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Parenting Education for Teen Mothers
If a community values its children, it must cherish their parents. (John Bowlby)
ationale of intervention population
Group based intervention programs
Teen Mother Empowerment Program Series (TMEPS)
Framework of TMEPS Program-Fig
Fig 2-Phased TMEPS
Phase 1 sessions
Table 1- Session Administration
Evaluation of program outcomes
Continuation of TEMPS
Appendix II-Program Evaluation Questionnaire
This paper is aimed at presenting a parenting education and support program for teenage mothers. To identify the most basic needs of teen mothers, literature review was conducted. Only recent literature, from 2006-2013 was reviewed. The review included intervention studies for teenage mothers and parents aimed at increasing the parenting skills of young mothers. Three basic set of needs was identified. Firstly, the teen mothers are in need of primary care for the new born child. Maternal health management is also main issue faced by teen mothers.…
Amr, M.A.M., & Balaha, M.H.H. (2010). Minor Psychiatric Morbidity in Young Saudi Mothers Using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan, 20(10), 680-684.
Amr, M.A., Balaha, M., & Al Moghannum, M. (2012). Postpartum Mental Health among Young Women. Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences, 10(4), 1-5.
Areepattamannil, S. (2010). Parenting practices, parenting style, and children's school achievement. Psychological Studies, 55(4), 283-289.
Barnet, B., Liu, J., DeVoe, M., Alperovitz-Bichell, K., & Duggan, A.K. (2007). Home visiting for adolescent mothers: effects on parenting, maternal life course, and primary care linkage. The Annals of Family Medicine, 5(3), 224-232.
Parenting Classes for New Moms and Dads
Parenthood is a task that needs proper planning and total commitment among the couples who have decided to form families. It is a transition that comes with many changes and challenges which many new parents find hard to adjust to. It is a commitment which spells out boundaries and certain aspects of life styles that have to change when people become together to form a family unit. The main purpose of this project is to address some of the parenting issues and device a plan in which parenting skills can be taught to the new Moms and Dads. Parenting is not an easy task and the new generation has gaps in mastering the art of parenting which has been the missing link in the 21st Century where the parenting responsibilities have either been delegated to a third party or completely neglected. Modern parents…
Parenting 411, (2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenting Classes. Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.parenting411.com/parenting-tips/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-parenting-classes.html
Jae Ireland, (2010). Why Should Parents Take Parenting Classes? Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/102973-should-parents-parenting-classes/
Jody Pawel, (2012) The Importance of Educating Today's Parents. Retrieved June 13, 2012 from http://www.parentstoolshop.com/HTML/tips1.htm
Parenting that Works by Dr. Edward Christophersen and Susan L. Mortweet
In Parenting that Works: Building Skills that Last a Lifetime, Dr. Edward Christophersen and Dr. Susan Mortweet attempt to address the challenges facing modern parents. Their goal is not to help parents create obedient children. Instead, Christophersen and Mortweet focus on helping parents shape children into successful adults. In order to do this, they focus on two elements: teaching skills to parents and then teaching parents how to pass those skills on to their children. First, they focus on helping parents build the toolbox of skills that they need to parent appropriately. Then, they transitions into helping parents use those skills to help their children.
One of the first things that the authors tackle is describing what they mean by a successful child. They differentiate their definition of a successful child from that of a child who simply achieves…
Christophersen, E. & Mortweet, S. (2003). Parenting that works: Building skills that last a lifetime. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. .
arriage and Parenting:
A Study of the Relationship Between Quality of arriage and Effective Parenting
United States governmental data shows that exactly half of all marriages will end in divorce.
The data is for the year 2012, a year not yet started, but one in which the statistics are unchanging. Though unsurprising for some, these statistics show that children will often experience broken homes and broken families, and from personal experience, I can vouch that divorce or separation is no way to raise a child, and such a young individual should never be in the midst of a custody battle, a divorce proceeding, or any other marital problems. Because of such statistics it becomes clear also that parenting is cast aside, or at least, ignored a little. However, for those lucky children who have a united home, their parents' happy marriage will be very clearly reflected in parenting. In…
Morill et. al. (2012). Pathways Between Marriage and Parenting for Wives and Husbands: The Role of Coparenting. Family Process. Retrieved, .
Perry et. al. (2007).Childhood Psychological Maltreatment and Quality of Marriage: The Mediating Role of Psychological Distress. Haworth Press. Retrieved, .
Goldberg, J & Carlson, M. (2010). Couple Relationship Quality and Children's Behavior in Married and Cohabitating Families. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved, .
The workshop will be all about counseling parents about how they could groom their children to grow up as an empowered, confident and intellectual individual and how could they keep themselves updated with their children's school performance by remaining in close coordination with their schools and teachers. The workshop will be divided in 4 days, each consisting of providing parents with guidance on different topics pertaining to parenting. The main focus of the workshops will be self grooming of children and how should parents contribute to it. This would be achieved by focusing on four major topics crucial for grooming of children identified by schools and how can parents in coordination with schools produce highly groomed and confident children. Following are the four topics which will be covered by the workshops. The order of topics is according to the day they will be covered.
Parenting knowledge and skills are naturally acquired through ethnic, culture, kinship and friendship ties as well as from other available resources. Parents need to share their concerns and views on their children in order to create an opportunity for exploring solutions and sharing resources. Parents involvement in their children education assist them accurately assess their development comparing them to other of the same age. They are also better placed to have realistic expectations for their children's behavior and look into ways to effectively communicate those expectations (The Childrens Trust, 2010).
Communication between the Home and School
Development of a strong and a positive relationship between parents and the teachers is critical as it foresters regular communication. Communication between the parents and teachers is beneficial to the child's success at school. According to Christenson, ounds, and Gorney, (1992), effective family and school communication contributes to improvements in students academic performance. Many…
Christenson, S.L., Rounds, T., & Gorney, D. (1992). Family factors and student achievement: An avenue to increase students' success. School Psychology Quarterly, 178-206.
foundation, I.S. (2007). Fam ily, School and Com m unity Connections:Im proving Student Learning. Information Briefing, 1.
Henderson, A.T., & Mapp, K.L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family and community connections on student achievement. Austin: National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools.
