1000+ documents containing “pay equity”.
As American business enters the 21st century the issue of unequal pay for equal work continues.
The course of attaining the objectives of just wages for all workers by eradicating the wage disparities between men and women workers is known as pay equity. It necessitates that the unequal jobs of comparatively same value to the employer is to be given the equal wages. Pay equity is considered to be a gender independent pay process that reduced wage inequity. (Policy Statement: Pay Equity) There exist considerable wage disparities between the employed men and women of America. Taking into consideration the educational and political progress of women the advocacy of the women to be in focus by a sexist society into the dominating female occupations seems to be absurd. Irrespective of the fact that more and more female are entering the top executive ranks in America they are to confront a considerable….
"About NOW" Retrieved from http://www.now.org/organization/info.html Accessed on 26 February, 2005
"Advocating for the economic security of women and families through policies, programs and partnerships" Retrieved from http://www.womenwork.org / Accessed on 26 February, 2005
Beaton, Lynn. (1982) "The importance of women's paid labor Women at work in World War II" Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/beaton/world-war-two.htm Accessed on 26 February, 2005
Edmonds, Patricia. (June 30, 1999) "The Wage Gap: Pay Equity Debate Creates Huge Political Divide" Retrieved from http://www.fact.on.ca/newpaper/wm990630.htm Accessed on 26 February, 2005
1001 EH Tutorial Exercise
Week No & Date:
Corrections/refinement during tutorial discussion - feedback
(Done in class)
What explanations are given by this alliance to account for the gender-wage gap? What evidence is used to support this? Is it convincing? Why or why not? You might also like to look at the submissions made to Fair Work as part of the equal remuneration case. Submissions were also made by employers and employer associations http://www.fwa.gov.au/index.cfm?pagename=remuneration&page=introduction
Gender pay gap, a concept which denotes the difference that exists between the male and female earnings when expressed as a percentage of the male earnings (OECD,2011) has presented a serious problem within the Australian employment sector. The explanations that are given by the alliance to account for the gender-wage gap are numerous. In this section, we explore these reasons, the evidence used in supporting the cases as well as whether these evidences are convincing or not.
The first reason that….
Clare, R (2007)'Are retirement savings on track?' (The Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia Limited 2007).
Kelly, S (2006)'Entering Retirement: the Financial Aspects' (Paper presented at the Communicating the Gendered Impact of Economic Policies: The Case of Women's Retirement Incomes, Perth, 12-13 December 2006).
KPMG (2009). Understanding the Economic Implications of the gender Pay gap in Australia. Available online at http://www.eowa.gov.au/Pay_Equity/Pay_Equity_Information/Gender%20Pay%20Equity%20Gap%20Report%20KPMG%20DCA%20Nov%202009.pdf Accessed on 24th April,2012
OECD (2011).LMF1.5: Gender pay gaps for full-time workers and earnings differentials by educational attainment . Available online at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/63/38752746.pdf Accessed on 24th April,2012
Zippittelli v. J.C. Penney Company Case Study
The case of Zippittelli v. J.C. Penney Company stems from a hiring dispute between the plaintiff, Joanne Zippittelli, and her employer, J.C. Penney Company. In the summer of 2004 the plaintiff worked for the defendant as a general lead clerk in the Call Service Center, and after being informed by her boss that the position of shift operations manager had become available, the plaintiff elected to apply. As one of four women applying for the promotion, each of whom held the same job title at the time, the plaintiff expected her application to be given an equal level of appraisal as her peers during the hiring process conducted by Personnel Manager James Johnson. Instead, according to the plaintiffs allegations before the United States District Court, although the plaintiff passed the interview phase of the hiring process along with two other applicants, her candidacy….
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 (Pub. L. 90-202)
EEOC Guidance on After-Acquired Evidence, No. 195,002 (Dec. 14, 1995).
Munley, J. (2007). Pay equity; age discrimination. In D. Tworney (Ed.), Labor and Employment Law (15th ed.). New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
The other reason for higher salary is based on the performance of the employees. If the employee generates more revenue, they may be given higher compensation as a reward which will also act as an incentive for future improved performance. This is usually the case for sales department whereby the pay can be based on commission. Basing on the red-circling, higher compensation can be given to the employee i.e. specific reasons such as disability are attributed for the higher salaries. In this case the employee can be performing work which requires low pay since the higher paid work cannot be performed by the employee (Pay Equity Commission).
A merit system can be used to incorporate the productivity as a measure for pay increase. The employees who exhibit exceptional performance are rewarded. To ensure validity of this program, criteria with predetermined objectives like accuracy, efficiency and ability is used to evaluate….
Garvey, Charlotte. 2005. Philosophizing Compensation. HR Magazine, January.
Nwachukwu, Saviour. 1996. Perception of Equity in Compensation Practices: A Research Note.
Equal Opportunities International 15: 36 -- 45.
