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Assyrian Empire vs. The Persian Empire
Although both, the Assyrian and the Persian empires proved to be two of the most famous of their times, there were noticeable differences among them both and what strategies they used to establish their name and carry their empires towards success and leadership. oth of them managed to spread their empires to vast levels and leave traces for the other later empires to follow.
The Assyrian Empire was situated in Northern Mesopotamia and was spread out over four nations which are Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq. This empire proved to be one of the most powerful ones present at its time and conquered much of the East which led to the massive success and strength of the empire. The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers flowed between the lands of the Assyrians which enriched their conquered lands.
The empire basically originated in the northern side…
Rata, T. (2006). The Persian Empire. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society.
Yamada, S. (2000). The Construction of the Assyrian Empire: A hitsorical study. Brill Publishers.
Battle of Platea
The Persian Empire was built on the Persian practice of conquer and enslave. The big war machine moved across Asia and Southern Europe conquering peoples and stripping them of any form of self-determination or independent thought. This was the principle that set the scene for the Battle of Platea in 479 AD
The success of the Persian army was built on the principle of taking the best from every culture that it conquered. hen the Persians conquered, they pursued the best artists, scholars and military personnel for their own. The Persian army was a very multi-cultural group. The Persian army was known for overwhelming numbers in their ranks, However, some sources contest that all were not soldiers, but the totals consisted of wives, concubines and camp followers. Some of these camp followers were archers. The size of the Persian army made it a force to encounter. However,…
Burn, Andrew R. Persia and the Greeks. The Defence of the West, c.546-478 B.C., London,
Barron, J.P. 'The liberation of Greece', in: the Cambridge ancient history, 2nd ed, vol.4,
Ferrill, Arthur, "The Origins of War. From the Stone Age to Alexander The Great" Greeks at War, Men at Arms Series. Osprey Publishing, London, 1979.
Economy of Persian Society: Darius and Xerxes
Under Darius, the Persian Empire was at its height and its economy flourished. The lands and people he conquered paid taxes or tributes to him, most willingly, because he, like Cyrus, was tolerant of their cultures. The expansion of the Persian road system allowed for easier travels and a mail system to develop which facilitated trade and the moving of coin. Indeed, Darius had introduced a new coin, or currency, that was to be universally recognized -- this was the daric. This coining of money also allowed trade to flourish, as it was accepted even beyond the borders of Persia by other nations, who respected the coinage of Darius. The coins were made of either silver or gold and they greatly enhanced the international commerce of Persia at this time, giving the Persian Empire a very good economy.
The coins were also helpful…
Daniel, E. (2000). The History of Iran. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Farrokh, K. (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. UK: Osprey.
Haaren, J. (1904). Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company.
Herodutus. (2004). The Histories, trans. by G. C. Macaulay. NY: Barnes & Noble
Persian Wars were wars fought between the Persian Empire and Greek city states in the 5th century BCE. The Persian Empire under Darius was expanding westward into Europe, and had targeted the powerful Greek states, particularly Athens, in order to capture what was the major power in the region at the time. The Greeks were able to hold their territory, and as a result they were able to preserve their civilization.
The Persian Empire was probably the largest and most powerful at the time. The empire has spread across Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, and was targeting peninsular Greece. The Persians led a cosmopolitan force, emblematic of their empire, which had religious freedom, tolerance, and incorporated many cultures. The Greeks, however, were a strong culture in their own right, and resisted the idea of subjugation by the Persians. Darius had requested that the Greeks submit to his rule, but Athens…
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
Persian Between 1000 and 1700
Persian as a region was known to be of significant influence to the rest of the world in many aspects ranging from science, to geography, religion and other disciplines. The region gained significant expansion in terms of the influence within the region and interaction with the rest of the world especially in the 1000 and 1700 period due to the various reasons discussed here.
The expansion of the Persian was perpetuated by the turning of the Persianate world to be more than just a region but a concept or a system that transverse the Persian gulf alone, it presented a shared system, knowledge, statecraft, religiosity, trade, diplomacy and even sociability which were conveyed through the use of a common Persian language. This made it easy to expand the Persian empire beyond the physical borders that existed (Sharma S., 2014:Pp1-2).
The Persian empire, currently referred to…
Independence Hall Association, (2014). Ancient Civilizations: Persian Empire. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://www.ushistory.org/civ/4e.asp
Spooner B & Hanaway L., (2006). Literacy in the Persianate World. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=CjibFs9JlgoC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=expansion+of+Persianate&source=bl&ots=z8RrfODArs&sig=rz_iV9NqmUyIoMt0bAT1q1mTqmA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBGoVChMItYzju7nqyAIVy1YUCh0f9QWx#v=onepage&q=expansion%20of%20Persianate&f=false
World History Center, (2015). Persia. Retrieved October 30, 2015 from http://history-world.org/persians.htm
Sharma S., (2014). Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and Middle East. Vol 22 No1&2. Pp1-2. Duke University Press.
