147+ documents containing “peacekeeping”.
Still, the relationship with Russia also bears importance. After the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. back in 1991, the post communist policy regarding the former soviet satellite countries had set in motion the Community of Independent States, as a mechanism for maintaining political, economic and trade relations between the countries of the demised Union. Such an influence is still felt today, at the regional level, Russia acting from a dominant position. Furthermore, the leverage given by the supremacy of the Russian oil has preserved its status of a major player, both in regional affairs and at a global level. Its implications in domestic affairs of the former soviet states have been proven on numerous occasions, especially in the Azeri political life, as proven in the last parliamentary elections, when the Russian monitoring team was the ones praising the "democratic" nature of the elections, despite the general international condemnation of the….
Areshev, Andrei. "The OSCE Minsk Group as a Tool to Promote U.S. Interests in the Caucasus" Global Research, 2007. 5 August 2008. http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=6429
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.
Caucasian Knot. "OSCE Mission in Georgia brings up question of freedom of media and movement in South Osetia" News. 2004, 5 August 2008. http://eng.kavkaz-uzel.ru/newstext/engnews/id/678518.html
Flash Points. Nagorno-Karabakh. N.d. 5 August 2008. http://www.flashpoints.info/countries-conflicts/Nagorno-Karabakh-web/Nagorno-Karabakh_briefing.html
Peacekeeping: Strategies and Organizational Techniques
Peacekeeping is indeed a nuanced and complex process, one which is characterized by intensive strategy and concerted navigation in the murky path from conflict to peace. One of the most powerful entities in the world which specializes in peacekeeping is the United Nations and has proven to the global community that peacekeeping has a range of strengths and advantages "including legitimacy, burden sharing, and an ability to deploy and sustain troops and police from around the globe, integrating them with civilian peacekeepers to advance multidimensional mandates" (un.org). Some of the most intensive peacekeeping efforts are the ones which are marked by political and peacebuilding support, allowing nations to make a smooth transition from conflict to peace. While UN peacekeeping is marked by things like consent, impartiality, and non-use of force aside from self-defense, this paper is going to look at how four basic concepts guide the….
Af.mil. (2013). 502nd ABW transforms organizational structure to streamline support functions. Retrieved from af.mil: http://www.aetc.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123373493
Ilo.org. (2014). Developing self-reliance -- Building hope: The ILO Employment for Peace Programme in Somalia. Retrieved from ilo.org: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/features/WCMS_154169/lang -- en/index.htm
Thakur, R.C. (2001). United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. New York: UN Press
Un.org. (2014). What is peacekeeping? Retrieved from un.org:
Has the UN succeeded, or is it likely to succeed, in maintaining international peace and security in Africa, the most disadvantaged region of the world?
In 1945 the United Nations (UN) came into existence as an international organization who replaced the League of Nations which was blamed for being unable to intervene in World War II. The UN was established to promote international security among many other goals that are closely related such as social and economic progress and the promotion of human rights. However, despite the ideals and principles the UN has been established upon, translating these objectives in a tactical manner has proven to be difficult on many occasions. In regards to their peacekeeping missions, the UN has had much difficulty in Africa and their efforts on the content have been subject to much criticism. This analysis will provide a background on some of the conflicts and interventions….
Baldauf, S. (2009, April 7). Why the U.S. didn't intervene in the Rwandan genocide. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2009/0407/p06s14-woaf.html
BBC News. (2014, April 9). Darfur violence: UN troops 'failed to stop attacks'. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26962187
BBC News. (2014, April 7). Rwanda genocide: UN ashamed, says Ban Ki-moon. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26917419
Bekoe, D., & Parajon, C. (2007, July 1). Developing and Managing Congo's Natural Resources. Retrieved from United States Institute of Peace: http://www.usip.org/publications/developing-and-managing-congo-s-natural-resources
The observer group functioning was assumed during the post war periods of 1956, 1967 and 1973. It saw the institution of the first armed UN force to generate a stock between Israeli and Egyptian forces in the Sinai. Ten nations shared soldiers. Another force was instituted after the war between Egypt and Israel in 1967 to watch the peace agreement between the groups. This occurred during a period of high tension both locally and between the great powers. In 1974, a smaller UN force was instituted on the Golan Heights to maintain the boundary line between Syria and Israeli forces. The most widespread UN operation in the Middle East is perceived by the constitution of UNIFIL following the Israel invasion of the Lebanon in 1978. Its activity incorporated watching over the Israeli withdrawal, maintaining conditions of peace and security and assisting the Lebanese government re-establish its authority. (United Nations….
