]


Butts, Robert Freeman (1971) The College Charts Its Court: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals. Ayer Publishing, 1971.

Fenner, David E.W. (1999) Ethics in Education. Routledge, 1999.

Moles, Joanne (2005) You Say Potato Implications of a Prescribed Curriculum on Three Irish Physical Education teachers. Paper Presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conferences, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.

Murphy, Anne (2008) The Interface between Academic Knowledge and Working Knowledge: Implications for Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice. Dublin Institute of Technology 2008.
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Philosophy of Truth One of

Words: 2626 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98700395

Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.

Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burch, Robert. "Charles Sanders Peirce." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. .

Kessler, Gary. Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader, 5th Edition. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 2003.

Pinter, Harold. "Nobel Lecture: Art, Truth, and Politics." 2005.,

Thornton, Stephen. "Karl Popper." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009.
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Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy of Science

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76085082

If the anomaly resists explanation within the paradigm, the paradigm is altered to include the anomaly. Therefore, to lead to a true crisis and to form the foundation of a scientific revolution, an anomaly must conflict with the basic tenets of the paradigm. In addition, the anomaly cannot be answered by normal research and problem-solving skills within the paradigm, regardless of the modifications.

Therefore, it can be said that crises and scientific revolution both begin with the recognition of an anomaly and the loosening of a paradigm and its associated rules. As the anomaly becomes more widely recognized, more research is devoted to resolving the anomaly, which changes the face of the discipline. As the anomaly is explained, it causes competition between competing explanations of the original paradigm. The result is that there are only three ways that a crisis can be resolved. The first method is for scientists to…… [Read More]

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Covey 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Words: 2096 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50889875

Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

Stephen R. Covey was born in 1932 in Salt Lake City, Utah; he has his undergraduate degree (in business administration) from the University of Utah, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and a Doctorate in Religious Education from Brigham Young University. (Covey is a practicing Mormon). He is currently a professor in the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business at Utah State University. Covey is perhaps best known for his 1989 bestseller The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: to date the book has sold more than fifteen million copies worldwide. It seems worthwhile to ask, therefore, what does this book have to say which has gained it such broad popularity?

The biggest clue lies in the title. Covey believes that behavior can be defined as a set of habits, essentially, but he likewise presents his own lessons in the form of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Free Press, 1989. Print.

James, William. The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover, 1950. Print.
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Evolution of Organizational Strategies it

Words: 4029 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16740239

The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure that they will give only their best effort towards the organizational goal. In order to motivate employees in this way, it is necessary for each individual to understand the organizational goals and to care sufficiently about these. Employees therefore have to find meaning in their work. This can best be done by communication.

It is one fortunate feature of the current technological world that communication can occur both regularly and instantly. Instead of having to print out thousands of circulars, managers can write a single email and send it to thousands of employees simultaneously with a single click. This greatly facilitates the communication paradigm between management and employees, or indeed between the HR department and employees.

Various forms of communication are possible…… [Read More]


Business Wire (2008, Jan 31). Corporate Co-evolution Develops Broader Macroeconomic Principles that can be applied to today's International Corporate Environment.

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Cuddihey, Alden (2003, Fall). Aligning human resources and business: an overlooked formula for success. Canadian Manager.