Alexander the Great
Born in July 356 B.C. Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon to King Philip II and Epirote princess Olympias, Alexander the Great, was a king of Macedon and the greatest military commander who ever lived in the ancient world. In the relatively short period of time he was at the helm of the kingdom of Macedon, he managed to conquer almost the entire civilized world before his untimely death (Alexander the Great, 2015).
When Alexander was very young, he proved himself to be capable of undertaking dangerous military conquests (Gascoigne, n.d.). For instance, when the boy was just sixteen, his father left him in charge of the kingdom when he went east on an expedition against the Byzantium Kingdom (Gascoigne, n.d.). During the time his father was away, Alexander managed to crush Thracians who were posing problems to the throne. As a reward, his father later allowed him to…
Alexander the Great. (2015). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Alexander_the_Great&oldid=987437.Clark , Darci. (2012). The Impact of Alexander the Great's Conquests. Term Paper for Global History to the 15th Century. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://semiramis-speaks.com/the-impact-of-alexander-the-greats-conquests/
Gascoigne, Bamber. (n.d.). "History of Alexander the Great." HistoryWorld. From 2001, ongoing. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa02#ixzz3x7OjIFWT
Mark, Joshua J. (2013). Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/
Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity
In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…
Abrams, H.N. & Welch, S.C. (1963). The Art of Mughal India. New York City: The Asia Society, Inc.
Bowle, J. (1962). Man Through the Ages. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Lane-Poole, S. (1970). Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764). Haskell House Publishers, Ltd.
Malik, H. (1963). Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Public Affairs Press.
Athenian Empire to Alexander the Great's Empire as the two main efforts to unify and expand ancient Greece. Ancient Greece played a vital role in the civilization and culture of the world. They developed some of the things we take for granted today, such as democracy, art, and philosophy. Alexander the Great helped spread Athenian culture around the world, and its influence is still felt today.
The Athenian Empire was one of the greatest on Earth, and it became a model for civilization, culture, and democracy. Athens, the city the culture was named after, was the leading city in Greece, and a leading city in the world. The Greeks had a thriving trade center, they had wealth, they had a great navy that ruled over the rest of the area, and they had developed a democratic system of government. They had great buildings such as the Parthenon, and they enjoyed…
Mareli?, Marko. "Brief Athenian History." Korcula.net. 27 Oct. 2003. 4 May 2004. http://www.korcula.net/history/mmarelic_korkyra.htm
One of the most brilliant contributions of the Byzantium is its contribution to modern music and the development of what the world has come to appreciate as the foundations of classical music. The Byzantine "medieval" (Lang, 1997), in fact, the Byzantium influence is considered to be critical to the development of the Greek music and the relative genius behind Greek music (Lang, 1997)
The quoted sovereign melody (Lang, 1997) is the oft punctuated contribution to the sovereign nature of today's music throughout the world. The Byzantium facilitated the sovereign method of music ostensibly from what would be the earlier influences to the Byzantine Empire. Lang continues to point to such influence as having its origins in the Orient (Lang, 1997).
Sports were a major part of the Byzantine Empire and are representative of the development of competition within the Roman Empire and subsequently to the importance of sporting events within…
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…
Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.
Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Persian Contraction From 1700 to 2000
Persia represented an important link between East and West. It held the Middle position and in geopolitical terms, this position meant a lot as the Industrial Age began to get underway in the modern era. Persian territory was viewed with envious eyes by other nations that saw the strategic location Persia occupied. The decadence of the Ottoman Empire, a series of wars, power plays, globalization, cultural changes and influences, and diaspora have all impacted Persia and accounted for its contraction between 1700 and 2000. This paper will analyze these factors and show how in these three hundred years, changes in the way of the world, such as the influence of technology and industry, had a direct effect on the shape of Persia and its geographical location.
Persia in the 18th Century
The Suffavean dynasty was founded in the 16th century and it lasted for…
Bashir, Hassan. "Qanun and the Modernisation of Political Thought in Iran," Global
Media Journal, vol. 8, no. 14 (Spring 2009).
Ekhtiar, Maryam. "Nasir al-din Shah and the Dar al-Funum: The Evolution of Institution," International Society for Iranian Studies: Qajar Art and Society, vol. 34, no. 1/4 (2001).
Fisher, Michael. "Teaching Persian as an Imperial Language in India and in England
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html .
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, Richard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. Retrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM .
Jayaram, V. (2008). "Chinese Buddhism: An Overview." Hindu Website. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/chinese_buddhism.asp .
Accuracies in the Snyder's Film
Herodotus and Zac Snyder have at least one thing in common: they both portray the ancient Persians in very unflattering terms. The grim, ghastly, almost monstrously barbaric (yet weirdly effeminate) features of the Persian leader Xerxes is one of the most visually arresting elements of Snyder's film 300 (based on a graphic novel by Frank Miller). How historically accurate is the film? Considering the fact that Snyder shot almost the entirety of the film on a soundstage because the film's "landscapes are different than in real life. They don't exist in the real world, only in Frank Miller's imagination," one might be tempted to say not very. Yet, there are elements of the film that do correspond to the historical attle of Thermopylae -- in a way. This paper will compare and contrast Snyder's film 300 with the real history of the battle between Spartans…
Becking, Bob. "We All Returned as One!" In Judah and the Judeans in the Persian
Period. IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006.
