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Analyzing NEO 4 Personality Test
Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 66383257
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NEO Personality Inventory – 4 (NEO-4)
This personality test was formulated by tweaking the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). While NEO-PI-R provides information on the five personality domains namely Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience, and Neuroticism, the NEO-4 only offers information on four of these domains. The omitted domain is Neuroticism. The developers of the NEO-4 test have indicated that the test is suitable for use in employment and personal counseling settings that involve activities like career development, career counseling, and employee training. This is where these four domains mainly focus upon. The four domains used for the NEO-4 test will avail information regarding many aspects of the individual's personality. According to the developers of the test, it is possible to interpret the four domains at the global factor level. There are six personal styles that can be interpreted from the four domains. These styles are interactions, interests, attitudes,…

Allik, J., Church, A. T., Ortiz, F. A., Rossier, J., H?ebí?ková, M., De Fruyt, F., . . . McCrae, R. R. (2017). Mean profiles of the NEO personality inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(3), 402-420.
Dwan, T., Ownsworth, T., Donovan, C., & Lo, A. H. Y. (2017). Reliability of the NEO Five Factor Inventory short form for assessing personality after stroke. International Psychogeriatrics, 29(7), 1157-1168.
Helle, A. C., & Mullins-Sweatt, S. N. (2017). Maladaptive personality trait models: Validating the five-factor model maladaptive trait measures with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory. Assessment, 1073191117709071.
McAbee, S. T., & Oswald, F. L. (2013). The criterion-related validity of personality measures for predicting GPA: A meta-analytic validity competition. Psychological assessment, 25(2), 532.
McCrae, R. R., Kurtz, J. E., Yamagata, S., & Terracciano, A. (2011). Internal consistency, retest reliability, and their implications for personality scale validity. Personality and social psychology review, 15(1), 28-50.
Stepp, S. D., Yu, L., Miller, J. D., Hallquist, M. N., Trull, T. J., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Integrating competing dimensional models of personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO using Item Response Theory. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(2), 107.
Takahashi, M., Shirayama, Y., Muneoka, K., Suzuki, M., Sato, K., & Hashimoto, K. (2013). Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e71964.

Personality Trait and Factor Theories Personality Trait
Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32010011
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Trait and Factor Theories:

Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are aymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.…


Theories of personality, dispositional theories. (2002) McGraw Hill higher education. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: 

Ver Wys. C.

2001) Department of Cognitive Science Renesslear Polytechnic Institute. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web Site: .

Boeree, G. (1998) Albert Bandura: Personality Theories. Accessed 23 Nov 2003. Web site: .

Big Five Personality Trait Longevity
Words: 1718 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75668451
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I would like to explore Jungian theories about personality (as might be found in Meyer-Briggs instrumentation) and consciousness with respect to recall while writing memoir and the phenomenon Jung (2006) referred to as collective consciousness.

This little slice of memoir was interesting because in the writing, I experienced recollection. I had not thought about these events in my childhood for sometime. In fact, the last time I remember trying to recall the details of these happenings was during a visit with my brother. My older brother has digitized many slides that our father took during the period of time when we were growing up. He is fond of getting out his binder of enlarged slides, now in print format, and encouraging the development of our mutual memories about our halcyon days of our childhood in a small town.


Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles:…


Cohen, and Cohen, (Producers and Directors) (1996). Fargo. [Film]. Los Angeles: Polygram Filmed Entertainment, Working Title Films. Retreived 

Cobb-Clark, D.A. And Schurer, S. (2012). The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters, 115, 11-15. Retrieved 

Jung, C. (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library, 23. ISBN 0-451-21860-4

Ephron, N. (1980). Wallflower at the orgy. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Personality & Communication Affect on Supervision
Words: 5219 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63382890
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Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work

It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…


Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.

Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.

Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.

Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-

Personality Assessment ID 69079 Personality
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40415965
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Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…

Trait Theories Overview There Are
Words: 954 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36634577
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For instance, this theory holds that extraverts have low levels of cortical arousal and introverts high leaves, meaning extraverts need more stimulation for socializing and being outgoing, while introverts receive enough stimulation from their own physical make up. Since each person has differing levels of brain chemicals, there are thousands and thousands of factors that can be combined to make up unique personality dimensions. This view is more biochemical in nature, and believes that expression of traits will emerge regardless of the nurture factor (Eysenck, 2008).

