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Persuasion / Tu Quoque Fallacies
I remember an occasion when I went on a canoeing trip with my friend David from high school. David is the sort of person who always totally speaks his mind about anything -- he is not shy about commenting (often in an almost abrasive manner) on the person you are dating, or the clothes you are wearing, or anything else that happens to pop into his mind. He organized several people from our high school to go on a river canoeing trip, mostly because it would be a good way to spend time together, and get some exercise which would not be too taxing. We went to a canoe rental place, and paid to do a 4-hour trip along an easily navigable creek: there was nothing dangerous about the canoeing part of it, the water would rarely be deeper than four feet, and there…… [Read More]
A second everyday advertisement that most people often encounter comes in the mail or stapled to the pizza box. It is an advertisement, perhaps with a coupon, to dine at a local or chain restaurant. This attempt at persuasion uses the tactic of controlling the context. Even with poor wording or graphics, the existence of the coupon, and the fact that one is forced to hold the advertisement when one gets his or her mail, suggests the effectiveness of this type of advertisement. One advertisement, from Gelsosomo's Pizzeria and Pub, features red wording, in a multitude of fonts and sizes, on green paper. The word choice is rather scrambled, with everything about the restaurant being crammed onto the advertisement, and the color scheme is unattractive. egardless, the advertisement represents an excellent persuasion attempt because of the three circles that appear in the center of the advertisement, which lists specials in…… [Read More]
Shaping, reinforcing, and changing responses. Shaping; mind-sets are "shaped" by relating satisfying environments with a product, individual, or a thought. Reinforcing; opposite of the accepted belief, many persuasive communications are not intended to change people, but to strengthen a place they already embrace. Changing; it is one of the most significant persuasive impact and the one that comes in to mind immediately when we think of persuasion. Communications can and do transform attitudes.[footnoteRef:4] [3: Miller, G.R. (1980). On being persuaded: Some basic distinctions. In M. Roloff, & G.R. Miller (Eds.), Persuasion: New directions in theory and research, 11 -- 28. everly Hills, CA: Sage.] [4: Persuasion. (n.d.). Communication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP), external Affairs Vice Presidency the World ank Washington DC, Accessed from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGOVACC/Resources/Persuasionweb.pdf on 4/6/2013]
Means of Persuasion: The social scientist Aristotle categorized the means of persuasion, into three Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.[footnoteRef:5] [5: A General Summary…… [Read More]
This can be a difficult balance to attain though. It proceeds from the view that persuasive communication is only partially defined by the delivery of a message. An equally significant part of this, at least when contextualized by interpersonal forms of communication, is the effectiveness with which one appears to have received communicated ideas and information from those who will receive the message in question. Indeed, the ability to establish trust through simultaneous communication and message reception is one of the most effective measurements of the success with which teams are built. Thus, trust earns a central role in our discussion regarding this process of actively listening. For participants on either the transmitting or receiving side, the establishment of trust through open, honest and direct communication will contribute to a positive pattern of active listening. For me personally, this is the most important part of working on my skills as…… [Read More]
Persuasion in Television Advertisements
Advertising and marketing specialists frequently use specialized techniques to communicate with audiences by appealing to a specific type of customer and helping a brand or product to be memorable or appealing. Advertisements frequently accomplish this by using spokespeople, slogans, or visual symbols or displays that grab the intended audience's attention and appeal to the customer's curiosity, sense of ascetics or humor. This paper will assess two such television advertisements by sampling two different examples of popular commercials and analyzing the marketing tools used to capture audience attention and attract potential customers.
Geico: "Little Piggy"
Geico's "Little Piggy" advertisement begins with a handsome middle-aged man speaking directly to the audience. This spokesman begins by asking, "Could switching to Geico really save you 15% or more on car insurance?." The announcer then asks the rhetorical question, "Did the little piggy cry 'wee, wee, wee' all the way home?."…… [Read More]
his diagram describes my proposal for assessments:
Operator Services Manager
Senior Operator Senior Operator Senior Operator
15 Operators 15 Operators 15 Operators
his task delegation will make regular assessments administratively feasible, and will contribute to task diversity for the most Senior Operators in the department.
he main points of concern expressed by you involving costs to the company involved the expenses involved in hiring a Learning Services Manager and the development of an incentives program. First, the Learning Services Manager (LSM) will be hired as an independent contractor, and will not be on company salary. his position will be paid on a project-by-project basis. herefore, the LSM will be employed for approximately one month twice a year, times at which Operator Services does their hiring and training for existing employees. he gains that will result from this hiring will far outweigh the expense. Second, the incentives program is generous,…… [Read More]
Monetary wealth is intimately aligned with social standing and when the Eliot's run into financial difficulties as result of pretentious living standards, this has profound implications for the plot and main characters.