Jordan, Michael J. Sex Charges Haunt UN Forces. Christian Science Monitor.
November 26, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/peacekpg/general/2004/1126sexhaunt.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Ledgerwood, Judy. L. UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Lessons from Cambodia. Analysis from the East-West Center. No.11. March 1994. Retrieved at http://www.seasite.niu.edu/khmer/Ledgerwood/PDFAsiaPacific.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Madden, Jane. Namibia: A Lesson for Success, chapter in Building International Community, Kevin Clements and Robin Ward, eds. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1994. pp. 255- 260. Retrieved at http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/nami7319.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Thus, "by late 1992, the catastrophic situation in Somalia had outstripped the UN's ability to quickly restore peace and stability, mainly because the UN was hamstrung by insufficient forces and UN peacekeeping principles and methods could not cope with the need to use force in such complex situations. On 3 December 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 794 authorised a coalition of UN members led by the U.S. To form UNITAF and intervene to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance and restore peace." (ANZAC, 1)
Here is an interesting orientation which begins to the more clearly illustrated one of the core conflicts here discussed. In our research, we come repeatedly across evidence that the United Nations has essentially failed to ever achieve a real autonomy from the interests of its most powerful member states. Most specifically in this instance, as in a great many others which have persisted throughout the history….
Additionally, individual security has been extended to encompass a security which transcends physical or geographic borders. This notion of security is based upon the idea of a shared humanity, irrespective of country of origin or geographic location.
The development of UN peacekeeping forces is undeniably the most pronounced aspect of this desire to promote security on a global scale and United Nations Peacekeepers have been involved in a variety of situations since its establishment from Israel to Cyprus and Rwanda to East Timor. Peacekeeping is an important objective of the United Nations and peacekeeping operations exist throughout the world to protect human security and the lives of some of the most vulnerable people on the planet. While UN peacekeeping operations have at times been mired in controversy, this UN initiative exists to ensure a common standard of peace across the globe.
Accordingly, UN structures and practices have evolved over time to….
The Council supported Ban's suggestions to minimize the Mission's military force level by one company, or 140 troops while raising the police constituent with an additional formed police constituent of up to 140 officers for a net authorized force of 2091 police. The final objective is to shift responsibilities to Haitian counterparts and to help the National Police of Haiti involvement in usual law and order responsibilities. (Extending UN's Haiti mission, Security Council adjusts forces to reflect changes)
On the military camp, the rest 7060 armies will be configured again based on a latest threat assessment. Ban gave a warning in his report that there are chances of civil unrest in the continuance of an intense socio-economic divide. Apart from that, the capability for fresh clashes inside the nation remains a possibility. He warned while the illegal drug business persists to weakening impact on Haiti. In answer to that the….
Bohning, Don. Haiti: UN Mission Unable to Establish Order. Miami Herald, 26 May, 2005.
Deibert, Michael. Haiti: As Annan visits, UN Mission Seeks Reinforcements. 3 August, 2006.
Retrieved 8 November, 2007 at http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=34231
Fishel, John. T. Civil and Military Operations in the New World.
Unfortunately, the availability of combat power encourages people to try to solve a problem by using it.
Doctrinal training for soldiers emphasizes the aggressive, warrior image that is not normally compatible with peacekeeping. and, finally, the United States soldier is always regarded as primarily under control of Washington, even when supposedly under the command of another nation (the United States and Peacekeeping: Can it Work?).
