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Parole oard Decision for Robert Thomas Elton
The objective of this study is to examine the possibility of parole for Thomas Robert Elton, an individual presently incarcerated for the commission of crimes and specifically the offenses of urglary and Murder.
Robert Thomas Elton
DO -- 05-30-1955
Offense(s) -- urglary, Murder I, previous property offense
Recommendations of Other authorities -- Psychiatrist Recommends Parole
Facts of the Case
(1) Robert Thomas Elton was sentenced to Life in Prison on July 15, 1976 for the murder of another inmate.
(2) Robert Thomas Elton was originally imprisoned for breaking and entering and received a 2 1/2-year sentence and has previous convictions including property offense and robbery.
(3) Robert Thomas Elton's life sentence for murder commenced October 28, 1977.
(4) The inmate has a history of substance abuse including the use of heroin and cocaine, for which he tested positive during previous release on…
Introduction: Reentry and Reintegration (2012) Urban Institute Press. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/books/allcomeback/introduction.cfm
A Hard Straight (2012) Independent Lens. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org /independentlens/hardstraight/parole_conditions.html
NPB Pre-Release Decision Sheet (1994) Robert Thomas Elton. Retrieved from: http://www.theprovince.com/pdf/thomaselton.pdf
, January 2011). The way juveniles are handled is based on the Illinois Prisoner Review Board, which is "…a body created to decide the fates of adult prisoners in correctional facilities," Hassakis writes in the ISBA magazine article. Very few youths have their parents with them at their parole hearings, and moreover, "…even fewer have an adult present for parole revocation hearings" (Hassakis, p. 2).
"After nearly six months of observations" that were conducted by the Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission, the report asserts that "…no youth has had an attorney or any legal help in making the case that he or she is ready for release" to the parole system (Hassakis, p. 2). The ISBA article asks a highly pertinent question: hat young person at age 15 has the wherewithal to represent himself before a panel of adults that will decide whether he is ready for parole -- or "remains…
Hassakis, Mark D., and Jacobs, Lisa. (2011). What if it Were Your Child? Illinois Bar Journal.
Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://www.isba.org/ibj/2011/01/whatifitwereyourchild .
Illinois Department of Corrections / Parole Division. (2011). Scope of Responsibilities.
Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://www.idoc.state.il.us .
Some might describe America as being a nation of prisoners. There is no escaping the fact that our society produces many laws that result in many infractions of these laws which eventually result in many prisoners and court cases.
The role of probation and the probation officer in this chaotic mess we call the justice system plays a pivotal role in the effectiveness of a communities approach on crime. The purpose of this essay is to examine the role of the probation officer within the criminal justice systems and how probation as a means to solving our crime problem is succeeding or failing. In order to fairly address this subject, it is necessary to examine this idea from several viewpoints. First the essay will look at how probation is viewed by the general population and the larger picture in general. After summarizing the current status, this essay will argue…
Abadinsky, H. (2009). Probation and Parole in Criminal Justice. 10th edition Prentice Hall. Retrieved from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2471/2530850/CJ305_Ch01.pdf
Gonczol, K. (2005). Developing humane criminal justice systems in democratic societies. The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice, 52(2): 18-186. Retrieved from http://bunmegelozes.easyhosting.hu/dok/gonczol_abstract.pdf
MacKenzie, D. et al. (1999). The Impact of Probation on The Criminal Activities of Offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 4 Nov 1999, 423-453. Retrieved from http://crim.umd.edu/sites/ccjs.umd.edu/files/pubs/MacKenzie%20et%20al%201999.pdf
Redding, R. (2010). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Rockville, MD: Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/220595.pdf
I: What do you feel is lacking in this process of parole and probation and how would one improve this?
P.O: There have been many programs devised to make this process effective and recently eintegrating Alternatives Personal Program (APP) was devised to reduce the recidivism rate even further. When a parolee is released back into the community, he faces a lot of problems including his transition from the prison back to his family and home. Many families do not accept the person back and this increases his chance to get back to the crime world. Further offices, companies, firms etc. are reluctant in hiring a parolee and would prefer a free individual to work for them. They do not trust a parolee and think it is unsafe for a parolee to move around in their institution and interact with other staff members. This program that I have mentioned actually helps…
1) Ronald L. Goldfarb and Linda R. Singer. "After Conviction" (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1973) p. 183.
To ensure that parolees do visit their parole officers on time, the governor decided to give them an incentive. He stated that parolees who would report on time would receive a monthly stipend of $25. This would then lead to an increased contact rate between the parolee and the parole officer and thus would decrease the chances of recidivism as the officer would be able to keep track of the parolee's activities. Giving an incentive to people is an important way of making them do something one wants. It keeps them motivated and in the right direction because normally the actions of a person depend on what he is being rewarded for rather than what is right and what is wrong. However its weakness is that $25 is not much of a figure that a criminal would count on. He would do a hundred times better financially if he were…
1) Denise Barnes - Ex-Cons Can't Beat RAPP. The Washington Times, June 15, 2005. Page Number: B02.
2) Robert Redding Jr. - Ehrlich Plan for Parolees Drawing Fire. The Washington Times, November 26, 2002. Page Number: B01.
Surprisingly after a period of 28 months the Florida Department of Corrections found that the recidivism rate for these malefactors was only 13.6% as compared to 25% for those that completed their time in prison. onald L. Goldfarb and Linda . Singer quoted an American Bar Association committee which commented after their observations on this case:
If we, today, turned loose all of the inmates of our prisons without regard to the length of their sentences, and with some exceptions, without regard to their previous offenses, we might reduce the recidivism rate over what it would be if we kept each prisoner incarcerated until his sentence expired." (onald L. Goldfarb, Linda . Singer, p.183)
Another assumption most famous in the minds of the general public is that prison systems keep us safe from "dangerous" criminals that are confined there. Who exactly is a dangerous person? No one is born dangerous.…
1) National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards & Goals, Corrections, p. 1
2) Milton Rector, President, NCCD, in his foreword to Benedict S. Alper's "Prisons Inside-Out," p. xii.