Power is also another factor that plays a role in the desire for social status. In this novel Austen explores the ways in which power over others is related to class and wealth. e have already seen how the power associated with class and social hierarchy has succeeded in changing the direction of Anne's life through the persuasion of Lady Russell. An interesting aspect of the novel is that Austen also examines the shifting and changing patterns of power in the society at that time. As a result of the Napoleonic ars, a division has arisen in English society between the old aristocracy and the new middle classes, represented by the individual entrepreneur. This can be seen in…… [Read More]
She has spent the last ten years in sadness and solitude, even in her own family. She could have had ten years of happiness and contentment had it not been for Lady ussell, who finally acknowledges she made a grave mistake when she gave Anne advice about the man. Late in the novel Austen writes, "There was nothing less for Lady ussell to do, than to admit that she had been pretty completely wrong, and to take up a new set of opinions and of hopes" (Austen). Lady ussell was instrumental in turning Anne and her father against Captain Wentworth, and it was a bad decision. Anne finally finds happiness despite the meddling of others, and so, the novel ends happily. However, Lady ussell's advice caused her years of pain and suffering, and that is a significant aspect of this novel, thus, Lady ussell is a key character in the…… [Read More]
Once the presenter has understood the type of audience that is before him, he will be able to effectively handle the entire audience and make the presentation a success.
There is however the aspect of tension that is always experienced in most presentations. This comes even after the presenter has well understood his audience as mentioned above. There are four basic sources of tension in a presentation that if well understood and dealt with can leave room for a good presentation.
The first kind if tension is between the presenter and the audience which can be diffused by the presenter striving to create a bond between him and the audience. The second tension is that between the audience themselves, this leaves each member of the audience wondering who the person seated next to them is, this can be solved by informal session of introduction to immediate neighbors. The next tension…… [Read More]
None of the participants had received any education in the arts at the time of the study. Each of them reported no interest in pursuing the arts as a career.
The participants looked at a series of pictures that provided designated clues to measure the responses with.
"Aesthetic judgments of beauty of 49 novel, formal graphic patterns were collected from non-artist participants. In the framework of Social Judgment Theory (Hammond et al., 1975), the data were subjected to individual Judgment Analyses deriving quantitative paramorphic models of the judgment processes. These models reflected the individual's strategy of aesthetic judgment, cue use, and degree of linear judgment capture, largely converging with participants' verbal reports of judgment strategies. A group model was constructed using the same method applied to group-average rating data. Filtering out individual judgment strategies, the group-level analysis showed that larger arrangements of the basic element, with a tendency towards forming…… [Read More]
Compare the style and persuasion methods of Jefferson's Declaration of Independence with Paine's Crisis essay. Why does Jefferson advocate that natural aristocrats would make the best leaders?
During the American evolution, both Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson delivered similar kinds of messages (i.e. freedom from tyranny and oppression). While the two were similar, the audiences are much different. This is because both works were intended to sway the opinions of different demographics. In the case of Thomas Paine, his essay was focused on reaching out to colonists that were living in America. At the heart of his message, is to question why everyone is accepting this kind of situation. When in reality, everyone should standup for their rights and demand their basic freedoms from England. ("Declaration and Crisis," 2010)
While Thomas Jefferson, was writing directly to: the King of England and the members of Parliament. In his message, he…… [Read More]
Persuasion is writing technique to persuade a reader to ones own point-of-view. This involves not only hard work but also involves the human psyche, which has to be satisfied. Persuasion is not merely ones opinion but it basically requires arguments based on facts. persuasive paper must contain good grammar, good paragraph structure and of course good logic. Winning an argument is the essence of a convincing writing in order to peruse reader to buy your logic. write-up is said to be convincing when it presents the document before the reader in a logical step-by-step manner.
Because persuasive writing's purpose is to influence people's thoughts and actions, it is often one of the most challenging types of writing. It is often aimed at an audience who may be anywhere from neutral to hostile towards our ideas, so audience awareness is critical in this type of writing. Most people have opinions on…… [Read More]
podium, flagrantly flanked by four American flags, John Kerry shakes his fist in apparent anger. "Three million jobs lost!" The scene cuts to a profile of Kerry continuing his statement, "That is an astonishing failure." ithin ten seconds, viewers of the John Kerry presidential campaign ad know that the candidate is trying to appeal to blue collar workers, members of the middle class or any citizen concerned about the needs of the working class. The Kerry advertisement from February 22, 2004, posted on his website http://www.johnkerry.com/videos/console.php?video=031204_misleadingand entitled "Jobs Lost," appeals to the majority of working class Americans. The ad is specifically geared for those who care about job security and who fear the repercussions of overseas outsourcing and tax breaks for the corporate culture.
Amid photo ops of Kerry shaking hands with hardhat-wearing workers, the soothing male voice-over states, "John Kerry's got the strength and experience to fight for America's…… [Read More]
Opening facts and statistics to grab the reader's attention.
Development of main ideas, leading to thesis.
The war on drugs must be stopped for two main reasons: the financial costs, and the social costs.
The social costs associated with the war on drugs are severe, including increased organized crime and high rates of incarceration.
The financial costs associated with the war on drugs are also severe, including law enforcement and corrections.