Book of Ezra. Old Testament. MN: Lohman Company, 1937.
Daniel, Elton. The History of Iran. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
Alexander -- the Great
Alexander, who was the son of Phillip II, sat on the throne of Macedon when he was 22 years of age. Between his twenty third and thirty third birthday, in a period of ten years, he conquered most of the known civilizations of the world, from Indus to the Adriatic Sea. (Southern Utah University, 2005)
The history indicates that these conquests of Alexander became possible because of his remarkable personality and military genius. He is regarded as mystery to the world as he has not left behind any diary, formal discourse on the art of war or theory of monarchy. All the world has are some parts of his speech, fragments of his conversations and a number of stories that depicted his various abilities and hi intelligence. (Southern Utah University, 2005)
Alexander's biography tells the world very little about this man. His biography indicates that he…
Engels, D. (2013). Alexander the Great. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/alexander-the-great
Gabel, C. And Willbanks, J. (2011). Great Commanders. Kansas: United States Combined Arms Center.
HubPages (2013). The Motivations of Alexander the Great: What motivated the famous general as he was conquering the world?. Retrieved from: http://adamvera.hubpages.com/hub/The-Motivations-of-Alexander-the-Great
Overtoom, N. (2011). Contesting the Greatness of Alexander the Great: The Representation of Alexander in the Histories of Polybius and Livy. College Park: University of Maryland.
Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.
ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…
Darius III," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press. Online. Available from Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/65/da/Darius3.html , Accessed June 5, 2006.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published by Columbia University and is among the most complete encyclopedias ever produced.
Darius III," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Online.
Available from Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…
Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.
Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.
Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
military place Zhou dynasty China? What social impact ? eference Book: A History World Societies,
Essentially, Alexander the Great incurred the displeasure of his Macedon army during the battle of Gaugamela. This battle took place in the part of Iraq that is today known as Irbil. The reason that Alexander's soldiers were displeased with their leader is because after traversing through various parts of Asia and conquering it, Alexander's contingent eventually came upon Darius' forces in the midst of the night. Alexander's army was able to tell that it was the army of the mighty Persian king, whom Alexander had a profound respect for, due to the campfires that they were able to see faintly glowing in the distance within the darkness.
A minor dispute arose between Alexander and his troops because the former were inclined to attack the Persian king in the depths of the night, hoping that…
No author. (2012). The Zhou Dynasty. Thinkquest. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html
Mckay, J.P.,Hill, B.D., Buckler, J., Ebrey, P.B., Beck, R.B., Crowston, C.H., Wiesner-Hanks, M.E. (2008). A History of World Societies, Volume 1 To 1715 Eighth Edition. New York: Bedford/St. Martin.
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…
1. "Athens and Sparta: Different Yet the Same." Social Studies for Kids. [database online]; available from http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/athenssparta.htm ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
2. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Athens, City, Greece" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117004302 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
3. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Sparta" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117046808 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
4. Solanki, P. 2012. "Sparta Vs. Athens." Buzzle. [database online]; available from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/sparta-vs.-athens.html ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
We will look to the representatives of the middle class for advice and help in our good governance.
We will promote a peaceful and non-conflicting approach towards all other empires and countries and will try to sort out the differences we have with some of our enemies. One of the first things in terms of foreign policy is meetings with our enemies and discussion of current problems. We don't believe in wars: wars cost money and we want to spend money doing more useful things, such as building the infrastructure and developing new public use projects. Negotiations will be undertaken, but remain assured that we will not give up on anything that is fundamentally vital for the survival of our great nation.
The competition for resources is a challenge we must all face, but finding alternatives such as wind power can help us become more independent in terms of our…
They also counted with cavalry and carts.
However on thin passages or gorges, the Persian cavalry could not display its full power and their number superiority was blocked, since their spears were shorter than the Greek weapons. The narrow battlefield of the gorge forced them to fight almost in equal number with the Greek army, forcing them to retreat after two days of battle.
The Persian army achieved important victories: the Greek fleet was rejected on the Artemisium cape and, after the victory over Leonidas of Sparta and his 300 men on the gorge of Thermopylae, the news of the first Persian victories spread over the country and discouraged the Greek army that retreated from battle, bringing new victories for Xerxes's army. The Persians devastated Boeotia and the Attica, reaching Athens.
After the Thermopylae defeat, on August of 480 B.C., in Athens there was consternation. However, instead of surrendering, the…
Abbott, Jacob. Makers of History: Xerxes. New York: Kessinger, 2007.
Biography of Xerxes." 16 Aug. 2007. http://www.sacklunch.net/biography/X/Xerxes.html .
