Most movingly, perhaps, in the final part of his speech, Pericles turns to the fathers and mothers who have given up sons and spouses to the war. He states that the parents who are still young should have more children, children who will be able to enjoy the democracy that their older siblings fought and died for, and he tells the women to be strong too, in the face of the sorrows that they and their city are enduring over the course of the war. Pericles thus admits, without falsely creating a beautiful image of wartime, that casualties are inevitable during a violent conflict, and it is only because Athenian democracy is so unique, so worth fighting for, that men are willing to give up the comforts of peacetime to sacrifice their lives.
Of course, it might be protested that the ideal Pericles speaks of in the funeral oration was…… [Read More]
Pericles' Funeral Oration
Pericles, the most revolutionary figure ever found in the history of Ancient Greece was born of a distinguished family about 494 B.C. probably in the country house of his father in the plain near Athens. Pericles's father, Xanthippos, was a rising general and politician. His mother Agariste, also bore strong family values, descending from the house of Alkmeonidai. She was the niece of the great Athenian reformer, Clisthenes ("Biography of Pericles"). Pericles took the foundational education as per customs of Athens. Anaxagoras was the most esteemed teachers of Pericles.
Pericles succeeded to fill up the position of a son and a leader who had the abilities to reflect sagaciousness, sensibility and the mettle to face tough conditions and to find the ways out of the tough scenarios. It is worth noticing that Pericles had an elder brother too, Ariphrons, but as seen in different historical accounts, it…… [Read More]
policies of Pericles contributed to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire
Pericles was an Athenian political leader mostly accountable for the complete growth in the 5th century, of both the empire and democracy of Athens. As a result, Athens became the political and social focus of Greece. His success involved the development of the Acropolis, started in 447. During the Athens' golden era, philosophy, sculpture, drama, poems and technology all achieved new levels. After fifty years, Athens underwent an expansion in artistic and intellectual learning. The creative fictional legacies of this time keep motivating and instructing people all over the globe. Fair and honest, Pericles held onto well-known assistance for 32 years. He was a competent, politically motivating orator, and a well-known general. He ruled over the life of Athens from 461 to 429 B.C. that this era often is known as the Age of Pericles (Aird,…… [Read More]
97). The women are not happy with their role, but they have little say in the matter. This is the reason they use their sexual favors (or lack of them) against their husbands - they have little else to bargain with that means anything to the men. Women may have shared in the spoils of victory and the general air of democracy in Greece, but they certainly did not have a say in that government, or in little else. However, they did know how to bargain effectively, and while they did not actively participate in government and activities, by using their sexuality against their husbands, they did know how to turn the tables and gain what they wanted by influence, rather than by direct participation.
3. Does the play say anything to the people of our generation?
These works do speak to our modern generation in many ways. They show…… [Read More]
The Plato was acknowledged for his contribution towards the development of the philosophy and arts. The scholar was deeply respected for his interest in the poetry and literature, and content of which narrated the political and social situation of the country, the Plato was always encouraged to join the political wing, but he expressed his reluctance because he believed that the cause was not strong and justified enough to offer assistance to the public.
The contribution of both the scholar and leader has been widely misinterpreted, but the fact remains that these forces contributed immensely towards the attainment and the restoration of the lost pride of the Greek Empire. The objective of both the forces has been transform the Athens into 'prosperous and powerful' (Susan, 2000) state, and for that purpose both the officials renounced the corrupt practices of bribery and frauds. Theses preventive measures were responsible for the development…… [Read More]
One of the main reasons for which Pericles chooses Athens to be reference to those that have just died is that of glorifying the dead by attributing the general image of greatness associated with Athens. By promoting an ideology like democracy, one influences people in trusting their own powers and the power of independence and equality as a whole. Pericles's stand in the general context proves that he feels compassion for the people of Athens and that he identifies with each of the individuals who had lost someone dear in the conflict that took place in the area.