The war on drugs should be reframed, so that drug use and abuse is a public health concern and not a criminological issue.
If the war on drugs ends, rates of drug use will plummet while costs associated with the war on drugs can be channeled into more meaningful law enforcement and criminal justice activities.
A. Restatement of the thesis that the war on drugs has failed and should be replaced by a more sensible strategy.
B.…… [Read More]
Persuasion Is a Necessary Art in the World of Business
Persuasion is especially relevant for leaders, managers, and businesspeople today because of the following reasons:
Generation X and Baby Boomers both question authority and traditional hierarchies in their organizations.
Business are run differently than they used to be, are more team focused and less hierarchical in nature.
Email and other forms of electronic communication have also helped flatten the organizational hierarchy, making unquestioned authoritative measures ineffective.
With a flattened organizational hierarchy, a more diverse organizational culture, and the irrelevance of formal authority, persuasion becomes one of the most important communications tools in business.
What Is Persuasion?
Persuasion essentially addresses one of the main questions on the mind of employees: Why should I?
Employees no longer need to know what to do; they need to know why they are doing it.
Persuasion tells them why, and in doing so, creates a…… [Read More]
Persuasion is defined as the procedure through which a message or information provokes a change in attitudes, beliefs or behaviors (Myers, 2013). In essence, the change in thoughts, attitudes, behaviors or beliefs through persuasion takes place without coercion or duress but is largely influenced by the impact of the message or information on the individual. Persuasion tends to take place is a set up that involves communication, which entails conveying a message or information. Even though not all communication is designed to be persuasive but to inform and entertain, it ends up being persuasive based on the impact it has on the receiver of the information. Therefore, persuasion is regarded as the process through which an individual's thoughts, behaviors or attitudes are influenced by communication from others.
Based on this description, persuasion comprises several elements that act as the path that result in a change of attitude, beliefs or behaviors…… [Read More]
Attitude Change and Persuasion
Persuasion is a process through which an individual or groups of individuals purposely changes in behavior or the way they act, way of thinking or any other aspect of another through the employing of intellect as well as feelings. This is a very important process because through persuasion people are affected and they also affect others. In most cases persuasion focuses mainly on attitude as the main target to be changed with the belief that if one can change a person's attitude then other changes such as how a person acts, feels or thinks will automatically change. The process of trying to change the attitudes of people can be a very challenging process that requires a lot of skill to achieve the desired results. This paper is an application of a person's knowledge and understanding of effortful persuasion process .it will further look at how factors…… [Read More]
psychology and on the subtopic of persuasion. This author has decided to pursue this topic because of the importance of understanding the subject of persuasion. It is used in everything from sales to simply convincing someone of your opinion. hile the works of individuals like Robert B. Cialdini have been trailblazers in our historical memories, it is the opinion of this author that in many ways Dale Carnegie's How to in Friends and Influence People is still one of the best. hile not a clinical psychologist, Carnegie was self-taught in many ways in psychology and like Cialdini gathered his observations from years of on the job and on the spot observations that are attested to by the continued reliance upon his book and principles as taught worldwide by the Dale Carnegie Institute.
Robert B. Cialdini and Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
One of the most influential psychology text…… [Read More]
The best method for persuasion that is totally ethical is communication that would persuade the audience to voluntarily act in the desired way. Persuasion communication would use honesty and provide truthful information, which would make it ethical and ensure that no one is forced into making the decision or acting involuntarily.
Reasons for agreeing with the text
The text provides valuable insights in regards to methods a person can use to persuade an audience. The different methods of persuasion presented all have examples to demonstrate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of a method. From the text, one is able to learn how to persuade an audience in different scenarios, which is vital in persuasion. For example, the case where the city council intends to turn the local athletic field into a parking lot, the authors have demonstrated different methods that the residents can use and ensure that this does not happen,…… [Read More]
This is an absolute approach to ethical analysis and leaves no room for consideration of exceptions for extenuating circumstance where the better outcome could be achieved by violating a rule to which adherence is more beneficial, generally (Mihaly, 2007). As applied to persuasion, strict rule utilitarianism would lead to a different result in both of the situations outlined in connection with virtue ethical analysis. It would require a true answer to the murderer because society is better off generally when citizens are truthful and it would prohibit lying to the kidnapper even to spare the lives of his hostages (Mihaly, 2007).
Unethical Approaches to Persuasion in Contemporary American Politics
Unfortunately, contemporary American politics and big business often demonstrate the moral corruption of persuasive argument tactics, such as where business organizations tout their stated commitment to ethical responsibility while simultaneously exploiting moral loopholes in statutory law and policy (Svensson & Wood,…… [Read More]
Attitude and Persuasion
riefly discuss persuasion as an effortless cognitive process.