Trait theory has a number of positives and negatives. It takes the general theme of the personality and breaks down certain factors that seem to retain vibrancy throughout the individual's life, at least when compared to larger groups. However, it also assumes that people remain rather stagnant as they age, and do not change in terms of their basic personality. It is likely, according…


Trait Approach. (2010). Leadership Theory and Practice. Retrieved from: 

Daft, R. And Lane, D. (2008). The Leadership Experience. Mason, OH: Thompson Learning.

Dholakia, R. (1978). Personality Trait Theory and Consumer Behavior. Vikalpa. 3 (2): 111-119. Retrieved from:

Eyseneck, H. (2008). The Biological Basis of Personality. New York: Transaction Publishers.

Personality Permanent It Has Been a Long
Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5870792
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Personality: Permanent?

It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.

Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.

ehavior may change, he states, as a…


Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association.  (March28, 2002).

Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. (March28, 2002).

Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ.  (March28, 2002).

Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,

Personality Theories and Assessments Though
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53496899
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Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.

Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…

Personality Is the Way That We Engage
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31094526
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Personality is the way that we engage with the world. It is a pattern of responses to how we engage with the world on a behavioral and emotional level. Every person has a different personality and this personality helps to frame that person's interactions with the world. When I took the test, I was INTJ, and that has implications for how I would behave in different situations.

It is important in organizations to understand what personality is, what types of personalities there are, and how these different personalities interact. Organizations are groups of people, and the characteristics of the people in these groups are a determinant of organizational success. We hear about things like "personality conflict" because at times, two different types of response patterns can be incongruent with each other. unning an organization requires an understanding of the different personality patterns and organizing the human resources of the organization…


Human Metrics. (2013). Humanmetrics Jung typology test. Human Retrieved October 15, 2013 from

Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers
Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209
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Personality Theories


Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche.…


AllPsych (2002). Personality synopsis. Chapter X Humanist Theory. Heffner Media

Group, Inc. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from 

Boeree, C.G. (2006). Abraham Maslow. Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 31,

2001 from

Personality Analysis Life History Like Most People
Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42476373
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Personality Analysis

Life History

Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…


Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.

Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.

Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.

Personality Disorder One of the
Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25770220
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These people have been seen to have rigidity towards people who are struggling in life and are going through a tougher time or with people who are already emotionally weak or vulnerable in case where they might be going through a tough relationship. It has been reported that if these people are asked for advice for better parenting with a troubled teen, the advice from an overtly controlling person would be to cast the teen away, leave him in a church or be hard on him in a physical manner. In the case of marital issues, the advice would be to make sure that the wife being a weaker person should be made to submit to the much stronger husband. If a depressed individual asks such controlling person for an advice, it would be repent on sins making sure that such sins are not committed again.

These individuals are overtly…

Works Cited

Bancroft, Lundy. Why does he do that?: inside the minds of angry and controlling men. Berkley Books, 2003.

Braiker, B. Harriet. Who's Pulling Your Strings?: How to Break the Cycle of Manipulation and Regain Control of Your Life. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004.

Evans, Patricia. Controlling people: how to recognize, understand, and deal with people who try to control you. Edition 3. Adams Media, 2002.

Personality Construct Development of a
Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92637794
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(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.

Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…


DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at

Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at 

Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-

Black Publishing.