Buckley, Jonathan. Xerxes. Fourth Estate, 2000
Davis, William Stearns. A Victor of Salamis: A Tale of the Days of Xerxes, Leonidas and Themistocles. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2005
Alexander saw himself as that philosopher-king who would install a new kind of cooperation and brotherhood with one or unified Greek culture, Hellenism, and speaking a common language, Greek (Smitha 1998). He intended that his subjects in the East would be reared and trained to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.
In consolidating his huge territory, Alexander founded cities, mostly named Alexandria, in suitable and well-paved locations with sufficient supply of water. His army veterans, young men, merchants, traders and scholars settled there, infused Greek culture and, through them, the Greek language widely flourished. Through his mighty victories and territorial control, Alexander thus spread Greek civilization and paved the way for the incoming Hellenistic kingdoms and the conquest of the Roman Empire (Microsoft 2004).
He also felt that trade would unite his empire more strongly and so he forced new commercial possibilities and made abylon the center of brisk world…
Dorst, Sander van. Macedonian Army. Van Dorst, 2000. http://members.tripod.com/~S-vn_Dorst/Alexander.html
Marx, Irma. Empire of Alexander the Great - Expansion into Asia and Central Asia. Silkroad Foundation, 2000. http://www.silk-road.com/art/alex.shtml
Microsoft Encarta. Alexander the Great. Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation, 2004. http://encyclopedia_761564408/Alexander_the_Great.html
Smitha, Frank E. Alexander Changes the World. World History, 1998. http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch11.htm
In the end, the Spartan/Greek army's superior armor and weapons and clever use of topography to counterbalance the Persian's greater numbers helps to explain their victories on a military level. Unfortunately, Leonidas and his fellow Spartans were massacred after a local Greek revealed to Xerxes a secret route around the narrow pass, allowing the Persians to attack the Spartans from the front and the rear at the same time. At the conclusion of the battle, Leonidas and his 300 brave Spartans were all dead, along with most of the other Greek fighters. Amazingly, Leonidas and his men had managed to kill more than 20,000 Persians which demonstrated the superior fighting skills of the hoplites and their devotion to the ideal of political freedom more than one hundred years before the city of Athens reached its zenith as the foundation of Greek democratic ideals and individualism.
Greco-Persian Wars: attle of…
Greco-Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae." HistoryNet.com. Internet. June 12, 2006. Retrieved at http://www.historynet.com/greco-persian-wars-battle-of-thermopylae.htm .
Lendering, Jona. "Phalanx and Hoplites." Livius. Internet. 2005. Retrieved at http://www.livius.org/pha-phd/phalanx/phalanx.html .
Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004.
The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.
The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…
Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.
Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.
Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.
Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…
Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
Persia became Iran
Iran, which is the name nowadays for its country, was formerly known as Persia. The two identities of present day Iran is associated both to the peak of power of pre-Islamic, Achaemenid Persia, as also to its Islamic origin situated both in the 7th century start of Islam in Iran via Arab invasion, and to its 16th century when Shiite Islam formally turned out the state religion of Iran. The country has always been acknowledged among its own people as Iran (land of the Aryans); even though for centuries it was pinpointed to as Persia (Pars or Fars, a provincial state in southern Iran) by the Europeans, mainly because of the writings of Greek historians. In 1935 the government mentioned that it should be called Iran, although in 1949 allowances were made for both names to be implemented. Persia turned out a powerful empire under the Cyrus…
Gold Coins of Persia: A Brief History of Persia" (n.d) Retrieved at http://www.taxfreegold.co.uk/persia.html . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Iran or Persia." (2003) Retrieved at http://www.sanibrite.ca/iran/page10.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Mackey, Sandra. "The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation" (1996) Plume: New York, p.5
Yarshater, Ehsan. "Persia or Iran? When Persia Became Iran" (n.d) Retrieved from Iranian Studies, Vol. XXII, No.1, 1989. Accessed on 12/08/2003
Cyrus the Great, after his victory over the Medians, founded the Achaemenid Empire. The Achaemenid Empire would become one of the most formidable in the ancient Near East/Central Asia. One of the reasons why the Achaemenid grew in power, wealth, and stature was due to the unique combination of a strong centralized government and the satrapy system. Another reason why the Persian Empire grew and lasted as long as it did was that its rulers understood how to turn diversity into a strength. Thus, Persian leaders capitalized on the ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity of their regions in order to remain strong.
From the time of Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid Empire demonstrated remarkable and astute leadership. Although the Persian notion of king tended to be theocratic in tone, Cyrus was nevertheless an egalitarian leader, which is why he was able to rule over diverse populations without significant, at…
Known as the Median kingdom, centered in what is today northern Iran, this powerful alliance of Mesopotamian kingdoms and nations emerged in the late 8th century B.C.E. with its mighty army joining that of Babylon to destroy the Assyrian Empire. In 546 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great, after conquering Lydia and subduing its king Croesus, quickly acquired domination over many of the Greek polis or city-states on the western coast of Anatolia, a region which King Croesus of Lydia had previously subdued.