In cognitive psychology, change is the focus of all mental health officials in addressing the various issues that are impacting someone. To achieve this objective they are looking at: what the person thinks and is telling themselves mentally. Once this takes place, the patient will then begin to discuss how these issues are affecting them and the way that they are impacting their lives. The psychologist will then introduce, some kind of pattern interrupt to change the way they are thinking and viewing various events. This is accomplished is by: asking a series of different questions about the underlying meaning and its effect on their lives. This is designed to transform how the person is thinking by: forcing them to respond those thoughts that are affecting them. This is the point that the mental health professional can be able…… [Read More]
Attitude Change and Persuasion:
The total fertility rate in Singapore has declined to a record low of 1.22 in 2009 and 1.16 in 2010 from 1.28 in 2008. The problem of the low fertility rate is common across the three major ethnic groups in the country. Some of the reasons attributed to this problem include the postponement of marriage and lack of marriages at all by the country's citizens. In addition to this, the married people in Singapore do not have many children. Consequently, the nation's government is exploring ways of solving the problem including encouraging marriage and procreation. The government seeks to encourage marriage through providing incentives for marriage like 50% subsidy to buy HBD flats and a reduction of income tax by 50%. On the other hand, the provision of free medical services for childbirth at governmental hospitals is being considered as a means for encouraging procreation. Additional…… [Read More]
Friends are a great treasure that one cannot live without because we are intrinsically social beings. For the past few weeks, I’ve been thinking about our friendship and how much you mean to me. Since I met you, I have cherished and enjoyed every moment that we have shared despite the challenges we have experienced over time. You have brought joy, a sense of order, and fulfillment in my life that has helped me appreciate the true value of friendship. I cannot imagine what these past few years would have been for me without you and your support. I feel a deeper sense of connection, love, and affection for you and would do almost anything to stay with you forever.
As a result, I sincerely ask you to stay with me because you have helped me change my perspective about life and been a strong pillar. I would like you…… [Read More]
The familiar surroundings and accommodations make the timeshare seem more like a second home than any hotel could.
Some timeshare properties are geared for individuals with specific interests, too. For example, many are located near golf courses, beaches, or swimming pools. At the same time, our properties are ideal for individuals who love to relax while on vacation because of their spaciousness and luxurious accommodations.
Timeshares offer a way to get away on a budget and to enjoy a spacious and luxurious property. By investing in our properties, you will be giving you and your family the gift of travel. Any time you want to head to your favorite destination, the property will be waiting for you. You can afford to travel in style: invest in a timeshare and look forward to years of fun, affordable, relaxing vacations.… [Read More]
There are also other aspects that could be included in the study of susceptibility factors, such as unemployment and criminality.
In conclusion, the main technique that the Klan uses to entice and retain members is the ideological component of their dogma and rhetoric. This is supported by factors such as the search for meaning among the youth and fear. The Klan uses fear of poverty, dispossession and other social factors to maintain a hold on their members. These aspects are strengthened and grounded in various religious perceptions and theories, which tend to justify and legitimize the actions of the Klan to existing members, as well as making the society more attractive to newcomers.
Summary of the Panel Discussion on Cults. Retrieved November 12, 2008, at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:zw-HeZTvIMJ:www.bcskeptics.info/re/11.02.pdf+What+persuasion+techniques+does+the+Ku+Klux+Klan+use+to+recruit+and+retain+members&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=za
Apocalypse: Definition of Key Terms. Retrieved November 13, 2008, at http://csuold.csuohio.edu/english/earl/nr0apoc1.html
evilaqua J. The FI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline of Ku Klux…… [Read More]
Persuasion tactics are popular strategies applied in dispute management and decision-making in international negotiations. Persuasion is the core center of various alternative dispute resolution approaches. Persuasion is the only way for people to refine an international negotiation that is not working according to their expectations. Since persuasion is, the most popular tactic used to solve conflicts in international negotiations. Therefore, it is necessary for all negotiators to be familiar with negotiation skills and dynamics. However, some persuasion tactics used in international negotiations have shown to be undesirable and would not elicit productive and efficient results (Michaelowam, 2011).
Negative effect in international negotiation: even before the beginning of any negotiation, people in a negative mood lack the desired confidence. They become unable to use cooperative strategies. In the process of negotiating, negotiators who are in a negative mood will not enjoy the interaction; they will demonstrate minimal contentious behavior,…… [Read More]
Leadership: Transference and Persuasion
Maccoby (2004) defines transference as "the often irrational tendency to relate to a leader as some important person from the past -- a parent, a sibling, a close friend, or even a nanny" (p. 119). Transference forms the basis of how employees perceive their leader, as well as what they expect from him/her. I totally agree with the author's position that transference, if not properly checked, can lead to over-expectations and, subsequently, to unnecessary misunderstandings at the workplace, especially if the leader fails to meet the expectations and perceptions imposed upon them as the transferred pattern. To this end, leaders can better understand their employees by first understanding the effect of transference at the workplace. In a competitive marketplace, employee retention is key; employee motivation is a crucial retention tool, and transference can either be a source of motivation or discouragement. Leaders can prevent employee walk-outs;…… [Read More]
Compae and contast the media theoies pesented in the chapte. Using you expeience with media, discuss the degee to which each explains you elationship with media.
