Parole Essays (Examples)

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Georgia Board of Pardons and

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80042778

Buckner has a Graduate Degree from Brenau University.

Governor Sonny Perdue appointed Robert E. Keller to the Board in 2007. Prior to joining the Board Keller served as executive council -- and also as chairman -- for the Prosecuting Attorneys Council of Georgia. Keller has been on the Board of Trustees of the Georgia Judicial Retirement System and the Georgia Code Revision Plan Committee. He has a law degree from Emory Law School.

In May 2010, Governor Sonny Perdue appointed Albert Murray to the Board, and Murray was elected to the position of Vice Chairman -- a position which he began serving in July 2010. Prior to that appointment Murray had a successful career in Tennessee and Alabama in the field of corrections. Murray was the longest serving juvenile justice commissioner in the history of the state of Georgia, having served in that position from January 23, 2004, to May…… [Read More]

Works Cited

State Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2011). Board Members. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from  http://www.pap.state.ga.us .

State Board of Pardons and Paroles. (2011). Mission Statement. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from
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Industrialized Nations in the World

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50006297

She advocates that this trend must be reversed and that the majority of society's efforts should be expanded on preparing inmates for their eventual release.

Petersilia does not broach the issue of prisoner reentry into society without providing a long and detailed explanation of the problem. In the first portion of her book she provides one of the most detailed histories of the development of the America prison system available. She details how American prisons evolved from being purely punitive in nature to becoming largely rehabilitative in purpose and then turning back again in the direction of being punitive as law and order became a major political issue in the 1970s and 80s.

In an interesting twist, Petersalia argues strongly that one of the major reasons for the present problems in the American prison system is the heavy reliance on determinate sentencing systems. She argues that the determinate system has…… [Read More]

Reference

Petersailia, J. (2009). When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry and Reintegration. New York: Oxford University Press.

When Prisoners come Home
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Forensics and Mental Health

Words: 2723 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89090754

Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies

The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…… [Read More]

References

Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from  https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/ 

Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.

Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.

Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
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Teens Locked Up for Life Without a Second Chance

Words: 3510 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67287646

Criminal Justice

Juveniles who are Imprisoned for Life with No Parole

We live in a world where human beings of any age commit and are punished for menial to heinous crimes. In other words, humans at every stage of life are committing and being punished for crimes, including children and teenagers, called juveniles under the law until they reach adulthood. The paper will explore and debate the pros and cons of sentencing juveniles as LWOPs. The paper will reference recent and groundbreaking cases of juvenile crime and debatable sentencing. The paper aims to provide a modern context within which to examine and debate the use of life sentencing without parole for juvenile offenders. Ultimately, the paper concludes that LWOP for juveniles should, with great discrimination and in the rarest of cases, be used around the world, but before doing so, the stipulations for its use must be clearly stated and…… [Read More]

References:

Agyepong, Tera. "Children Left Behind Bars: Sullivan, Graham, and Juvenile Life without Parole Sentences." Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Vol. 9, No. 1, 83 -- 102.

Aero, Evelyn, Fakudze, Ntsika W., Judson-Patrick, Ann Marie, Korolev, Leontiy V., Latif, Saira N., Lydon-Lam, Bobby Y., McBride, Kalli Dee, Nekoomaram, Javeneh, Sledd, Samantha K., Smerbeck, James R., & Tao, John L. "The United States of America: Juvenile Life without Parole." United Nations Human Rights Council, Vol. 9, 1 -- 6., 2010.

de la Vega, Connie, & Leighton, Michelle. "Sentencing Our Children to Die in Prison: Global Law and Practice." University of San Francisco Law Review, Vol. 42, 983 -- 1044, 2008.

Hechinger, Scott R. "Juvenile Life Without Parole: An Antidote to Congress's One-Way Criminal Law Ratchet?" N.Y.U. Review of Law and Social Change, Vol. 35, No. 408, 409 -- 496, 2011.
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Interorganizational Goal Conflict Can Arise

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92770249

This creates intra-departmental conflict situations between law enforcement, correctional departments, and parole boards. While law enforcement convicts an increasing number of criminals, space in prisons is running out, while parole boards are unable to deliver a high enough turn-around of convicts that are released back into society. The strain place upon individuals may result in an inability to find targeted solutions to existing problems, and instead interdepartmental hostility may result. This in turn creates a perpetuation of rather than a solution to the problem. In order to find targeted solutions, the focus needs to move away from the immediate logistical and financial problems experienced towards a solution-oriented focus on the primary goal.