In spite of Pericles' dedication to Athens and its people, the fact that he puts across concepts that are obviously exaggerated leads to the assumption that one of his main intentions was to get people's attention away from the war and of the risks related to it. Pericles relates to Athens as…… [Read More]
This is Aristotle's launching pad for his discussion of politics. To him, ethics and politics are matters of rational judgment, stemming from the natural inclinations of individual humans. This notion is reflected in Aristotle's analysis of the constitutional doctrines of some 158 cities. Essentially, he recognized that every state -- necessarily city states -- exist in unique sets of circumstances that act upon the universal forms of ethics in ways that alter their particular manifestations. Aristotle does, however, put forward his conception of the most realistically achievable form of government that would simultaneously facilitate mankind's natural pursuit of rational happiness. He writes, "e must consider then not only what form of government is best, but also what is possible and easily attainable by all," (Aristotle 321). He concludes, broadly, that democratic and oligarchic governments are the most dangerous, and that a monarchy in the hands of a just ruler would…… [Read More]
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…… [Read More]
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…… [Read More]
" Pericles said that Athenians did not have to be forced to chose the lot of the soldier, they loved the land that gave them the freedom to chose to live the way they wanted, rather than to fulfill a predetermined ideal and thus, when necessary: "They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone." In a democracy, the citizen's sense of self-reliance is its life-blood. Values are created and chosen by consensus and the consent of the governed, not by a single, 'philosophical' intelligence and thus the values are more enthusiastically believed, and because they exercise choice from birth, people more able to undertake creative intellectual change, as they did in ancient Athens. The limits of Yahoo society, although it seems to be more socially stable than most democracies, is that people will not believe in…… [Read More]
role of deities in "The Iliad," by Homer, the poetry of Sappho, and "Pericles Funeral Oration," by Thucydides. Specifically it will discuss how significant the deities are in the three pieces, and why deities played such an important part in ancient literature.
IMPORTANCE of the DEITIES
The Gods (deities) play an extremely important part throughout these three pieces, and through much of ancient literature. The gods were extremely important to the Greeks, who believed they lived atop Mount Olympus, ruled by Zeus, the father and leader of the Gods. In "The Iliad," Achilles often turns to the Gods to aid him in battle and in his personal life. People believed the Gods could influence everything in their lives, and so often asked them for help and advice, as Achilles does. "I came to see if I could check this temper of yours, / Sent from heaven by the white-armed goddess…… [Read More]
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]
As an historian and a citizen of that democratic city, Thucydides was faced with a task no less daunting -- how to make the saga of a losing war seem like a triumph, or at least seem interesting and relevant, rather than something Athens wished to forget.
hen reading Thucydides, one does not read about an ancient war, rather one is witness to the process of historical story, of a history of narrative being created, even the first citing of 'spin' if you like. Unlike the Spartans, for the Athenians in Pericles' oration, "advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity," and the freedom enjoyed "in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks…… [Read More]
The temple itself was built to embody Athena's presence, both in its intention and in its physical construction.
For example, the columns used in Greek temples were the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian. The Doric was "not only a type of column, but an 'order'; this means that the temples of the Doric order not only have this type of column, but also have a certain structure at the upper levels" (Silverman). Furthermore, there were other stylistic elements of the Parthenon that demonstrated its religious significance. The Metopes were a series of small structures on the sides of the Parthenon. The Metopes depicted various battles between order and chaos. The Pediments on the Parthenon, which are relief sculptures that are larger than the Metopes, depict events in the life of Athena. In addition, there is a frieze running along the upper edge of the wall of the Parthenon. The frieze…… [Read More]
It made no "long speech no one would believe, of fine moral arguments" (oodruff 103). However, Pericles' claim that Athens did not need support to uphold its borders falls completely flat in the face of Athenian desperation to hold onto its empire.
Thucydides, writing with the benefit of hindsight and the knowledge of the outcome of the war shows the Athenians in a far more ambiguous light than Pericles the politician, who was speaking to memorialize the dead. Thucydides shows the cowardice of the Athenians during the plague, as Athenians even turned against one another, in fear -- another example of might making right. Thucydides somewhat disenchanted view of Athens is partially due to his status as an exile -- he was deprived of his command due to no real fault of his own (he was unable to reach a critical strategic location in time to prevent it falling to…… [Read More]
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…… [Read More]
Athens over several hundred years moved from rule by kings to full peasant democracy. Did aristocrats ever really lose power or did they find new ways to keep it?
In Athens, the aristocrats did lose a certain amount of power with the advent of democracy. This is because there was a focus on providing everyone with some kind of voice in matters of public affairs. Yet, at the same time many of the ruling elite and philosophers were from the aristocracy. This meant that they were able to maintain positions of power. Despite the fact, that they lost a certain amount of influence. The combination of these factors is illustrating how the ruling class used their education and intellect to make themselves relevant during the process. As a result, they were able to use democracy as a way to change the perceptions of the citizens of Athens. In this case,…… [Read More]
In other words, at every seven courses of stone, a layer of reed matting was laid and weep-holes and drainage shafts were placed, thus preserving the ziggurat from water damage.