Theoists such as Walte Ong focus on the impotance of the medium though which pesuasive and othe types of communications ae conveyed. The electonic media conveys a sense of intimacy. It is possible to follow a politician on Twitte, as well as listen to his o he moe caefully-cafted fomal speeches. The Intenet allows people to gain access to eveyday people though eading blogs, as well as media souces fom aound the wold. But the Web can be deceptively intimate, and also only tansmit a faily shallow and supeficial pesentation of issues because the infomation must be conveyed quickly. The Intenet has undoubtedly contibuted to the polaization of the cuent political envionment in Ameica. If desied, people can simply ead websites and…… [Read More]
Attitude Change & Persuasion
Examine the functions of attitudes and use appropriate examples to support the discussion.
Mark Snyder and Kenneth G. DeBono reference "functional theories" about attitudes; they explain that the functional aspect of attitudes allows people to "…execute plans and achieve goals" (Snyder, et al., 1989). Interestingly, the functional theory often serves "…very different functions for different people" because albeit two people may have very "similar attitudes," the persuasive conditions that are needed to change those similar attitudes may "…be quite different" (Snyder, 340). That last sentence is backed up by the fact that in order to "successfully change an attitude," the specific function that is being served by that attitude must be addressed, Synder continues.
The authors provide four different functions that attitudes can perform. The first function they call "Ego-Defensive"; people protect themselves from "accepting truths about themselves" that are not desirable truths (and may be…… [Read More]
By taking the initiative to accomplish this task, I showed leadership skills that my supervisor later praised me for, which was definitely encouraging.
My supervisor was excellent in many aspects of her job, but could be forgetful when it came to returning client calls or attending to invoices that came due. When an item requiring her attention came across my desk, I would always be sure to have a face-to-face conversation with her, and to hand her a written not regarding the details of the same issue. I found that by communicating in both verbal and written messages it was far more likely that the needed information would actually be not only remembered but acted upon by the supervisor. The writing helped to ensure accuracy, of course, but I think it was of greater importance that she had a physical artifact simply to remind her that there was any…… [Read More]
Measurement of Social Persuasion
Social Persuasion Defined
The term 'social persuasion' has been defined differently by various researchers and scholars in different fields of study. For purposes of this text, however, Kaptein's (2012) definition and scope will be adopted. Thus, social persuasion is defined as the symbolic ability "to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue, through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice" (Kaptein, 2012, p. 1). In other words, it is the art of getting a target to change their attitude or opinion about something, and to consequently adopt a different viewpoint.
This conceptualization draws from the early works of Cartwright (1959) and Kurt ewin (1951), both of whom hold the view that an individual's behavior/attitude is the product of a range of forces or tensions within their life space, and their ability/inability to resist the same. Towards this…… [Read More]
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…… [Read More]
History Of Persuasion: Sophistry in Traditional and Contemporary Society
Athenians in ancient Greek loved public speech. Sophists, people with skills in oratory, were awarded trophies and accorded great respect. They were associated with wisdom and sophistry was taken to mean the ability to use language or rhetoric to persuade people to accept one's point-of-view. Athenians admired the sophists' skill for their ability to influence court rulings and assemblies, but the same was not the case for critiques such as Plato and Aristotle. In his famous title 'Gorgias', for instance, Plato denounced the sophists, arguing that they focused on persuading and moving the masses at the expense of the truth. For Plato and Aristotle, the sophists were not interested in advancing laborious and rational arguments that led to the discovery of the truth; rather, they were only after using their language prowess to win immediate approval. In ancient Greek, therefore, sophistry…… [Read More]
Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion
"I Will Not Allow ooks to Prove Anything":
Women Reading and Women Writing in Austen's Persuasion
Feminist criticism is equally concerned with female authorship and with female readership and in the case of Jane Austen, both issues must be addressed. Frantz in 2009 noted that on one level Austen's influence on female readership has been immense: she claims that "readers and authors of contemporary romance claim Jane Austen as the fountainhead of all romance novels," a genre which constituted the "largest share of the consumer market in 2008" but which is assumed to have an exclusively female readership. Yet feminist criticism of the early novel overall has begun to focus specifically on the rationale offered for novel-reading in the eighteenth century, when the printer's apprentice Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela in imitation of what Jenny Davidson describes as "conduct manuals," or books of etiquette for female…… [Read More]
Obedience in Jane Austen's Persuasion
Is obedience a virtue or a vice? Actually, it can be either. As Shakespeare notes, "Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied, / And vice sometime by action dignified" (2.3.21-22). This means that one can obey an unjust order and commit a sin, or one can disobey an unjust order be virtuous. The question of obedience in Austen's Persuasion is a serious one because what hinges upon it is the fate of two individuals who love each other. It is the age-old theme of two people who are in love being separated by some authority figure. Austen explores this tension by locating it in the social context of Bath, where high society flourishes in a state of superficial exuberance. Thus, the question of obedience is tied to the social view of poverty. Anne's family and Lady Russell try to convince her that poverty is the main…… [Read More]
An attitude of 'firm persuasion' means that we have a sense of mission in what we do; a mission that cannot be easily diverted or silenced. At his core, Morrie's firm persuasion was that he was a teacher. Even when facing tremendous physical challenges and obstacles, he continued to teach Mitch and others about the nature of his life. One way to figure out what our life's work is and to steel ourselves with 'firm persuasion' is to ask: what would I be doing if I had my choice, more than anything else in the world? Painting? Playing sports? Writing? Although not everyone can be a teacher, painter, professional athlete, or writer, we can all find ways to ensure that we are able to pursue our passions every day.