A first step towards finding solutions within the current situation is to accept the limitations and realities faced by the various institutions. Interdepartmental meetings can then be held to determine the steps necessary to mitigate these problems. The…… [Read More]

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Felons and the Community Analysis

Words: 2941 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70941405

, et al., 2012).

Systems approaches look towards the functional integration of different stakeholders and their goals towards a specific issue or path. What implications might a proposed solution have and to what groups? What is the functional relationship between groups of stakeholders and how can that be maximized. For returning felons, this approach looks at ways to construct programs that are utilitarian in context (the greatest good for the greatest number) (Teaskey, 1976).

Ecological PA supports a more holistic viewpoint and focuses on the nature of the internal and external environments. In other words, PA must interact with the political executive, social political interest groups, commercial and economic organizations, and the citizenry. This approach takes the approach that solutions may only be found by looking at the issue as a sub-set of a larger set of societal issues. Ecological PA cannot solve the incarceration problem, but can look toward…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Project Return - Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009, April). Retrieved from projectreturn.com: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Public Administration. (2012, July 31). Retrieved from publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com:  http://publicadministrationtheone.blogspot.com/2012/07/organisations-theories-systems.html 

Beck, a., & Shipley, B. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Benincasa, R. (2012, May 29). 6 Leadership Styles and When You Should Use Them. Retrieved from Fast Company:  http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
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Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20025092

Criminal Justice

Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice

Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).

Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.

Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
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Personal Thought on Three Articles

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24938781

Juveniles Facing Lifelong Terms Despite Rulings

It is unfair to deny juveniles a chance at redemption. This message has been clearly echoed in the article, and a case has been offered of Shimeek Gridine who was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to 70 years in jail without parole. Shimeek was only 14 when he was convicted, and the sentence given will mean that he might never see the outside of jail in his lifetime. Handing juveniles long sentences is equivalent to sentencing to them life, and this has been curtailed by the Supreme Court. However, judges have skirted the law, and instead of offering life sentences, they are now offering long sentences without a chance of parole, which in a real sense is similar to a life sentence. This is quite unfair to juveniles because it denies them the opportunity to reform and lead normal lives after serving their…… [Read More]

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Task Force Creation

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97132609

Terrorist Profiling

Task force case study: Creating a new parole policy to reduce crime and expenditures on crime

Other than her immediate advisors or cabinet members, who should the governor seek for advice on the plan?

The two major areas of controversy that are likely to arise regarding the Utopian governor's plan are how the plan deals with community safety and the need to balance the rights of currently and formerly incarcerated prisoners with the rights of victims. Members of the state police and corrections divisions who have considerable experience in dealing with reintegrating offenders into the community should provide input into how they think the plan will impact and change the current levels of violence and recidivism within the state and within the prison population. Equally critical, however, is to solicit the viewpoints of local advocates in crime-ridden communities to discuss how the policies being developed will affect residents.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Community Corrections." (2008). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp

Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Classical Criminology." Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-criminologyclassical.html
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Organizational and Admin Strategies in Criminal Justice

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66930850

Organizational Structure

The debate regarding which form of protocol is more appropriate, custodial vs. treatment, is indeed one of the more controversial subjects in criminal justice today. Custodial treatment refers to the act of putting the convicted criminal in an institution of some sort, such as a jail or prison (hence the term, "custody"). Those who are in favor of this option stress the pros of this type of method, stressing that it is one of society's oldest forms of punishment: "When someone is sentenced to jail or prison, that individual is physically separated from society (the modern version of banishment- society's first form of punishment. In doing so, the person is quite literally deterred from committing any further crimes against the general public because (due to their incarceration) they simply no longer have physical access to the community" (Bayley, 2009). Bayley stresses one of the obvious advantages of custodial…… [Read More]

References

Bayley, B. (2009, July 1). Custody Vs. Treatment Debate: Deterrence -- The Two Great Lies.

Retrieved 8, 2012, June, from Correctionsone.com: http://www.correctionsone.com/corrections- training/articles/1851841-Custody-Vs- Treatment-Debate-Deterrence-The-Two-Great-Lies/

Doj.wisconsin.gov. (n.d.). What Is the Difference between Probation and Parole? Retrieved June 8, 2012, from Wisconsin Department of Justice: http://www.doj.wisconsin.gov/dles/cibmanuals/files/TIME/HTML/whatisthedifferencebe tweenprobationandparole.htm

Opm.gov. (n.d.). Position Classification Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2012, from U.S. Office of Personnel Management: http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gs0007.pdf
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Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
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Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28372795

Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.

Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human

Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
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Intermediate Sanctions Over the Last Decade There

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63236093

intermediate sanctions?

Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).

Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?

The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]

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Re-Entry of Prisoners Back Into the Community

Words: 2356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58481808

Offenders

Rehabilitation vs. punishment

Changing philosophy

Sentencing

Creation of mandatory sentencing

Punishment vs. rehabilitation as a goal

High rates of recidivism

Alternative sentencing methods

Increasing size of the prison population

F. Elimination of parole

G. Failure to monitor released felons

Release

Prisoners released all the time

Failure to prepare those prisoners for outside world

Programs showing success

Texas

Chicago

Need for similar programs

A movie made in 1939 entitled They All Come Out makes the point that all prisoners are released one way or another, with most returning to the community (while a comparative few die in prison). The point of the film was that provision must be made for the re-entry of prisoners into the community, a point that seems to have been lost in the intervening years as politicians increase punishments as if longer sentences would solve all problems, while the re-entry of prisoners to society takes a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bessette, Joseph M. "In Pursuit of Criminal Justice." The Public Interest (October 15, 1997).

Conaboy, Richard P. "The United States Sentencing Commission: A New Component in the Federal Criminal Justice System." Federal Probation (March 1, 1997).

Davis, Danny K. "Living with an 'X' on Your Back: Released and No Place to Go." Corrections Today, Volume 65(5)(August 2003). October 28, 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& d=5007703411.

Kopel, David B. "Sentencing Policies Endanger Public Safety." USA Today Magazine (November 1, 1995).
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Death Penalty Is One of

Words: 1381 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70033297

Additionally, although Uniform Crime eports states that women are responsible for approximately 15% of all criminal homicides, the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that they only comprise 1% of all death row inmates. According to the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty, more than 33% of these women were sentenced to death for killing their abusers. Equally disturbing is the fact that, according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, only 10% of those convicted in capital cases were could afford to hire their own attorneys. Because of the disparities with which the death penalty is applied, the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association, in a vote of 280 to 117, issued a request for a suspension on all executions because they believed the system in place was "a haphazard maze of unfair practices" (The New York Times, 1997, A 20).

Perhaps the most popular argument…… [Read More]

References

Bailey and Peterson, "Police killings and Capital Punishment: The post-Fuman period.

Criminology 25 (1987): 1-25.

"Bar Association Leaders Urge Moratorium on Death Penalty," The New York Times, February

4, 1997, 20.
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Criminal Justice Ethics in Criminal

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942770

Of course, other significant capacities and abilities, including emotion directive skills and compassion toward oneself and other people are also essential to conquer routine patterns developed to handle with unwanted experiences and emotions (Hopper, 2011).

Being aware of one's surroundings not only physical but emotional as well can help a person to live a very healthy life. It is important in one's personal life to be mindful of their physical surroundings so that they can protect themselves from harm. If one just goes around unaware of what is going on around them they will for sure end up in a situation that is not where they want to be. It is also important to be mindful of one's emotional surroundings so that one does not become out of touch with reality and thus find themselves in situations that they don't belong.

In one's professional life it is also important to…… [Read More]

References

Hopper, Jim. (2011). Mindfulness and Kindness Inner Sources of Freedom and Happiness.

Retrieved from  http://www.jimhopper.com/mindfulness/#whatis 

What is the privatization of probation and parole services? (2010). Retrieved from http://methdrugaddiction.com/101539/what-is-the-privatization-of-probation-and-parole-services/
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Human Service Professional in the Helping Process

Words: 1134 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15444137

human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.

Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th

Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).

Cengage Learning.
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Son of Sam The Writer

Words: 1686 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62483115



David was classified by the defense psychiatrists as a paranoid schizophrenic (The Letter (http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/letter_1.html)."

When he was on his killing spree the NYC police department put together a special unit called the Omega Group for the express purpose of locating the killer and bringing him to justice.

It consisted of 300 officers and would encompass the questioning of over 3,000 suspects. It handled 215 calls a day, and include an attempt to check each of the 28,000.44 caliber Bulldog revolvers manufactured in the United States (Omega Group (http://www.spartechsoftware.com/dimensions/crime/SonOfSam.htm)."

Once he was caught and sentenced he spent the first 10 years in prison angry and fighting but in 1989 Berkowitz says he was touched by God and since that time has lived his life as a model prisoner for Jesus Christ.

At his recent parole hearing in 2002 he sent a letter to the Governor of the state letting him know…… [Read More]

References

The Letter http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/letter_1.html

David Berkowitz http://www.freeinfosociety.com/site.php?postnum=58

Omega Group

 http://www.spartechsoftware.com/dimensions/crime/SonOfSam.htm
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Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Question

Words: 3099 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52728944

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners

ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION

On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).

The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from:  http://www.marketingresearch.org/ 

National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
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Halfway House Programs Community Resistance and Possible

Words: 1055 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77511519

Halfway House Programs: Community esistance and Possible Solutions

Halfway houses are Community-Based esidential Facilities or Community esidential Centers. Additionally, volunteers or correctional officer's head this halfway house programs in a community-based setting. Halfway house programs provide an important role between institutional care and the community (Sechrest, 1991). This is because they offer rehabilitative and residential services to the designated community. In addition, they provide a chance for exceptional and creative programming aimed at solving the needs of the community and its residents at large.

In addition, the use of these programs is not a new idea because most of the offenders under observation, they are supervised in the community. Some of the offenders who receive community supervision include offenders under probation, those who receive a conditional sentence, and people who are gradually in the process of release into the community through a parole or a statutory release (Lindsay, 1991). It…… [Read More]

References

ICCA. (2010). Siting Community Corrections Facilities. ICCA. Retrieved 29 September, 2013

from http://iccalive.org/icca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95&Itemid=554

Krause, J.D. (n.d) Community opposition to correctional facility siting: Beyond the "NIMBY"

explanation. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 17(1&2), 239-262.
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Managing Psychopathy in the Society

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54033918

Psychopathy

A Case Study Involving an Individual Purported to be Psychopathic

Summary of the case

The article presents an analysis of a case involving a veteran Illinois police officer, Drew Peterson, who was arrested for murdering his third wife. Drew is suspected to have murdered his other two wives due to the influence of psychopathy. The victim of focus in the analysis shows significant symptoms that might be suggestive of psychopathy. For example, he casted publicly that his prosecution is a waste of valuable time, as he holds that he will be eventually released by the criminal justice system. In addition, analysis of his behavior shows that he has aggressive and violent behaviors as those shown by individuals suffering from psychopathy. As such, some critics of the case hold that Peterson is a perfect example of a psychopath while other considers him as a bright individual with the abilities to…… [Read More]

References

Edens, J.F., Skeem, J.L., Kennealy, P.J., & Douglas, K.S. (2009).The psychopathy checklist in the courtroom: Consensus and controversies. New York, NY, U.S.: Guilford Press, New

York, NY

Gendreau, P., Goggin, C., & Smith, P. (2002). Is the PCL-R really the "unparalleled" measure of offender risk? A lesson in knowledge cumulation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29 (4),

397-426
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careers in criminal justice and prospects

Words: 1517 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35587176

A cursory glance at job market statistics offers a grim picture, leading many to pessimistic conclusions. The United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics points out that increasing numbers of young people are graduating from college and entering the job market now, leading to increased competition in many job sectors (1). Likewise, rates of unemployment have been at near-record lows, especially for young men (United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). Baeurlein also points out the problem that many college students have with debt accumulation from student loans, making it difficult for them to get a foothold on their careers. Yet not all graduates are doomed to flounder in the labor market. I am pursuing a career in adult probation and parole. On reason why I am optimistic about my future prospects is that working in corrections is a public service sector job that does…… [Read More]

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Prison Reform the United States

Words: 3176 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7254901

The average felony sentence imposed upon federal and state offenders in 1996 was 62 months, or just over 5 years. On average these prisoners actually serve 45% of a state sentence for a mean prison stint of 2 years and 4 months, and 85% of a federal sentence for a stint of 4 years and 5 months. Once they are released, the recidivism rates are high. According to Lin (2000), "incarceration, as it stands, does not prevent recidivism" (p. 4). In addition, even if the released prisoners do not commit another crime, it does not mean that they become self-supporting and contribute to their community as much as possible.