Eventually the building fell into disrepair. Later, King Nabonidus restored the Ur ziggurat, along with other temples. Stiebing believes this was because he revered his mother's gods (285). Nabonidus claims in the clay cuneiform tablets found in the tower to have rebuilt it on the same foundations and using the same mortar and bricks. Ultimately it must have deteriorated after the Persian defeat by Cyrus in 539 BC.
Construction of Tower of Babylon (ca 600 BC)
While the biblical account of this great structure in Genesis 11 is perhaps legendary, scholars have come to view the "Tower of Babel" mentioned in the text as the ziggurat of the temple of Marduk in Babylon (known as Etemenanki). Expressing the scholarly consensus,…… [Read More]
RITUALISTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PRACTICAL USES OF PULIC SPACE AT THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS AND TRAJAN'S FORUM
Acropolis is renowned as a fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Greeks built their towns in plains near or around a rocky hill that could easily be fortified and defended. Nearly every Greek city had its acropolis, which provided a safe place of refuge for townspeople during times of turmoil or war. Rulers of the town often lived within the walls of this stronghold. In many cases the acropolis became the site of temples and public buildings and thus served as the town's religious center, focal point of its public life, and as a place of refuge.
The Athenian Acropolis is the most well-known acropolis of the ancient world. Ruins of its temples and their sculptures are widely regarded as the finest examples of ancient Greek art and architecture. uilt on a limestone…… [Read More]
How do we know about this war?
Thucydides may be counted among the foremost historians of the West to utilize a rigorous chronological standard. He recorded events based on their year of occurrence, and every year was divided into two seasons: a campaign-filled summer and a relatively inactive winter. The historian documented the Peloponnesian War in great detail.
In spite of hailing from Athens and having taken part in the war, Thucydides is commonly believed to have provided an overall neutral narrative of it with regard to the parties involved.
The foremost volume in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War covers a summary of Greece's early history, a programmatic historiographical note, and an explanation for why the War was waged. With the exception of some brief excursuses (particularly 6.54-58 on Tyrant Slayers), its remaining volumes (2-8) concentrate strictly on the War and nothing else.
Though Thucydides' book focuses on the…… [Read More]
The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).
There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…… [Read More]
When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.
The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…… [Read More]
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]
Mystery of the Propylaea
The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…… [Read More]
The connection between the development of Athenian culture and the development of Athenian democracy was intimate. Culture and politics flowed together in Athens, as the philosophers (from Socrates to Aristotle), the playwrights (from Aeschylus to Euripides) and the statesmen (from Solon to Pericles) all played fundamental roles in shaping how both culture and democracy developed. The playwrights showed the importance of worship and of civic duty (Aristophanes in particularly emphasized the duty that Athenians had in civic matters) and Solon and Pericles were instrumental in laying the groundwork for and building up Athens' political framework. Plato meanwhile served a pivotal role by writing works addressing the role of government and each served to impact the other.
Aeschylus, Socrates and Euripides all present heroes and heroines differently. Euripides presents them most tragically and complexly: his Medea is a sympathetic yet monstrously revengeful woman who slays her children to get…… [Read More]
Henry stresses that the men have a choice: they are free men and do not fight because they are compelled to do so:
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart; his passport shall be made
And crowns for convoy put into his purse:
We would not die in that man's company
That fears his fellowship to die with us (IV.3).
Even during Shakespeare's time, the idea of fighting for freedom was clearly a compelling rhetorical strategy. On the surface, fighting for a piece of land might not seem to be a noble quest when done purely for the purposes of enriching the crown. This is why Henry's speech is so perfectly analogous to a speech made by a CEO or another business leader: often, quite cynically, shareholders and employees will assume that decisions are made for personal profit, not to advance the common good. Although…… [Read More]
" ell's article underlines the thinking behind Raphael's masterpiece. It is not simply an imagined portrait of famous people; rather it is a philosophical treatise, in symbolic form, of what it meant to be a great man, as embodied in these different figures.