Pay Equity Commission. Guideline No. 2: Permissible Differences in Compensation. Pay Equity
From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.
In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory principles….
Adams, J.S., Berkowitz, L., 1976, Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction, Academic Press
Berman, E.M., Bowman, J.S., West, P., Van Mart, M., Human resources management in public service -- paradoxes, processes and problems, 2nd edition
Mann, G.A., 2006, a motive to serve: public service motivation in human resource management and the role of PSM in the non-profit sector, Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/160542365_2.html last accessed on November 9, 2010
2009, the end of pay equity for women in the federal public service, Public Service Alliance of Canada, http://psac.com/news/2009/issues/200902pseact-e.shtml last accessed on November 9, 2010
Equity, Diversity, And Accountability
One of the biggest problems facing the American educational system is equity in regards to the diverse student body, and how public schools should be made accountable for providing a quality education to all students. Bensimon, Polkinghorne, and Bauman's article "The Accountability Side of Diversity" examines the relevance and effectiveness of an accountability system that is designed to measure schools' response to diversity. The hypothesis is that such an accountability system, while difficult to design and implement, would promote equitable education for American students. This research and the article based on it are optimistic, encouraging, and should help American educational institutions pay greater attention to their treatment of minority students.
This article in large part describes the "Diversity Scorecard," a project of educational accountability experimented on several Los Angeles-area colleges. As the authors state, the Diversity Scorecard was designed not to promote diversity -- for these schools' student….
The people who opt for early retirement stop staring contribution to pension system where as they start getting the benefits of pension system. (Prieto, 1997)
The traditional unfunded social security system is facing lot of problems in the United States and other developing countries with the increasing life expectancy of the people. The cost of providing any level of service is directly linked to the percentage of people who are employed against people who have already retired and enjoying pension in a pay-as-you-go system. The problem is continuing and increasing with people's move towards early retirement which is encouraged in many countries social security system. Even in the event of retirement being stabilized, the steep increase in the ratio of the aged against that of working age is contributing to the substantial raise in the cost of pay-as-you-go system. The United States estimators, who work for social security system, forecast….
Aronson, Jay Richard; Hilley, John L; Maxwell, James Ackley. (1986) "Financing State and Local Governments" Brookings Institution Press.
Brainard, William C; Perry, George L. (1990) "Brookings Papers on Economic Activity:
Macroeconomics" Brookings Institution Press.
Campbell, John Y; Feldstein, Martin S. (2001) "Risk Aspects of Investment-Based Social
Equity in Human esource and Management
For a Human esource Department to be successful at what it does, there is a need for the management to put in place policies, regarding rewards system, motivation, job design and equity. Job design, motivation and rewards systems are geared towards increasing the productivity of the employees at the workplace. The objective of having equity in the workplace is to make sure that there is a balance between what workers put in and the wages they get out of their efforts. Equity is also about making sure that if there are conflicts, they are resolved in a fair and just manner. It is obvious that conflicts occur frequently in the workplace. Therefore, there has to be someone who is neutral and can take care of the interests of both sides. This role falls squarely on the shoulders of the guys in charge of Human esources….
Adams, J.S. (1965) "Inequity in Social Exchange." In L. Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press, Iss.2 p. 267-299.
Harvey, C. P. and Allard, M. J. (2012). Understanding and Managing Diversity (5th Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. pp. xii -- 393.
Hatfield, E., Salmon, M., and Rapson, R. L. (2011). Equity theory and social justice. Journal of Management, Spirituality, and Religion, 8, 101-121.
Judy, R.W. and D'Amico, C. (1987). Workforce 2000 -- Work and Workers for the 21st Century, Hudson Institute.
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.
Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).
Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed by….
Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car, http://www.classicandperformancecar.com/news/octanenews/233620/ron_dennis.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian
Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated
2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/5/6178.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Pay Pal suffered a number of setbacks and challenges in bringing its IPO to market. The company was attempting to go public after the dot-com bubble had been burst, during a time when the IPO market for tech stocks -- especially those that were not turning a profit -- was terrible. The debut was delayed at the last minute due to a legal challenge from a company known as CertCo, which filed a patent infringement suit. The company had received notice from the state of Louisiana saying that it would not be allowed to do business there until it received a money transmission license (Glasner, 2002). This was seen as a sign that similar challenges could impede its ability to do business in any number of jurisdictions.
The IPO was planned with a proposed sale of 5.4 million shares at a price between $12-14, to raise in the neighborhood of $76….