Lopez, G.R. (2001). On whose terms? Understanding involvement through the eyes of migrant parents. Seattle.
The impact of parents in the development of a child has been an issue of great interest for developmental psychologists. This has led to the discovery of different parenting styles and the impacts they have on children. In most cases, parenting styles differ because of various reasons like parental background, family size, education level, culture, socioeconomic status, religion and personality. Notably, individual parents may have different parenting styles which normally combine to produce a unique blend in the family. Some of the most common parenting styles include the following:
In this parenting style, parents usually establish rules and regulations which they expect their children to adhere to though the parents are much more democratic. However, when children fail to follow the established rules or guidelines, parents tend to be more forgiving and nurturing than punishing.
As parents establish strict rules or guidelines for their…
Parenting and Adoption
In 2002, Sweden joined the ranks of European nations permitting legal adoptions by gay parents. The measure passed in the Swedish parliament with an overwhelming majority vote: 198 to 38 ("Sweden Legalizes Gay Adoption," 2002). The Netherlands, Denmark, and Iceland also permit legal adoption by homosexual parents. On the other hand, the state of Florida instated a total ban on gay adoptions. The decision, which is heatedly contested by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), was upheld in the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. The resistance to gay parenting and adoption rights as is witnessed in Florida and other American states like New Hampshire is not based on a modicum of fact but rather on presumptions and biases.
The Swedish decision, on the other hand, rests soundly on scientific research conducted over the course of 18 months showing that "gay couples are just as capable as their…
'A Message From Steve and Roger." (2004). Let Him Stay.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://www.lethimstay.com/ .
Craft, Carrie. "Gay Adoption." About.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://adoption.about.com/od/gaylesbian/p/glfaqs.htm .
"Gay Adoption Debate and Poll." You Debate.com. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004.< http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/gay_adoption.HTM>.
'Lesbian and Gay Rights." (1999). American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved online Nov. 11, 2004. http://archive.aclu.org/issues/gay/parent.html.
NAYEC Mission Statement. NAYEC Homepage.
"Responsive Parenting: Balancing Freedom and Limits."
Parent Further, July 10, 2013.
"Responsive Parenting: Why Tantrums Matter.
The Mule, 25 Aug 2012.
Responsive Parenting Tips
The NAYEC expresses its mission in three goals:
Improving professional practice and working conditions in early childhood education.
-Supporting early childhood programs by working to achieve a high-quality system of early childhood education.
-Building a high-performing, inclusive organization of groups and individuals who are committed to promoting excellence in early childhood education for all young children.
Early childhood care professionals can align themselves with these goals by encouraging responsive parenting as a means to for development.
The ethical application of these methods requires allowing more freedom and leniency than in other types of parenting styles. "Spoiling" a child is often cited as an ethical risk in responsive parenting. Child care professionals need to ensure that being too nice to…
Also, I gained a lot of childrearing wisdom from the two articles on romantic relationships. Although they discuss mainly marriage, Mosier and Shulman's articles can address healthy ways of relating to children. For example, adults should never believe that having a child will be a panacea for their problems. Similar to the myth of the soul mate, the myth that a child will change everything is a sure way of creating more problems. Having children for selfish reasons can lead to major problems for both the parents and the children. Parents also need to maintain their personal interests when they have children. Sacrificing their interests, pressuring children to become like them, or nagging their children to be different are all ways that can destroy the bond between parent and child just as those negative behaviors can destroy the bonds between spouses.
Because we believe the myths about soul mates and…
Parenting styles vary, and include authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and harmonious styles. All of these styles are relatively common, varying depending on culture and individual differences. Television shows reveal different parenting styles. For example, on the sitcom Modern Family, different parenting styles are evident. Gloria is occasionally authoritarian in her approach, but otherwise the parenting style evident in all the three different family units is harmonious. Harmonious parenting styles are superior to authoritarian, authoritative, permissive styles in that they prepare the child for healthy social relationships with others.
Moreover, harmonious parenting styles help achieve a harmonious household. Harmonious parenting styles create win-win scenarios as shown in the video explaining the different styles of parenting. When the child wants something, and the parents also want to enforce some rules of conduct, a conflict may ensue. An authoritarian parent will lay down the law, refusing to give into any of the child's requests.…
Finally, Boothroyd (2010) suggests that because the authors of PCI do not provide guidance on how parents are defined, the assessment may not be appropriate for families with a parenting structure other than two biological parents. It seems that while the PCI is considered a valid and reliable assessment for some populations, further study should be conducted with a more diverse norming sample.
Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). eliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52
Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: www.wpspublish.com. etrieved from http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=TIP07001840&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). eview of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0
Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment,…
Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). Reliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCRI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206
Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: www.wpspublish.com. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=TIP07001840&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). Review of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0
Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment, parenting practices, and executive functioning of children with and without ADHD. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 18(2), 227-235. doi:10.1007/s10826-008-9223-0
Codi has a very complicated relationship with her father. It is not a conventional relationship. Their relationship to each other is renewed after her father falls ill. Her father (Doc Homer) has a different relationship with his daughters. His daughters, hallie and Codi moved out of their father's house when they grew up to adolescents. They both want to lead independent lives of their own. There has always been distance between the father and daughter ever since they were young. Something was lacking in their relationship and that was the only way of making the relationship work.
Their father had always separated them from the rest of the community and not let his offspring discover the true roots of their identity. He does not want to remember his ties to the Gracela valley and tries to forget them. He has never let his daughters reach out to him,…
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Sally bounces her six-month-old boy on her knee while she responds enthusiastically to my questions. At twenty-six she is a relatively young mother; however, Sally had her first child when she was only eighteen.
A wasn't using any birth control at the time," she tells me. "I was really worried that I wouldn't be able to support my kid without dropping out of college, but I made it! Joey here wasn't an accident," she tells me frankly. "I thought the relationship was going to last, but you know how these things go."