Glenn Most, in his 1996 article "The School of Athens and its Pre-text" from Critical Inquiry agrees that the central question of the School of Athens is "How can an artist represent pictorially an intellectual activity like philosophy? In the School of Athens, Raphael chooses to do so by depicting the manifold set of ratiocinative and discursive activities performed on a sunny day in a splendid building by a large number of adult male philosophers… because Raphael's image has embedded itself so deeply in our visual unconscious. It requires an effort of the historical imagination to recognize that this was not an inevitable, or even a likely,…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]
One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).
The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…… [Read More]
" In other words, you can't change the way you are or the way you think by staying in the same clothes or the same consciousness that you have been in all this time. You must be willing to sacrifice and accept that things may get worse before they get better. "…to be restored, our sickness must grow worse" Eliot writes, and this is actually a recipe for emotional health albeit nothing close to that was to be found in the asteland. Indeed the world "become stranger" and the pattern of our lives becomes "more complicated" as we grow older. But these are words that sound like philosophy, not the remorse that was saturated throughout the asteland.
The Dry Salvages -- Number Three of Four Quartets
In the asteland there was no water to be found. Not a drop of water -- just rock and dust and death. And yet…… [Read More]
Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.
Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
The Athenians have no dislike of the Melians, and are happy to let the islanders live and let live within the Athenian sphere of influence, but they will retaliate without mercy if they oppose Athenian self-interest in the region. The Melians offer Athens neutrality, which Athens says would be just as detrimental to Athenian interests in the region as an open Melian alliance with Sparta, as it would set a bad example to other Athenian colonies: "is rather islanders like yourselves, outside our empire, and subjects smarting under the yoke, who would be the most likely to take a rash step and lead themselves and us into obvious danger" (Chapter XVII). The Melians say it would be cowardice to not resist, even if it seems foolish.
Does this dialogue prove the rational actor theory of statehood that holds that states always act in their own self-interest? On one hand, the…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
Louis Labe…… [Read More]
Plato vs. Freud on eros and sexuality
Plato's concept of love mandates two rectifications. Both of these rectifications are necessary in order for us to appreciate the relevance of Plato's theory of love to contemporary problems. The first depiction comports with the non-sexual aspect of the loving relationship, because Plato's theory of love indeed includes sex.
The second depiction, or rectification, is related inextricably to the heterosexual aspect of the loving relationship. Without a doubt, Plato considers love between people solely as a homosexual phenomenon, but his explication of sex comprises both heterosexual and homosexual relationships.
The sociological setting of Platonism is all one needs to understand it: In Fifth Century Athens, apart from some outstanding exceptions, like Pericles' legendary love for Aspasia, men only married for reproductive needs and ends, yet reserved the term 'love' and the passionate activity of sexual love only for homosexual relationships. However, nothing in…… [Read More]
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…… [Read More]
Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).
ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]
They do not occupy space. Nevertheless, although the Form of a circle has never been seen -- -indeed, could never be seen -- -mathematicians and others do in fact know what a circle is. That they can define a circle is evidence that they know what it is. For Plato, therefore, the Form "circularity" exists, but not in the physical world of space and time. It exists as a changeless object in the world of Forms or Ideas, which can be known only by reason."
Forms have greater reality than objects in the physical world both because of their perfection and stability and because they are models of reality (Vincent, 2005). Circularity, squareness, and triangularity are all good examples of what Plato meant by Forms. An object in the physical world may be called a circle or a square or a triangle only to the extent that it resembles the…… [Read More]
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.
The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).
History: Development and Downfall
As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…… [Read More]
The Hope Athena
According to the Greek mythology, the people that resided in a place called Attica (Greece) derived the name to the current, capital city of Greece (Athens) in honor of the Goddess Athena. People from Athens built a brilliant temple on the Acropolis, which they then called the Parthenon. The word 'Parthenos' stands for maiden when translated into Greek. An ancient myth stated that the gods established a decree that the goddess Athena was supposed to remain single and virgin. The myth is has been proven true as its perceptions realistically happened. The Hope Athena sculpture was excavated together with another statue (Hygeia) in the year 1797, in the port of Rome at Ostia (Murrin 2007). Thesis- The Hope Athena is a sculpture is a representation of ultimate impersonation, predictability and innovation towards Greek history. The assumption underlain by the sculpture's stylistic nature is…… [Read More]
Indian nationalism as a response to the British presence in India as of 1945, from the standpoint of your role in the game (i.e. from Maharaj)
"Outlining the reasons why democracy should not prevail in Kashmir" (quoted from your role sheet) 3. As Maharaja of Kashmir, you wish your territory to be left intact. You do not want a united and democratic India under the rule of the INC. Your paper needs to provide a principled defense of that objective.