3) Ronald L. Goldfarb and Linda R. Singer. "After Conviction" (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1973) p. 183.
4) Henry J. Steadman and Joseph J. Cocozza, "We Can't Predict Who Is Dangerous," Psychology Today, January 1975, p. 35
They get out and go back to doing whatever got them into prison.
8. What kind of work might you have done instead?
I don't really know. I guess that I still want to try to fix the system that keeps men just recycling in and out of prison. This isn't that job. I really think that I do my job well, but the system isn't designed to keep people from reoffending. So I guess, I don't know, maybe a psychologist or something like that. To try to figure out what makes people act the way they do.
9. What advice do you have for someone entering the field?
Wow. That's a big question. I guess that overall I would encourage people to enter the field. it's got a lot of job security and has good benefits, and that's something that students don't necessarily think about when they're just starting…
The concept of parole has usually been misunderstood by many people because of their failures to distinguish it from probation. Parole has developed as a concept or means of lessening prison overcrowding while rehabilitating prisoners through ways that help them to secure their release through good behaviors. The process of parole basically involves the supervision of a convicted offender after serving part of their sentences in prison and being permitted to live in the community through supervision. Since the parole period is usually based on the recommendation and decisions made by the board of parole, the infringement of its procedures is likely to result in the re-imprisonment of the criminal. Therefore, there are three main roles of parole i.e. lessening jail term based on good behaviors, supervising the criminal during their parole period, and release of individuals with uncertain or indeterminate sentences.
Concepts of Parole:
Parole can be described…
Ditton, P.M. & Wilson, D.J. (1999, January). Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs - U.S. Department of Justice website: http://bjsdata.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/tssp.pdf
Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice (11th ed.). Belmont,
California: Thomson Learning Inc.
"State Pardon and Parole Laws." (n.d.). USLegal.com. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://pardonandparole.uslegal.com/state-pardon-and-parole-laws/
While implementing the work-release program may lead to an increased risk to people outside of the prison environment that risk is at least theoretical, while the risks associated with overcrowded prisons are concrete. Moreover, William could attempt to develop and implement risk assessment and screening processes for the work release program. For example, he could ask for input from the correctional officers, who have had experience with the inmates, about who poses the least risk if transferred to a work-release program.
The District Attorney
Martha campaigned for her position as district attorney as a tough-on-crime candidate, critical of plea bargains and reduced prison citizens. Her tough-on-crime approach has been echoed by the mayor and the police chief, who have launched an aggressive arrest campaign. However, Martha's review of the cases reveals that many of them are not supported by probable cause. Despite the lack of probable cause, Martha is convinced…
American Bar Association. (2013). Prosecution function. Retrieved March 5, 2013 from the American Bar Association website: http://www.americanbar.org/publications/criminal_justice_section_archive/crimjust_standards_pfunc_blkold.html
Berman, S. (2013). When the police can make an arrest: Probable cause. Retrieved March 5,
2013 from Nolo website: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/when-police-can-make-arrest-probable-cause.html
Davidson, J. (2012, October 15). Prison overcrowding undermines safety, report says.
List and explain the goals and purposes of parole.
Parole is the conditional early release from prison or jail, under supervision, after a portion of the sentence has been served. This practice assumes that the offender successfully demonstrated conformity to the rules and regulations of the prison environment and shows an ability to conform to society's norms and laws.
During the 1870s Zebulon Brockaway is credited with the passage of the first indeterminate sentencing law in the United States as well as introducing the first good time system to reduce inmates' sentences. However, providing adequate supervision once release had been granted proved to be a problem. By 1913, it was clear some independent body was required to supervise inmates in the community and by 1930 Congress formally established a United States Board of Parole. It appeared that initiatives and programs were developing that could make parole a viable and…
Carlie, M.K. (2002). The goals of probation and parole. Into the Abyess: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/what_i_learned_about/pp/goals.htm
Cengage, G. (2003). Probation and parole. Encyclpedia of EverydayLaw. Shirelle Phelps (ed.). eNotes.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/probation-and-parole
There are, for example, great differences among states regarding the way in which these systems are managed and the rights and responsibilities of officers for both sectors of the legal system.
In New Jersey, the goal of probation is to promote the reintegration of offenders into the community, while encouraging a responsible, law-abiding lifestyle for such a person (New Jersey Courts, 2013). In total, probation officers are responsible for more than 70,000 adults and 13,000 juveniles. Supervision services are offered for adult and juvenile offenders.
Adult probationers have the opportunity to serve their sentence in the community under the supervision of a probation officer as alternative to sentencing and incarceration. For these offenders, probation officers have a duty to oversee imposed counseling for issues like substance abuse or family problems, as well as any community service to be carried out. The probation officer is also responsible for collecting fines or…
Daly, R. And Peck, M. (2007, Dec. 31). Considering Consolidation: The Nebraska Probation and Parole Services Study. VERA Institute of Justice. Retrieved from: http://ccc.nebraska.gov/PDF/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20NE%20Probation%20and%20Parole%20Services%20Study%20FINAL%201%203%2008.pdf
Greene, R. (2011, Jan. 25). Patrick to push for merger of parole, probation systems. Boston.com. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2011/01/patrick_propose_3.html
Matz, a.K. (2013, March). Police-Probation/Parole Partnerships: Responding to Local Street Gang Problems. The Police Chief. Retrieved from: http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&article_id=2777&issue_id=102012
Kiminski, K. (2007). Constitutional Law -- Separation of Powers -- the New Jersey Supreme Court Declares it can Decide Cases in which I is Personally Interested, and a Statute which arms Probation Officers is an Unconstitutional Infringement of he Power of he Judicial Branch to Make Rules Governing the Administration of he Courts. Retrieved from: http://lawjournal.rutgers.edu/sites/lawjournal.rutgers.edu/files/issues/v38/4/13KiminskyVol.38.4.pdf
Strategic Analysis NYC Parole Department
STATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NYC DEPATMENT OF PAOLE
External and Internal Environment's Analysis
Internal Environment Analysis
SWOT Analysis Matrix
Strategic issues in NYC department of parole
Formulate strategies to manage the issues
The strengths and weaknesses of the NYC department of parole are analyzed through external and internal environments. The analysis of the forces, factors, and components that affect the performance of the organizations are elaborated in the sections below. The strategy of the organizations provides a detailed understanding of its mission and goals. It is observed that the parole release is not achieving its desired results due to the lack of resources and technical issues. The system also provides room for the usage of discretionary powers in grant of parole release. The uniform regulations and integration of the community can reduce the burden on prisons and also encourage prisoners to live a productive life.…
Gayman, M.D., & Bradley, M.S. (2012). Organizational climate, work stress, and depressive symptoms among probation and parole officers. Criminal Justice Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21.