Many of the single mothers I interviewed for this study shared similar sentiments: most of expected their relationships with men would last and that they could form a "big, happy family." Their disillusionment has made some of them stronger, others bitter and mistrusting of members of the opposite sex. Sally is of the former camp; her lively…
Parent Communication Plan
Parent-teacher communication is one of the bedrocks of education. The reason for this is that education is not something that solely transpires in the classroom. It extends outside its walls and continues on into the real world. The student’s home is one area where education also occurs, and that is not the realm of the teacher but rather of the parent. Thus, to ensure that both parent and teacher are on the same page and are communicating the same vital messages and lessons to the child, it is wise that they themselves communicate with one another, share ideas, and discuss important issues that are likely to be faced by the child (Graham-Clay, 2005). As Merkley, Schmidt, Dirksen and Fuhler (2006) point out, there are many ways in which parent-teacher communication can be conducted today: the face-to-face meeting is always an option, but technological advancements have also…
For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.
Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.
Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…
Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.
Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007 www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm03/index.htm.
Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
More Care Giving to Babies:
One of the biggest advantages of co sleeping is increase in breast feeding (McKenna, 1994; Richard et al., 1996). This is admitted even by the most conventional American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that co-sleeping has the most advantage of breast feeding. According to the research, mothers who co-sleep breast feed an average of twice as long as non-co-sleeping mothers. Moreover, the act of sucking in breast feeding increases oxygen flow, which is useful for both baby's growth and immune functions (McKenna, 1994).
In addition, co-sleeping infants also get more notice and protective care. The studies have shown that mothers who co-sleep provides five times the number of care like as adjusting the baby's blanket, stroking or cuddling as compared to those mothers who were non-co sleepers (Mosko, 1997).
Long-Term Benefits of Co- Sleeping in Children as adults
Those boys who co-slept with their…
La Leche League International, Inc. (1997). The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding. (6th rev. ed.)
Schaumberg, IL: Author
Davies, L. (1995). Babies Co-sleeping with Parents. Midwives: Official Journal of the Royal
Heinig, M.J. (2000). Bed sharing and infant mortality: Guilt by association? Journal of Human
At the end of the play, she dies of a broken heart following the death of her son. Romeo, by contrast, is a typical teenager. He probably loves his parents but does not give the relationship much thought or consider their feelings. As a typical teenager, he is self-involved.
Juliet's parents care about her, but in the way that would have been typical ob
Elizabethan nobility. That is, Juliet loves her parents and respects them as a dutiful daughter should, but her relationship with her nurse is much closer. Since the nurse raised
Juliet, this is not surprising.
V. Relationships outside the immediate family are also important in Romeo and Juliet.
Because of relatively short life expectancy in Elizabethan times as well as high infant mortality rates and mortality rates in general, extended families were not large. The play features several minor characters, men and women who are…
parent with a young child and a demanding job -- whether it is a mother or a father -- has challenges that a family with both parents on board does not experience, in most cases. And when you add to the equation the fact that the single parent in this case is a male in the U.S. Army, there are complications and serious work-life balance issues to be addressed. After all, the health and care of the child in question must be at the top of the list of priorities, along with the employment of the father and the balance of the conflicting challenges and issues.
As a single dad with a young child, I already face challenges when it comes to raising my child, providing a good home and good health for the child; but in addition I am in the U.S. Army and my duties and responsibilities necessarily…
Britt, T.W., Adler, A.B., and Castro, C.A. (2006). Military Life: The military family. Chicago,
IL: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Lieke, L, Brummelhuis, T., and Van Der Lippe, T. (2010). Effective Work-Life Balance
Support for Various Household Structures. Human Resource Management, 49(2), 173-193.
For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).
The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…
Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.
Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
Because parenting is so very personal, I approached this essay with a lot of curiosity, and even some amount of concern over what the literature on the subject might reveal. I expected to find a number of high-minded platitudes and very little practical advice that would be useful in the day-to-day trenches of the parenting wars. I'm pleased to say how wrong I was.
The first thing I noticed was that in article after I article, they were filled with heartwarming supportive advice, almost all dos and almost no don'ts. The next thing I noticed was that all the articles acknowledged that these are very trying times in which to be a parent. The message was uniformly the same: expect to make some mistakes but be encouraged that it's well within one's reach to be a good parent.
Seth Mullins (2008) makes the point that in today's world, we…
Better Parenting. (2010). Dealing with modern parenting challenges. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.parentingbaby.com/dealing-with-modern-parenting-challenges.htm
Gaikwad, M. (2011). Challenges in modern parenting styles. Buzzle.com website. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/challenges-in-modern-parenting-styles.html
Mullins, S. (2008). The challenge of modern parenting. FamilyLobby.com Website. Retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://articles.familylobby.com/284-the-challenge-of-modern-parenting.htm
Parenting Skills and Early Placement of Children in Daycare Settings
This paper presents a detailed discussion about daycare and the possible correlation between parenting skills and early placement of children in daycare settings. The writer explores the effects of daycare on children as well as the parenting skill possibilities that lead a parent to place their child into an early day care setting. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
Since the women's movement took hold about four decades ago millions of children have been placed into daycare systems across the nation. This movement has sparked huge debates on the impact of daycare on children including children who have been placed in their daycare settings at a very early age. Some focus has been on the parenting skills of those who place their children into daycare at an early age and whether or not the parenting skills or…
Abril, David (2000). Stanford undergrad parents look for assistance., University Wire,.
Author not available (1995). After-school childcare difficult., The Evening Post (Wellington, New Zealand), pp 6.
Dhooma, Rashida (!999). THE NEW PARENT TRAP., The Toronto Sun, pp 91.
Author not available (2000). Gun found in three-year-old's bag at daycare., Agence France Presse English,.
Grant Proposal for Strengthening the Family Unit
Program Design and Implementation
The overall design and structure of the program will orbit around multiple activities and methodologies which are designed to fortify the overall family unit, most notably the parental unit. Parenting is an extremely challenging endeavor and one which can put a considerable strain on a marriage -- even the strongest marriage. Thus, one of the foremost aspects of the program in general will consist of a parenting skills training program to minimize behavior problems in young children (particularly when these children are at the most difficult age) by bolstering the level of parent self-efficacy through beneficial parenting behaviors and overall child discipline strategies (NEPP, 2012).