Personality Motivation and Managing Staff
Words: 2815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77442490
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Personality, Motivation, And Managing Staff

This discussion aims to address the intricacies and detail of workplace conducts as the course theory presents and explains them. The reports explore the character of Andrea Sachs that Anne Hathaway depicts in the movie the "Devil Wears Prada," in presenting this relationship. Using the behaviours and experiences of the character, the discussion explains the way different individuals operate and perform in the work environment. Through an analysis of Andrea Sachs, the discussion also establishes the nature of managerial conducts that would prove appropriate in improving Andrea's level of motivation. This report is worth reading considering the choice of character and the in-depth analysis that the report provides. Besides settling on a character with traits that are open to numerous interpretations, as that the movie presents splendidly, the discussion extensively and vividly establishes the characters experience and behaviours with the theory in use. The reader…

Personality Application Personality the Aspect
Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85996340
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Despite having diverted to the employment sector for ten years to make ends meet, I am still determined to be what I had intended to be in the initial times and the high level if determination points to my inward motivation. I am also independent in that I make sound decisions on my own, I decided to let go of my "career" initially to pursue employment and now I have decided to further my career. If it were not for enthusiasm, I could have already let go of my dream to be a nurse which I still hold on to dearly. Self-confidence is played out in the fact that I never allowed the unpleasant interaction between sexuality and gambling waste my life ahead. The job of being at a casino, especially for that long, requires someone who is extremely outgoing and sociable.

Bearing the fact that I wanted to have…


Discus, (2013). Personality Types. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from 

Sociology Guide, (2011). The Meaning of Personality. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from

Personality Theories of Personality This Paper Analyses
Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7638137
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Theories of Personality

This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.

Theory of Personality

Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…


Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website:

Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from 

Pearson Education, (2002). Personality theories. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: 

Personality: social learning, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives. (2010). Unpublished manuscript, Psychology, Weber State University, Retrieved from 1010/Lectures/8. Personality/Lectures/Lecture 26-27 Personality - Social Learning others.pdf

Personality Be Changed By Carol
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44659150
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The study indicates that research has shown how personalities are formed, and how they can be changed, but she does not show specific examples of her research when it comes to changing beliefs and people who have drastically changed their personalities. It would have been more interesting and enlightening if she could have given a concrete example of a person who changed their personality by changing their beliefs, although she does use some student studies that indicate the group has a whole had personality changes when their instructors behaved in certain manners. A specific, detailed example would have helped make the concept clearer and easier to understand, however.

The implications of the research are that personalities are not rooted in the genes and are unable to change. That means that people who have negative personality traits can work on their core beliefs and change their personalities, and that is interesting…


Dweck, Carole S. "Can Personality be Changed?" Psychological 2007. 23 March 2009. .

Personality and Leadership A Qualitative and Quantitative
Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79274723
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Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative eview," Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt (2002) focus on the trait theory of leadership. In "Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership," O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study the relationship between personality and emergent leadership. In "When the omance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership," Bligh, et al. (2007) explore what the researchers call the "dark side" of leadership. Whereas the Judge et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) research centers on personality traits and leadership in a straightforward way, focusing on the leader, Bligh et al. (2007) instead take into account follower perspectives on aversive leadership. Although Judge, et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) are interested in trait theory, O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study alternatives to the Big Five model as well as the Big Five model itself; Judge, et al. (2002) are primarily concerned…


Bligh, M.C., et al. (2007). When the romance is over. Applied Psychology: An International Review 56(4): 528-557.

Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D.V. & Manganelli, A.M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership 8(3): 229-243.

Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4): 765-780.

McClelland, D.C. & Burnham, DH (2003). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online:

Personality Theories Including Evolutionary and Dispositional
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74900828
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Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories

What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…


American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online:

Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: 

"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online:

McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.

Personality the Concept of Personality
Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36047896
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This approach assumes that the psychological apparatus of the mind is dependent upon some type of energy to make it function (Personality pp). This energy is used in psychological work such as planning, thinking, feeling, and remembering (Personality pp). Everything that happens in an individual's mind and everything he or she does have a specific, identifiable cause, which is referred to as psychic determinism (Personality pp). According to Freud, "people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust and aggression" (Personality pp). The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind that is hidden from view, and the internal structure of the mind is divided into three separate motivations, the Id, which is the irrational and emotional part of the mind, the Ego, which is the rational part, and the Superego, the moral part (Personality pp).

The basic assumption of the learning perspective is that…

Works Cited

Boeree, C. George. Personality Theories: Introduction. 

Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality. 

Kagan, Jerome. Personality Development.

Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence.