Having a 'firm persuasion' in doing what makes our life feel meaningful means being able to tolerate and rebound from…… [Read More]
Attitude Change and Persuasion
Attitiude Change And Persuasion
Attitudes May Affect Judgments About the Accuracy of Factual Statements
We as humans utilize heuristics as mental shortcuts or rules of thumb when we lack time for full-processing, are being overloaded by information, when we deem issues unimportant, or when we have little solid information to use in decision making. In viewing attitude heuristics, we tend to determine what is true in our own minds based upon our feelings for things. Such determinations often lead to a halo effect, which causes our general first impressions to influence all of our future ratings, and also to the false consensus affect which leads us to overestimate reality and believe that everyone else likes and perceives things in the same way we do.
Some studies have shown that attitudes serve as a heuristic for estimating an answer about past behavior. For instance, when an attitude…… [Read More]
eliability and Validity
eliability refers to the capacity of an instrument to capture the most accurate and "truest" score of an individual. A reliable test enables us to distinguish one individual from another with confidence that errors will primarily be generated by individual differences, and to a lesser extent, to the imperfections of the instrument. Indicators that a test is reliable include test-retest reliability that is accounted for by the internal consistency in the components of the test. The test-retest criteria is generally considered a manifestation of the consistency of measurement for individual performance over time, such that the score a person gets on a test today will be the same -- or nearly the same -- as the score the person gets on a test, say, in three, six, or twelve months. There are a number of substantive issues with the test-retest criteria, including chance covariation, memory, and…… [Read More]
I do not believe there is anything the website could do to persuade people out of an addiction; the best it could hope for is to persuade people to begin fighting an addiction.
The web site really did not impact me personally, but it was not due to a design flaw in the web site. I am a non-smoker who does not have any plans to ever become a smoker. I grew up in a smoking household and am sensitive to cigarette smoke, so I spent much of my childhood with smoking-related illness. A website that tries to prevent people from smoking does not have to be very persuasive for me to listen to its message.
One of the things that I think the website failed to do, which would have made it more persuasive, was to work with the ABCs of attitude. I think it missed the opportunity to…… [Read More]
Populist Persuasion," Michael Kazin sees populism as a vehicle for the weak and disenfranchised common person to address and challenge the ruling elite. As such, Kazin views populism as an "impulse" that is at the very root of American democracy. Kazin's view of populism can be seen as an outgrowth of the democratic ideology of the American Revolution, as described by ood. Kazin argues that populism has gradually moved from the political left to the right of the political spectrum. George . Bush's current attempts at economic and moral populism give us a better understanding of Kazin's arguments. Finally, "All the King's Men" explores the relationship between populism and the corruption of the political system.
Kazin feels that populism is a more of an "impulse than an ideology," and that populism is the very language of democracy. He defines populism as a political language that regards "ordinary people as a…… [Read More]
Jane Austen's Persuasion: Anne Elliot's Coming Out The writings of Jane Austen are often considered to be the representation of an excessively conservative era. Though this may truly be the case especially in regards to the formal and informal interactions between the opposite genders. A woman's reputation could be made or broken by a simple turn of events. The challenge of maintaining these standards for conduct, where even the minutest misunderstanding might cause years of disassociation seems to be as formidable as any. The story is one of the personal growth of the heroine Anne Elliot. She branches out into a world, limited by her position but much less so than before.
Though waters of social understanding were often murky the reality of Persuasion is such that the heroine, Anne Elliot is assuming the role of "director" of her own life. Austen is telling the story of a woman learning…… [Read More]
Attitude Change and Pesuasion
What is evolutionay psychology? How does it explain mate selection?
Evolutionay psychology (EP) is an advance that looks at psychological taits such as memoy, peception and language fo a contempoay evolutionay pespective in egads to social and natual sciences. It attempts to categoize which human psychological taits ae alteations that have evolved (Confe, Easton, Fleischman, Goetz, Lewis, Peilloux & Buss, 2010). In othe wods, which functional poducts of natual selection o sexual selection ae evolved adaptations. Adaptationist thinking in egads to physiological mechanisms, such as the heat, lungs, and immune system, is fequent in evolutionay biology. Evolutionay psychology elates the same thinking to psychology, aguing that the mind has a modula makeup simila to that of the body, with dissimila modula adaptations seving diffeent functions (Confe et al., 2010).