Many of the strategies used in this case will be modeled after the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), which is an extremely well organized program that is founded in the notion that parents play the…
Flay, B., & Allred, C. (2010). The Positive Action Program. International Research Handbook on Values Education, 471-481.
GGC. (2012, July). Guiding Good Choices. Retrieved from NREPP: [HIDDEN]
Lia, K., Washburn, I., & DuBois, D. (2011). Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students. Psychology and Health, 187-204.
NREPP. (2012, August). Chicago Parent Program. Retrieved from NREPP
At the same time, authoritative parents use discipline judiciously.
Unlike authoritative parents, permissive parents shy away from discipline. They are overly indulgent to their child's whims. Permissive parents tolerate a wide range of behaviors that would not be tolerated by either authoritarian or authoritative parents. Although permissive parents can be emotionally nurturing, they often erect barriers to parent-child communication because of not paying closer attention to the developmental and maturation needs of the child.
Authoritative parents do not show much warmth toward their children. They can be unresponsive and emotionally detached, demanding a "be seen, not heard" environment. Discipline is heavy-handed but unlike authoritative parents, authoritarian parents do not explain their punishments or communicate with their children. However, they do not coddle their children like permissive parents do and do not tolerate emotional outbursts.
The effect of parenting style on self-esteem has been widely studied. Children who grow up in…
Warash, B. & Markstrom, C. (2001). Parental perceptions of parenting styles in relation to academic self-esteem of preschoolers. Education. 121(3).
parent literally had nothing to do with a biological child in order for the child to take advantage of the Family and Medical Leave Act to care for that parent.
The family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives no determination that states that the known relationship or lack thereof between the child and parent will determine the child's ability to use FMLA to care for the parent. Any employee can request FMLA regardless of if the child had nothing to do at all with the biological parent. The FMLA provides the employee with up to a maximum of twelve weeks of un-paid, job-protected leave for one of the following reasons:
Care of a spouse, daughter, son or parent with serious health conditions
Due to an employee's inability to work due to a serious health condition
Placement of a child for adoption or foster care
The birth and care of a newborn…
Kollman & Saucier P.A. (n.d.). Does the family and medical leave act apply?. Retrieved 04/29/11, from www.kollmanlaw.com/article/articel19.html
Larson, A.E. (2011). The Intricacies of FMLA. Retrieved 04/28/11, from www.fmla-rules.com
OSHA (n.d.). OSHA Safety regulations & Labor Law Guide. Retrieved 04/29/2011, from www.osrllg.com/additional_fmla.php
Effects of the new fathers network on first-time fathers' parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction during the transition to parenthood.
The authors study first-time fathers and how they parent, and two key points include their testing, which looked at fathers who had no outside intervention in the first 8 weeks of their new babies lives, to fathers who interacted with others though the online New Fathers Network. They found that self-efficacy and satisfaction was higher than the group without intervention, and that fathers found the online group extremely helpful. It was surprising to learn that often fathers are dissatisfied with their parents and with their role as fathers. It was not surprising that they do not often reach out for help. I would definitely recommend this article to others, although it was a bit scholarly at times.
Assistance to aging parents and parents-in-law: Does lineage affect family…
132). hen women reported that their desire for greater social support was satisfied, the outcomes reported for their children improved dramatically.
The negative associations with single parenting thus have more to do with the circumstances that can give birth to single parenting, or are attached to single parenting because of the way our society is structured. In society, we have come to regard the nuclear family as the norm and single parents do not always have the multigenerational support that could give their children positive role models of both genders that they may have in previous eras. Single parents are more likely to be female, and females are traditionally underpaid for their labor. Additionally companies are not always willing to make accommodations for male or female single parent's need for flexible schedules. But the problem is not with single parenting; rather the problem is with how our society views parenthood…
Burden, Dianne S. "Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities." Family Relations. Vol. 35. No. 1. The Single Parent Family. Jan., 1986. pp. 37-43
Hanson, Shirley M. "Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities." Family Relations. Vol. 35. No. 1. The Single Parent Family. Jan., 1986. pp. 125-132.
DeLeire, Thomas & Ariel Kalil. "Good things come in 3's: Single-parent multigenerational family structure and adolescent adjustment." Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies. Oct 2001. 4 Apr 2008. http://www.spc.uchicago.edu/prc/pdfs/deleir02.pdf
Walker, Victoria. Pagewise. 2002. 4 Apr 2008. http://www.essortment.com/all/singleparentfa_rcsc.htm
The writer concludes that the social scientists have been correct when they have mentioned the family dynamics and parental behavior as major influences in the growth and development of the child.
Also Henry iller (1993) asserts that the ability of the parents to develop an intimate connection with their baby and their essential responsibility throughout the newborn's growth and maturity has a profound impact on the behavior of the child because it helps their child to build and grow an upbeat body figure, self-worth, ethical principles and academic and social capability.
Therefore in light of the above mentioned facts it is essential for parents to spend a lot of time with their children and engage in constructive activities so that they can be emotionally connected with their parents and grow up to be trusting and loving individuals.
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February…
Annie Murphy Paul. Do Parents Really Matter? Psychology Today, Vol. 31, January-February 1998
Betsy Bates. Parents' 'Prompting' Behavior Encourages Smoking. (Survey of Seventh and Eighth Graders). Family Practice News; 11/1/2001.