In 539 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great invaded the Babylonian Empire and annexed all of Chaldea, taking its king Nabonidus captive and then naming himself as the king of Babylon, Akkad and Sumer. Soon after, Cyrus the Great gained control of the vast Arabian Peninsula and attempted to invade the Egyptian Kingdom. Not surprisingly, all of this expansion of the Persian Empire was not taken very lightly by Cyrus' numerous…
Alexander had taken Roxana, a Bactrian princess as one of his many wives, however, his Macedonian officers rebelled at his attempt to force them to intermarry with the Persians and "resisted his Eastern ways and his vision of an empire governed by tolerance," and although there was a mutiny, it was unsuccessful (Alexander Pp).
In 323, while planning a sea voyage around Arabia, Alexander caught a fever and died at the age of thirty-three (Alexander Pp). His generals then began quarreling about the division of rule, and his only son, Alexander Aegus, born to Roxana after Alexander's death, was "destined for a short and pitiful life" (Alexander Pp).
hether Alexander had designs for a world empire is debatable, however, what is true and factual is that he accomplished greater conquests than anyone before him, he simply did not have time to mold the governments of the all the lands he…
Alexander the Great."
The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 4/22/2004; Pp.
Alexander the Great." pp. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564408/Alexander_the_Great.html
Cartledge, Paul. "Alexander the Great: hunting for a new past?"
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…
Ancient History Timeline." Thinkquest. Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html
Hooker, R. (1996). "Sparta." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/SPARTA.htm
Hooker, R. (1996). "Athens." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/ATHENS.htm
Kings Rulers Emperors Dictators Tyrants and Military Leaders" About.com http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/rulersleaderskings/Kings_Rulers_Emperors_Dictators_Tyrants_and_Military_Leaders.htm
Both points-of-view may be absolutely correct, but neither really addresses the issue of whether or not Alexander was truly great.
Perhaps the best way to evaluate Alexander's greatness is to look at the lasting effects that he had on civilization.
First and foremost, Alexander conquered the known world. "Before Alexander world civilization had been dominated by eastern cultures - Persians, Egyptians, and Babylonians. Alexander shifted the spotlight once and for all. From now on the western societies of the Romans and the Greeks would take over the torch." Alexander used the gold reserves of conquered Persia to build new cities and ports, which he used to spread the Greek civilization around the world. In fact, "the economic system that began to take shape after Alexander's reign remained virtually unchanged until the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th century." hile the Greeks may have found Alexander's successes great, not all of…
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Wehrstein, Karen. 2003. Alexander's True Passion: Transcendence [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=26&keyword_id=2&title=Passion;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
This is largely what Ibn Battuta did by providing individuals that he encountered with his opinion concerning particular matters. He was strict with regard to his beliefs, but was relatively unhesitant about observing other cultures and individuals respecting them. He basically appreciated the fact that he could learn important information from other people, regardless of their status and background.
VII. Arab transnationalism evolution
Arab transnationalism is closely connected to globalization, considering that Arab Muslims conquered a series of territories in South Asia and virtually presented people they conquered with Islamic thought. The fact that Islam itself was divided between Sunni Muslims and Shi'a Muslims played an important role in influencing many Muslims to get actively involved in the transnationalism process. In addition to conquering territories in South and South-East Asia, numerous Muslims also integrated in cultures in the area and freely expressed their national identity there. Arab thinking thus pervaded…
Ahmed, Akbar S., and Sonn, Tamara, "The SAGE Handbook of Islamic Studies," (SAGE, 26.05.2010)
Grant, Clinton, "The Travels and Journals of Ibn Battuta," Retrieved November 29, 2012, from the PeopleHofstra.edu Website: http://people.hofstra.edu/alan_j_singer/CoursePacks/TheTravelsandJournalsofIbnBattuta.pdf
Mandaville, Peter, "Transnational Islam in Asia: Background, Typology and Conceptual Overview," Retrieved November 29, 2012, from the National Bureau of Asian Research Website: http://www.nbr.org/publications/specialreport/pdf/Preview/PR09_TransIslam.pdf
Nagel, Caroline R., and Staeheli, Lynn a., "Citizenship, Identity, and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the U.S.," Retrieved November 29, 2012, from the Scholar Commons Website: http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=geog_facpub
Alexander the Great
Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.
Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.
Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…
He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.
Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:
Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web: http://1stmuse.com/frames/index.html
In the Book of Daniel, chapter seven, it is written that there are four kingdoms. Specifically, in this portion of The Bible, Daniel has a vision where he sees four beasts which come to him out of the sea. The first is a beast that looks like a lion but it has eagle's wings. Then there is one that resembles a bear but that has a terrible expression wherein there are ribs protruding from its teeth. Thirdly, there is a leopard that has two pairs of wings and four heads to match. The last creature that emerges from the water is less clearly described, but it has large teeth made of iron and ten horns upon its head. There are many schools of thought as to what these four creatures represent, but most hold that they refer to four important eras in history that are brought about through empire-building…
Bloom, Harold. The Bible. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. Print.
military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.
Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…
Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)
J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)
J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)
Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68
The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…
Ancient Jewish History
Davidmann, Mandred. "History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile and Maccabees." http://www.solbaram.org/articles/fn2.html
Department for Jewish Zionist Education
Turkey and Iran
In the early 1920s both Turkey and Iran found themselves in an identity crisis. Formerly famous for their respective empires that were now crumbling, they found themselves in need of resurgence after the previous institutions of government had failed them. Mustafa Kemal (1923) or Ataturk, which means father of Turks, and Reza Shah (1925) came to power and contributed to the formation of the modern day national identity. They are both celebrated leaders who generated the feelings of nationalism and brought their people together to acknowledge and be proud of their national identity.
It was a revolutionary time for the Turks and Ataturk was determined to bring the nation from a "backward" land (compared to the developed est) to a more "respectable" nation of sophisticated and progressive ideals and culture. As a true nationalist he aimed to create a homogeneous, ethnically Turkish state. Likewise in Iran, the…
Cook, Steven A. "How happy is the one who says, I am a Turk,'" Foreign Policy, March
28, 2016. Web.
Fradkin, Hillel; Lewis Libby. "Erdogan's Grand Vision: Rise and Decline," World
Affairs, March/April 2013 File
The Maritime Revolution occurred at the turn of the 1500s and began in full swing around 1550. It was started by many nation states within Europe at roughly the same time. Spain and England were the two early contributors to the Maritime Revolution, and many other European states soon followed. The Tudors of England and Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand of Spain were the main drivers behind this revolution. For the first time, Spain had complete control over its government following the union of Ferdinand and Isabella, in the wake of peace they turned their sites to new conquests the expansion of Spanish control. As a result, the Maritime Revolution occurred as Europe hastened to explore the world to discover unknown territories and new outlets for commerce. Spain was the first to sponsor such expeditions with the most famous being Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the Americas. Columbus's predecessors…
Alexander's execution of his trusted general Parmenion and his son Philotas, and how it affected the remainder of Alexander's life, and his reign.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Alexander the Great was born sometime around July 20th, in 356 .C., the son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, in Pella. As a child, the great philosopher and scientist, Aristotle, tutored him. His father was murdered in 336 .C., and Alexander took the throne at the young age of twenty. He was one of the greatest conquerors in history, taking over Greece, Persia, Egypt, and part of India before he died. "He was not yet twenty-six. In six years he had won greater victories than any hero in Greek history had won in a lifetime, and he had done it, at several turning-points, in the teeth of all advice from his generals and Companions" (urn 175).
He considered himself a relative of…
Burn, A.R. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire. New York: Macmillan Co., 1948.
Editors. "Alexander the Great." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2000.
Untereker, Jed, Kossuth, James, and Kelsey, Bill. "The Great Homepage of Alexander." Williams College. 1996. http://wso.williams.edu/~junterek/
They attempted several times to conquer Egypt and Sicily, among other places. In Yemen, rett describes a situation of internecine warfare between various sectors of Yemeni society. He writes, "Mahdism thus proved unable to transform the society of the Yemen into an enduring new state, as it did the society of ahrayn" (p. 78). Al-Fadl could not make headway with the southern tribesmen and nobility. In the end, Yemen proved too introverted a place to become a unifying imperial power as the community was fragmenting. To make matters worse, the twelfth imam has just disappeared (Mohammad Al-Mahdi in 941). What were they to do? No one knew, they believed, when he would come out of hiding. So there must be waiting and vigilance, and a strict adherence to the imam's religious and judicial authority in the community.
Another Shiite group expecting the Messiah's return was the Fatimids, who traced their…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: a short history. New York: Modern Library.
Brett, Michael. (2001). The rise of the Fatimids: the world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the tenth century. CE. Leiden: Brill.
Endress, G. (2002). Islam: an historical introduction. C. Hillenbrand (Trans.). New York: Columbia University.
Goldschmidt, Arthur, & Lawrence Davidson. (2005). A concise history of the middle east (8th Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…
Abbott, Wilbur Cortez. The Expansion of Europe: A History of the Foundations of the Modern World. Vol. 2,. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1918.
Atal, Yogesh, ed. Poverty in Transition and Transition in Poverty: Recent Developments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia, Russia, Mongolia. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.
Black, Cyril E., Robert D. English, Jonathan E. Helmreich, a. James McAdams, and Paul C. Helmreich. Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
"Bulgaria, Romania Pledge Support in Georgia's EU Aspiration" May, 9th 2005, http://www.washprofile.org/en/node/6355
(26) and after the sixty two sevens (the) anointed one shall be cut off but not for himself. And the city and the holy (place) shall be destroyed by the people of the coming prince. And his destruction shall be in the outpouring; and until the destruction there shall be war, desolations are decreed. (27) and he shall cause a covenant to prevail with the many for one seven. But (for) half of the seven he shall cause sacrifice and offering to cease; and upon the wing (shall come) a desolating abominable idol, even until the end, and until that which is decreed shall be poured out upon the desolator." (Bible Gateway, 2004)
In conclusion, this report aimed to discuss the Prophet Daniel's vision of Seventy Weeks through interpretations, theories, views, and fulfillments including the references to Christ and the tribulations experienced. eligious scholars and other historians have felt…
Bible Gateway. (2004). Daniel. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible?passage=daniel+12:5-13
KeyWay. (2004). Daniel. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at http://www.keyway.ca/htm2000/20000213.htm
King James Bible (1984). The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments.