.Lin (2000) argues that it is not clear that prisons, as institutions, have the capacity to provide the type of environment required for preparation of returning to the outside world. Prisons are not presently designed to be schools or factories, most…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010) Is Mass Incarceration the New Jim Crow? NY: New Press

Durham, a.M. (1994) Crisis and reform: current issues in American punishment. Canada: Little Brown and Co.

Johnson, R. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison

Katz, L., Levitt, S.D., & Shustorovich, E. (2003) Prison conditions, capital punishment and deterrence. American Law and Economics Review, 5(2):318-343,
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
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Court Proceeding Experience

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70964254

Murder Trial of Nicholas Lindsey, March 2012

Factual and Procedural Background

On the evening of February 21, 2011, Police Officer David Crawford of the St. Petersburg, Florida police department was fatally shot while investigating a report of a suspicious person or prowler in a residential neighborhood. After a 24-hour search expedition, police arrested and booked 16-year-old Nicolas Lindsey on charges of first-degree murder. Lindsey confessed to the killing in a taped statement to police shortly thereafter.[footnoteRef:-1] [-1: http://articles.cnn.com/2011-02-23/justice/florida.officer.shot_1_police-officer-fatal-shooting-petersburg-police-maj?_s=PM:CRIME]

Lindsey was arraigned in court the next day, and the judge ordered that he be held in custody without bail. A grand jury which convened the following week indicted Lindsey on first-degree murder of a police officer, whereupon the state Attorney General charged Lindsey as an adult based on the seriousness of the offense and that he was over age 14.

Jury selection began on March 19, 2012 and the jury heard…… [Read More]

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HRM Criminal Justice America's Correctional

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65289530

The result is that employees at all levels for their own protection as well as to create a system of mutial support among leaders and subordinates have begun to demand collaborative rights of communication and input on job design, and leadership practices. Empowerment of employees has long been shown to be a positive aspect of individual employee motivation as well as the desire to be a part of a team that works together to provide holistic knowledge of community problems and concerns and therefore contributes to solutions. (Sims, 2002, p. 18) being a member of the team that proposed a solution or the individual who had a good idea that will potentially solve a problem is empowering and motivational and will likely increase retention and decrease problematic communication, such as collusion, a phenomena that occurs when individuals do not feel that the top down system is effective in resolving problems…… [Read More]

References

Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press.

Gottfredson, S.D. & McConville, S. (Eds.). (1987). America's Correctional Crisis: Prison Populations and Public Policy. New York: Greenwood Press.

Sims, R.R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Stanley, D.T. (1976). The Problem of Parole. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
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Crime Victims Have Begun to

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62273380

Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights

Source

Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…… [Read More]

Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190

Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,

The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32463
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Overcrowding in Prisons Impacts on African-Americans the

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73301417

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans

The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.

Critical Analysis

hen overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,

IL: University of Illinois Press.

Harris, Othello, and Miller, Robin R. (2003). Impacts of Incarceration on the African-American
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Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens the Nature

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80918699

Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens

he nature of police work must ensure that is as adaptable, sophisticated, networked, and transnational as the criminals and terrorists it fights. A modern approach to policing must contain elements of traditional, mainstream efforts to fight crime along with a set of tools for carrying out an effective community policing approach. his paper provides a brief discussion about what such a hybrid model looks like in practice and touches on elements of complexity of police work in an increasingly global arena.

Addressing Escalated hreat Levels.

Some dynamics of society seem inevitably linked, moving in tandem as though some invisible lynch-pin had been driven through their respective cores. Poverty and crime. Violence and counter-violence. Wealth and indifference. Frustration and destruction. Fanaticism and irrationality. Naturally, there are exceptions. Some Buddhists live in poverty but are peaceful and law-abiding. Where culture or religion calls for acceptance of one's…… [Read More]

There is an inherent tension between a retreat from the tenets of community policing and policing strategies intended to keep a safety buffer between the police and the community they serve and protect. The research includes work from authors who believe that a shift toward policing that could be characterized by paramilitarism occurred prior to September 11 (McCulloch, 2001a, Weber, 1999, p.2). Describing how community policing works in the Australian environment, McCulloch (2001b, p. 4) referred to an "iron fist" covered by a "velvet glove." Murray (2005) presented a comparison between the transitions that have occurred with regard to traditional policing and community policing. His work also includes a comparison of the cultures of both approaches to policing. Murray's conclusion is that the two orientations to policing are not incompatible; he proposes a hybrid model of policing that would enable both approaches to coexist.