Also, a U.S. military presence especially in Muslim countries, for instance, is a motivating factor for terrorists to launch attacks against the United States. in Laden's main reason for attacking America was the presence of the U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia. America needs to learn from this and not repeat the same experience in Afghanistan (Lindsay and Daalder).
And, finally, the military readiness issue has factored into this discussion about the U.S.
participating in multinational conflict management forces since the mid-1990s. Some in Congress and in the administrations….
19 March 2002. Washington Post. 2 April 2009 .
"Debate: U.N. Peacekeepers and the U.S.A." 22 October 2008. idebate.org. 2 April 2009 .
Holt, Victoria and Michael McKinnon. "The Origins and Evolutions of U.S. Policy Towards Peace Operations." 2008. Stimson.org. 2 April 2009 .
Lindsay, James M. And Ivo H. Daalder. "At Issue: Should U.S. Troops Participate in an International Peacekeeping Force in Afghanistan." 2004. Council on Foreign Relations. 2 April 2009 .
The task of stabilizing a collapsed Pakistan may well be beyond the means of the United States and its allies. Rule-of-thumb estimates suggest that a force of more than a million troops would be required for a country of this size. Thus, if we have any hope of success, we would have to act before a complete government collapse, and we would need the cooperation of moderate Pakistani forces (Kagan and O'Hanlon).
Despite significant U.S. aid provisions and a large Pakistani military presence in the tribal regions, Pakistan has not been successful in thwarting the resurgence of al Qaeda -- as well as the 30-40 terrorist groups following in its footsteps -- and the Taliban. There are many barriers to U.S. success, including the potential lack of resolve and capabilities on the part of the Pakistani government and military, as well as the prevailing anti-American sentiment in the region. Due to….
Constable, Pamela. "Extremist Tide Rises in Pakistan." 20 April 2009. The Washington Post. 20 April 2009 .
Frank Bolz, Kenneth J. Dudonis, David P. Schulz. The counterterrorism handbook: tactics, procedures, and techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2005.
Hartung, William. "Military Intervention in Pakistan?" 21 November 2007. Talking Points Memo. 18 April 2009 .
Hayden, Tom. "U.S. Military Escalation Gets Underway in Pakistan." 6 January 2008. CommonDreams.org. 18 April 2009 .
ut we could also say that deaths caused by illegal drugs are not even close to those caused by cigarette smoking.
We discussed the fact that in 1997, about sixteen thousand American died as a result of illegal and illicit drug use. In comparison, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that smoking related deaths worldwide will reach 10 million per year by 2030! And we know that 40,000-50,000 people die each year in the United States from automobile accidents. Is the automobile a WMD? Are cigarettes?
Where is the "cutoff" for the definition of "mass destruction" and widespread death? Do
we now label everything that kills a lot of people a WMD?
What is a "weapon?" According the MSN Encarta online dictionary (2009) (and several others), a weapon is "a device designed to injure or kill: a device designed to inflict injury or death on an opponent; or something used to gain….
"Annual Causes of Death in the United States." 10 March 2004. Drugwarfacts.org. 13 April 2009 .
Cameron, Gavin. "WMD Terrorism in the United States: The Threat and Possible Countermeasures." 2000. Monterrey Institute of International Studies. 13 April 2009 .
Cryptome.org. "FBI'S WATSON CITES EFFORTS to COMBAT TERRORIST ATTACK ." 1999. jya Cryptome. 13 April 2009 .
"Drug related problems." n.d. Australian Government. 13 April 2009 .
Accounting for the Emergence of Conflict
Accounting for Emergence of Conflict
Presumably, a primary reason for accounting for the emergence of conflict is to use whatever knowledge is gained in efforts to prevent conflict. Conflict prevention theory suggests the following identifiable key stages of conflict: Latent conflict, manifest limited conflict, and escalating violent conflict (Lund, 2009). Accepting that these stages are discrete in theory, the possibility exists that interventions aimed at prevention, particularly that of a structural nature, are more robust when implemented in early (latent) stage of conflict (Lund, 2009). Although the concept of structural violence indicates long-term, intractable social and cultural arrangements, it also suggests opportunity for governments to tackle socioeconomic sources of conflict. It follows that states fail to address tensions through early, meaningful, systematic, and peaceful structural and cultural corrections (Galtung, 1990). Indeed, threats to structural violence trigger responses intended to preserve the status quo from those whose….
Barnett, J. & Adger, W.N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 639-655. Retrieved from http://podcast.zirve.edu.tr/sandbox/groups/economicsandadministrativesciences/wiki/fa50c/attachments/0e400/Climate_change,_human_security_and_violent_conflict.pdf
Galtung, J. (1990, August). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291-305. Retreived from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3433%28199008%2927%3A3%3C291%3ACV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
Lund, M.S. (2009). Conflict prevention: Theory in pursuit of policy and practice. In J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I.W. Zartman (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. London (UK): SAGE, pp. 287-308.
Pedersen, D. (2004). Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: Broad implications for health and social well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 175-190.
Facilitating planning and the realization of reasonable expectations
Examples of facilitation of planning are often seen on the local level: laws about when individuals can take their trash to the curb, recycling, and acceptable noise limits create a more positive community environments through the setting of reasonable expectations. Without such formal standards, communities would be far more chaotic and setting goals and priorities for the community would prove difficult.
Budgeting deadlines set into law, requiring the allocation of resources to schools and government agencies, and requirements that states undertake such actions as balance their budgets all are intended to make the running of government go more smoothly.
Promoting economic growth through free competition
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act attempted to reign in corporate monopolies and make competition between business entities less restricted. While government regulation is often presented as the enemy of competition, without some regulation industries could easily evolve into monopolies, and be able….
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain actions. The….
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of governments,….
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island of….
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
Drama - World
Still, the relationship with Russia also bears importance. After the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. back in 1991, the post communist policy regarding the former soviet satellite countries had…Read Full Paper ❯
Peacekeeping: Strategies and Organizational Techniques Peacekeeping is indeed a nuanced and complex process, one which is characterized by intensive strategy and concerted navigation in the murky path from conflict to…Read Full Paper ❯
International Affairs Has the UN succeeded, or is it likely to succeed, in maintaining international peace and security in Africa, the most disadvantaged region of the world? In 1945 the United…Read Full Paper ❯
The observer group functioning was assumed during the post war periods of 1956, 1967 and 1973. It saw the institution of the first armed UN force to generate…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Thus, "by late 1992, the catastrophic situation in Somalia had outstripped the UN's ability to quickly restore peace and stability, mainly because the UN was hamstrung by insufficient…Read Full Paper ❯
Additionally, individual security has been extended to encompass a security which transcends physical or geographic borders. This notion of security is based upon the idea of a shared…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
The Council supported Ban's suggestions to minimize the Mission's military force level by one company, or 140 troops while raising the police constituent with an additional formed police…Read Full Paper ❯
Unfortunately, the availability of combat power encourages people to try to solve a problem by using it. Doctrinal training for soldiers emphasizes the aggressive, warrior image that is not…Read Full Paper ❯
The task of stabilizing a collapsed Pakistan may well be beyond the means of the United States and its allies. Rule-of-thumb estimates suggest that a force of more than…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
ut we could also say that deaths caused by illegal drugs are not even close to those caused by cigarette smoking. We discussed the fact that in 1997, about…Read Full Paper ❯
Accounting for the Emergence of Conflict Accounting for Emergence of Conflict Presumably, a primary reason for accounting for the emergence of conflict is to use whatever knowledge is gained in efforts…Read Full Paper ❯
Facilitating planning and the realization of reasonable expectations Examples of facilitation of planning are often seen on the local level: laws about when individuals can take their trash to the…Read Full Paper ❯
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed…Read Full Paper ❯
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace: International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Peace Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands.…Read Full Paper ❯