Fred Hutchinson. Parents Who Quit Smoking When Their Kids Are Young May Have a Big Influence on Whether Their Offspring Will Quit Smoking in Young Adulthood. PR Newswire; 3/1/2005
Henry B. Biller. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Auburn House, 1993
Dynamism Between Parents and Children
Of diverse interaction people have over the course of lifetime, the relationship between parent and child is the most important. Children's growth and development is greatly dependent relatively on the parental bond which exists between them. This bond provides the child with the framework on how they outlook themselves and the people around them. The tie will also determine how well they relate with their peers and the environment their whole lifespan. However the tie between the parents and children can be affected because of parents physical or mental state which may keep him or her to from avoiding relationship with their children. Illness, depression, disorders, alcoholism and drugs addiction are also some of the factors the can make to difficult for the child and parent to relate with each other effectively. According to Cathy Meyer (2011), divorce and conflict can disrupt the growth of…
Amy Black 2011 Authoritative, Authoritarian and Permissive Parenting Types Retrieved April
26. 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/614981/authoritative_authoritarian_and_permissive.html
Baby Care Help2011 Exploring Different Types of Parenting Styles Retrieved April 26. 2011
Adopting Speial Needs Children
When it omes to adoption, parenting styles for speial needs hildren is really no different. There are hundreds and thousands of hildren that are urrently living in the foster are system that are put into the group of "Speial Needs" waiting for a household to support and love them. The word speial need promptly brings to mind the idea of a hild with inability, in adoption terms the word inludes a larger sense. The word speial needs relating to adoption basially is saying that a hild that is hard to plae by the state adoption agenies or adoption unit. Most of these hildren do not have muh health or temperament issues; they are just measured "hard to position" by a lot of adoption organizations. The hoies of ages for hildren that are in this group are from babies all the way up to the age of…
cited in Gray, 2003) on the subject of parents with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome shows how parents cope with their child's disability. The mother and the father each draws from different resources to cope with how they react toward their child. Furthermore, the research has shown that coping strategies varies for women and men.
The struggle with tradition and one's personal history comes to the forefront in two other family memoirs, Ayaan Hirsi Ali's Infidel and Maxine Hong Kingston's the Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. In the case of the former, Ali is thrust into exile because of her unwillingness to conform to her parents' expectations of what is proper for a woman in her native culture. Maxine Hong Kingston experiences similar issues, although the consequences for her are far less extreme.
In my analysis of the issues outlined above, I intend to show how all three writers transform the personal into the political, effectively establishing that the most minute, particular happenings in our lives can indeed have universal implications.
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage ooks, 1975.
Walls, Jeannette. The…
Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.
Walls, Jeannette. The Glass Castle. New York: Scribner, 2006.
Roper, from noticing that Jack had brought home a dog, because pets were not allowed in the building. Although this episode didn't revolve around the sexual tension in the house specifically, I couldn't help noticing the scanty outfits of the blonde Chrissy, and how unrealistically skimpy they seemed, for just lounging around the house on an ordinary day to be spent with one's friends. Janet, the other woman, was clearly supposed to be 'the smart brunette,' and seemed like the less desirable of the two women because the camera (and Jack's wandering eyes) spent very little time focused on the other woman. Although the show was supposed to be revolutionary, the message was clear -- you could be dumb and blonde, or oridinary looking and smart if you were a woman. These two qualities couldn't mix.
The plot, of 'no dogs allowed' seemed very conventional and unimaginative to me, and…
No Children, no dogs." Episode 4. Three's Company DVD Season 1. http://www.threescompany.com/
Mr. C." Personal Interview. December 10, 2006.
Findings and Discussion
Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) present us with a number of key findings that have such pervasive implications for parenting. All toddlers engage in behaviors such as biting, hitting, screaming, or otherwise acting out. Such behaviors arise as a result of negative emotions. Parents often find these behaviors hard to deal with -- along with other children and other caregivers. The response by others in the children's world may be highly negative itself and may thus provoke additional negative feelings, which in turn provoke additional negative behaviors. This is a cycle that is bad for all concerned.
Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) further validated the finding of others that an authoritarian parenting style is aimed at getting children to stop these negative behaviors by commanding them to follow parental orders. However, they also found, such a parenting style ignores the underlying emotions and so is ineffective in…
Clark, K.E., & Ladd, G.W. (2000). Connectedness and autonomy support in parent-child relationships: Links to children's socioemotional orientation and peer relationships. Developmental Psychology, 485-498.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K.C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to school age. Child Development, 68, 263-277.
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M. etal (2008). Parenting style as a mediator between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 2008, 169(3), 209 -- 226.
Keijsers, L., & Poulin, F. (2013, March 11). Developmental changes in parent -- child communication throughout adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 49(12), 2301-2308. doi:10.1037/a0032217
The science of Developmental Psychology purposes and endeavors to elucidate the change that comes about in both children and adults in the course of time. I have decided to focus and lay emphasis on this topic as the most change takes place in the course of a person's lifespan during this particular period (Mcleod, 2012). Further, the topic "Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence," lays emphasis on the individual changes and variations in the patterns of change between the association that exists between the child and the parent in the course of adolescence. Particularly important is the fact that any individual during its infancy is largely attached to the parent and therefore communicates a lot. However, according to this topic, it is delineated that the attachment and…
Parent Involvement and Student Academic Performance: A Multiple Mediational Analysis
David R. Topor, Susan P. Keane, Terri L. Shelton, and Susan D. Calkins
Numerous studies have shown a clear positive relationship between the involvement of a parent in a child's education, and the academic performance of the child. This particular study seeks to explore the mechanisms of the said association. On that front, only two potential mechanisms are taken into consideration. These, according to the authors, include; 1) the quality of the relationship between the teacher and the student, and 2) the child's perception of cognitive competence. A total of one hundred and fifty eight 7-year-olds participated in this study. The sample also included their teachers and mothers. It is important to note that data was in this case sourced from three key centers; the child, their mothers, and teachers -- with the gathering of data from the first two…
parent-child conflicts cause people to act without being true to their own needs and desires. Because of the ingrained need to please the parents, people often sacrifice, suppress, or deny their feelings. Especially in families in which tradition is important, a person may find him or herself trying too hard to stay in the good graces of their family. An example would be marriage outside of the religion. It is very common for families to unduly pressure their children into marrying within the same faith, even if that religious tradition means little to the child. As a result, the child may end up sacrificing a positive and loving relationship to please the parents. This could cause serious repercussions for the person down the road. Not only will he or she lose an opportunity for a healthy marriage, but may end up building up resentment towards the strict parents. Instead of…
parents need to do in order to make sure that their children make healthy choices is to educate them with regard to the effects that particular foods can have on their health. Even with the fact that they can also cooperate with schools in order to prevent educational institutes from providing students with unhealthy foods, it is still important for them to be certain that their children have a complex understanding of why it is important for them to eat healthy foods. Information is essential and parents thus need to focus on teaching their children how to filter it in order to benefit from life in general.