Murray suggests that community policing continues to be the best way to prevent crime and to prevent acts of terrorism. He bases this conclusion on the enhanced capacity of a community to effectively communicate concerns and observations when there is a basic level of trust between citizens and the police in the community. The issue is that it is increasingly difficult to distinguish those with malevolent intent from those who must be protected from malevolence. When community members see themselves as partners in the efforts of the police to keep them safe in their own communities, the efficacy of community policing is both possible and enhanced.

The pressure on a police force that currently operates in a community policing mode to transition back to a traditional policing model is substantive. This pressure comes from the citizens -- who desire to see evidence that the country is taking effective steps to fight the war on terror, and from politicians for whom crime fighting and homeland security issues are "election sensitive." Paramilitary approaches to national security can readily be seen in other countries, as discussed, and it may be difficult for the
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Capital Punishment in Texas Look

Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86600087



2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS

test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?

Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.

The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty:  http://off2dr.com/modules/cjaycontent/index.php?id=21 

Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/stat/executedoffenders.htm

(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)

(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)
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Human Behavior and Social Environment

Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50352127

eve of MLK Day, Michelle Alexander and Randall Robinson on the Mass Incarceration of Black Americans (13th January, 2012).

The show is a discussion between Tran Africa founder Randall Robinson and author Michelle Alexander about the disproportionate number of African-Americans that are represented in American correctional facilities that include prisons, jails, or that are on probation, or on parole. According to both founder and author, there are more African-Americans currently incarcerated in the American system than were enslaved in 1850 and more Americans disenfranchised now than they were with the Jim Crow laws in 1870. Both presenters call for a greater emphasis on providing African-Americans with dignity, education, and jobs rather than casting them into jail.

Rationale

The topic, presented on Martin Luther King Day, is of concern to Americans interested in social justice, since the jail system does show disproportionate statistics of incarcerated minorities to White and most of…… [Read More]

Nagin, D. & Pogarsky, G. (2001) Integrating celerity, impulsivity, and extralegal sanction threats into a model of general deterrence. Criminology, 39 (4).

Robinson, R. & Alexander, M. (13th January, 2012). "On eve of MLK Day, Michelle Alexander and Randall Robinson on the Mass Incarceration of Black Americans"

www.democracynow.org
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Future of Corrections According to

Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5415202

According to the Correctional Programs Division for the state of Nevada, another program sponsored by the NDOC is Casa Grande, a re-entry transition center opening in December 2005 and "will house up to 400 non-violent offenders in a dorm-like setting, during their last four to six months of incarceration. This will enable them to live in the community, obtain employment and receive family counseling."

There are programs called "street readiness" which teaches life-skills such as time and money management, parole requirements and job seeking skills. For the inmates who are ordered to pay restitution, the inmates should have a program to help with the opportunity to work in the community during their last few months of incarceration and earn money to pay back their victims.

orks Cited

The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php

ilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php

Wilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The Agenda for the 21st Century, December, 1997.
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Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia Otherwise Known as

Words: 1997 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38325739

Euthanasia Is Illegal

Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117

Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.

Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.

Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
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Statutes of Fraud and Statute

Words: 2186 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39325214



Statute of Limitations for Fraud

This refers to the maximum time legal action may be brought against someone for the commission of a fraud.

This Statute depends on the jurisdiction. Most federal crimes in general have up to 5 years to prosecute. Capital offenses, however, have no Statutes of limitation. Federal frauds carry 10 years Statutes of limitation. These include frauds committed against banks and financial institutions and involving passports or citizenship. Major frauds in the U.S. carry a seven-year limit. Tax frauds have a 6-year limit.

Legal action is usually begun upon the commission or discovery of the fraud.

Alaska, Kentucky and Missouri observe a 10-year limit for fraud. Limit for Alabama is only 2 years and Louisiana, only 1 year after the commission of the fraud.

Like murder and other crimes, fraud can overwhelm a victim's whole life.

Fraud is thus governed by this Statute of Limitations.

The…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

3 Taylor Klett, the Statute of Frauds, Chapter 15 (Sam Houston State University, 2006)

Uniform Commercial Code, Article 2 2-201 LII (2004)

Maurice Sellbinder, Criminal Fraud and Statute of Limitations (2013),

http://www.ehow.com/about_6597513_criminal-fraud-statute-limitations.html