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Still, the relationship with Russia also bears importance. After the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. back in 1991, the post communist policy regarding the former soviet satellite countries had set in motion the Community of Independent States, as a mechanism for maintaining political, economic and trade relations between the countries of the demised Union. Such an influence is still felt today, at the regional level, Russia acting from a dominant position. Furthermore, the leverage given by the supremacy of the Russian oil has preserved its status of a major player, both in regional affairs and at a global level. Its implications in domestic affairs of the former soviet states have been proven on numerous occasions, especially in the Azeri political life, as proven in the last parliamentary elections, when the Russian monitoring team was the ones praising the "democratic" nature of the elections, despite the general international condemnation of the process,…
Areshev, Andrei. "The OSCE Minsk Group as a Tool to Promote U.S. Interests in the Caucasus" Global Research, 2007. 5 August 2008. http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=6429
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.
Caucasian Knot. "OSCE Mission in Georgia brings up question of freedom of media and movement in South Osetia" News. 2004, 5 August 2008. http://eng.kavkaz-uzel.ru/newstext/engnews/id/678518.html
Flash Points. Nagorno-Karabakh. N.d. 5 August 2008. http://www.flashpoints.info/countries-conflicts/Nagorno-Karabakh-web/Nagorno-Karabakh_briefing.html
Peacekeeping: Strategies and Organizational Techniques
Peacekeeping is indeed a nuanced and complex process, one which is characterized by intensive strategy and concerted navigation in the murky path from conflict to peace. One of the most powerful entities in the world which specializes in peacekeeping is the United Nations and has proven to the global community that peacekeeping has a range of strengths and advantages "including legitimacy, burden sharing, and an ability to deploy and sustain troops and police from around the globe, integrating them with civilian peacekeepers to advance multidimensional mandates" (un.org). Some of the most intensive peacekeeping efforts are the ones which are marked by political and peacebuilding support, allowing nations to make a smooth transition from conflict to peace. While UN peacekeeping is marked by things like consent, impartiality, and non-use of force aside from self-defense, this paper is going to look at how four basic concepts guide…
Af.mil. (2013). 502nd ABW transforms organizational structure to streamline support functions. Retrieved from af.mil: http://www.aetc.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123373493
Ilo.org. (2014). Developing self-reliance -- Building hope: The ILO Employment for Peace Programme in Somalia. Retrieved from ilo.org: http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/features/WCMS_154169/lang -- en/index.htm
Thakur, R.C. (2001). United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. New York: UN Press
Un.org. (2014). What is peacekeeping? Retrieved from un.org: http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Has the UN succeeded, or is it likely to succeed, in maintaining international peace and security in Africa, the most disadvantaged region of the world?
In 1945 the United Nations (UN) came into existence as an international organization who replaced the League of Nations which was blamed for being unable to intervene in World War II. The UN was established to promote international security among many other goals that are closely related such as social and economic progress and the promotion of human rights. However, despite the ideals and principles the UN has been established upon, translating these objectives in a tactical manner has proven to be difficult on many occasions. In regards to their peacekeeping missions, the UN has had much difficulty in Africa and their efforts on the content have been subject to much criticism. This analysis will provide a background on some of the conflicts…
Baldauf, S. (2009, April 7). Why the U.S. didn't intervene in the Rwandan genocide. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2009/0407/p06s14-woaf.html
BBC News. (2014, April 9). Darfur violence: UN troops 'failed to stop attacks'. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26962187
BBC News. (2014, April 7). Rwanda genocide: UN ashamed, says Ban Ki-moon. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26917419
Bekoe, D., & Parajon, C. (2007, July 1). Developing and Managing Congo's Natural Resources. Retrieved from United States Institute of Peace: http://www.usip.org/publications/developing-and-managing-congo-s-natural-resources
The observer group functioning was assumed during the post war periods of 1956, 1967 and 1973. It saw the institution of the first armed UN force to generate a stock between Israeli and Egyptian forces in the Sinai. Ten nations shared soldiers. Another force was instituted after the war between Egypt and Israel in 1967 to watch the peace agreement between the groups. This occurred during a period of high tension both locally and between the great powers. In 1974, a smaller UN force was instituted on the Golan Heights to maintain the boundary line between Syria and Israeli forces. The most widespread UN operation in the Middle East is perceived by the constitution of UNIFIL following the Israel invasion of the Lebanon in 1978. Its activity incorporated watching over the Israeli withdrawal, maintaining conditions of peace and security and assisting the Lebanese government re-establish its authority. (United Nations Peacekeeping…
Jordan, Michael J. Sex Charges Haunt UN Forces. Christian Science Monitor.
November 26, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/peacekpg/general/2004/1126sexhaunt.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Ledgerwood, Judy. L. UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Lessons from Cambodia. Analysis from the East-West Center. No.11. March 1994. Retrieved at http://www.seasite.niu.edu/khmer/Ledgerwood/PDFAsiaPacific.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Madden, Jane. Namibia: A Lesson for Success, chapter in Building International Community, Kevin Clements and Robin Ward, eds. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1994. pp. 255- 260. Retrieved at http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/nami7319.htm . Accessed on 26 April, 2005
Thus, "by late 1992, the catastrophic situation in Somalia had outstripped the UN's ability to quickly restore peace and stability, mainly because the UN was hamstrung by insufficient forces and UN peacekeeping principles and methods could not cope with the need to use force in such complex situations. On 3 December 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 794 authorised a coalition of UN members led by the U.S. To form UNITAF and intervene to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance and restore peace." (ANZAC, 1)
Here is an interesting orientation which begins to the more clearly illustrated one of the core conflicts here discussed. In our research, we come repeatedly across evidence that the United Nations has essentially failed to ever achieve a real autonomy from the interests of its most powerful member states. Most specifically in this instance, as in a great many others which have persisted throughout the history…
Annan, Kofi. (1999).
Statement on receiving the report of the independent inquiry into the actions of the United Nations during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. The United Nations. Online at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Additionally, individual security has been extended to encompass a security which transcends physical or geographic borders. This notion of security is based upon the idea of a shared humanity, irrespective of country of origin or geographic location.
