403+ documents containing “parole”.
Parole oard Decision for Robert Thomas Elton
The objective of this study is to examine the possibility of parole for Thomas Robert Elton, an individual presently incarcerated for the commission of crimes and specifically the offenses of urglary and Murder.
Robert Thomas Elton
DO -- 05-30-1955
Offense(s) -- urglary, Murder I, previous property offense
Recommendations of Other authorities -- Psychiatrist Recommends Parole
Facts of the Case
(1) Robert Thomas Elton was sentenced to Life in Prison on July 15, 1976 for the murder of another inmate.
(2) Robert Thomas Elton was originally imprisoned for breaking and entering and received a 2 1/2-year sentence and has previous convictions including property offense and robbery.
(3) Robert Thomas Elton's life sentence for murder commenced October 28, 1977.
(4) The inmate has a history of substance abuse including the use of heroin and cocaine, for which he tested positive during previous release on parole and his parole suspended. The board however, found that his….
Introduction: Reentry and Reintegration (2012) Urban Institute Press. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/books/allcomeback/introduction.cfm
A Hard Straight (2012) Independent Lens. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/hardstraight/parole_conditions.html
NPB Pre-Release Decision Sheet (1994) Robert Thomas Elton. Retrieved from: http://www.theprovince.com/pdf/thomaselton.pdf
, January 2011). The way juveniles are handled is based on the Illinois Prisoner Review Board, which is "…a body created to decide the fates of adult prisoners in correctional facilities," Hassakis writes in the ISBA magazine article. Very few youths have their parents with them at their parole hearings, and moreover, "…even fewer have an adult present for parole revocation hearings" (Hassakis, p. 2).
"After nearly six months of observations" that were conducted by the Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission, the report asserts that "…no youth has had an attorney or any legal help in making the case that he or she is ready for release" to the parole system (Hassakis, p. 2). The ISBA article asks a highly pertinent question: hat young person at age 15 has the wherewithal to represent himself before a panel of adults that will decide whether he is ready for parole -- or "remains incarcerated?"….
Hassakis, Mark D., and Jacobs, Lisa. (2011). What if it Were Your Child? Illinois Bar Journal.
Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://www.isba.org/ibj/2011/01/whatifitwereyourchild .
Illinois Department of Corrections / Parole Division. (2011). Scope of Responsibilities.
Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://www.idoc.state.il.us .
Some might describe America as being a nation of prisoners. There is no escaping the fact that our society produces many laws that result in many infractions of these laws which eventually result in many prisoners and court cases.
The role of probation and the probation officer in this chaotic mess we call the justice system plays a pivotal role in the effectiveness of a communities approach on crime. The purpose of this essay is to examine the role of the probation officer within the criminal justice systems and how probation as a means to solving our crime problem is succeeding or failing. In order to fairly address this subject, it is necessary to examine this idea from several viewpoints. First the essay will look at how probation is viewed by the general population and the larger picture in general. After summarizing the current status, this essay will argue that the….
Abadinsky, H. (2009). Probation and Parole in Criminal Justice. 10th edition Prentice Hall. Retrieved from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/2471/2530850/CJ305_Ch01.pdf
Gonczol, K. (2005). Developing humane criminal justice systems in democratic societies. The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice, 52(2): 18-186. Retrieved from http://bunmegelozes.easyhosting.hu/dok/gonczol_abstract.pdf
MacKenzie, D. et al. (1999). The Impact of Probation on The Criminal Activities of Offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 4 Nov 1999, 423-453. Retrieved from http://crim.umd.edu/sites/ccjs.umd.edu/files/pubs/MacKenzie%20et%20al%201999.pdf
Redding, R. (2010). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Rockville, MD: Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/220595.pdf
I: What do you feel is lacking in this process of parole and probation and how would one improve this?