Personality and Job Satisfaction
Words: 2842 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43951078
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Employee satisfaction might be one of the most difficult measures in management to quantify. There are so many ways to judge this factor, from self-evaluation to independent evaluation to more concrete numbers like productivity, which has been linked to job satisfaction.

There is no industry-wide standard for assessing employee satisfaction, and yet it is one of the most important factors in a successful work environment. This paper will explore the influence of an individual's personality and character traits on their job satisfaction; instead of seeing job satisfaction as a result of outside influences, I hypothesize that an employee's individual personality and attitude are important factors in his or her job satisfaction. That is to say, an employee who is otherwise unhappy and gloomy will most likely not be happy in his or her workplace either, and conversely, an employee with a positive outlook and an upbeat personality will be satisfied…

Morrison, Reese, "How In-House Managers Can Profit from Diverse Satisfaction Surveys," Of Counsel, 21:3, 2002.

Bernthal, Paul. "Measurement Gets Strategic," T& D, published by American Society for Training and Development, May 2005.

"Management Communication: Unlocking Higher Employee Performance," Communication World, March-April 2005, pp. 18-22.

Personality Factors
Words: 2031 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15993946
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leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).

Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…

Works Cited

John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader 

Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.

Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.

Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.

Psychological Traits
Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11132931
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Personality Traits

The discussion of "nature vs. nurture" has been a long-standing one. It relates to whether the main characteristics of an individual are genetically determined or whether these are actually deeply affected by environmental factors and by society as the individual evolves. This is where the discussion of whether an individual's personality is largely fixed at birth or not can also be placed. Arguments are both for and against, although this paper will eventually argue that this is not the case.

As Chapter 5 shows us, the idea that "personality is something we arrive with at birth, genetically determined and unchangeable is not the case." This statement can be analyzed from different perspectives. On one hand, it is difficult to accept the idea that people cannot change and the fact that personality traits could actually be something the individual is born with implies the fact that individual cannot change.…

How Children and Adults Differ in Personality
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48406603
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Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Structure, Development, and Outcomes

In many instances, youth are described by their personality trait. Particularly during puberty, students are attempting to find themselves in an unknown environment. The article attempts to provide an explanation on the behavioral of youth tendencies and their relationships to broader traits. The article also provided example of both similarities and differences between youth and their adult counterparts. It is interesting how both youth and adults have evolved over the past half century in regards to their relationship and ability to cope with uncertainty. ecently, we have seen an influx of school shootings, murders and suicides by high school students dealing with adversity. We have also witnessed instances of student and teacher sexual relationship which correlate directly to personality traits. Even more intriguing is how students deal with these issues in the context of society overall.

In general the article…


1) "Psychosis." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. .

2) Psychopathology PlayV2('en/U.S./st/stsksfs5dsd7sfssdts7sjsosys5sfyygkgd');playV2('en/UK/st/stsksfs5dsd7sfssdts7sjsosys5sfyygkgd')." Web. 22 Feb. 2012. .

Methods of Measuring Personality
Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7797609
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Personality Measurements

Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).

Discussion of Topic

When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…


Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.

Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.

Acculturation and Personality in Immigrant Children
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Personality Development in Immigrant Children

Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.

The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.

This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…


Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x

Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved 

Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.

Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x

Analysis of an Individuals Personality
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Personality Profiles

There are several theoretical approaches that are utilized in explaining personality based on the different traits relating to an individual. These theoretical approaches are divided into two major categories i.e. the five domains and complex models domains. The five domains (psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, trait and type, and learning) are approaches that focus on how individual traits are developed and how behavior is formulated. On the other hand, the complex models domains basically focus on how traits could impact an individual's personality. These two categories can be utilized in developing a personality profile of an individual based on interactions with him/her and the information on he/she posts on social media.

TinaShazzy's Personality Profile

The chosen theoretical approach that I will utilize in developing TinaShazzy's personality is the behavioral domain, which suggests that an individual's behavior is a reflection of his/her personality trait since personality is behavior (Phelps, 2015). Additionally,…

Importance of the Study of Personality
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Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person

Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.

Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…

Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy
Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86383313
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Personality Therapy

Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…

Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
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Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Psychodynamic Theory
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…

Link Between Personality and Leadership
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Personality and Leadership

The link between personality and leadership has attracted considerable concern and debate in the recent past as the issue of leadership continues to generate significant attention. The significant concern on the relationship between personality and leadership has been fueled by the trait theory of leadership, which postulates that individual with some personality attributes are more likely to be effective in leadership positions or roles as compared to others. Actually, studies on the effectiveness of leadership have provided support for the link between personality traits and leadership ability and effectiveness (O'Connor & Jackson, 2010, p.185).

In light of recent studies on the effectiveness of leadership, it is increasingly clear that there is a strong link between personality and leadership. While early reviews of personality and leadership seemingly dismiss the link between personality or individual characteristics and leadership ability, personality plays a crucial role in leadership. The role of…


Eisenbeib, S.A. & Brodbeck, F. (2013, May 23). Ethical and Unethical Leadership: A Cross-

Cultural and Cross-Sectoral Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 122, 343-359.

Judge et. al. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4),765-780.

O'Connor, P.J. & Jackson, C.J. (2010). Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership. Journal of Individual Differences, 31(4), 185-197.

Blog Article on Various Personality and Assessment Theories
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Personality Theory Blog

Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment

According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…


Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from 

Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: 

Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: 

Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych:

Personality and MBA Studies There Are Various
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Personality and MBA Studies

There are various personalities that are displayed by different people in the society. That is what makes up a diverse society. The personality that I am considered to be is the innovative, individualistic, versatile and entrepreneurial personality. At times this is referred to as Jungian 16-Type Personality specifically the ENTP character. This is because I am resourceful, creative, and quick in the intellectual field. I also like to engage in debates and am excited over new ideas and always assertive as well as outspoken. I like having people around me and I have that ability to grasp concepts and apply logic to get amicable solutions (BSM Consulting Inc., 2011).

Apart from my character traits, there are those values that I hold dearly to and would like to see myself applying in life and getting from life as well. Values, according to National Defense University (2011) are…


BSM Consulting Inc., (2011). High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types.

Retrieved July 4, 2011 from 

Maggie Fox, (2010). U.S. scores dead last again in healthcare study. Health and Science Editor;

Reuters. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from

Personalities Ever Wondered Why People Behave the
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Eve wondeed why people behave the way they do and why people act in one way while othes act in a diffeent way? Well we all know that people ae diffeent when it comes to thei physical and psychological aspects. In human pesonality the cental dimension is the tait of extavesion and that of intovesion. Vitually all the compehensive models of pesonality must include these two concepts extavesion and intovesion is typically temed as a single continuum. This insinuates that fo one to be on the high of one they necessaily have to be low on the othe. Theefoe one cannot have extemes of both at a go. Thee is also a diffeent pespective that suggests that each individual has both an extovet and intovet side with on dominating ove the othe. Regadless of the thee is always a fluctuation in peoples behavio at all times and even exteme…


Bennington, J.(2013).The science of what makes an introvert and an Extrovert. Retrieved October 19, 2013 from

Personality Report to What Degree
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Moreover, cautiousness prevents me from causing problems.

What are your weaknesses which might hinder you in your career - and which you might want to work on?

Among my weaknesses that I believe can hinder me in my career is my introvert personality. These days, especially in the workforce, having the capability to speak out and communicate well is important because these are among the qualities that mark a leader. I learned that reserve and quiet individuals are oftentimes left behind in terms of becoming a leader. This is because people need leaders who have the ability to speak out and take charge. My quietness and lack of social relationship hinders me to demonstrate to others my talent and capabilities to become a leader. Instead, I tend to let others take charge while I just play the role of a member or a follower.

Another weakness that I believe can…

Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality
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The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…


Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.

Morey, L.C. (2007). The Personality Assessment Inventory: Professional manual 2nd Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Morey, L.C. & Hopwood, C.J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A Structured Summary Approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Personality Theorist Isabel Briggs Myers
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Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).

In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…


Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.

Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.

Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.