Harvard Business Review. (2011). HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change Management (Including Featured Article" Leading Change," by John P. Kotter). Harvard Business School Press.
Kilgore, J. (2013). Progress or More of the Same-Electronic Monitoring and Parole in the Age of Mass Incarceration. Critical Criminology, 1-17.
Regoli, R.M., & Hewitt, J.D. (2009). Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials: The Essentials. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
parole and probation encompass the re-integration of convicted criminals within their communities in a supervised, controlled, and humane manner. On their web site, the American Probation and Parole Organization describes probation and parole as "twins," as both programs encourage rehabilitation of offenders and are viable alternatives to imprisonment. Because American prisons are already dangerously overcrowded and increasingly more expensive to run, parole and probation offer financially feasible, effective, and humanitarian options for incarceration. Promoting parole and probation over incarceration is cost-effective and reduces taxpayer responsibility for funding prisons. These programs also increase the efficiency of the already overly burdened criminal justice system by involving community-based and private agencies in the rehabilitation of criminals. In spite of the "tough on crime" climate in America, parole and probation offer a means to prevent crime and promote public safety. Both parole and probation entail court-supervision for convicted criminals who are reintegrated within their…
Fauteck, Paul. "America's Crime Problem." Going Straight. 2002. http://www.crimrehab.com/ACP.shtml.
Paparozzi, Mario. "Probation, Parole, and Public Safety." Online at http://www.aca.org/fileupload/274/admin/200308_probationparoleandpublicsafetytheneedforprincipledpraticesversusfaddismandcircularpolicydevelopment.pdf.
Probation." American Probation and Parole Association. http://www.appa-net.org/about%20appa/probatio.htm.
Mandatory vs. Discretionary Prison Release
By getting rid of parole boards in favor of mandatory sentences -- has this policy tended to reduce crime? For the sixteen states that have abolished parole boards in favor of mandatory sentencing -- has the rate of recidivism declined? Those are two of the questions approached in this paper; this paper notes that when parole boards are eliminated prisoners have no incentive to try and better themselves so they can be released earlier. Thesis: getting rid of parole boards does little if anything to reduce recidivism, and in fact there is evidence that the parole system is more effective in reducing repeat criminality.
Is Discretionary Release a Better System than Mandatory Release?
According to journalist Fox Butterfield (writing in The New York Times), in 1999 several states that had eliminated parole boards "reinstituted" them because their prisons became overcrowded to the point that these…
Butterfield, F. (1999). Eliminating Parole Boards Isn't a Cure-all, Experts Say. The New
York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Kuziemko, I. (2007). Going Off Parole: the Elimination of Discretionary Prison Release
Affects the Social Coast of Crime. Harvard University. Retrieved August 21, 2014, from http://www.chicagobooth.edu .
Ladow. Similar boards were provisioned for federal prisons not in the penitentiary category. Each prison was also provided with a parole officer to supervise parolees during their community corrections phase. Inmates became eligible for parole after serving a third of their total sentence -- by 1915 this was expanded to mean fifteen years for inmates serving life sentences -- contingent on the decisions and good graces of the local parole board. The system served well to mitigate the very problems addressed by judicial suspension of sentences, but suffered from an overall lack of standardization stemming from the fact that multiple, independent boards existed and did not attempt to synchronize their decisions.
In 1930, the oard of Parole was created by congressional legislation to become the sole arbiter of parole decisions across the entire federal system. The oard consisted of three members appointed by the Attorney General to serve indefinitely, and…
1. U.S. Courts (n.d.) Charter of the Probation and Pretrial Services System. Retrieved from U.S. Courts website: http://www.uscourts.gov/fedprob/history/index.html
2. Net Industries (2007) Probation and Parole: History, Goals, and Decision-making: Origins of Probation and Parole. Retrieved from Law Library -- American Law and Legal Information website: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1817/Probation-Parole-History-Goals-Decision-Making-Origins-probation-parole.html
3. Zebulon Brockway (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved 6 April 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebulon_Brockway
4. Alexander Maconochie (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved 6 April 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Maconochie_%28penal_reformer%29
New York State Department of Parole or the Department of Corrections is an agency of the state responsible for the supervision and management of criminals convicted of a crime, felony level or higher. The Department of Corrections was put in place to provide protection for the community by operating and managing safe, secure facilities that keep offenders under control as well as allow them fair treatment during time served. The main objective of the agency is to minimize the risk of criminal behavior through a partnership consisting of communities, a continuum of community supervision, incarceration, sanctions and services to deal with criminal or unlawful behavior. The core values existing within the sequence of probation, prison, and parole is the foundation that the least antagonistic adjustment be used to monitor offender behavior, all while adhering to public safety rules and regulations.