hile many are inclined to believe that taking on physical activity as an obese person can be especially difficult and even impossible in some cases, the reality is that the concept of physical activity is very complex. People can start off by walking…
Dunn, Anderson Carolyn, "Everyday Nutrition," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 01.02.2012)
Watson, Ruthy, "Obesity, Physical Activity, and Healthful Nutrition: What Does the Pastor Think?," (ProQuest, 2008)
In collaboration with the Healthcare Georgia Foundation, Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies, "Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Communities - Brief Summary: Institute of Medicine Regional Symposium," (Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Communities - Brief ... - In collaboration with the Healthcare Georgia Foundation, Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies - Google C-r-i)
"Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity," Retrieved May 24, 2013, from the Healthy People Website: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/LHI/nutrition.aspx
1. As people progress through the stages of psychosocial development, they may get fixated due to suppressed desires. As all desires is driven by libido, according to Freud, any fixation can become a sexual fixation. Thus, being fixated at the oral stage would theoretically predispose one to have some type of oral fetish. Abnormal sexual behavior can be traced to fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development.
Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory.…
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.
Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…
Family Systems institute Bowen Family Systems Theory and Practice: Illustration and Critique
Bowenian Family Systems Theory and Therapy
My parents also instilled in me a love for science and reading, and have proven to be the best examples in the world. Our favorite family activity is to watch the game show "Jeopardy" together. We challenge each other to see who can answer the most correct questions, and whoever wins gets to choose the restaurant the family will eat at that weekend. And if I win, I am even allowed to invite friends to join us.
My parents are also very wise. I have come to understand from my high school psychology class why my parents never argued in from of me no matter how upset they may have been. My mother would always say to my father, "Can we go to the other room, there is something that I must talk to you about." feel very proud of my parents, especially when my friends make comments such as,…
Art supplies the vision, and the vision is important, but people must be willing to bring that vision to life. Furthermore, people need to realize that they can bring about monumental change. To remind myself of that, I look to my own ancestors. I am African-American, and my ancestors were able to accomplish so much despite the overwhelming odds against them. If they could surmount the overwhelming odds against them, I feel it would be dishonorable for me to refuse to meet the challenges in my own life. That is why I have engaged in a series of projects that aim to have a direct and positive impact on the lives of the people around me. I had a talk show, "Closer to my Dreams" on WGIV 103.3 FM; the purpose of the talk show was to inspire teenagers to reach for their dreams. I work at Youth Empowerment Solutions…
Toxcio's experts, on the other hand, believe that evidence is incomplete and that further, costly studies need to be implemented to show the connection.
It seems to me that (a) if the biophysicist is indeed as credentialed and qualified as said and (b) if her studies are as empirical as stated from peer-reviewed scientific journals, bearing reliable evidence, than the families do, indeed have a case. This is because even thoguh further research may need to be conducted (as per Toxico's scientists) to assess strength of the research, the evidence that exists at the moment seems to show an almost undisputed association between the children's cancer and the toxic emission.
econdly, the biophysicist also reinforces her case with other empirical evidence -- and empirical evidence is that which is required by the courts - of the significant statistical incidence of this rare cancer in the neighborhood. In both cases, her…
WILLIAM DAUBERT, et ux., etc., et al., PETITIONERS v. MERRELL DOW PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 1993
The People of the State of New York, Respondent, v. George Wesley, Appellant, Court of Appeals of the State of New York., 1994.
teenage pregnancy on the family of the effected girl. In addition to that, this paper also highlights the prevailing rates of teen pregnancy in the U.S.A. And the adverse consequences of adolescence pregnancy. Furthermore, the strategies to prevent teenage pregnancy have also been discussed by this paper.
Setting the Scene
Teenagers are forced to confront a crisis because of an unintended pregnancy, which in most cases is an unwanted pregnancy. The unmarried adolescents, who are pregnant, have to make a number of complex decisions. These decisions include choosing between aborting and giving birth, and choosing between raising the baby by themselves or placing them for an adaption. Simultaneously, other decision in relation to school, work and interpersonal relationships are to be taken by the affected teenagers. (Wirkus & Maxwell, 2010)
Another important decision that the teens confront is to opt the manner in which they will discuss this issue with…
Birthline, Inc. (2014). Birthline of central mn:: about us. Retrieved from: http://www.birthline.org/about-us / [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
Chen, X., Wen, S.W., Fleming, N., Demissie, K., Rhoads, G.G. & Walker, M. (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population-based retrospective cohort study. International Journal Of Epidemiology, 36 (2), pp. 368 -- 373.
East, P.L. (1999). The first teenage pregnancy in the family: does it affect mothers' parenting, attitudes, or mother-adolescent communication?. Journal Of Marriage And The Family, 61 (2), pp. 306 -- 319.
Office Of Adolescent Health United States Of America (2014). The office of adolescent health, u.s. department of health and human services. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/reproductive-health/teen-pregnancy/trends.html [Accessed: 10 Mar 2014].
In understanding the differences between childhood behaviors and adulthood behaviors in identifying problems is very important for those counselors seeking to find causes to problematic symptoms. The purpose of this report is to discuss the case study issues dealing with Maria, a 9-year-old Hispanic girl who is experiencing some behavior issues dealing with fear and anxiety. This report will offer an assessment and evaluation of Maria in determining the best way to approach and eventually solve this problem.
The text suggested that it was important to differentiate the issues of children and adults in a manner that is reasonable and understandable. There is, however, been a historical tendency to ignore this separation and treat children just like adults, perhaps misreading the situation and ultimately causing more confusion and harm. The authors wrote " the lack of attention to developmental variations in symptoms in the DSM and its applications…
Barrett, P.M., Dadds, M.R., & Rapee, R.M. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: a controlled trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 64(2), 333.
Prezeworski, A. & Dunbeck, K (2014). Development Considerations in Assessment and Treatment. In Alfano, C.A & Beidel, D.C. (Eds). Comprehensive Evidence-Based Interventions for Children and Adolescents (pp.3-13). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Wood, J.J., McLeod, B.D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W.C., & Chu, B.C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 44(1), 134-151.
Baird, J., ehm, ., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?
Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing esearch, 65(2): 142-150.