Evolutionay psychologists dispute that a lot of human behavio is the output of psychological adaptations that…… [Read More]
How has the media age influenced personal selling? Please provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Have electronic media made it more difficult for salespersons to persuade audience members?
The media age has transformed the nature of personal selling. Consumers have access to a wealth of information about the products and services available to them: from broad Google searches to browsing through customer reviews on specific vendor websites or on Consumer eports (Chapter 14). Social media also enhances the ability of the consumer to acquire information about products, as friends share information about their experiences with a product, service, or brand. A more educated consumer challenges the personal sales representatives to be able to answer questions and be completely honest with the answers.
New media has also altered the actual practice of personal selling. Sales representatives have at their disposal a wealth of possibilities for reaching consumers: from emails…… [Read More]
Other scholars have been more critical of ELM. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study, along with the Cook, Moore, and Steel study, focuses on the major shortcomings of ELM. Unlike Schroeder and Areni, these scholars evaluate ELM as an actual model for psychological studies, as opposed to just a conceptual framework. The Morris, Woo, and Singh study found that the model had an excessively narrow focus on the cognitive aspects of audience elaboration, neglecting the emotional aspects. The Cook, Moore, and Steel study found that ELM did not offer an actual causal explanation of persuasive communication and offered Positioning Theory for a causal explanation.
When Cook, Moore, and Steel use the term "causal explanation," they are getting at the predictive value of ELM, which is a very important element of a model's usefulness. One problem with the predictive value of the ELM is the model's argument variable. To test ELM,…… [Read More]
Functional attitude theories hold the central notion that people have attitudes for different reasons. By understanding the different reasons that one has for an attitude and targeting these reasons can be the basis for being able to change an attitude. The basic attitude functions are:
The knowledge function of an attitude refers to the need for people to assign structure, meaning, or order to their surroundings. For instance, in studies of cognitive dissonance people need to assign order to a chaotic situation (incompatible behavior and attitude) and therefore bolster a particular attitude to do so. Advertisers have used this as strategic tactic for years when they target people who have chronic pain, depression, or some other particular condition that results in perceived disorder in their lives. Morals, ethics, and the need to find structure in ambiguous situations serve this function in much the same way. Such attitudes provide a…… [Read More]
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…… [Read More]
What are the important factors of the audience that a persuader considers? What are the strategies of audience analysis used by persuaders? Be sure to provide examples to illustrate your discussion.
The persuader first needs to create the audience, focusing only on the key players or decision-makers involved in the issue. Creating an organizational chart can be helpful in identifying key payers, and those who are empowered to make the decisions relevant to the topic at hand. For example, if I want to pitch an idea for a new information system, I would want to talk with the head of the IT department.
Once the audience has been identified and targeted, it is essential to perform an audience analysis. Some of the techniques of audience analysis are direct, such as polling or interviews. Polling is usually possible only with a good degree of financial resources: because it costs a…… [Read More]
Attitude Object Evaluations
Current Influences of Attitude Object Evaluations
Objects can elicit a variety of emotional and cognitive responses from an individual (reviewed by Giner-Sorolla, 2004). The emotional and cognitive components of a response together define the summary attitude taken towards the object. The degree to which an object can influence behavior appears to be linked to the 'rate' with which an individual develops a summary attitude, such that faster appraisals are more influential because they elicited a stronger attitude. Strack and Deutsch (2004) attempt to merge numerous dualistic models in an effort to delineate the elements that influence an evaluative process. Based on their reflective-impulsive model, motivation is the primary driver of behavior, but the interval between the sighting of an attitude object and the resulting behavior varies depending on whether a person reacts primarily in a reflective (cognitive) or impulsive (emotional) manner.
Findings by Giner-Sorolla (2004) suggest that…… [Read More]
Ineffectiveness of Gun Control: Violence in America's Schools (A Case Study on Kip Kinkel)
Psychologist Jeffrey Hicks, after counseling 14-year-old Kip Kinkel, diagnosed the young boy's condition that "Kip had difficulty with learning in school, had difficulty managing anger, some angry acting out and depression." A year later, in May 21, 1998, 15-year-old Kip Kinkel murdered 2 students and injured 25 others when he attacked at the school cafeteria at Thurston High in Springfield, Oregon. One day before, on May 20, Kinkel killed his parents, Bill and Faith, using a.32 caliber Beretta semiautomatic pistol. Almost 5 months after the Thurston High killings, Kip Kinkel was finally sentenced to 111 years in prison on November 2, 1999.
Kip Kinkel's case illustrates one of the most prevalent social problem in America today -- the increasing occurrence of schools shootings in the country's elementary and high schools. The Thurston High killings is just…… [Read More]
First, they evaluate the truthfulness of the message. Next, they evaluate the authentic of the persuader. Third, they determine the persuader's level of respect for the persuadee. Fourth, they examine the equity of the persuasive appeal. Finally, they look at the social responsibility for the common good of the action they are being urged to take. Combining all five elements together, a person is able to make a judgment about a persuader's ethics.