P.O: There have been many programs devised to make this process effective and recently eintegrating Alternatives Personal Program (APP) was devised to reduce the recidivism rate even further. When a parolee is released back into the community, he faces a lot of problems including his transition from the prison back to his family and home. Many families do not accept the person back and this increases his chance to get back to the crime world. Further offices, companies, firms etc. are reluctant in hiring a parolee and would prefer a free individual to work for them. They do not trust a parolee and think it is unsafe for a parolee to move around in their institution and interact with other staff members. This program that I have mentioned actually helps the….
To ensure that parolees do visit their parole officers on time, the governor decided to give them an incentive. He stated that parolees who would report on time would receive a monthly stipend of $25. This would then lead to an increased contact rate between the parolee and the parole officer and thus would decrease the chances of recidivism as the officer would be able to keep track of the parolee's activities. Giving an incentive to people is an important way of making them do something one wants. It keeps them motivated and in the right direction because normally the actions of a person depend on what he is being rewarded for rather than what is right and what is wrong. However its weakness is that $25 is not much of a figure that a criminal would count on. He would do a hundred times better financially if he….
Surprisingly after a period of 28 months the Florida Department of Corrections found that the recidivism rate for these malefactors was only 13.6% as compared to 25% for those that completed their time in prison. onald L. Goldfarb and Linda . Singer quoted an American Bar Association committee which commented after their observations on this case:
If we, today, turned loose all of the inmates of our prisons without regard to the length of their sentences, and with some exceptions, without regard to their previous offenses, we might reduce the recidivism rate over what it would be if we kept each prisoner incarcerated until his sentence expired." (onald L. Goldfarb, Linda . Singer, p.183)
Another assumption most famous in the minds of the general public is that prison systems keep us safe from "dangerous" criminals that are confined there. Who exactly is a dangerous person? No one is born dangerous. It….
1) National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards & Goals, Corrections, p. 1
2) Milton Rector, President, NCCD, in his foreword to Benedict S. Alper's "Prisons Inside-Out," p. xii.
3) Ronald L. Goldfarb and Linda R. Singer. "After Conviction" (New York, Simon & Schuster, 1973) p. 183.
4) Henry J. Steadman and Joseph J. Cocozza, "We Can't Predict Who Is Dangerous," Psychology Today, January 1975, p. 35
They get out and go back to doing whatever got them into prison.
8. What kind of work might you have done instead?
I don't really know. I guess that I still want to try to fix the system that keeps men just recycling in and out of prison. This isn't that job. I really think that I do my job well, but the system isn't designed to keep people from reoffending. So I guess, I don't know, maybe a psychologist or something like that. To try to figure out what makes people act the way they do.
9. What advice do you have for someone entering the field?
Wow. That's a big question. I guess that overall I would encourage people to enter the field. it's got a lot of job security and has good benefits, and that's something that students don't necessarily think about when they're just starting off, but those….
The concept of parole has usually been misunderstood by many people because of their failures to distinguish it from probation. Parole has developed as a concept or means of lessening prison overcrowding while rehabilitating prisoners through ways that help them to secure their release through good behaviors. The process of parole basically involves the supervision of a convicted offender after serving part of their sentences in prison and being permitted to live in the community through supervision. Since the parole period is usually based on the recommendation and decisions made by the board of parole, the infringement of its procedures is likely to result in the re-imprisonment of the criminal. Therefore, there are three main roles of parole i.e. lessening jail term based on good behaviors, supervising the criminal during their parole period, and release of individuals with uncertain or indeterminate sentences.
Concepts of Parole:
Parole can be described as a….
Ditton, P.M. & Wilson, D.J. (1999, January). Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs - U.S. Department of Justice website: http://bjsdata.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/tssp.pdf
Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2006). The American system of criminal justice (11th ed.). Belmont,
California: Thomson Learning Inc.