Who Am I?
There are many, many reasons why I do not want democracy for Kashmir, but the logical way to approach this would be first to tell you something about myself and then to detail my reasons against democracy:
I was born on September 23, 1895 and am the great grandson of Maharaja Gulab Singh. I pride myself on possessing many of his values but at the same time…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]
Symposium is one of the most critically analyzed pieces of ancient literature, because it expresses in a fascinating format the lifestyle of the Athenian elite, as well as the intellectual maturity of the philosopher Socrates. hile studying the nature of love may be a discussion of low importance to modern philosophers, an emotional reaction so strong as love is to human nature has always been a remarkable aspect of human life. In addition, in the time of the Symposium, Greek mythology had largely avoided the topic of an emotional love, in favor of violence, war, and lust. Therefore, the topic of love was not only one which could be shared within a room of men, but was actually a rather progressive topic which was understood in incredibly different ways than the modern concept of love. To better understand the lessons of the Symposium, one must study the nature of love…… [Read More]
Truths by Mortimer Adler.
Review current literature.
Mortimer Adler was a man who made significant contributions to the field of education
The following information is provided to create a better understanding of the man and his writing. Mortimer Adler is known for his many contributions to the field of education and philosophy. Throughout his professional and personal life, he was consumed with the desire to learn and to teach others. His approach to education became instrumental in advancing the idea that philosophy is integrated with other disciplines such as Literature, cience, and Religion.
He was the author of numerous books and articles and played a significant role in American educational reform in the twentieth century. He is best known for his efforts in promoting the Great Books of the Western World for reflection and systematic study. He was ultimately responsible for publishing the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western…… [Read More]
Even today it is difficult enough for historians to write about something that occurred not even 50 or 100 years ago, because of all the many simultaneous events and viewpoints on the issues. They have to look at all the facts and determine what is the overlying "truth." Most often, these specialists will have their own personal perspective. Imagine, then, the challenge that Mestrius Plutarch had when writing about something that happened 300 years before his time, when extensively less materials on his subject were available and he often had to rely on ancient manuscripts no long present today. In his most-known writing, Lives, Plutarch may have sometimes filled in the blanks or stretched the truth, but this sizeable volume of work still remains one of the major sources of his period of time.
Born during the reign of Roman Emperor Claudius in Greece, Plutarch produced an extensive body…… [Read More]
Organizational Politics and Its Impact on Leadership
Vigoda (2000) defines organizational politics as a behavior that strategically maximizes one's self-interests at the expense of the interests of others, and the needs of the greater organization. This view portrays organizational politics as something negative; something detrimental to the well-being of the organization. Gull and Zaidi (2012), however, hold a slightly different view. They define organizational politics as "an activity that permits people in an organization to accomplish goals without going through proper channels;" however, they also emphasize that whether or not politicking harms an organization depends solely on the degree of alignment between the goals of the individual, and those of the organization (p. 156). The wide array of definitions "suggests that the concept is in transition and under continuous debate" (Drory & Vigoda-Gadot, 2010, p. 195). This text takes on the latter perspective, with the author regarding organizational politics as…… [Read More]
Thucydides and Plato had conflicting methods in their attitudes toward the good life. Thucydides demonstrates empirical thinking in his readings of human nature and comportment throughout the Peloponnesian War and Plato demonstrates normative thinking in the writing within his books and discourses in particular Gorigia. Plato's interpretations of a good life revolve on principles that an individual has reached contentment. What contentment means to Plato is a person who has no desires because that person possesses all-encompassing love in his/her life.
Plato understood this to be equal for everyone and that displaying entire virtue is accessible by everyone. Virtue is accessed by everyone when one has all love and none of the desires. This is how Plato views access to virtue which is markedly different from Thucydides' perspective. Plato's understanding of love more so involves a mythological comprehension of the world.