Personally, I feel that ethical judgments are most effectively made at a situational level. I do not believe that universal ethics apply, but instead feel that situations can help determine the ethicality of a particular action. For example, I do not feel it would be unethical for an American President to lie to the American people about a planned attack on foreign country if being honest would jeopardize the soldiers on the mission. Likewise, I do not…… [Read More]
The tone of the argument is generally constructive. While the author implies a clear conflict -- in this situation the basic class warfare argument -- the author proposes constructive resolutions to the issue, such as the passage of new laws governing campaign finance. Because the call to action is aimed at all parties, there is little in the way of disruptive tone, save for disruption to the status quo, which is argued to be a threat.
There is also an element of group and cultural influence in the argument. The author takes care to otherize the threat as being that of "foreign" influence, a clear device used to galvanize those in support of the author's proposals as American. This stretch of the truth -- the vast majority of campaign financing comes from American sources -- is used specifically to invoke America's culture of independence from foreign influence and to galvanize…… [Read More]
Manipulating the public into thinking that when they fuel up at Shell or British Petroleum that they are doing something good for the environment is not an ethical choice, it is a purely capitalist one.
Similarly, food companies like Kellogg's and Kraft have added "healthy" and "organic" foods to their portfolio. In one case, a fat-free product is advertised to be something that is part of a healthy lifestyle. Yet fat-free products are the ones that contain the highest percentage of additives and chemical ingredients. Those foods are less pure than their full-fat alternatives and therefore not as healthy as they are made out to be. Advertising products that can lead to long-term health problems or an unhealthy cycle of weight loss followed by weight gain is also unethical. Similarly, hippies in the woods do not always make "organic" products. Many rely on factory farming and are no different than…… [Read More]
I would also allow team members to take on leadership roles at appropriate times. For example, if a certain task of the team is linked to a team member's primary skill, I would allow them to lead the team during that task. This will help build team chemistry by allowing all members to see the value of the other members. It will also help build leadership within the team and will help the team members leading to see that they have value to the team. This strategy will also help with motivation, since employees are likely to be motivated by the opportunity to utilize their key skills and be recognized for them.
For techniques of persuasion, I would focus on the objectives of the team and the team members' roles in achieving the objectives. The objective would be not on forcing team members to take certain actions, but instead helping…… [Read More]
(Snyder & Deono quoted in Kjeldal 2003, Introduction section, ¶ 6).
The results from the study Kjeldal (2003) conducted with 70 participants in two stages suggest that the word association responses high self-monitors (HSMs) produce reflect selective activation of a personally meaningful, experiential, system. The responses low self-monitors (LSMs) produce, on the other hand, indicate an intellective factual system.
2. Decision Making Process Theories
Dr. onnie Halpern-Felsher (2009), an Associate Professor at theUniversity of California, San Francisco, identifies a number decision-making criteria in her report, "Adolescent decision making: an overview." According to Halpern-Felsher, determinations of definitions for a competent decision, the process of how the decision was made, differ dramatically. The actual behavior or outcome, albeit, does not determine competent decision making, however, during the normative model of decision-making process, one does consider the consequences to not choosing a particular behavior or a specific event.
Normative models of decision making,…… [Read More]
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…… [Read More]
As a result, consumers again have choices. y limiting media exposure, and being aware of media techniques used to brand and market pop stars, we can make educated choices. Rather than choosing what to listen to by turning on the radio and television, we now have the choice to investigate on our own, on the Internet. It will be interesting to see how pop music responds.
Daly, Steve. "ritney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. elmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
Lelanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio rings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." illboard, 17 June…… [Read More]
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]
Seeing the Dome in Milan was perhaps the first experience that actually knocked me out. This was not a cathedral, at least not like the ones I had seen: it was a myriad of dreams, a swarm of statues, towers and sculptures, a tickle for the soul. I just sat and wondered for a moment and just let the entire imagery gently float over my physical self in an attempt to let my soul rise above and notice everything from there.
I went up the several hundred steps to the roof of the dome and for a moment there I was: Gulliver among the statues and little towers that dominated the roof top. I was on a battlefield, with the armies of towers quietly pondering the next attack, readily organized and prepared. The general was much taller and had a statue of Mary on top, as if to ensure the…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
..hile older children and adults understand the inherent bias of advertising, younger children do not, and therefore tend to interpret commercial claims and appeals as accurate and truthful information," said psychologist Dale Kunkel, Ph.D., Professor of Communication at the University of California at Santa Barbara and senior author of the task force's scientific report. (Kunkel, et.al, 2004)
The Lego ads, when seen by younger children who "do not understand persuasive intent in advertising," might feel as if the balance of the world really does hang in their hands -- and an older child might be confused by the overlapping techniques of advertising, which blur the lines between advertising with a persuasive ulterior motive to encourage consumption, and entertainment in the form of cartoons. This confusion might be another reason for the greater efficacy of movie and product tie-ins with children's advertising."(Briesch, Bridges, & Kim, 2004) This fact is seconded by…… [Read More]