What does it truly encompass to be paroled in America?…
Associated Press (2013, April 15). Judge orders new NY parole hearing for Hank Morris - WSJ.com. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/APcaec8798306b4cddb02d62e5f4e4471f.html
Barker, V. (2009). The politics of imprisonment: How the democratic process shapes the way America punishes offenders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Board of Pardons and Paroles (2010). Mentally Ill Parolees. Retrieved from http://oldweb.pap.state.ga.us/mentally_ill_parolees.htm
Burrell, W.D. (2007). Trends in Probation and Parole in the States. Retrieved from http://www.appa-net.org/eweb/docs/appa/pubs/TPP.pdf
Probation and parole officers are sometimes mandated with the task of advising and helping the released criminals as they re-integrate into the society. In most cases, these officers usually find that advising and counseling the criminals increases the likelihood of these people to successfully re-integrate into the society. The rehabilitation services provided by these officers may include helping criminals to find a home or job or information on how to handle various social situations (Echie, 2007).
eporting to Court:
Probation and parole officers get into contact with the judicial court system periodically on behalf of the offender to provide report of his/her compliance to probation or parole release terms. Actually, these officers supervise and observe the former inmates in order to report to the court about the progress and success of the criminal's release. These officers are responsible to contact the court at any time that the offender violates the…
Echie, K. (2007, July 20). The Roles and Duties of the Parole or Probation Officer in the Criminal Justice Field. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.articlecity.com/articles/legal/article_1037.shtml
Wallace, K.L. (n.d.). Roles and Responsibilities of a Probation Officer. Retrieved January 12,
2012, from http://www.ehow.com/about_5434537_roles-responsibilities-probation-officer.html
Not merging them can have monetary and societal consequences. One Oregon reporter notes, "Court, corrections and probation agencies have grown up with separate databases, separate offices and separate staffs in ways not conducive to a comprehensive, systematic approach to offender management" (Bishop D1). Because parole and probation agencies are often separate entities, they do not share information, such as databases, and because of this, problem offenders can fall though the cracks of the system and become lost or untraceable. In addition, combining these agencies saves public tax dollars, and makes them more effective in the process. These two departments traditionally do not get the same type and amount of financing as other correctional departments, and so, they often are understaffed and unable to effectively monitor all the people they need to monitor. This can be dangerous to the public safety if an offender is dangerous, is released into probation, and…
Bishop, Bill. "New Facility to Help Corrections Put Their Game Plan in Motion." The Register-Guard (Eugene, OR) 31 Mar. 2005: D1.
Jones, Justin. "Probation and Parole: The Savior of Corrections." Corrections Today Feb. 2003: 34+.
Posner, Richard A. "Developments in the Law: Alternatives to Incarceration." Harvard Law Review 111.7 (1998): 1863-1990.
Another researcher note, "Inmates in USDB and the Naval Brigs at Charleston, S.C., and Miramar, for example, are offered a wide variety of services, such as education and rehabilitation programs, as well as intensive, crime-specific, cognitive-behavioral modification programs to address substance abuse, violence and sex offenses" (Johnston, 2003). In fact, the military experiences about a 14% recidivism rate, compared with approximately 31% in the public criminal justice system (Burke, 2004, p. 5). Of course, public parole systems have thousands more inmates to manage than the military parole system, but they do not have to track their parolees around the world, and most prison systems do not offer comprehensive rehabilitation programs like the military does.
In conclusion, it has been shown that measuring the effectiveness of parole systems depends on many factors. Age, incarceration time, and even education and family life can all contribute to whether a parolee will return to…
Burke, P.B. (2004).Parole violations revisited: A handbook on strengthening parole practices for public safety and successful transition to the community. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Effective Public Policy.
Burrell, W.D. (2004). Trends in probation and parole in the States. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2008 from the American Probation and Parole Association Web site: and http://www.appa-net.org/ccheadlines/docs/Trends_Probation_Parole.pdf.
Cassel, R.N. (2003). First, second and third force psychology serve as the only scientific means for determining parole readiness and prison reform. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), 144+.
Johnston, J.D. (2003, December). Military parole: The final steps toward responsible citizenship. Corrections Today, 65, 88+.
probation and parole in the state of Pennsylvania. As in most states, probation and parole go hand-in-hand in Pennsylvania. The same agency, the Board of Probation and Parole (PBPP) oversees both agencies in the state, and they work together to ensure citizens' safety and well-being through the criminal justice system. They are an essential part of the criminal justice system, and an essential aspect of overall public safety.
Definitions of Probation and Parole
First, it is necessary to define probation and parole. Probation is when the Department of Corrections (DOC), suspends the legal sentence of a convicted person, and grants the person freedom, but with caveats. The person has to periodically report to the parole board, they have to promise good behavior, and they are subject to home visits from their probation officer. Probation can be granted to people in an alternative to prison time, as well. Parole, on the…
Beard, J.A., & Gnall, K. (2003, August). The Pennsylvania Approach to Re-entry. Corrections Today, 65, 68+.
Editors. "About PBPP." Board of Probation and Parole. 2009. 22 Oct. 2009.
Editors. "General Rules for Probationers and Parolees." Chester County. 2009. 22 Oct. 2009.
Community Corrections as a Social Service
With around 2 million Americans incarcerated in the nation's prisons and jails at a cost of tens of billions of dollars each year, policymakers are scrambling for alternative solutions and many have identified community corrections as a viable option. Using parole and probations programs, community corrections provide a valuable social service to the country by giving juvenile and adult offenders the opportunity to rejoin mainstream society in meaningful and productive ways that reduce recidivism rates and restore the integrity of the family unit. This paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these programs to demonstrate that community corrections represents an important social service that should be expanded to reduce prison and jail overcrowding rates and provide offenders with the chance they need to rebuild their lives. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning community corrections as a social service are presented in…
ACA accreditation. (2017). American Correctional Association. Retrieved from https://www.aca.org/ACA_Prod_IMIS/ACA_Member/Standards___Accreditation/About_Us/ACA_Member/Standards_and_Accreditation/SAC_AboutUs.aspx?hkey=bdf577fe-be9e-4c22-aa60-dc30dfa3adcbl .