"State Pardon and Parole Laws." (n.d.). USLegal.com. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://pardonandparole.uslegal.com/state-pardon-and-parole-laws/
While implementing the work-release program may lead to an increased risk to people outside of the prison environment that risk is at least theoretical, while the risks associated with overcrowded prisons are concrete. Moreover, William could attempt to develop and implement risk assessment and screening processes for the work release program. For example, he could ask for input from the correctional officers, who have had experience with the inmates, about who poses the least risk if transferred to a work-release program.
The District Attorney
Martha campaigned for her position as district attorney as a tough-on-crime candidate, critical of plea bargains and reduced prison citizens. Her tough-on-crime approach has been echoed by the mayor and the police chief, who have launched an aggressive arrest campaign. However, Martha's review of the cases reveals that many of them are not supported by probable cause. Despite the lack of probable cause, Martha is convinced that….
American Bar Association. (2013). Prosecution function. Retrieved March 5, 2013 from the American Bar Association website: http://www.americanbar.org/publications/criminal_justice_section_archive/crimjust_standards_pfunc_blkold.html
Berman, S. (2013). When the police can make an arrest: Probable cause. Retrieved March 5,
2013 from Nolo website: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/when-police-can-make-arrest-probable-cause.html
Davidson, J. (2012, October 15). Prison overcrowding undermines safety, report says.
List and explain the goals and purposes of parole.
Parole is the conditional early release from prison or jail, under supervision, after a portion of the sentence has been served. This practice assumes that the offender successfully demonstrated conformity to the rules and regulations of the prison environment and shows an ability to conform to society's norms and laws.
During the 1870s Zebulon Brockaway is credited with the passage of the first indeterminate sentencing law in the United States as well as introducing the first good time system to reduce inmates' sentences. However, providing adequate supervision once release had been granted proved to be a problem. By 1913, it was clear some independent body was required to supervise inmates in the community and by 1930 Congress formally established a United States Board of Parole. It appeared that initiatives and programs were developing that could make parole a viable and useful tool….
Carlie, M.K. (2002). The goals of probation and parole. Into the Abyess: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/what_i_learned_about/pp/goals.htm
Cengage, G. (2003). Probation and parole. Encyclpedia of EverydayLaw. Shirelle Phelps (ed.). eNotes.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/probation-and-parole
There are, for example, great differences among states regarding the way in which these systems are managed and the rights and responsibilities of officers for both sectors of the legal system.
In New Jersey, the goal of probation is to promote the reintegration of offenders into the community, while encouraging a responsible, law-abiding lifestyle for such a person (New Jersey Courts, 2013). In total, probation officers are responsible for more than 70,000 adults and 13,000 juveniles. Supervision services are offered for adult and juvenile offenders.
Adult probationers have the opportunity to serve their sentence in the community under the supervision of a probation officer as alternative to sentencing and incarceration. For these offenders, probation officers have a duty to oversee imposed counseling for issues like substance abuse or family problems, as well as any community service to be carried out. The probation officer is also responsible for collecting fines or restitution,….
Daly, R. And Peck, M. (2007, Dec. 31). Considering Consolidation: The Nebraska Probation and Parole Services Study. VERA Institute of Justice. Retrieved from: http://ccc.nebraska.gov/PDF/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20NE%20Probation%20and%20Parole%20Services%20Study%20FINAL%201%203%2008.pdf
Greene, R. (2011, Jan. 25). Patrick to push for merger of parole, probation systems. Boston.com. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2011/01/patrick_propose_3.html
Matz, a.K. (2013, March). Police-Probation/Parole Partnerships: Responding to Local Street Gang Problems. The Police Chief. Retrieved from: http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&article_id=2777&issue_id=102012
Kiminski, K. (2007). Constitutional Law -- Separation of Powers -- the New Jersey Supreme Court Declares it can Decide Cases in which I is Personally Interested, and a Statute which arms Probation Officers is an Unconstitutional Infringement of he Power of he Judicial Branch to Make Rules Governing the Administration of he Courts. Retrieved from: http://lawjournal.rutgers.edu/sites/lawjournal.rutgers.edu/files/issues/v38/4/13KiminskyVol.38.4.pdf
Strategic Analysis NYC Parole Department
STATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NYC DEPATMENT OF PAOLE
External and Internal Environment's Analysis
Internal Environment Analysis
SWOT Analysis Matrix
Strategic issues in NYC department of parole
Formulate strategies to manage the issues
The strengths and weaknesses of the NYC department of parole are analyzed through external and internal environments. The analysis of the forces, factors, and components that affect the performance of the organizations are elaborated in the sections below. The strategy of the organizations provides a detailed understanding of its mission and goals. It is observed that the parole release is not achieving its desired results due to the lack of resources and technical issues. The system also provides room for the usage of discretionary powers in grant of parole release. The uniform regulations and integration of the community can reduce the burden on prisons and also encourage prisoners to live a productive life.