Friedman, J. (2002). PayPal jumps 55% on stock offering. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://articles.latimes.com/2002/feb/16/business/fi-paypal16
Glasner, J. (2002). PayPal: IPO omen or anomaly? Wired. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2002/02/50461
Patsuris, P. (2002). PayPal's IPO delayed. Forbes. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.forbes.com/2002/02/07/0207paypal.html
Wolveton, T. & Kane, M. (2002). PayPal delays IPO. CNet. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://news.cnet.com/PayPal-delays-IPO/2100-1017_3-830235.html
human resources. One is determining the levels of pay and benefits within the organization. Most companies are smart enough to understand the value of internal equity, since employees talk to each other, and it is difficult to discriminate internally in terms to pay, by law. Internal equity is practiced most strongly at companies that have strict policies with respect to pay scales. These are typically based on a combination of hierarchy, experience and ability. In some circles, the concept of internal pay equity specifically applies to all levels of the organization, from the CEO on down. A good example of a company that practices strong internal pay equity is Costco. Former CEO Jim Sinegal famously only made $200,000 per year and the new CEO makes less than a million, offering what is at least pay equity for a company in the United States.
Internal pay equity is important because it….
Aggarwal, R. & Samwick, A. (1999). Executive compensation, strategic competition, and relative performance evaluation: Theory and evidence. The Journal of Finance. Vol. 54 (6) 1999-2043.
Executive Press. (2014). Internal pay equity methodologies. Compensation Standards.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014 from http://www.compensationstandards.com/nonmember/files/IntPay.htm
Martocchio, J.J. (2009). Strategic compensation: A human resource management approach (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Equal Pay Act: Difficult but Essential to Enforce
According to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, women made about 80% of what men of the same race performing the same jobs did. Historical data from the BLS (and this is consistent with other sources) demonstrate that things have improved little in terms of pay equity for women over the past half century or so (Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost ). This is true despite the fact that in 1963, the Pay Equity Act became federal law in 1963. It is nearly impossible not to consider this law a failure in its effects given that so little has changed. (One might argue that things might have gotten worse for women absent this law, but this argument seems at least primarily specious.)
Congress enacted the law, which amended the Fair Labor Standards Act, for a number of reasons, including the fact….
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that the….
Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity
Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html .
Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.
Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). ecause the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).
Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).
According to Social Networks. - Connections in a….
Several justifications for the continuous disparity in wages have been explained. It is obvious that women usually receive less and the central issue is to find out the cause. Men have attempted since decades to provide a justification by the help of hypothesis of various academic qualifications achieved by men or the various occupational responsibilities or vocations controlled by women as against those controlled by men. One reason is that women are featured in the remuneration gap equation, and a lot of these women belonging to a bygone period that continue to be dependent on the behavior and circumstances prevailing in the yester years. (Nash, 68)
Adversaries of uniformity in remuneration assert that preferences and not inequity is responsible for the disparity in the remuneration gap. People who are not in support of bridging the gap in remuneration between men and women think that the gap is present due to….
Acker, Joan. Doing Comparable Work: Gender, Class and Pay Equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Amott, Teresa. Caught in the Crisis: Women and the U.S. Economy Today. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.
Bellas, M.L. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Salaries: Does Gender Bias Play a Role? Journal of Higher Education. Volume: 68; No: 3; 1997; pp: 299-321
Furchtgott-Roth, Diana; Stolba, Christine. Equal Pay for Equal Work. American enterprise. Volume: 12; No: 1; July 1999; pp: 37-42
Sports - Women
Pay Equity As American business enters the 21st century the issue of unequal pay for equal work continues. The course of attaining the objectives of just wages for all workers by…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Pay Equity 1001 EH Tutorial Exercise Week No & Date: Corrections/refinement during tutorial discussion - feedback (Done in class) What explanations are given by this alliance to account for the gender-wage gap? What evidence…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Zippittelli v. J.C. Penney Company Case Study Case Summary The case of Zippittelli v. J.C. Penney Company stems from a hiring dispute between the plaintiff, Joanne Zippittelli, and her employer, J.C.…Read Full Paper ❯
The other reason for higher salary is based on the performance of the employees. If the employee generates more revenue, they may be given higher compensation as a…Read Full Paper ❯
From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better…Read Full Paper ❯
Equity, Diversity, And Accountability One of the biggest problems facing the American educational system is equity in regards to the diverse student body, and how public schools should be made…Read Full Paper ❯
The people who opt for early retirement stop staring contribution to pension system where as they start getting the benefits of pension system. (Prieto, 1997) The traditional unfunded social…Read Full Paper ❯
Equity in Human esource and Management For a Human esource Department to be successful at what it does, there is a need for the management to put in place policies,…Read Full Paper ❯
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School…Read Full Paper ❯
Pay Pal suffered a number of setbacks and challenges in bringing its IPO to market. The company was attempting to go public after the dot-com bubble had been burst,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
human resources. One is determining the levels of pay and benefits within the organization. Most companies are smart enough to understand the value of internal equity, since employees…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Equal Pay Act: Difficult but Essential to Enforce According to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, women made about 80% of what men of the same race…Read Full Paper ❯
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read…Read Full Paper ❯
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Several justifications for the continuous disparity in wages have been explained. It is obvious that women usually receive less and the central issue is to find out the…Read Full Paper ❯