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Corrections and reentry. (2014). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=28.
Evans, D. G. (1996, October). Defining community corrections. Corrections Today, 58(6), 124-129.
Prison Inmates Should Be Paroled Early to Help Control the State's Budget Problems
This paper argues that inmates at State prisons should be having premature releases from prisons so that the States can manage their budget problems. As the paper illustrates, despite criticisms on parole that it introduces unreformed culprits back in the society and that the program is unorganized, parole is a major contributor in reducing prison populations, which directly translates to reduced State expenditures (Licari, 2009). All the implementation of parole releases has either direct or indirect economic effect to the States as well as the prisoner and society as a whole. eformed individuals are able to earn their income thus independent of the government (Sons, n.d.). In addition, as there is professional structure of parole, they lead to faster reforming and procedures that reduce caseloads enabling parole officers to spend more time with the high-risk individuals (National…
Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F., & Reisig, M. (2008). American Corrections, (8th ed.). Connecticut, U.S.:
Corley, C. (2009, December 13). States release inmates early to cut prison costs. Npr.org.
Retrieved from http://www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=121338571
John Waters' view that infamous Manson family member, Leslie Van Houten, must be released on parole.
easons for Parole
Waters cites in his work that, several decades after the murder in which Leslie Van Houten was involved, a parole official, following an analysis of no less than eleven separate psychiatric statements (all of which concluded that Van Houten could be paroled and is not a threat to society any longer), listened to Van Houten miserably attempting to explain that her thought process was addled that time and that she is ashamed of who she was at age 19. She claimed that the best means to prove her remorse was by being the best possible individual, today. The parole official remarked unforgivingly, yet kindly (Waters, 2011), that she had has committed an unpardonable act, so escaping punishment was very difficult, near to impossible -- an assertion none can deny. Waters…
Walker, T. (2013, June 6). The Independent -- News -- UK and Worldwide News -- Newspaper. Leslie Van Houten, youngest member of Charles Manson's 'Family', has parole denied for 20th time -- Americas -- News -- The Independent. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/leslie-van-houten-youngest-member-of-charles-mansons-family-has-parole-denied-for-20th-time-8646473.html
Waters, J. (2011). Leslie. Role Models. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Buckner has a Graduate Degree from Brenau University.
Governor Sonny Perdue appointed Robert E. Keller to the Board in 2007. Prior to joining the Board Keller served as executive council -- and also as chairman -- for the Prosecuting Attorneys Council of Georgia. Keller has been on the Board of Trustees of the Georgia Judicial Retirement System and the Georgia Code Revision Plan Committee. He has a law degree from Emory Law School.
In May 2010, Governor Sonny Perdue appointed Albert Murray to the Board, and Murray was elected to the position of Vice Chairman -- a position which he began serving in July 2010. Prior to that appointment Murray had a successful career in Tennessee and Alabama in the field of corrections. Murray was the longest serving juvenile justice commissioner in the history of the state of Georgia, having served in that position from January 23, 2004, to May…
State Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2011). Board Members. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.pap.state.ga.us .
State Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2011). Mission Statement. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
She advocates that this trend must be reversed and that the majority of society's efforts should be expanded on preparing inmates for their eventual release.
Petersilia does not broach the issue of prisoner reentry into society without providing a long and detailed explanation of the problem. In the first portion of her book she provides one of the most detailed histories of the development of the America prison system available. She details how American prisons evolved from being purely punitive in nature to becoming largely rehabilitative in purpose and then turning back again in the direction of being punitive as law and order became a major political issue in the 1970s and 80s.
In an interesting twist, Petersalia argues strongly that one of the major reasons for the present problems in the American prison system is the heavy reliance on determinate sentencing systems. She argues that the determinate system has…
Petersailia, J. (2009). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry and Reintegration. New York: Oxford University Press.
When Prisoners come Home
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
This creates intra-departmental conflict situations between law enforcement, correctional departments, and parole boards. While law enforcement convicts an increasing number of criminals, space in prisons is running out, while parole boards are unable to deliver a high enough turn-around of convicts that are released back into society. The strain place upon individuals may result in an inability to find targeted solutions to existing problems, and instead interdepartmental hostility may result. This in turn creates a perpetuation of rather than a solution to the problem. In order to find targeted solutions, the focus needs to move away from the immediate logistical and financial problems experienced towards a solution-oriented focus on the primary goal.
A first step towards finding solutions within the current situation is to accept the limitations and realities faced by the various institutions. Interdepartmental meetings can then be held to determine the steps necessary to mitigate these problems. The…
, et al., 2012).
Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).
Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…
Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com: http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html
Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company: http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
Juveniles who are Imprisoned for Life with No Parole
We live in a world where human beings of any age commit and are punished for menial to heinous crimes. In other words, humans at every stage of life are committing and being punished for crimes, including children and teenagers, called juveniles under the law until they reach adulthood. The paper will explore and debate the pros and cons of sentencing juveniles as LWOPs. The paper will reference recent and groundbreaking cases of juvenile crime and debatable sentencing. The paper aims to provide a modern context within which to examine and debate the use of life sentencing without parole for juvenile offenders. Ultimately, the paper concludes that LWOP for juveniles should, with great discrimination and in the rarest of cases, be used around the world, but before doing so, the stipulations for its use must be clearly stated and…
Agyepong, Tera. "Children Left Behind Bars: Sullivan, Graham, and Juvenile Life without Parole Sentences." Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Vol. 9, No. 1, 83 -- 102.