The development of UN peacekeeping forces is undeniably the most pronounced aspect of this desire to promote security on a global scale and United Nations Peacekeepers have been involved in a variety of situations since its establishment from Israel to Cyprus and Rwanda to East Timor. Peacekeeping is an important objective of the United Nations and peacekeeping operations exist throughout the world to protect human security and the lives of some of the most vulnerable people on the planet. While UN peacekeeping operations have at times been mired in controversy, this UN initiative exists to ensure a common standard of peace across the globe.
Accordingly, UN structures and practices have evolved over time…
The Council supported Ban's suggestions to minimize the Mission's military force level by one company, or 140 troops while raising the police constituent with an additional formed police constituent of up to 140 officers for a net authorized force of 2091 police. The final objective is to shift responsibilities to Haitian counterparts and to help the National Police of Haiti involvement in usual law and order responsibilities. (Extending UN's Haiti mission, Security Council adjusts forces to reflect changes)
On the military camp, the rest 7060 armies will be configured again based on a latest threat assessment. Ban gave a warning in his report that there are chances of civil unrest in the continuance of an intense socio-economic divide. Apart from that, the capability for fresh clashes inside the nation remains a possibility. He warned while the illegal drug business persists to weakening impact on Haiti. In answer to that the…
Bohning, Don. Haiti: UN Mission Unable to Establish Order. Miami Herald, 26 May, 2005.
Deibert, Michael. Haiti: As Annan visits, UN Mission Seeks Reinforcements. 3 August, 2006.
Retrieved 8 November, 2007 at http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=34231
Fishel, John. T. Civil and Military Operations in the New World.
Unfortunately, the availability of combat power encourages people to try to solve a problem by using it.
Doctrinal training for soldiers emphasizes the aggressive, warrior image that is not normally compatible with peacekeeping. and, finally, the United States soldier is always regarded as primarily under control of Washington, even when supposedly under the command of another nation (the United States and Peacekeeping: Can it Work?).
Also, a U.S. military presence especially in Muslim countries, for instance, is a motivating factor for terrorists to launch attacks against the United States. in Laden's main reason for attacking America was the presence of the U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia. America needs to learn from this and not repeat the same experience in Afghanistan (Lindsay and Daalder).
And, finally, the military readiness issue has factored into this discussion about the U.S.
participating in multinational conflict management forces since the mid-1990s. Some in Congress and…
19 March 2002. Washington Post. 2 April 2009 .
"Debate: U.N. Peacekeepers and the U.S.A." 22 October 2008. idebate.org. 2 April 2009 .
Holt, Victoria and Michael McKinnon. "The Origins and Evolutions of U.S. Policy Towards Peace Operations." 2008. Stimson.org. 2 April 2009 .
Lindsay, James M. And Ivo H. Daalder. "At Issue: Should U.S. Troops Participate in an International Peacekeeping Force in Afghanistan." 2004. Council on Foreign Relations. 2 April 2009 .
The task of stabilizing a collapsed Pakistan may well be beyond the means of the United States and its allies. Rule-of-thumb estimates suggest that a force of more than a million troops would be required for a country of this size. Thus, if we have any hope of success, we would have to act before a complete government collapse, and we would need the cooperation of moderate Pakistani forces (Kagan and O'Hanlon).
Despite significant U.S. aid provisions and a large Pakistani military presence in the tribal regions, Pakistan has not been successful in thwarting the resurgence of al Qaeda -- as well as the 30-40 terrorist groups following in its footsteps -- and the Taliban. There are many barriers to U.S. success, including the potential lack of resolve and capabilities on the part of the Pakistani government and military, as well as the prevailing anti-American sentiment in the region. Due…
Constable, Pamela. "Extremist Tide Rises in Pakistan." 20 April 2009. The Washington Post. 20 April 2009 .
Frank Bolz, Kenneth J. Dudonis, David P. Schulz. The counterterrorism handbook: tactics, procedures, and techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2005.
Hartung, William. "Military Intervention in Pakistan?" 21 November 2007. Talking Points Memo. 18 April 2009 .
Hayden, Tom. "U.S. Military Escalation Gets Underway in Pakistan." 6 January 2008. CommonDreams.org. 18 April 2009 .
ut we could also say that deaths caused by illegal drugs are not even close to those caused by cigarette smoking.
We discussed the fact that in 1997, about sixteen thousand American died as a result of illegal and illicit drug use. In comparison, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that smoking related deaths worldwide will reach 10 million per year by 2030! And we know that 40,000-50,000 people die each year in the United States from automobile accidents. Is the automobile a WMD? Are cigarettes?
Where is the "cutoff" for the definition of "mass destruction" and widespread death? Do
we now label everything that kills a lot of people a WMD?
What is a "weapon?" According the MSN Encarta online dictionary (2009) (and several others), a weapon is "a device designed to injure or kill: a device designed to inflict injury or death on an opponent; or something…
"Annual Causes of Death in the United States." 10 March 2004. Drugwarfacts.org. 13 April 2009 .
Cameron, Gavin. "WMD Terrorism in the United States: The Threat and Possible Countermeasures." 2000. Monterrey Institute of International Studies. 13 April 2009 .
Cryptome.org. "FBI'S WATSON CITES EFFORTS to COMBAT TERRORIST ATTACK ." 1999. jya Cryptome. 13 April 2009 .
"Drug related problems." n.d. Australian Government. 13 April 2009 .