Barid et al. (2016) provide a grounded theory, qualitative assessment of seven parents and 12 nurses using in-depth interviews with participants, observational assessment, and documents from within the organization under scrutiny in order to "explore the delivery of continuity of nursing care in the PICU from the perspective of both parents and nurses" (p. 142). The researchers describe continuity of nursing as being very important to parents, as they feel that there is better consistency of quality care when there is consistency within the ranks of the staff in terms of how nurses treat patients, how prompt they are, how their persona is and how well they interact with patients and parents, etc. Through the conducting of interviews with parents,…
Baird, J., Rehm, R., Hinds, P., Baggot, C., Davies, B. (2016). Do you know my child?
Continuity of nursing care in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing Research, 65(2): 142-150.
Conflicting Educational Association Groups
The article critiqued in this document was Lareau and Munoz's "You're not going to call the shots: Structural conflicts between the principal and the PTO at a suburban public elementary school." This article contained original qualitative research in which the authors utilized the interactions between a Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) and the principal of an elementary school to analyze the source of structural conflict between the two. Their research consisted of interviews and observations at the school. Interview subjects included the principal, school board members, and parents involved in the PTO. The authors believed the source of conflict stemmed from the structure of the PTO and the principal.
The authors' key points largely revolved around the thematic issues that emerged via their observation and interviews. Specifically, the authors (2012) were able to denote that the sources of conflict seemed to come from different priorities between the…
Eren, A. (2014). Uncovering the links between prospective teachers' personal responsibility, academic optimism, hope and emotions about teaching: a mediation analysis. Social Psychological Education. 17: 73-104.
Lareau, A., Munoz. (2012). "You're not going to call the shots": Structural conflicts between the principal and the PTO at a suburban public elementary school. Sociology of Education. 85(3): 201-218.
Henry James's work is not only a book about bad parenting, as it is not a book about relationships. It is about a fragmented and decadent society where normal values, such as caring for your child and offering her a loving home, become relative. This relativism of values leaves the character without a norm and without intrinsic knowledge about doing what is right.
Maisie's parents are not necessarily bad people in a complex meaning of the concept of "bad," just as Mrs. Wix, no matter how much the reader gets attached to her because of the way she adores Maisie, is not a sublimely good person. At least, despite developing interesting characters, James's objective is not to define good and bad and categorize his characters accordingly. I believe his goal is to see what the characters are doing and how they are behaving in a particular societal context, namely that…
1. Sethi, Mira, (2010). Henry James's Most Affecting Portrait. Wall Street Journal
2. James, Henry, (1897), What Maisie Knew. The Project Gutenberg
3. French, Philip, (2013). What Maisie Knew -- review. The Guardian. On the Internet at http://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/aug/25/what-maisie-knew . Last retrieved on November 1, 2014
Parenting comes in al forms and ranges, just as different as individuals are. Fortunately, parents have today the possibility to get much better informed than they ever had before. Not only has child psychology made huge progress over the last few decades, but widely available information related to child rearing as well as numerous testimonies from parents themselves has made the parenting task easier, but also more complex at the same time.
As people become better informed, society becomes more competitive. Parents tend to put more pressure on themselves in order to prove they are better parents, fit for this new global age of information and their children sometimes suffer the consequences. While some things have tremendously changed, especially since women have started going to work more often than they used to do before the second half of the twentieth century, some things are remained the same. This is visible…
Oftentimes, parenting styles overlap. The overprotective parent will also have tendencies of being over-controlling. For them to be able to keep their sons and daughters out of danger, they need to constantly interfere, know everything there is to know in order to make decisions for them. The chances for such children to rebel and take the wrong decision in order to escape parental despotism are high. Or, children could act up as if they are accepting their parents' terms only to lead double lives, completely opposed to what they pretend they are actually doing in front of their parents. These are only two of the dangers of overprotectiveness through over control methods. Children raised this way are likely to be miserable later in life.
Child psychologists are inclined to think now that the first years in a child life are crucial to a person's development. That is why parents are encouraged to get involved at pay attention to their children even from the very early stages in the latter's development. This does not equal, of course, excess of anxiety and over control that are likely to flood over the later stages of their children's lives. It means taking parenting as serious as it gets in order to be able to prepare one's children for living their lives the way they should, with equal opportunities of actually building healthy relationships themselves. Society will be thankful to those parents who will be able to recognize their mistakes and willing to correct them.
Cloud, Henry & Townsend John. 2001. Boundaries with Kids: How Healthy Choices Grow Healthy Children. Zondervan Clinton, Tim & Sibcy, Gary. 2006. Loving Your Child Too Much: Raise Your Kids Without Overindulging, Overprotecting or Overcontrolling. Thomas Nelson
There are a few different parenting styles, named by Matsumoto as authoritarian, permissive, uninvolved, and authoritative. Generally, uninvolved parents are those who are too involved in their own lives to respond appropriately to their children, while permissive parents are warm and nurturing but allow their children to regulate their own lives. Authoritative parents are those that are firm, fair and reasonable. Authoritarian parents, by contrast, are those who demand unquestioned obedience, viewing the child as something to be controlled (Matsumoto, Chapter 3).
Within each style, the parents behave differently and this influences the child in different ways. The uninvolved parents have minimal interaction with the child. Often, this leaves the child with minimal enculturation as they have few adults from whom to learn. Such children end up being demanding and noncompliant. The children of permissive parents are often immature -- by setting their own boundaries they end no…
Parenting styles have been correlated with the degree and frequency of alcohol use in college age students (that is what the next sentence is for!). In particular, there has been a clear association between parental monitoring and less drinking among teens (Beck et al., 2004). In fall 2006, a random sample of under graduate students attending 10 universities were invited to participate in an online Internet-based survey of alcohol use and other risky behaviors (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner, & Wolfson, 2008). All participating universities had a graduate program and surveys were sent to graduate and undergraduate students combined (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Campuses ranged from approximately 5,375 to 44,841 students (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008). Further, 139 Caucasian well-educated parents were paired with their adolescent children and assessed according to their perceived parenting styles (O'Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008) Comment by AJ: Not…
Parents and Fast Food
What Drives Adults to Consume Fast Food with Their Children: TV, Toys, and Time
Television advertisements play a role in deciding what we consume, and that marketing is geared toward children no less than it is toward adults. McDonald's fast-food chain, for instance, gears an entire production line called the Happy Meal to children, who -- lured by the toys and tiny meals that are packaged together -- drive their parents to eat with them there (Schlosser, 2001). This is one example of what drives parents to consume fast food with their children. The rationale for this study is to understand some of reasons why parents consume fast food with their children.