Aero, Evelyn, Fakudze, Ntsika W., Judson-Patrick, Ann Marie, Korolev, Leontiy V., Latif, Saira N., Lydon-Lam, Bobby Y., McBride, Kalli Dee, Nekoomaram, Javeneh, Sledd, Samantha K., Smerbeck, James R., & Tao, John L. "The United States of America: Juvenile Life without Parole." United Nations Human Rights Council, Vol. 9, 1 -- 6., 2010.
de la Vega, Connie, & Leighton, Michelle. "Sentencing Our Children to Die in Prison: Global Law and Practice." University of San Francisco Law Review, Vol. 42, 983 -- 1044, 2008.
Hechinger, Scott R. "Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Antidote to Congress's One-Way Criminal Law Ratchet?" N.Y.U. Review of Law and Social Change, Vol. 35, No. 408, 409 -- 496, 2011.
Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice
Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).
Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…
Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.
Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
Juveniles Facing Lifelong Terms Despite Rulings
It is unfair to deny juveniles a chance at redemption. This message has been clearly echoed in the article, and a case has been offered of Shimeek Gridine who was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to 70 years in jail without parole. Shimeek was only 14 when he was convicted, and the sentence given will mean that he might never see the outside of jail in his lifetime. Handing juveniles long sentences is equivalent to sentencing to them life, and this has been curtailed by the Supreme Court. However, judges have skirted the law, and instead of offering life sentences, they are now offering long sentences without a chance of parole, which in a real sense is similar to a life sentence. This is quite unfair to juveniles because it denies them the opportunity to reform and lead normal lives after serving their…
Task force case study: Creating a new parole policy to reduce crime and expenditures on crime
Other than her immediate advisors or cabinet members, who should the governor seek for advice on the plan?
The two major areas of controversy that are likely to arise regarding the Utopian governor's plan are how the plan deals with community safety and the need to balance the rights of currently and formerly incarcerated prisoners with the rights of victims. Members of the state police and corrections divisions who have considerable experience in dealing with reintegrating offenders into the community should provide input into how they think the plan will impact and change the current levels of violence and recidivism within the state and within the prison population. Equally critical, however, is to solicit the viewpoints of local advocates in crime-ridden communities to discuss how the policies being developed will affect residents.…
Community Corrections." (2008). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Classical Criminology." Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-criminologyclassical.html
The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…
Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.
Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from Correctionsone.com: http://www.correctionsone.com/corrections - training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/
Doj.wisconsin.gov. (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: http://www.doj.wisconsin.gov/dles/cibmanuals/files/TIME/HTML/whatisthedifferencebe tweenprobationandparole.htm
Opm.gov. (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management: http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gs0007.pdf
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
Jails and Prisons
The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…
Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:
Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human
Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).
Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?
The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…
Rehabilitation vs. punishment
Creation of mandatory sentencing
Punishment vs. rehabilitation as a goal
High rates of recidivism
Alternative sentencing methods
Increasing size of the prison population
F. Elimination of parole
G. Failure to monitor released felons
Prisoners released all the time
Failure to prepare those prisoners for outside world
Programs showing success
Need for similar programs
A movie made in 1939 entitled They All Come Out makes the point that all prisoners are released one way or another, with most returning to the community (while a comparative few die in prison). The point of the film was that provision must be made for the re-entry of prisoners into the community, a point that seems to have been lost in the intervening years as politicians increase punishments as if longer sentences would solve all problems, while the re-entry of prisoners to society takes a…
Bessette, Joseph M. "In Pursuit of Criminal Justice." The Public Interest (October 15, 1997).
Conaboy, Richard P. "The United States Sentencing Commission: A New Component in the Federal Criminal Justice System." Federal Probation (March 1, 1997).
Davis, Danny K. "Living with an 'X' on Your Back: Released and No Place to Go." Corrections Today, Volume 65(5)(August 2003). October 28, 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5007703411.
Kopel, David B. "Sentencing Policies Endanger Public Safety." USA Today Magazine (November 1, 1995).
Additionally, although Uniform Crime eports states that women are responsible for approximately 15% of all criminal homicides, the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that they only comprise 1% of all death row inmates. According to the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty, more than 33% of these women were sentenced to death for killing their abusers. Equally disturbing is the fact that, according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, only 10% of those convicted in capital cases were could afford to hire their own attorneys. Because of the disparities with which the death penalty is applied, the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, in a vote of 280 to 117, issued a request for a suspension on all executions because they believed the system in place was "a haphazard maze of unfair practices" (The New York Times, 1997, A 20).
Perhaps the most popular argument…
Bailey and Peterson, "Police killings and Capital Punishment: The post-Fuman period.
Criminology 25 (1987): 1-25.
"Bar Association Leaders Urge Moratorium on Death Penalty," The New York Times, February
4, 1997, 20.
human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.
Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th
Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).
David was classified by the defense psychiatrists as a paranoid schizophrenic (The Letter (http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/letter_1.html)."
When he was on his killing spree the NYC police department put together a special unit called the Omega Group for the express purpose of locating the killer and bringing him to justice.
It consisted of 300 officers and would encompass the questioning of over 3,000 suspects. It handled 215 calls a day, and include an attempt to check each of the 28,000.44 caliber Bulldog revolvers manufactured in the United States (Omega Group (http://www.spartechsoftware.com/dimensions/crime/SonOfSam.htm)."
Once he was caught and sentenced he spent the first 10 years in prison angry and fighting but in 1989 Berkowitz says he was touched by God and since that time has lived his life as a model prisoner for Jesus Christ.
At his recent parole hearing in 2002 he sent a letter to the Governor of the state letting him know…
The Letter http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/letter_1.html
David Berkowitz http://www.freeinfosociety.com/site.php?postnum=58
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from: http://www.marketingresearch.org/
National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues
Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
Halfway House Programs: Community esistance and Possible Solutions
Halfway houses are Community-Based esidential Facilities or Community esidential Centers. Additionally, volunteers or correctional officer's head this halfway house programs in a community-based setting. Halfway house programs provide an important role between institutional care and the community (Sechrest, 1991). This is because they offer rehabilitative and residential services to the designated community. In addition, they provide a chance for exceptional and creative programming aimed at solving the needs of the community and its residents at large.