Accounting for the Emergence of Conflict
Accounting for Emergence of Conflict
Presumably, a primary reason for accounting for the emergence of conflict is to use whatever knowledge is gained in efforts to prevent conflict. Conflict prevention theory suggests the following identifiable key stages of conflict: Latent conflict, manifest limited conflict, and escalating violent conflict (Lund, 2009). Accepting that these stages are discrete in theory, the possibility exists that interventions aimed at prevention, particularly that of a structural nature, are more robust when implemented in early (latent) stage of conflict (Lund, 2009). Although the concept of structural violence indicates long-term, intractable social and cultural arrangements, it also suggests opportunity for governments to tackle socioeconomic sources of conflict. It follows that states fail to address tensions through early, meaningful, systematic, and peaceful structural and cultural corrections (Galtung, 1990). Indeed, threats to structural violence trigger responses intended to preserve the status quo from…
Barnett, J. & Adger, W.N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 639-655. Retrieved from http://podcast.zirve.edu.tr/sandbox/groups/economicsandadministrativesciences/wiki/fa50c/attachments/0e400/Climate_change,_human_security_and_violent_conflict.pdf
Galtung, J. (1990, August). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291-305. Retreived from http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3433%28199008%2927%3A3%3C291%3ACV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6
Lund, M.S. (2009). Conflict prevention: Theory in pursuit of policy and practice. In J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I.W. Zartman (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. London (UK): SAGE, pp. 287-308.
Pedersen, D. (2004). Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: Broad implications for health and social well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 175-190.
Facilitating planning and the realization of reasonable expectations
Examples of facilitation of planning are often seen on the local level: laws about when individuals can take their trash to the curb, recycling, and acceptable noise limits create a more positive community environments through the setting of reasonable expectations. Without such formal standards, communities would be far more chaotic and setting goals and priorities for the community would prove difficult.
Budgeting deadlines set into law, requiring the allocation of resources to schools and government agencies, and requirements that states undertake such actions as balance their budgets all are intended to make the running of government go more smoothly.
Promoting economic growth through free competition
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act attempted to reign in corporate monopolies and make competition between business entities less restricted. While government regulation is often presented as the enemy of competition, without some regulation industries could easily evolve into…
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
Peace, therefore, is dependent upon the power-play between capitalism, socialism, consumerism and communism -- and often they all overlap. The problem arises when domination rather diplomacy becomes a tactic of certain world powers. Rather than working with other nations at the expense of commercial or ideological interests, nations (like the U.S.) revert to underhanded scheming, acts of espionage, terrorism, and war, and militarism to undue rival nations' hegemony. The Middle East is a prime example for the way the est has gone about ending "terrorism" and restoring "peace." The idea that the U.S. is at all interested in peace is a complete farce. It is interested in nothing but profits.
Peace can be attained, however -- as Kennedy showed during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Roger Fisher, illiam Ury, and Bruce Patton all agree when they affirm that the best way to peace today is through negotiation and diplomacy. By putting…
Fisher, Roger, et al. "Getting to Yes." Approaches to Peace. [Barsh, David, ed.] UK:
Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Schweitzer, Christine, ed. Civilian Peacekeeping: A Barely Tapped Resource. Sozio-
Publishing, 2010. Print.
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…
AFP. (2010). Ivory Coast PM urges UN to speak out on poll results. AFP. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iedxpbLd4aBzQjdcFHeD-LdVH2qA?docId=CNG.347958328eebaf1a5122e531750726d6.c81
Africa Speaks. (2011). 2010 elections in Cote d'Ivoire: What most media do not tell you. Africa Speaks. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=7026.0
Aloisi, S. (2003). New hope of Ivory Coast peace as rebels join talks. The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/09/westafrica
AP. (2011). Gbagbo nationalizes cocoa in Ivory Coast. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Gbagbo-nationalizes-cocoa-in-apf-4254897232.html?x=0&.v=1
The UN also seems to have a failure to understand or function in an effective way when lives are in the balance and immediate action is needed during a war. At one point Dallaire needed a decision made by the Security Council, but the body was divided between China, France, and the non-aligned nations vs. The U.S., UK, ussia, and their supporters. The weekend was coming up, so it was decided that the nations should reconvene on Monday. "How many wandans would die that weekend," wondered Dallaire in exasperation as well as horror (Dallarie 301).
Given the constant stream of murders he witnessed, which he was virtually powerless to stop, due to his meager forces, it is easy to see why Dallaire experienced post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) upon returning home. However, his reaction seems inevitable and unpreventable. Granted, he could have received better debriefing and counseling upon his integration back…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake hands with the devil. Da Capo, 2004.
Q8. Talk briefly about the nature of the war, types of weapons used, and is terrorism a weapon in this conflict?
Terrorism is a weapon in this conflict, as is guerrilla warfare; the U.S. has attempted to train the Afghani forces to take over the nation's defense but has had difficulty training the native population in the strategies of modern warfare.
Q9. How many people have been injured or killed?
2,443 U.S. fatalities and 10468 wounded (iCasualties, 2011, OEF)
Q10. Should the U.S.A. play a role with respect to global peacekeeping and has the U.S.A. had a negative or positive effect?
In the world as a whole, there is little question that the U.S. had a positive effect, particularly when acting as a part of joint coalitions, such as with the UN and NATO. In the past, there was strident criticism that the U.S. did not intervene soon enough in…
Afghanistan-profile. (2010, August 16). Geneva Academy of International Law and Human
Rights. ADH-Geneva. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
Mulrine, Anna. (2011, April 29). Pentagon's rosy report of Afghanistan war raises questions.
CS Monitor. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
political, economical and social factors affect Human Rights and the perception of these rights as they reflect in different countries and ethnic groups. While the UN may have created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, but up until today, many countries (including prominent western countries) continue to infringe on a person's inalienable rights as a human being.
Of these human rights, those stated in Article 27 appear to be mostly infringed upon when cultures come together in a single community, or a country's population begins to consist of more and more cultures. This multi-culturalism should in actuality promote peace and understanding, and in many cases it does, nevertheless there are still cultural relativism issues within many communities in specifically Western countries.
Cultural Relativism is defined as the position where all points-of-view, and opinions are considered equally valid. What a person considers as truth is relative to that person's…
The research also showed that the international peacekeeping efforts to date have met with mixed results, with one of the major glaring issues being the perception of a lack of legitimacy on the part of the peacekeeping efforts. In order to improve this perception, the research was consistent in emphasizing the need to integrate more women into the peacekeeping effort and there are international legal precedents to support this effort.
Section 6: Relevance of the Proposed Topic:
In the wake of the ongoing global economic downturn, it is reasonable to posit that the number of failed states around the world will continue to increase in the years to come. Today, many states are on the verge of failing and it is only a matter of time before the dual pressures of rising energy costs and depleted resources cause these states to fail. In order to prepare for the violence that…
Cockburn, Cynthia & Dubravka Zarkov. The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities and International Peacekeeping, Bosnia and the Netherlands. London: Lawrence & Wishart,
Jackson, Robert. The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of States. Oxford, England:
Oxford University Press, 2003.
Peace Studies and Issues of Contemporary Conflict esolution
Peacekeeping (prevention and containment)
The act of peacekeeping can be likened to quarantine efforts during an epidemic as it is primarily about containing and preventing violence the way a contagious disease/infection is contained and prevented from spreading during quarantine. Traditionally, peacekeeping operations have been about separating combatants, isolating them from each other, often forcibly, and typically led/facilitated by UN peacekeeping forces (visit www.un.org for a list peacekeeping operations). amsbotham (2009b) labels the more traditional operations as "First-and-Second Generation UN Peacekeeping," (p. 148) and suggests that contemporary peacekeeping operations (post-1995), or "Third-Generation Peacekeeping," are the product of enhanced definitions and theoretical development regarding peace operations and conflict resolution (p. 154-166). In fact, in his case study example of peacekeeping operations in Somalia from 1991-2010, amsbotham (1995b) offers some insight into the practical implications of an evolving peacekeeping field (p. 167-169).
Peacekeeping operations are…
Galtung, Johan. (1976). Three approaches to peace: Peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace building. In Galtung, Johan's (eds.) Peace, war, and defense: Essays on peace research. Vol. 2. Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers.
Ramsbotham, Oliver. (2009a). Preventing violent conflict. In O. Ramsbotham, T. Woodhouse, & H. Miall's (eds.) Contemporary conflict resolution, 3rd edition. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Ramsbotham, Oliver. (2009b). Containing violent conflict: Peacekeeping. In O. Ramsbotham, T. Woodhouse, & H. Miall's (eds.) Contemporary conflict resolution, 3rd edition. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
consequences of the interventions by the UN in Somalia and Mozambique demonstrates a better scope of identifying situations to predict that the conditionality under which the interference might or might not entail the coveted consequences. A successful intervention is considered to be one where the conflict between adversaries concluded with the effectuation of a formal peace pact. A failure activity on the other hand refers to one where the adversities persistently go on intermittently during the process of interference. The demarcation of an effective act of interference having been instituted makes it easier to probe into the reasons behind the failed intervention in Somalia and the effective intervention in Mozambique. (UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone)
Let us first consider the successful UN intervention in Mozambique, the causes for the success and the reasons which had made the successful intervention to become…
Bethany, Lacina. International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s. SAIS Review Sample Article. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003. Retrieved from http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/sais_review/sample.html Accessed on 10 May, 2005
Jett, Dennis C. Lessons Unlearned - or why Mozambique's successful Peacekeeping Operation might not be replicated elsewhere. The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance. 20 January 2002. Retrieved from http://www.jha.ac/Ref/aar008.htm Accessed on 10 May, 2005
Limitations of African Peacekeeping Efforts. Monograph. No: 33: Constructive Disengagement. December, 1998. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No33/Limitations.html Accessed on 10 May, 2005
UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone.
Canada keep itself safe during the Cold War?
Canada played a unique role during the Cold War. As an immediate neighbor of the United States, but in relatively close physical proximity to the Soviet Union, Canada had legitimate reasons to fear that it would be physically involved if the hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union ever erupted into an actual war. Because of its physical proximity to the United States and its basically capitalistic system, it would be fair to suggest that Canada was more ideologically aligned with the United States. However, it would be incorrect to suggest that Canada was a U.S. ally; Canada maintained relationships with communist countries China and Cuba throughout the Cold War and opposed the U.S.'s involvement in the Vietnam War. nstead, it is more appropriate to characterize Canada as opposing the spread of communism without wholeheartedly embracing some of the American…
In fact, these peacekeeping tendencies from the Cold War have helped Canada maintain a powerful position in the international community. Moreover, this role was not only diplomatic, but also backed by Canada's willingness to use elements of force during the Cold War. Though Canada did not lead the charge to become involved in wars, it played an important role in helping send forces once the United Nations had decided to become involved in these organizations. In fact, the theoretical role of any United Nations military forces was to keep the peace. Canada was actually the first country to propose that the United Nations maintain a peacekeeping military force. While this proposal was initially dismissed by the United Nations, during the Suez Crisis in 1956, the United Nations adopted the Canadian idea of a peacekeeping force. Moreover, during this time period, peacekeeping forces were actually peacekeeping forces, not aggressive military forces. They were literally used as a human shield between opposing parties. This worked in the Suez Crisis, leading to a cease-fire. Therefore, while peace in the Middle East was short-lived, it is critical to realize that Canada played a huge role in averting a major disaster.
Moreover, while Ronald Reagan is frequently given credit for ending the Cold War, it is important to realize that, without Canada, the dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union may have been impossible. Yakovlev took a pre-premier Gorbachev on an agricultural tour of Canada, and began discussing the idea of loosening restrictions in the United States. Gorbachev's role in helping end the Cold War is well-known.
Canada's strategy for remaining safe during the Cold War was to use the United States for protection while trying not to alienate communist countries. This strategy proved very effective; Canada managed to avoid direct military involvement with either of the superpowers during the Cold War. However, it is important not to underestimate the long-term consequences of Canada's Cold War strategy. There is no longer a worldwide communist threat, and that is at least partially attributable to Canada's peacekeeping role during the Cold War. However, Canada's peacekeeping role in the Suez Crises may simply have delayed some of the tensions in the Middle East, and may have helped contribute to the modern global terrorist threat and continuing problems in that region. What these consequences make clear is that even a country trying to maintain some neutrality can have a tremendous long-term impact on international relations.
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
The UN as Global Police Force and Negotiation Facilitator
As Mingst and Karns (2016) note, the UN has played a predominant role in setting the standard for human rights—and it did so in 1948, three years after the conclusion of WW2. However, setting the standards is not the same as enforcing the standards and so far the UN’s declaration of human rights has been fairly toothless in terms of holding nations accountable through any type of police action. Global police action when it does occur tends to come from the U.S., which emerged as the world leader among the nations in the post-War era. Mingst and Karns (2016) state explicitly that “much of the UN’s success in defining human rights norms, monitoring respect for human rights, and promoting human rights has depended on the activities of the growing international human rights network of NGOs—the third UN” (p. 218). UN-led partnerships…
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in…
Conrad, John D. Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping.
Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2011. Internet resource.
De, la T.M. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies. Los Angeles: Getty
Conservation Institute, 2005. Print.
United Nations: Failures
The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…
As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."
According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.
The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
assembly reform at the United Nations
Ever since the Cold War ended there have been so many problems the world has been faced with; this includes new threats to its peace and stability also. National and international conflicts based on historical, social, economic, ethnic and other factors, pose an extensive threat to the world causing greater instability. These problems are coupled with the problems of an explosive population increase, poverty, and environmental degradation affecting the entire planet. This is international environment the United Nations has to play an important role in to fulfill its responsibilities effectively in implementing the new reforms in all aspects. [CF Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly]
Financial eform of the United Nations
The financial reform of the United Nations is one of the most serious issues that they face at present. Japan is one country that has…
At the Plenary Meeting of the 58th General Assembly on the Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit (Item 60) and the Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (Item 10), 6 October 2003, available at http://www.un.int/japan/statements/haraguchi031006.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
CFR Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly, available at http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6251,accessed on: March 31, 2004
Culture and Education, available at http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/un/pamph2000/reform.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004
United Nations OnLine Position Paper, available at http://www.unol.org/pospapers/ppeu.html, accessed on: March 31, 2004
" (Miles, 2006)
According to Norway's Department of Defense document entitled: "International Military Operations, Crisis Management - Multinational Operations" when a country is a participant in an "multinational crisis management" initiative entailed is "the ability, at short notice and in concert with allies and others, to contribute a military capability in some form for the purpose of bringing under control a given situation in which poses a threat either to international security or to other vital interests, or which is likely to have other unacceptable adverse consequences. Such crisis management may involve all kinds of security challenges, may in principle arise anywhere in the world, and may be led either by an established organization or alliance such as the UN, NATO or the EU, or conducted under the auspices of an ad hoc coalition of one kind or another." (Norway Department of Defense, 2003)
The work of Timothy D. Sisk…
Miles, Donna (2006) Multinational Experiment Lessons Already Benefiting Coalition Ops. American Forces Press Service News Articles, U.S. Department of Defense. 2006. Online available at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=15246
Sharp, Walter L. (2007) Multinational Operations. U.S. Department of the Navy and U.S. Department of the Marines and U.S. Department of the Army. Online available at http://www.js.pentagon.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_16.pdf
Norwegian Defense Facts and Figures 2003. Forsvarsdepartmentet. Regjeringen Stoltenberg II. 2003. Online available at http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/fd/dok/veiledninger_brosjyrer/2003/Norwegian-Defence-Facts-and-Figures-2003/4.html?id=275469
Sisk, Timothy D. (2003) Democracy and Conflict Management. August 2003. Beyond Intractability: A Free Knowledge Base on More Constructive Approaches to Destructive Conflict. Online available at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/democ_con_manag/?nid=1353
United Nations - the UN has been effective
The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state
The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)
The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts
The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties
The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights
Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)
The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries
TO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)
The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…
Background on the United Nations 2008. Accomplishments of the United Nations. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://encarta.msn.com.
Boot, Max. 2000. Paving the Road to Hell: The Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping. Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.foreignaffaird.com. (March): 1-3.
Charbonneau, Louis. 2012. Analysis: U.N. confronts failure of diplomacy in Syria. Reuters.
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
The Army XXI program for major military transformations has been in progress since 2004 (U.S. Department of State 2009). Last year's goals were consolidation and improvement of quality. The parliament approved Development Stage 08/11 for military reforms for 2008-2011 in 2007. The overall aim was to reduce military size while maintaining high quality of knowledge and equipment standards. At the same time, Development Stage 08/11 aimed at increasing military personnel for overseas deployment, such as for peacekeeping and disaster relief. In 2007, the Swiss parliament approved an increase of Peace Support Operations from 250 to 500. Increased cooperation with civilian authorities could also be anticipated, such as with the police and the border watch corps (U.S. Department of State).
The Swiss Military and the Citizens
The Swiss armed forces are a civilian-controlled militia of able-bodied males intended for universal military service (DHRL 2004). Apart from training cadres and a scattering…
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2004. Switzerland: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. U.S. Department of State: USA.gov. Available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27867.htm
Heatwole, C. 2009. Switzerland, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, Microsoft
Encarta. Available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571795/Switzerland
Michaud, L. 2004. Swiss Armed Forces and the Challenges of the 21st Century,
Despite the political agreement, it did not result in any sustainable resolution due to the fact that while the Sudan People's Liberation Army endorsed the provisions with a clear focus on the self-determination solution, the regime in Khartoum underlined the importance of the unity of the country and the preeminence of the Shari a as the national reference law. Consequently, the peace talks reached a stalemate.
The international community became more actively involved in the negotiations underway in Sudan. In this sense, the involvement of the U.S. is most relevant. The Clinton Administration in particular imposed economic and political sanctions on the regime in Khartoum given the fact that it was the Sudanese state that constantly refused to accept negotiations with its counterparts. Countries in the region as well got involved in the process and supported the ongoing talks through the Intergovernmental Authority for Development. This structure included states such…
Abdelgadier, Osama. God, Oil, and Country: Sudan's Long Road to Peace. Sudan at the Crossroads. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://fletcher.tufts.edu/sudanconference2004/outcomes/Abdelgadier%20Thurs.pdf
Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-Interim and Interim Period. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://www.usip.org/library/pa/sudan/wealth_sharing_01072004.pdf
BBC. "Country profile: Sudan" BBC World. 2007. 3 October 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. 3 October 2007 < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
One of the most crucial areas that they have helped develop is the integration of Asian development into the world arena. The current explosion of economic growth and social change within Asia has had a profound affect on world politics; Annan has been a crucial player in helping to shape the transition to include Asian players within the new United Nations. This has been evidenced by the new selection of a South Korean diplomat as the next Secretary General of the United Nations.
The focus on equality and diversity within the United Nations is crucial to its ability to resolve conflicts. This is because only through an understanding of all global perspectives and issues, can the UN truly serve the world rather than just world powers. Kofi Annan is emblematic of the leadership within the United Nations; he utilized his influence on the global stage to bring attention to crisis…
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Empowering the United Nations." Foreign Affairs 71 (Winter 1992/1993): 89-102.
Jonah, James O.C. Differing State Perspective on the United Nations in the Post-Cold War World. John W. Holmes Memorial Lecture. Reports and Papers, 1993, No. 4
Rosenau, James N. The United Nations in a Turbulent World. International Peace Academy Occasional Paper Series. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992. 87 p.12-52
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.
After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…
Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.
Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row
Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15#documentsand accessed 10/29/05.
Kramer, M., 1990."The Moral Logic of Hizballah." In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, ed. W. Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 131-57.
Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?
One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.
A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…
Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."
Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015
"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.
4 May 2015
State failure is equated with civil war (but state failure can take place without civil war and civil war can take place without state failure).
Although it did not rise to the level of a full-blown civil war (only because it did not succeed any further), when U.S. analysts term "a nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville" from 1988 to 1997 resulted in about 20,000 deaths (Papua New Guinea 2011). In addition, Ayson and Ball (2006) also emphasize that, "In Papua New Guinea, intergroup fighting in the oil and gas-rich Southern Highlands province continues; some paramilitary turmoil is in prospect; but the peace process in the Bougainville province has been successful so far" (p. 260).
The respective weighted score for each of the failed criterion as applied to Papua New Guinea are presented graphically in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Application of Criteria for a…
Ayson, R. & Ball, D. 2006 Strategy and Security in the Asia Pacific. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Chesterman, S., Ignatieff, M. & Thakur, R. 2005 Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Manwaring, M.G. & Joes, a.J. 2000 Beyond Declaring Victory and Coming Home: The
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…
Bass, G. (2003). Milosevic in the Hague. Foreign Affairs, 82(3), 82-96.
Buchanan, Pat. (2002). A Republic, Not An Empire: Reclaiming America's
Destiny. Regnery Publishing, Inc.
Kunz, D. (1997). The Marshall Plan Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, 76
To understand domination, then, demands two levels of analysis, one that recognizes the corporate, unified dimension of the state - its wholeness - expressed in its image, and one that dismantles this wholeness in favor of examining the reinforcing and contradictory practices and alliances of its disparate parts. The state-in-society model focuses on this paradoxical quality of the state; it demands that students of domination and change view the state in dual terms. It must be thought of at once (1) as the powerful image of a clearly bounded, unified organization that can be spoken of in singular terms (e.g., a headline stating, "Israel accepts Palestinian demands"), as if it were a single, centrally motivated actor performing in an integrated manner to rule a clearly defined territory; and (2) as the practices of a heap of loosely connected parts or fragments, frequently with illdefined boundaries between them and other groupings…
Allnutt, Luke, and Alex Znatkevich. 2002. Belarus Plays Catch-Up. Foreign Policy, January/February, 98.
Campbell, James E., and Thomas E. Mann. 1996. Forecasting the Presidential Election: What Can We Learn from Them Models?. Brookings Review, Fall, 26.
Gibson, Susan S. 1998. The Misplaced Reliance on Free and Fair Elections in Nation Building: The Role of Constitutional Democracy and the Rule of Law. Houston Journal of International Law 21, no. 1: 1.
Migdal, Joel S. 2001. State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
" (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325) This was the real thing: more than a half-million Tutsi murdered- three-quarters of the population -- and the attempt by the wandan state and the Hutu majority to exterminate every last Tutsi." (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325)
The question is if this can be compared to the general holocaust and the Armenian genocide, which the world watched helplessly, could the massacre have been prevented? The question is more academic. Having seen that the clashes between ethnic groups, and those who are opposed to share the natural bounties with a community they regard as unnecessary probably the total prevention of the genocide design is not possible. Can an action by the authority like the UN then have mitigated it? The answer to that question lies in the way the nations view the sovereignty and the need for intervention form the UN. It is impossible to…
Confessore, Nicholas. 2000. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review. Washington Monthly, pp: 7-8.
Dorn, a. Walter; Matloff, Jonathan; Matthews, Jennifer. 2000. 'Preventing the Bloodbath: Could the UN have predicted and prevented the Rwanda Genocide?' Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. XX, no. 1, pp: 9-52.
Gellately, Robert; Kieman, Ben. 2003. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. New York.
Riemer, Neal. 2000. Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Praeger. Westport, CT.
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).
In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:
There has been…
Cohen, L.J., Moens, a., & Sens, a.G. (2003). NATO and European security: Alliance politics from the end of the Cold War to the age of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dannreuther, R. (2004). European Union foreign and security policy: Towards a neighbourhood strategy. New York: Routledge.
Dunn, DH, & Zaborowski, M. (2003). Poland: A new power in transatlantic security. London: Frank Cass.
A rtner, H., Hyde-Price, a., & Reiter, E. (2001). Europe's new security challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
American will be better equipped, militarily and monetarily, to deal with the threat of terrorism once our troops are withdrawn from the country of Iraq. It is not the goal of those political representatives, leaders, or individuals who support the withdrawal of American troops from the country of Iraq to cause further destabilization of other nations or to bring further harm to American itself. It is, in fact, the position of this writer and others that withdrawal from the country of Iraq will serve to reduce the threat of terrorism against by the forces which now pose a threat to America's military forces presently in Iraq. It is the firm belief of this writer that withdrawal of American forces from Iraq will bring about a more expeditious peace process to that region of the world.
Finally, this writer firmly holds that it is essential for the leadership in Iraq to…
Williams, I. (2006) "While Not Legitimizing Invasion of Iraq, Security Council OKs the Results." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs July-Aug. 2003: 18+.
Murtha, J. (2006).
Brayton, Steven. "Outsourcing War: Mercenaries and the Privatization of Peacekeeping." Journal of International Affairs
The Republic of The Gambia used to be part of the Empire of Ghana and the Kingdom of the Songhais (ureau of African Affairs 2005). First records came from Arab traders of the 9th and 10th centuries who had commercial relations with the native for slaves, gold and ivory. The Portuguese took over through sea routes at the time The Gambia became part of the Kingdom of Mali. Exclusive trade rights were sold to the English under Queen Elizabeth I. In the 17th and 18th centuries, England and France fought for political and commercial control over it until the Treaty of Versailles of 1783 turned it over to Great ritain. Slaves from The Gambia were first taken to Europe when the labor market expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. The ritish established a military post at athurst or the modern-day anjul in…
1. Bureau of African Affairs. Background Note: the Gambia. U.S. Department of State, 2005. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5459.htm
2. Cohen, Herman J. The United States and Africa. American Diplomacy Publishers, 2003. http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2003_07-09/cohen_africa/cohen_africa.html
3. GNU Free Documentation License. Politics of the Gambia, 2005. http://area51.ipupdater.com
4. Haley, George et al. Re-energizing United States-Africa Relations. Worldpress.org, March 21, 2005. http://www.worldpress.org/Africa/2050.cfm
I. Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability
There has historically been a challenge in attempting to properly understand in complexity in defining joint interoperability. This is related in the work of Faughn (2002) entitled: "Interoperability: Is it Achievable?" published by the Center for Information Policy Research at Harvard University. It is stated by Faughn that: "...the "shortfalls in operability among U.S. forces, first publicized by the press at the time of the Grenada invasion, became the catalysts for legislation and changes in defense policy, guidance, and procedures, and for numerous attempts to ensure joint interoperability. Despite tremendous planning and expenditure of funds, true interoperability, especially in the theaters with the greatest potential for conflict, continues to elude the Department of Defense (DOD)." (Faughn, 2002) Faughn relates that there are seven key factors that: "...hamper the achievement of interoperability." (p.7) These are stated to…
National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs, Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, December 1999), Chapter Two, 1, 2, [Online]. URL: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309064856/html/64.html
Hillman Dickinson, "Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control," in Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Guest Presentations, Spring 1982 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy, I-82-3, December 1982), 23, [Online]. URL: http://www.pirp.harvard.edu/pubs_pdf/dickinsdickins-i82-3.pdf
Snyder, Frank M. (1993) Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1993), 111.; as cited in Faughn (2002) p. 19
VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, and John J. Garstka, "Network-Centric Warfare -- Its Origin and Future," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1998, pp. 28-35. VADM Cebrowski has since retired and is currently the Director of the Secretary of Defense's Office of Transformation; as cited in Roberts and Smith (2003) p.4.
Brazilian exporters have diversified trading partners.
The emerging economies have come to the rescue of world leading economies with their financial bailouts. This they have done on condition that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) increases their voting share by around 6%. This is an indication that emerging economies are now demanding even greater share power. The United States spirited objection to joining IMF bail out fund characterized by the Congress increased embrace of isolationist economic policies is an indication that the U.S. is no longer a superpower as people initially believed. In fact, its share of global GDP which was 25% in 1980 declined to 19% in 2011 (Sachs, 2012). It is projected to hit a record low of 18% in 2017. By this time, China shall have overtaken the United States economy in absolute size.
With the emergence of BICS and smaller powers like Nigeria and Turkey we no…
Mansfield, E.D. (1993). Concentration, Polarity, and the Distribution of Power. International Studies Quarterly, 37 (1), 105 -- 128.
Peral, L. (2009). Global Security in a Multipolar world. Paris: European Union Institute of Security Studies.
Sachs, J.D. (2012). The Challenges of a Multipolar World. Retrieved from http://www.social -
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Future of estorative Justice
The most common form of criminal justice is retributive justice, which is based on an adversarial system that pits the offender against the victim (reviewed in Brownlee, 2010). In retributive justice, it is the offender's job, so to speak, to proclaim their innocence or diminish the seriousness of the offence. The state on behalf of the victim seeks to severely punish the victim through monetary penalties and prison terms. Both offender and victim are separated physically and emotionally from the very beginning of this process, once the offender has been identified and arrested. etributive justice ignores the Aristotelian principle of responsible agency, because the offender is expected to combat any and all criminal charges.
In contrast, restorative justice seeks to mend the harm caused by the commission of a crime by encouraging the offender to accept responsibility for his or her actions (Brownlee, 2010).…
Brownlee, Kimberley. (2010). Retributive, restorative and ritualistic justice. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 30(2), 385-397.
de Beus, Kimberly and Rodriquez, Nancy. (2007). Restorative justice practice: An examination of program completion and recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 337-347.
Gumz, Edward J. And Grant, Cynthia L. (2009). Restorative justice: A systematic review of the social work literature. Families in Society, 90(1), 119-126.
Sudan's existence can be traced back to approximately 9 million years. It is a state in Africa which was formerly conquered by its neighbor; Egypt as well as Turkey. However, rebellion against this ruling regime gave Britain an opportunity to step in. consequently, it was in 1899 when an agreement was signed between Egypt and Britain under which Sudan was to be jointly administered by these two countries. It was not until 1955 when Sudan got its independence and was ultimately granted the right to self-govern. In addition, in 1916, Darfur joined the protectorate. As a matter of fact, while Sudan was under Anglo-Egyptian rule, it kept the North and the South separate. egardless of this divide, most of the development was focused in the North as compared to the South and other areas such as Darfur remained economically as well as politically marginalized. Although the…
Dagne, Ted. The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country. CSR Report for Congress: Congressional Research Service, 2011.
Goulty, A. "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Sudan's After the Split," Woodrow Wilson International Working Paper No. 2. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/FINALAFR120228_policy5T_0329_rpt.pdf , (accessed 30th July, 2012).
Jhonson, Douglas. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (USA: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2003).
Latcher, Wolfram. South Sudan: International State Building and its Limitations (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenchaft, 2012).
Smith and Kidron, the end of the Cold War ironically initiated a series of belligerent conflicts across the globe. The international news media reported shocking brutality that ravaged osnia-Herzegovina, Chechnya, and especially in Rwanda, where nearly 800,000 people were slaughtered during the brief six-week period in 1994. Despite the sharp increase in human casualties lost to warfare, states hardly lifted a finger to stop it. udgets for military spending were curtailed, the production of nuclear weapons slowed, and the United Nations embarked on more peace operations than ever before. However, the events of September 11 abruptly terminated the United States' passivity; policymakers quickly approved dramatically increased budgets for military operations while thousands of troops boarded ships and airplanes to be dropped off in the most perilous war zone of the new millennium. Though incessant warfare may seem inevitable in many parts of the world, including Georgia and Iraq, there is…
Baker, Peter. "Called Home to Rebuild, Georgian Led Revolution." The Washington
Post 27 November 2003. http://www.washingt ... / A16312-
2003 Nov26?language=printe. Online Accessed 26 November 2003.
Gordon, Michael. "Nation Building in Iraq: Lessons from the Past." The New York
Diamonds may be a girl's best friend, according to a concept popular in the 1950s. Alternatively, diamonds might also be forever, a concept popularized in advertising for several decades. Diamonds are a symbol of love, but they have hardly been the source of much loving interaction between various populations of humans. In fact, diamonds have been at the root of intense and deadly strife in Sierra Leone, most notably, for most of the past two to three decades. The fact that advertising for diamonds is so memorable suggests that advertising messages have some causative responsibility for the devastating civil wars in Sierra Leone, and the human suffering that resulted.
Indeed, in 2000, the orld Bank released a report noting that "Greed for Diamonds and other 'Lootable' Commodities Fuels Civil ars." (orld Bank eb site) The report did not mention advertising as a direct contributor. Conceivably, that conclusion could…
De Beers advertisement. History Wired, http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=246
Diamond History. Retrieved 14 June 2004 at http://www.diamondsonweb.com/learn/history.pl
Dubois, Bernard & Paternault, Claire. "Understanding the World of International Luxury Brands: the "Dream Formula." Journal of Advertising Research, 35.4, 1995, 69+. Accessed at www/(Dubois & Paternault 1995, 69+) Accessed at www.questia.com/
Greed For Diamonds and Other 'Lootable' Commodities Fuels Civil Wars." World Bank Web site. Retrieved 14 June 2004 at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20014607~menuPK:34465~pagePK:64003015~piPK:64003012~theSitePK:4607,00.html
As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.
At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…
Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/etc./cron.html
Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html
Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42
United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Regional Strategy on Somalia
Endstate: Describe the desired U.S. endstate for Somalia.
The Comprehensive Regional Strategy for Somalia was developed within the context of America's policy for Horn of Africa countries as well as Arabian Peninsula countries. The report was also developed on the premise that Somalis have a tremendous opportunity to redevelop their country after over a dozen years. The redevelopment initiatives are also focused on restoration of representative and effective central governance institutions. This opportunity emerges after the several years of internal conflicts and fight in Somalia, which hindered national development and affected the ability of the country to establish effective central governance institutions. America's policy towards Somalia based on its strategy for engagement is geared towards taking advantage of this opportunity through working with Somalis to promote national development and central national governance.
Consequently, the desired United States endstate for Somalia is to remove the threat of…
role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.
With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…
Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.
Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.
Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers
Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
Political Leaders In Latin America: Hugo Chavez And Lula
Who is Hugo Chavez and Lula
Hugo Chavez was born on 28 July 1954 in Sabaneta, Venezuela. Chavez attended Venezuelan military academy and took up service as an army officer prior active participation in efforts of the overthrowing government in 1992. His actions led to a two-year sentence in prison after arrest. In 1999, Chavez was named president of Venezuela. Within the early days of his presidency, he developed new constitution in the nation that was inclusive of changes of the capital name to the Bolivarian epublic of Venezuela. Chavez engaged in a critical focus of efforts towards gaining ultimate control of state-run oil companies. However, this was stirred with controversy and translated into protests and strained relations between Venezuela and the U.S. As well as subsequent nations. Chavez has a brief comment on the removal from power (Clairmont,…
Clairmont, F.F. (2002). Hugo Chavez: The Fall and Rise. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(19), 1797-1799.
Cole, N.S. (2007). Hugo Chavez and President Bush's Credibility Gap: The Struggle against Us Democracy Promotion. International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique, 28(4), 493-507.
Corrales, J. (2011). Dragon in the Tropics: Hugo Chavez and the Political Economy of Revolution in Venezuela. New York: Brookings Institution Press
Encamacion, O.G. (2002). Lula's Big Win. World Policy Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Winter, 2002/2003), pp. 73-77
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…
Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html
United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Policing Alongside Native Americans
America is the most cosmopolitan country in the world with virtually every race present. It is described as the new land because of the recent influx of foreigners who traveled to the country. Their increased numbers over time have made the minorities lose their initial dominance. In this sense, it is now a tussle of the foreigners and the Natives over who controls the affairs of the country. In the modern days, the immigrants have come to take over the control of the American affairs and as such, they have managed to lead a clear path of leadership away from them natives. However, the Native Americans remain a distinguished group concerned with the political realignments happening in the country. They act as a swing vote for all the individuals who need elective posts. On matters security, it is technical conducting policing along these native zones as…
Hiatt, M. K., Botterweck, C. M., & Hiatt, M. K. (2007). People and Politics: An Introduction To American Government. Gregory Publishing Company
Nardo, D. (2013). The Native Americans. San Diego, Ca: Lucent Books.
Simpson, J., Thomas, DH, Pendleton, L. S., & Halliday, H. (2010). Native Americans.
Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books.