The Greek Historian, Thucydides, however, demonstrated his imperialistic methodology…… [Read More]
Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6"
The purpose of Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist No. 6" is to convince the reader of the dangers of an only partially united group of states. Hamilton urges total centralization under the guise of a ruling Constitution to protect the nation from "ambitious, vindictive, and rapacious" men, which is what men turn into when they are given independence, according to him. (The irony of Hamilton's argument is that he is arguing for that which the American Revolutionaries just threw off!) His thesis is contained in the opening paragraph: "I shall now proceed to delineate dangers of a different and, perhaps, still more alarming kind -- those which will in all probability flow from dissensions between the States themselves, and from domestic factions and convulsions" (Hamilton). His aim is clear: a loose confederation of states, each with its own authority, will not work because men simply cannot get along.…… [Read More]
Roman history like Augustus, Charlemagne, and Pericles have soared into Western historical tradition while others like Commodus have received a far less respected legacy, being banished and disgraced with stories of megalomania and decadence. Of the character portrayals of Commodus both in film and literature, only two primary literary sources of Commodus exist. They are from Herodian and Cassius Dio. With such little information available of how Commodus truly was, much was left to the imagination. What could have been a great Roman emperor is now a hedonistic caricature depicted by films like Gladiator and writers like Dio. ut why was Commodus depicted in that way? Was he truly a megalomaniac or a man wishing to gain true power?
Of the primary sources available, the information provided from these sources can lead someone to assume partial inaccuracy. Cassisus Dio for example, worked under Commodus as a senator. He wrote an…… [Read More]
Future of Nursing Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The primary objective of this book is to provide the reader with evidence-based nursing education and practice principles. The goal of this work is to help nursing educators and nurse practitioners develop evidence-based nursing education standards and curriculum while providing nurses with effective examples of patient-centered care that is both high quality and cost effective. Patients and family members in Saudi Arabia have needs and expectations that nurses should seek to meet and fulfill. To that end, this book aims to support nurses and nurse educators.
The cultural values of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also an important component of this work, as it is the culture of this country that supports and advances the aims of the nursing profession. This is seen in every aspect of the nursing profession -- from the earliest days of the first nursing…… [Read More]
This essaydescribes the meaning of leadership and defines the characteristics and qualities of effective leaders. It discusses the manner in which leadership skills can be developed and assesses the importance of leadership in organizations seeking to achieve specific aims. Leadership styles, such as servant leadership and transformational leadership, are analyzed and qualities such as boldness, good judgment and emotional intelligence are examined to show how they support effective leadership. The paper concludes with a discussion of what leadership means to different people and how leadership styles can reflect an individuals own subjective take on leadership and how it should be demonstrated.
What is leadership?
How can leadership qualities be promoted?
How does a bad leadership experience impact a workplace culture?
Real-life leaders in the 20th century
Influential Leaders in Modern Times
Servant Leadership and Youth Programs
The Qualities That Define a Good Leader
II.…… [Read More]
belief systems of Christians and Muslim, particularly in how they view angels. Both religions believe angels exist, and that they are an important part of their religious beliefs. They both believe angels can guide and support people here on Earth, and they are messengers of God or Allah. They also believe they can be vengeful and destructive, and angels play an important role in the stories of the Qur'an and the Bible. Angels are only one of the commonalities between these two religions, but they are an important link to two very diverse religions, and they show that many religions have core beliefs that link them together, whether they want to admit it or not.
Comparing Angels in Islam and Christianity
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of Islam and Christianity issues. Specifically it will compare and contrast the faith doctrine of angels…… [Read More]
Philosophers are those most endowed to comprehend reality, therefore they ought to be granted state leadership. At the same time, people ought to realize their potential, an action which implied not only virtuosity, but also the achievement of happiness.
Lucretius on the other hand argued that dedicating oneself to the pleasures of the body is nothing but a road to perdition and that it is likely to bring more pain and misery than happiness. Just like Plato he argued for a rational view of the world and a rational approach to politics. According to him, inner balance was a strategic factor for the individual's happiness and for the society's well being. However, people had to accept pain and deal with (in a rational manner) and not simply choose to ignore it. He underlines that hardship is a natural element of life and that people should demonstrate their dignity and strength…… [Read More]
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]
Compare Greek religion in the two different periods in history in the eighth century, the time of Homer, and in the fifth century BCE, according to the following:
The different ways they believed their gods intervened.
During the Epic Age, that of Homer, they believed that the God directly intervened in the lives of human beings. Over time, as the rulers of Greece became more powerful, the population began to feel that although the Gods could control lives, they were mostly observers rather than direct participants.
Whether they believed their gods favored or punished specific individuals for moral reasons.
In the 8th century BC, the people believed that the Gods punished behavior, but that the punishments were more targeted at individuals who disrespected the gods rather than those who committed crimes or sins. As exemplified in Antigone, the people feared that if they defied the gods then they…… [Read More]