Karen Campbell (2006) states that "it is likely that a child's eating behaviours are learnt in early childhood and that the home environment exerts substantial influence on the development of these behaviours (Birch and…
Campbell, K. (2006). Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices. Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/dal035
Halford, Jason et al. (2007). Beyond-brand effect of television food
advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children. Appetite 49: 263-267.
Sanigorski, A. (2007). Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren. Public Health Nutrition 10(2): 152-157. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980007246634
Synthesis of the Literature
Involvement of parents in the education of their children both in the classroom and at home has the potential or greatly enhancing the education of a child. It is important for schools to tap into the potential of the parents to support their child's education can help in better and effective teaching. Conversely, when the parents work in close collaboration with the teachers at school and follow the suggestions and directions prescribed for the students while dealing with their education at home can also help children do better in studies (Hendricks, 2013).
esearcher Susan Graham-Clay, in her article titled "Communicating with Parents: Strategies for Teachers," claims that often teachers try to develop a partnership with the parents to create a support system for student learning (Dubis & Bernadowski, 2014). esearchers claim that one of the major factors in the development of this partnership is…
Cook, B., Shepherd, K., Cook, S., & Cook, L. (2012). Facilitating the Effective Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices through Teacher-Parent Collaboration. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(3), 22-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004005991204400303
Dubis, S. & Bernadowski, C. (2014). Communicating with parents of children with special needs in Saudi Arabia: parents' and teachers' perceptions of using email for regular and ongoing communication. British Journal Of Special Education, 42(2), 166-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12061
Griffin, S. (2009). Communicating with parents. Practical Pre-School, 2009(106), 15-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/prps.2009.1.106.44936
Hendricks, C. (2013). Improving schools Through action research: A reflective practice approach (3rd ed.). Boston: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Overly Protective Parents
All parents care about their children; about their education, food, security etc. But sometimes this concern can be transformed into something almost obsessive that compels some parents to constantly monitor every movement of their children and be over controlling. Some children of overprotective parents can end up being aggressive, but can also develop a withdrawn or anti-social personality. Such children also tend to be insecure, have low self-esteem because they never feel safe without their parents. They have no experience dealing with stress and do not know how to do it when they really need to start living on their own. In this paper an introduction of overly protective parents is given discussing the reasons why some parents are over protective. Then the effects of over protection on children are discussed and then the counseling of such children is recommended.
The Overly Protective Parents
Clinton, T., & Sibcy, G. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or overcontrolling. Nashville, TN: Integrity Publishers. ISBN: 1-591-45045-4.
Cloud, H. & Townsend, J. (2001). Boundaries with kids. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN: 0-310-24315-7.
Emler, N. (2001) Self-esteem: The Costs and Causes of Low Self-worth. York: York Publishing Services/Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Fletcher, A.C., Steinberg, L. And Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004) 'Parental influences on adolescent problem behaviour: revisiting Stattin and Kerr', Child Development, Vol. 75, pp. 781 -- 96.
36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.
Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?
How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?
How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…
Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.
Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.
Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
Conflicts Between Parents and Their Children: Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" and Mark Haddon's the Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time
e have all had our own squabbles with our parents, but in some cases it is a hard fight standing up against an oppressive parental force and establishing yourself as an individual. Yet, this is exactly what Jing-mei oo and Christopher Boone do. In both Amy Tan's "Two Kinds and Mark Haddon's The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, the growing teenage characters are being smothered by their oppressive single parents. Each one of them is being forced to play a role that is not truly meant for them; however, when each of them make a stand against that oppressive parental force, they are truly allowed to come into their own and establish themselves as an adult.
In Amy Tan's short story, "Two Kinds," the essential…
Mark Haddon's The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. National Geographic Books. 2007.
Tan, Amy. "Two Kinds." WikiClassrooms. 2013. Web. https://olsen-classpage.wikispaces.com/
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…
Botting, B., Rosato, M. And Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends 93: 19-28.
Dennison, C. (2004) Teenage pregnancy: An overview of the research evidence, London: Health Development Agency.
DfES (2006a)"Teenage Pregnancy: Accelerating the Strategy to 2010," DfES, Nottingham.
James R. Rest (1986), "Moral Development Advances in Research and Theory," published by Praeger, New York.
Free access for students and teachers will be available at school and home at any time (Charp, 2002, p. 10).
Schools have also been helped by funding from corporations of various types, many of which see the need for a workforce in the future that is fully adept at using the new information technology, or that has some stake in assuring that a well-trained public is developed. Companies focusing on engineering and mathematics offer computer help to students, and some programs are more far-reaching:
lso, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is donating $40 million to create small high schools across the United States to increase high school graduation and college attendance. Students will be able to earn both a high school diploma, and an associate's degree or two years of college credit. The effort includes the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.…
Although widely accepted as a useful statistical tool, multiple regression and correlation analysis are fraught with dangers in estimating effect sizes when one uses a number of predictor variables in the linear equation. For example, it is highly unlikely that a large number of naturally occurring predictors will be statistically independent. When two or more variables are relatively highly correlated, the statistical estimation method of squared error minimization used in multiple regression is incapable of sorting out their independent effects on the dependent variable. This condition is referred to as multicollinearity and results in highly unstable regression coefficients (Pfaffenberger & Patterson, 1997).
Zangle is a system for providing information on student performance, assignments, and other matters to parents over the Internet, making it possible to keep this information flowing all year long and not simply during parent-teacher conferences. The intent is to enhance communication between teacher and parent and so to help change behavior and improve the performance of students, addressing problems as soon as they appear rather then waiting. This is a proposal for research to test whether the system delivers on its promises and does improve student performance in those districts where it is currently in use.