External and Internal Environment's Analysis:
The external analysis of….
Gayman, M.D., & Bradley, M.S. (2012). Organizational climate, work stress, and depressive symptoms among probation and parole officers. Criminal Justice Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-21.
Harvard Business Review. (2011). HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change Management (Including Featured Article" Leading Change," by John P. Kotter). Harvard Business School Press.
Kilgore, J. (2013). Progress or More of the Same-Electronic Monitoring and Parole in the Age of Mass Incarceration. Critical Criminology, 1-17.
Regoli, R.M., & Hewitt, J.D. (2009). Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials: The Essentials. USA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
parole and probation encompass the re-integration of convicted criminals within their communities in a supervised, controlled, and humane manner. On their web site, the American Probation and Parole Organization describes probation and parole as "twins," as both programs encourage rehabilitation of offenders and are viable alternatives to imprisonment. Because American prisons are already dangerously overcrowded and increasingly more expensive to run, parole and probation offer financially feasible, effective, and humanitarian options for incarceration. Promoting parole and probation over incarceration is cost-effective and reduces taxpayer responsibility for funding prisons. These programs also increase the efficiency of the already overly burdened criminal justice system by involving community-based and private agencies in the rehabilitation of criminals. In spite of the "tough on crime" climate in America, parole and probation offer a means to prevent crime and promote public safety. Both parole and probation entail court-supervision for convicted criminals who are reintegrated within….
Fauteck, Paul. "America's Crime Problem." Going Straight. 2002. http://www.crimrehab.com/ACP.shtml.
Paparozzi, Mario. "Probation, Parole, and Public Safety." Online at http://www.aca.org/fileupload/274/admin/200308_probationparoleandpublicsafetytheneedforprincipledpraticesversusfaddismandcircularpolicydevelopment.pdf.
Probation." American Probation and Parole Association. http://www.appa-net.org/about%20appa/probatio.htm.
Mandatory vs. Discretionary Prison Release
By getting rid of parole boards in favor of mandatory sentences -- has this policy tended to reduce crime? For the sixteen states that have abolished parole boards in favor of mandatory sentencing -- has the rate of recidivism declined? Those are two of the questions approached in this paper; this paper notes that when parole boards are eliminated prisoners have no incentive to try and better themselves so they can be released earlier. Thesis: getting rid of parole boards does little if anything to reduce recidivism, and in fact there is evidence that the parole system is more effective in reducing repeat criminality.
Is Discretionary Release a Better System than Mandatory Release?
According to journalist Fox Butterfield (writing in The New York Times), in 1999 several states that had eliminated parole boards "reinstituted" them because their prisons became overcrowded to the point that these states "were forced….
Butterfield, F. (1999). Eliminating Parole Boards Isn't a Cure-all, Experts Say. The New
York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Kuziemko, I. (2007). Going Off Parole: the Elimination of Discretionary Prison Release
Affects the Social Coast of Crime. Harvard University. Retrieved August 21, 2014, from http://www.chicagobooth.edu .