Personality Therapy
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Personality Theories: A Road to the Self

Knowing oneself is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination; and being able to definitively describe one's own personality is even more difficult. However, the basic groundwork in truly knowing oneself is in one's ability to fully understand the concept of personality. Before garnering embarking on a possible endless journey deciphering the endless labyrinth of available personality theories it is best to start from a more sociological perspective, namely the one proposed by Charles Cooley and known as the "Looking Glass Self" for it is on the basis of how one perceives the self, how others perceive the self and how one would like others to perceive the self that personality is born.

Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of…

Personality Theories
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Personality Theories

Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.

Personality theories are broken down into two classes:

• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors

• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality

This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…


Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology:

McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology:

Psychology Personality There Are Six Approaches for
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Psychology Personality

There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…


Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.

Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.

Big Five Personality Analysis Cher From the
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Big Five Personality Analysis

Cher from the film Clueless: Big five personality trait analysis


Openness is an appreciation for new ideas. On one hand, sixteen-year-old Cher is fairly unaware of problems that exist outside of her narrow world of Beverly Hills, and she is very judgmental of so-called 'stoners' at her high school, or people who do not fit in with her in-group. However, she is open enough to embrace a new girl named Tai who comes to the school, even though the girl seems very 'clueless' about how to dress and behave. Cher tries to teach Tai the values of the high school -- Cher's values.

Despite her apparent superficiality, Cher does have a clear sense of personal morality. She is open about the fact that she is a virgin, saying that she is waiting for the right person to enjoy 'first time'. This makes her unusual in…


Clueless. (1994). Directed by Amy Heckerling.

Graphology and Personality Profiling the
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Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)


Shape of riting



Upward Sloping Line



Upward Sloping Line



Firmness of Line



Lateral narrowness of m's and n's



Heavy Handwriting



Heavy bars on t's



Length of bars on t's



Length of bars on t's compensating



Closed as and o's


Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.

In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…


Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert

Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.

Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:

How Are Culture and Personality Related
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person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.

How are Culture and Personality Related?

hat is Culture?

hat is Personality?

Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?

How is Culture and Personality Related?


orks Cited


Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…

Works Cited

Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.

Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200

Histrionic Personality Disorder Personality Is the Unique
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Histrionic Personality Disorder

Personality is the unique way in which every individual expresses their inner experience and outer behavior. People tend to react a given way every time they experience something and in return express personality traits that come to define who people are. But personalities are not set in stone. They can change according to any given experience, environment, or circumstance that one comes to encounter (Dobbert, 74). The ability to adjust our personalities according to a situation is what people with personality disorders lack. According to the DSM-IV (1994) a Personality Disorder is defined as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment" (p. 629). These types of disorders are actually hard to self-recognize but can…


O'Donohue, William T., Fowler, Katherine A., & Lilienfeld, Scott O Personality disorders: toward the DSM-V. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. 203-232. Print.

Dobbert, Duane, L. Understanding Personality Disorders: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Praegoer Publishing, 2007. 73-86. Print.

Millon, Theodore, Millon, Carrie M., Meagher, Sarah, Grossman, Seth, & Ramnath, Rowena. Personality Disorders in Modern Life. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 2004. 292-329. Print.

Kring, Ann, Davison, Gerald, C., Neale, John M., & Johnson, Sheri. Abnormal Psychology. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 2007. 396. Print.

Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray the
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Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray

The emergence of the psychoanalytic tradition in psychology by Sigmund Freud provided social scientists with profound insights and information regarding the personality and behavior of the individual. In the 20th century, psychoanalysis has been taken into the field of study of personality development, and is quantified through techniques in psychological testing. Henry Murray, one of the proponents and formulators of psychological tests as effective tools for analyzing human behavior, had introduced his own theory of personality, influenced by the works of Freud.

Personality research during Murray's time was quantified because this field of study seeks to rationalize human behavior, thinking, and action, providing more stable ground to formulate generalizations regarding the study of humans and their development. During the 1930s, continuing conflict among nations of the world prompted psychologists to study human personalities in order to gauge and predict actions through behaviors displayed by…


Neill, J. (2003). Personality Traits. University of Canberra Web site. Accessed 13 December 2003. Available at

Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.