In addition, the use of these programs is not a new idea because most of the offenders under observation, they are supervised in the community. Some of the offenders who receive community supervision include offenders under probation, those who receive a conditional sentence, and people who are gradually in the process of release into the community through a parole or a statutory release (Lindsay, 1991). It…
ICCA. (2010). Siting Community Corrections Facilities. ICCA. Retrieved 29 September, 2013
Krause, J.D. (n.d) Community opposition to correctional facility siting: Beyond the "NIMBY"
explanation. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 17(1&2), 239-262.
A Case Study Involving an Individual Purported to be Psychopathic
Summary of the case
The article presents an analysis of a case involving a veteran Illinois police officer, Drew Peterson, who was arrested for murdering his third wife. Drew is suspected to have murdered his other two wives due to the influence of psychopathy. The victim of focus in the analysis shows significant symptoms that might be suggestive of psychopathy. For example, he casted publicly that his prosecution is a waste of valuable time, as he holds that he will be eventually released by the criminal justice system. In addition, analysis of his behavior shows that he has aggressive and violent behaviors as those shown by individuals suffering from psychopathy. As such, some critics of the case hold that Peterson is a perfect example of a psychopath while other considers him as a bright individual with the abilities to…
Edens, J.F., Skeem, J.L., Kennealy, P.J., & Douglas, K.S. (2009).The psychopathy checklist in the courtroom: Consensus and controversies. New York, NY, U.S.: Guilford Press, New
Gendreau, P., Goggin, C., & Smith, P. (2002). Is the PCL-R really the "unparalleled" measure of offender risk? A lesson in knowledge cumulation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29 (4),
A cursory glance at job market statistics offers a grim picture, leading many to pessimistic conclusions. The United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics points out that increasing numbers of young people are graduating from college and entering the job market now, leading to increased competition in many job sectors (1). Likewise, rates of unemployment have been at near-record lows, especially for young men (United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). Baeurlein also points out the problem that many college students have with debt accumulation from student loans, making it difficult for them to get a foothold on their careers. Yet not all graduates are doomed to flounder in the labor market. I am pursuing a career in adult probation and parole. On reason why I am optimistic about my future prospects is that working in corrections is a public service sector job that does…
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.
Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).
How then, can Maslow's…
Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.
Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts
Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:
Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
Murder Trial of Nicholas Lindsey, March 2012
Factual and Procedural Background
On the evening of February 21, 2011, Police Officer David Crawford of the St. Petersburg, Florida police department was fatally shot while investigating a report of a suspicious person or prowler in a residential neighborhood. After a 24-hour search expedition, police arrested and booked 16-year-old Nicolas Lindsey on charges of first-degree murder. Lindsey confessed to the killing in a taped statement to police shortly thereafter.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: http://articles.cnn.com/2011-02-23/justice/florida.officer.shot_1_police-officer-fatal-shooting-petersburg-police-maj?_s=PM:CRIME]
Lindsey was arraigned in court the next day, and the judge ordered that he be held in custody without bail. A grand jury which convened the following week indicted Lindsey on first-degree murder of a police officer, whereupon the state Attorney General charged Lindsey as an adult based on the seriousness of the offense and that he was over age 14.
Jury selection began on March 19, 2012 and the jury heard…
The result is that employees at all levels for their own protection as well as to create a system of mutial support among leaders and subordinates have begun to demand collaborative rights of communication and input on job design, and leadership practices. Empowerment of employees has long been shown to be a positive aspect of individual employee motivation as well as the desire to be a part of a team that works together to provide holistic knowledge of community problems and concerns and therefore contributes to solutions. (Sims, 2002, p. 18) being a member of the team that proposed a solution or the individual who had a good idea that will potentially solve a problem is empowering and motivational and will likely increase retention and decrease problematic communication, such as collusion, a phenomena that occurs when individuals do not feel that the top down system is effective in resolving problems…
Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
Gottfredson, S.D. & McConville, S. (Eds.). (1987). America's Correctional Crisis: Prison Populations and Public Policy. New York: Greenwood Press.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Stanley, D.T. (1976). The Problem of Parole. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…
Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190
Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,
The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32463
Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans
The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.
hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…
Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,
IL: University of Illinois Press.
Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
Parolees Face Upon Release
When a prisoner is paroled from prison and attempts to reintegrate himself into society he can face many different obstacles that keep him from successfully resuming a life outside prison. These problems can range from internal problems the parolees have to deal with in their own lives, like drug addiction, to problems that society inflicts upon them, like the inability to find employment. Even without those difficulties though, many prisoners find the adjustment from a life in confinement to one of freedom to be impossible to navigate. Many of these parolees end up violating their parole and returning to prison, a full two-thirds return to prison within two years. Even if a parolee is successful in staying out of prison, just finding affordable housing can be a serious challenge. All of these problems must be overcome if a former prisoner is going to re-enter society and…
Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens
he nature of police work must ensure that is as adaptable, sophisticated, networked, and transnational as the criminals and terrorists it fights. A modern approach to policing must contain elements of traditional, mainstream efforts to fight crime along with a set of tools for carrying out an effective community policing approach. his paper provides a brief discussion about what such a hybrid model looks like in practice and touches on elements of complexity of police work in an increasingly global arena.
Addressing Escalated hreat Levels.