Ladow. Similar boards were provisioned for federal prisons not in the penitentiary category. Each prison was also provided with a parole officer to supervise parolees during their community corrections phase. Inmates became eligible for parole after serving a third of their total sentence -- by 1915 this was expanded to mean fifteen years for inmates serving life sentences -- contingent on the decisions and good graces of the local parole board. The system served well to mitigate the very problems addressed by judicial suspension of sentences, but suffered from an overall lack of standardization stemming from the fact that multiple, independent boards existed and did not attempt to synchronize their decisions.
In 1930, the oard of Parole was created by congressional legislation to become the sole arbiter of parole decisions across the entire federal system. The oard consisted of three members appointed by the Attorney General to serve indefinitely, and….
1. U.S. Courts (n.d.) Charter of the Probation and Pretrial Services System. Retrieved from U.S. Courts website: http://www.uscourts.gov/fedprob/history/index.html
2. Net Industries (2007) Probation and Parole: History, Goals, and Decision-making: Origins of Probation and Parole. Retrieved from Law Library -- American Law and Legal Information website: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1817/Probation-Parole-History-Goals-Decision-Making-Origins-probation-parole.html
3. Zebulon Brockway (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved 6 April 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebulon_Brockway
4. Alexander Maconochie (n.d.) In Wikipedia. Retrieved 6 April 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Maconochie_%28penal_reformer%29
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Parole oard Decision for Robert Thomas Elton The objective of this study is to examine the possibility of parole for Thomas Robert Elton, an individual presently incarcerated for the commission…Read Full Paper ❯
, January 2011). The way juveniles are handled is based on the Illinois Prisoner Review Board, which is "…a body created to decide the fates of adult prisoners in…Read Full Paper ❯
Parole Some might describe America as being a nation of prisoners. There is no escaping the fact that our society produces many laws that result in many infractions of these…Read Full Paper ❯
I: What do you feel is lacking in this process of parole and probation and how would one improve this? P.O: There have been many programs devised to make this…Read Full Paper ❯
To ensure that parolees do visit their parole officers on time, the governor decided to give them an incentive. He stated that parolees who would report on time…Read Full Paper ❯
Surprisingly after a period of 28 months the Florida Department of Corrections found that the recidivism rate for these malefactors was only 13.6% as compared to 25% for…Read Full Paper ❯
They get out and go back to doing whatever got them into prison. 8. What kind of work might you have done instead? I don't really know. I guess that…Read Full Paper ❯
Parole: The concept of parole has usually been misunderstood by many people because of their failures to distinguish it from probation. Parole has developed as a concept or means…Read Full Paper ❯
While implementing the work-release program may lead to an increased risk to people outside of the prison environment that risk is at least theoretical, while the risks associated…Read Full Paper ❯
Parole List and explain the goals and purposes of parole. Parole is the conditional early release from prison or jail, under supervision, after a portion of the sentence has been…Read Full Paper ❯
There are, for example, great differences among states regarding the way in which these systems are managed and the rights and responsibilities of officers for both sectors of…Read Full Paper ❯
Strategic Analysis NYC Parole Department STATEGIC ANALYSIS OF THE NYC DEPATMENT OF PAOLE External and Internal Environment's Analysis Internal Environment Analysis SWOT Analysis Matrix Strategic issues in NYC department of parole Formulate strategies to manage…Read Full Paper ❯
parole and probation encompass the re-integration of convicted criminals within their communities in a supervised, controlled, and humane manner. On their web site, the American Probation and Parole…Read Full Paper ❯
Mandatory vs. Discretionary Prison Release By getting rid of parole boards in favor of mandatory sentences -- has this policy tended to reduce crime? For the sixteen states that have…Read Full Paper ❯
Ladow. Similar boards were provisioned for federal prisons not in the penitentiary category. Each prison was also provided with a parole officer to supervise parolees during their community…Read Full Paper ❯