Sentex. (2004). Daniel's 70 Weeks. Retrieved November 8, 2004, at http://www.sentex.net/~tcc/dan70.html
Then in 1949, China was liberated and the state controlled by Mao Zedong, took over all music and artistic activities. Mao made great efforts to change musical traditions which he had associated with the older, defeated Chinese society. Promoted revolutionary songs and "Yangko Plays," (Yu un 1991). He moved the traditional away from professionalism, and towards exploring the life of the proletariat, the common people. Mao then allowed ussian influences to permeate into Chinese cultural traditions based on the nature of communism in the Soviet Union. Communism forced music like you would force production. Mao basically destroyed creative expression, all music other than state approved works were banned Popular musical developments were still occurring in British held Hong Kong, where the 1950s saw movements of Chinese ock and oll based on its Western influences (Wong 2000). Yet, it is clear that the music being handed down by the generations in…
During, Jean. 1982. "Music, Poetry and the Visual Arts in Persia." In The World of Music, 24(1). pages 72-84.
Nelson, Kristina. 1982. "Reciter and Listener: Some Factors Shaping the Mujawwad Style of Qur'anic Reciting." In Ethnomusicology 26(1). pages 41-47.
Nueman, Daniel M. 1985. "Indian Music as a Cultural System." Asian Music 17(1). pp.98-113.
Nueman, Daniel. 1989. "Music." The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives Francis Robinson, ed. Cambridge University Press. (pp.445-8).
The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.
It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…
Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.
Retrieved from http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& ; section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
.. Alexander would conquer the Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Judea,
Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extend the boundaries of his own empire as far as the Punjab.
In today's terms, Alexander would likely also be considered a practitioner and strong supporter of multiculturalism and diversity, since he allowed non-Greeks into his army, including its administration. This was/is considered Alexander's "policy of fusion" ("Alexander the Great"), and arguably a very early precursor of today's emphases on inclusion, in areas like the military and higher education.
But while Alexander's numerous military feats have all been recorded with the precision of the time, the reasons for Alexander's early death at Babylon remain unclear, even today. For example, according to the article "hat Killed Alexander the Great: Maybe Typhoid Fever (June 11, 1998): "Alexander died in 323 B.C. In Babylon at age 32 after conquering much of the civilized world that…
Alexander the Great. Dir. Oliver Stone. With Colin Farrell and Sir Anthony
Hopkins. November 24, 2004.
Alexander the Great." Wikipedia. October 19, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2006, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great.html .
Plutarch. The Age of Alexander: Nine Greek Lives. New York: Penguin Classics
Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.
One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…
Ginouves, Rene. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman Conquest. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
Philip II of Macedon Biography." History of Macedonia. 2003. Internet. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedoniaPhilipofMacedon.html.
Iran and Iraq
Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq
The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.
The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…
Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from http://atimes.com/2015/09/why-china-will-intervene-in-iraq/
CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from https://www.cia.gov /library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east
Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
82). While much of his theories are conjecture, it is quite clear from his Appendix, ibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.
I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it…
Bibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.
I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it had enough good information that it was still worthwhile to read. It was not always easy to read, and it was not the kind of book you could race through to the conclusion. It took some concentration to reach the end, but when I did reach it I felt it had been overall a good reading experience.
In conclusion, yes, I would recommend this book to my friends if they were interested in Alexander's life or military history. I felt some of the book was difficult to wade through, and that it would not hold every reader's interest. However, anyone who is interested in Alexander or that period in history would probably enjoy this book. I would not recommend it if this period did not interest you, or you did not enjoy history topics. The book was heavy enough that it would simply be boring if a person were not interested at all in Alexander or his time. I would not call this book light reading, and I certainly would not keep it on my bedside table, but I would certainly keep it on my bookshelf if I were a serious student of Alexander and this period in history.
Cartledge, P. Alexander the Great: The hunt for a new past. New York: The Overlook Press, 2004.
Alexander the Great
Why Alexander was truly 'great'
Dictionaries have since provided evidence as valued source for definition of the word great, it therefore defined great as getting powerful, superior or character in terms of quality, eminent as well as noble. It is true to say that Alexander was powerful as well as very eminent not failing to mention the large empire he managed to build. As the saying goes that every all that glitters is not gold so was Alexander. Despite the fact that Alexander managed to achieve all that he did he could not be fit the definition of the word Great on the grounds of humanity.
I do not think that a great person can always be pushing his people into situations (war) for his personal ambitions and gain. For the reasons of bad a temper, I don't think one who is known to be great should…
A.B. Bosworth, 'Alexander the Great and the Decline of Macedon', JHS 106 (1986). Retrieved on 16/10/2013 http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2004/2004-01-31.html
N.G.L. Hammond, 'The Macedonian Imprint on the Hellenistic World', in Hellenistic History and Culture, ed. P. Green (Berkeley & Los Angeles 1993). Retrieved on 16/10/2013 http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft0000035f;chunk.id=0;doc.view=print
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
This has caused a divide in Iran, where traditionalists want to save the old religious and moral values, while many people want to bring more changes to Iran, like democracy and true free elections. This has created a rift in the country, and has caused unrest and even hatred of western values. That is one of the things that has caused Muslim fundamentalists in Iran (and elsewhere in the Middle East), to declare a war on American and westernization. This shows that modernization is not always a positive change, and that some countries simply do not need or want modern conveniences if it means they come along with western values. It is a time of social change in the country, and it is certain that more changes will happen in Iran today and in the future.
Mahmoodshahi, eza. "Westernization: A New Motif for evolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mahmoodshahi, Reza. "Westernization: A New Motif for Revolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Rinehart, James F. Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Salehi, M.M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Prof. instead The Veil
In Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi uses the veil to represent the changes that occurred as a result of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In Satrapi's young mind, the veil acts as the only material and symbolic reality aspect of the revolution. The story unfolds with condensing, yet loaded images. Satrapi uses the playful images of young girls as a way of foreshadowing her later thoughts of the changing times in Iran. Satrapi's feelings towards the veil are similarly contrasting. Her upbringing allows her to think freely, yet her surroundings force her to think a certain way about religion. The new Iranian government attempts to use the veil as a representation of modesty, however, Satrapi indicates that the veil truly represents a government's oppression on her people. Looking through a veil, for instance, means that one sees only a limited picture of reality, and one is…
Davis, R. "A Graphic Self." Prose Studies 27.3 (2005): 264-79. Print.
Devery, D. "The Rise of Totalitarian Regimes in the 20th Century." May 2008. Maxwell.syr.edu. Web. November 2013. .
Jones, R.A. "Durkheim's Suicide." June 1986. durkheimn.uchicago.edu. Web. November 2013. .
Satrapi, M. Persepolis. New York: Vintage, 2008. Print.
How do we know about this war?
Thucydides may be counted among the foremost historians of the West to utilize a rigorous chronological standard. He recorded events based on their year of occurrence, and every year was divided into two seasons: a campaign-filled summer and a relatively inactive winter. The historian documented the Peloponnesian War in great detail.
In spite of hailing from Athens and having taken part in the war, Thucydides is commonly believed to have provided an overall neutral narrative of it with regard to the parties involved.
The foremost volume in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War covers a summary of Greece's early history, a programmatic historiographical note, and an explanation for why the War was waged. With the exception of some brief excursuses (particularly 6.54-58 on Tyrant Slayers), its remaining volumes (2-8) concentrate strictly on the War and nothing else.
Though Thucydides' book focuses on the…
Midrash of Alexander
In the early 330's B.C., Alexander the Great conquered the territory of Judea, the home of the Jews. The Midrash of Alexander describes the interaction between the great conqueror and the Jewish people while simultaneously acting as a learning tool. Alexander's journey through the Holy Land is filled with events that can be used to teach moral lessons: among the topics include such things as honoring God, respecting wisdom, and the meaning of justice.
God must be the focus of a person's life, and this includes great conquerors such as Alexander the Great. hen Alexander first entered Judea the Jews refused to join with him because of their previous pledge to Darius. For their refusal to join his campaign Alexander marched on Jerusalem with the intention of punishing the Jews, however the appearance of a welcoming Jewish population and the high priest Jedua altered his plan. hen…
"Alexander the Great." Jewish Encyclopedia. Jewish encyclopedia.com. Web. 15 Nov.
"I Kings." King James Bible. ebible.org. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Infanticide in Australia
Infanticide is the act or practice of killing newborns or infants. It has been committed or performed in every continent and in every level of culture from the poorest hunters and gatherers to the richest and most advanced classes of people and from the time of our ancestors to modern age (Milner 1998). The act or practice has been so rampant that there is enough evidence on record to show that it has been more the rule than an exception and this evidence reflects that parents themselves kill their infants under distressing and stressful situations. The practice or act was so frequent in England in the 19th century that both the medical and the private communities had to think of ways to control the crime (Milner) described by medical practitioners as savage in a contradiction to human progress.
But infanticide is not a modern creation. It was…
Burleigh, M. (1994). Return to the planet of the apes? - peter singer in Germany. History Today. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/m_mi1373/is_n10444/ai_15912728
Cooray, M. (2004). Human rights in australia. Youth Matrix. http://www.youthmatrix.com/art_philos_humanrights.htm
Hammoud, AAM. (2004). Status of women in islam. Australian Muslim Community. http://al-emaan.org/wrights1.htm
Knight, K. (2004). Australia. The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume II, online edition. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02113b.htm
To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. 
Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. 
In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…
 Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)
 The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm , (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Tajikistan - History & Background, http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1503/Tajikistan-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html , (accessed February 18, 2013)