Some dynamics of society seem inevitably linked, moving in tandem as though some invisible lynch-pin had been driven through their respective cores. Poverty and crime. Violence and counter-violence. Wealth and indifference. Frustration and destruction. Fanaticism and irrationality. Naturally, there are exceptions. Some Buddhists live in poverty but are peaceful and law-abiding. Where culture or religion calls for acceptance of one's…
There is an inherent tension between a retreat from the tenets of community policing and policing strategies intended to keep a safety buffer between the police and the community they serve and protect. The research includes work from authors who believe that a shift toward policing that could be characterized by paramilitarism occurred prior to September 11 (McCulloch, 2001a, Weber, 1999, p.2). Describing how community policing works in the Australian environment, McCulloch (2001b, p. 4) referred to an "iron fist" covered by a "velvet glove." Murray (2005) presented a comparison between the transitions that have occurred with regard to traditional policing and community policing. His work also includes a comparison of the cultures of both approaches to policing. Murray's conclusion is that the two orientations to policing are not incompatible; he proposes a hybrid model of policing that would enable both approaches to coexist.
Murray suggests that community policing continues to be the best way to prevent crime and to prevent acts of terrorism. He bases this conclusion on the enhanced capacity of a community to effectively communicate concerns and observations when there is a basic level of trust between citizens and the police in the community. The issue is that it is increasingly difficult to distinguish those with malevolent intent from those who must be protected from malevolence. When community members see themselves as partners in the efforts of the police to keep them safe in their own communities, the efficacy of community policing is both possible and enhanced.
The pressure on a police force that currently operates in a community policing mode to transition back to a traditional policing model is substantive. This pressure comes from the citizens -- who desire to see evidence that the country is taking effective steps to fight the war on terror, and from politicians for whom crime fighting and homeland security issues are "election sensitive." Paramilitary approaches to national security can readily be seen in other countries, as discussed, and it may be difficult for the
2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS
test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?
Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.
The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…
Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty: http://off2dr.com/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=21
Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/executedoffenders.htm
(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)
(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
According to the Correctional Programs Division for the state of Nevada, another program sponsored by the NDOC is Casa Grande, a re-entry transition center opening in December 2005 and "will house up to 400 non-violent offenders in a dorm-like setting, during their last four to six months of incarceration. This will enable them to live in the community, obtain employment and receive family counseling."
There are programs called "street readiness" which teaches life-skills such as time and money management, parole requirements and job seeking skills. For the inmates who are ordered to pay restitution, the inmates should have a program to help with the opportunity to work in the community during their last few months of incarceration and earn money to pay back their victims.
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
ilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The…
The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php
Wilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The Agenda for the 21st Century, December, 1997.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Statute of Limitations for Fraud
This refers to the maximum time legal action may be brought against someone for the commission of a fraud.
This Statute depends on the jurisdiction. Most federal crimes in general have up to 5 years to prosecute. Capital offenses, however, have no Statutes of limitation. Federal frauds carry 10 years Statutes of limitation. These include frauds committed against banks and financial institutions and involving passports or citizenship. Major frauds in the U.S. carry a seven-year limit. Tax frauds have a 6-year limit.
Legal action is usually begun upon the commission or discovery of the fraud.
Alaska, Kentucky and Missouri observe a 10-year limit for fraud. Limit for Alabama is only 2 years and Louisiana, only 1 year after the commission of the fraud.
Like murder and other crimes, fraud can overwhelm a victim's whole life.
Fraud is thus governed by this Statute of Limitations.
3 Taylor Klett, the Statute of Frauds, Chapter 15 (Sam Houston State University, 2006)
Uniform Commercial Code, Article 2 2-201 LII (2004)
Maurice Sellbinder, Criminal Fraud and Statute of Limitations (2013),
Correctional institutions have enhanced in quality and condition over the years. What started out as dungeons and sewers in ome, the conditions for correctional institutions have improved to quite an extent. In the 1980s, overcrowding became a renowned problem as it also went against the eighth amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment. (Carter & Glaser, 1977, p. 1) Increased crowdedness causes mental and physical damage to the inmates in the prison according to a research done by Paulus, Cox and McCain. The Iowa department of corrections takes control of the public, workers and the offenders by keeping them under punishment yet away from cruel behaviors as well. All the correctional measures taken under the criminals are done under proper supervision to ensure that their safety is not compromised.
Community-based correctional institutions.
Community-based corrections are a substitute measure to punish criminal without sending them to jail. The Iowa department of…
Bop.gov (n.d.). BOP: Maps of Facilities - North Central Region. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.bop.gov/locations/maps/NCR.jsp [Accessed: 17 Dec 2012].
Carter, R.M., Glaser, D., & Wilkins, L.T. (1972). Correctional institutions. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Craig, D. (2004). Iowa's Dual Diagnosis Offender Program . Corrections Today, Iss. 2.
Doc.state.ia.us (1980). Iowa Department of Corrections - Employment Information: Institution Description. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.doc.state.ia.us/InstitutionDesc.asp [Accessed: 17 Dec 2012].
For most of us living in Western societies contracts pervade most of our waking hours, yet how often do we really think about the countless transactions that we engage in every day? Buying a cappuccino at the corner Starbucks, streaming a video on Netflix, or coming home to a mortgaged house can involve countless contracts, both unstated and written. In fact, our ability to stream videos over the internet in our own home probably involves layers upon layers of contracts. Given the importance of contracts in our everyday lives, it should come as no surprise that volumes of statutes have been crafted at both the state and federal levels which attempt to define the legal parameters of exchange relationships. Contrary to expectations, however, some controversy remains due to opaque or contradictory judicial rulings (Chirelstein, 2010, p. 1). This report will examine the basic elements of contracts, the laws…
Arkansas Department of Health & Human Services v. Alhborn, 547 U.S. ____ (2006).
AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, 563 U.S. ____ (2011).
Chirelstein, M.A. (2010). Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts (5th ed.). New York, NY: Foundation Press.
Epstein, D.G., Markell, B.A., & Ponoroff, L. (2012). A Short & Happy Guide to Contracts. St. Paul, MN: Thomson Reuters.
These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).
The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.
Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…
Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf
James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf