194+ documents containing “peru”.
In addition Peru is second largest producer of zinc, third in copper and tin, fourth in lead, and sixth in gold ("Peru"). Additionally Peru's export revenue is dominated by mineral exports at nearly 63% in 2008("Peru").
According to an article found in the all Street Journal, Low metal prices will have a negative impact on Peru's economy well into 2009. The article explains that the Lima Stock Exchange which is dominated by mining shed 60% in 2008. This is the most significant percentage loss in the region. The decrease in stock price coincided with the problems occurring in the global economy.
The article also explains that recovery will be slow because of the condition of economic growth world-wide. According to Gustavo Urrutia, chief of research at Peruvian brokerage Centura SAB, "In terms of metals prices, I don't think the outlook will change much (Josephs, 2009)." However, the exchange's president asserts that….
Altamirano, T., Copestake, J. Figueroa, A. Wright-Revolledo K. (2004) Universal and Local Understanding of Poverty in Peru. Global Social Policy, Vol. 4, No. 3, 313-336
Carnoy M.and Luschei T.F. Skill acquisition in 'high tech' export agriculture: a case study of lifelong learning in Peru's asparagus industry. Journal of Education and Work
Vol. 21, No. 1, February 2008, 1 -- 23
Josephs, Leslie. (2009) HD International Finance: As Go Metals, So, Too, Will Peruvian Stocks . The Wall Street Journa. C2
Again, Peru is far from being the most impoverished country in South America, and its export capabilities as well as the rural practices of many of the country's citizens suggest higher levels of development than might be accurately measured through statistical means alone. There is still definitely a poverty situation in the country that needs to be addressed, however. The disparity of wealth distribution amongst the country's population and the consistent underemployment faced by many are situations that require attention.
Determining the true poverty threshold for the country of Peru and its citizens is also a somewhat complex task. The World Bank's use of $1.25 per day in 2005 purchasing power parity dollars could be seen as inadequate given the level of activity in rural traditional economies and subsistence practices, which generally increase the standard of living for many of the nation's poor yet which are not taken into account by….
Economic Conditions of Peru
The Peruvian economy is of modest size, with a GDP of $332 million that equates to a GDP per capita of $10,900. The GDP growth rate is 6.3% and this rate of growth has been slowing for the past couple of years. The country's unemployment rate is relatively low but over a quarter of the country lives below the poverty line. Agricultural accounts for 6.4% of the total economy of Peru (CIA World Factbook, 2013). Coffee is among the country's leading agricultural exports.
The Economics of Coffee in Peru
The coffee industry in Peru remains relatively unorganized, with most production coming from small landowners. The main growing areas are removed from markets and the transportation infrastructure is poor, with many farmers taking their goods to market by donkey. Such markets are often not sophisticated either, with only one or two buyers, meaning that coffee farmers often receive poor….
Allison, M. (2010). Starbucks boosts coffee buying in Peru. Seattle Times. Retrieved December 3, 2013 from http://seattletimes.com/html/coffeecity/2010904523_starbucks_boosts_coffee_buying.html
Brown, N. (2013). Peru coffee output to drop at least 25% from roya outbreak, Prime Minister says. Daily Coffee News. Retrieved December 3, 2013 from http://dailycoffeenews.com/2013/08/13/peru-coffee-output-to-drop-at-least-25-from-roya-outbreak-prime-minister-says/
Chase, R. (2013). Peruvian government seeks to rehabilitate coffee industry. Peru this Week. Retrieved December 3, 2013 from http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-peruvian-government-seeks-to-rehabilitate-coffee-industry-100819
China Daily (2013). Waft of Yunnan coffee draws Starbucks, Nestle. China Daily. Retrieved December 3, 2013 from http://www.china.org.cn/business/2013-01/09/content_27630665.htm
Cultural Resume of Peru
Customs and Courtesies
Greetings: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized. Many speak Spanish and an indigenous language; those with higher education often also speak English (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2). It is polite to greet all people you meet. Greetings such as "Buenos Dias" ("Good Day") and smiling are important. The address of "Gringo/Gringa" ("Foreigner") is meant politely. The most common man/woman and man/man greeting is the handshake (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2); women friends may give/receive a kiss on the right cheek but because it's slightly less formal, only the Peruvian should initiate (Debenham, 20); men may also pat each other on the shoulder and children may be greeted with an arm around the shoulder or a pat on the shoulder (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2).
Visiting: Passports are required for all international visitors except some citizens of Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador who are visiting some areas….
1. General Attitudes and Values: Attitudes: Peruvians are strong-willed, nationalistic, strongly desire enduring and succeeding, have a good sense of humor, are accommodating and helpful, and are eager to please. Values: 81% of the country is Roman Catholic; indigenous people often mix Catholicism with their rural religions (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2).
2. Population: According to "Time Almanac," as of 2008, the population was 28,534,000, with 52% on the coast, 36% in the highlands and 12% in the jungle (Peru Tourism Bureau, 2011).
3. Language: Spanish is the official language, though the indigenous languages
Capital (% of GNI per capita)
Source: The World ank (2009)
The following table shows the procedures time and costs involved in construction of a warehouse, obtaining the licenses and permits necessary and completion of the required notifications and inspections as well as obtaining utility connections.
Procedures and Costs Involved in Warehouse Construction
Cost (% of income per capita)
Source: The World ank (2009)
Peru is stated to rank 149 among other countries in the 2009 ranking for 'Employing Workers' and rates 151 among other countries in the 2008 ranking for 'Employing Workers'. This shows a two spot advance for Peru in this category. Stated to be the difficulties employers face in hiring and firing workers are stated to be those shown in the following table. The index value assigned is between 0 and 100 with higher values in representation of regulations that are more rigid. The 'Rigidity of Employment Index' shown is….
Estevadeordal, a. And Martincus, C.V. (2008) Trade Policy and Sectoral Specialization in Latin America (2008) International Working Paper 2nd Quarter. IDB.
Peru (2009) Doing Business, Measuring Business Regulation. 2009 the World Bank. Online available at http://www.doingbusiness.org/ExploreEconomies/?economyid=152
Peru Tackles Maternal and Infant Mortality and Malnutrition with IDB Loan (2008) Inter-American Development Bank. Online 11 Dec 2008 available at http://www.iadb.org/news/detail.cfm?Language=English&id=4960
IDB Supports Creation of New Sustainable Energy Matrix in Peru (2009) Inter-American Development Bank. 29 Jan 2009. online available at http://www.iadb.org/news/detail.cfm?language=EN&id=5107
Information Technology in Peru
The current environment in Peru is not conducive for huge IT investments
The IT revolution has encouraged people to look for opportunities in different countries, particularly the third world countries which have been successful in providing the basic amenities at a cost lesser when compared to developed nations. This study is an effort to rank Peru as a possible IT destination for businesses that are planning to expand into other countries
As the world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in technology and science, business managers are trying to find new avenues to apply their knowledge and experiences, which would eventually help their business. Among other things, the choice of a new destination is determined by a variety of factors. These may include technology preparedness and literacy of the local population, stability and policies of the government that is favorable to the industries and the infrastructure of that country.….
P.A., and R.W. Stuart. "Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer: Key Factors in the Innovation Process." The Art and Science of Entrepreneurship. Ed. Donald L. Sexton and Raymond W. Smilor. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1986. 181-211.
Bracker, J.S., G.H. Van Clouse, and R.A. Thacker. "Teleconferencing business forums: an approach to linking entrepreneurs and potential investors." Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. 6 (1994): 259-274.
Brealey, Richard A., and Stewart C. Myers. Principles of Corporate Finance. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
Krugman, Paul. "A Country Is Not a Company." Harvard Business Review. 74.1 (1996): 40-51).
Landowners in Colonial Peru by the author Keith Davies.
Landowners in Colonial Peru
In this book, Keith A. Davies writes about the families of Arequipa, that the Spaniards founded in 1540 in Southwestern Peru. These families belonging to the middle and upper class status acquired land and used its proceeds to attract prominent spouses, that way they could acquire prestigious political and military posts and also enhance their standing in the society by being benefactors of the Church.
Study of the colonial period has been a favorite amongst the educationist and the students in the United States. It is quite intriguing to discover that at a time when most people are just studying the colonial rule in the European history, others are turning their attention to the period of the colonial rule in Peru.
Peru has been able to attract a lot of attention from authors especially because of the landholding class during….
The nine day festival approaching in late June is intended to honor Inti, the Sun God. The festival's importance is found not just in its explicit celebrations of the harvest, the winter solstice and the deity connected with the warmth, heat and sustenance of the sun but additionally in its demonstration of the ancient cultural heritage of Peru. Indeed, most especially in the time of the Incan kingdom's rule, this was a context where spirituality marked all aspects of Peruvian daily life.
The connection between religious worship and the sun demonstrates the degree to which this permeation occurred. Contrary to the Judeo-Christian tradition that would soon invade the region, religious observance was less bound to a Creator deity than it was to this deity of the elements. According to Davis, Viracocha is the deity to whom the creation of man and earth are attributed in Incan mythology, however a far….
Adams, R.E.W. (1996). Prehistoric Mesoamerica. University of Oklahoma Press.
Bakalar, N. (2005). Ancient Canals in Andes Reveal Early Agriculture. National Geographic.
Davies, N. (1998). The Ancient Kingdoms of Peru. Penguin.
Discover Peru. (2010). Inti Raymi, the Celebration of the Sun. Discover-peru.org.
" Being in a higher position, Yupanqui formed alliances and ultimately succeeded in creating an Empire composed of the four parts of the world named Tawantinsuyo. The Northern part which was mainly formed of mountains became known as Kuntisuyo, the West which was mainly deserts and coastal areas became known as Chinchaysuyo, the South that was mainly plateau surrounding Lake Titikaka was called Quollasuyo, and the East which faced the Amazons was called Antisuyo. (Milla Vidal, C.)
Tawantinsuyo began to flourish with Cusco as its capital city and the Incas started to evolve as a race by taking in customs and traditions from all the villages they conquered. From there on, the Incas and their leader Pachakuteq were dedicated on having a capital worthy of its fame. At Pachakuteq's order, the city's architects and astronomers co-worked in reconstructing the city so that it would resemble a Puma. (Milla Vidal, C.)
Robinson J.D. (2002). The Sacred Landscape of the Inca: the Cusco Ceque System. (Vol. 22, pp. 190+).
Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, M. (1999). History of the Inca Realm. Cambridge University Press.
Milla Vidal, C. Cusco in History and its Message. Retrieved September 24, from Cusco.net. Web Site: http://www.cusco.net/articulos/cuscoinca.htm
Shining Path-Terrorist Group in Peru
In Peru, there are two main rebel groups operating in Peru: the Maoist Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru). oth groups are leftist organizations (Stern, 1998). This paper will discuss the Shining Path, including the history of the group and its focus.
The Shining Path terrorist group launched a series of attacks in Peru, terrorizing the country for decades before they were beaten back in a 1990's crackdown (CFR, 2003). However, in March 2002, a car bomb attack near the United States embassy in Lima made Peruvian citizens recall their fears of terrorism. While the Shining Path has remained low-key for several years, the national and state government still recognize it as a terrorist organization.
The Shining Path was created in the late 1960's by a former university professor, Abimael Guzman, in response to Peru's entrenched system of race- and….
Bolivar, Alberto. (April 5, 2002). The Return of Shining Path. E-Notes. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.enotes.com .
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2003). Shining Path, Tupac Amaru. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.terrorismanswers.com/groups/shiningpath.html.
Dudley Knox Library. (2002). Terrorist Group Profiles. Dudley Knox Library, Naval Postgraduate School.
Ellenbogen, Gorriti. (1999). The Shining Path: a history of the millenarian war in Peru. University of North Carolina Press.
First, these practices stimulated the growth of economics: GDP grew on 16%, inflation rate was reduced nearly twice, but still temporary economic growth was changed by new crisis. Growing incomes caused the growing demand in imported goods, while the income from country's export reduced, which caused inflation and later hyperinflation (up to 2500% in 1988). Moreover international monetary fund proclaimed Peru to be "undesirable debtor" which cut country from foreign credits. As the result, starting from 1988 government lost the control over economics.
Failure of political reforms of democratic governments had tragic outcomes: as the society was turned into a prolonged economical and social crisis, income in 1980 ies was nearly equal to the income of 1960's. People were lost in changes of governments, political ideologies and courses of government. They lost either the trust to democratic powers or to conservatives. As a result Peruvians start referring to the most….
1. Rossman, Charles Mario Vargas Llosa: A Collection of Critical Essays University of Texas Press, 1978
2. Slokes S. Economic Reform and Public Opinion in Peru, 1980-1985 Comparative Political Studies. 1996. Vol. 29. 5. P. 546.
3. Fe Soto E. The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. London, 1989 p. 235.
4. O'Donne, H.G. Delegative Democracy Journal of Democracy. 1994. Vol. 5. 1.
Franciscan Beginnings in Early Colonial Peru, Antonine Tibesar provides an account of the Franciscans' role in converting the native population of Peru to Christianity. Basing his work on primary sources wherever possible, Tibesar asserts that although the Franciscan Order was by no means the primary religious order in colonial Peru, the Franciscans successfully integrated the Indians into Spanish culture. The author seems to have developed his thesis by convenience: the Franciscan Order in Peru opened its doors to him, offering him access to their documentary materials. Therefore, Tibesar was able to write this thorough and specific historiography.
The author constantly admits that there is a dearth of documentary materials written by religious persons of the sixteenth century. Rather, most documents were written by military personnel or conquistadors. Rather than become discouraged by this lack of source material, Tibesar works closely with the materials provided to him by the Franciscan Order….
Inca and Spaniard: A Battle of Two Cultures
It is rare to find one people placidly submitting to the will of another. Rarer still, is to meet with a people who gleefully welcome their conquerors, embrace their culture, way-of-life, and worldview. Yet, it is all too common to discover that those conquerors believe, or want to believe, that they have been welcomed with open arms. How many times in the course of history has one nation justified its aggression by claiming that it has brought civilization to another? How many more times have the victors transformed themselves into saviors ... In their own minds? Call it what you will: the hite Man's Burden, the mission to the heathen, the saving of souls -- such ideas have been repeated endlessly down through the centuries. In the Sixteenth Century, the Spanish found virtue in their brutal conquest of the Inca by discovering that….
De Leon, Pedro. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru: Chronicles of the New World Encounter. Edited by Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.
Keen, Benjamin. Essays in the Intellectual History of Colonial Latin America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Sowell, Thomas. Conquests and Cultures: An International History. 1st ed. New York: Basic Books, 1998.
Walker, Charles F. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
While in 2000, 77% of women who were well educated were part of the labor force, only 39% of women with incomplete elementary education had access to some level of employment ( Attanasio & Szekely, 2001). However, women with little schooling are not able to improve their children's living standards, are more likely to have more children and lack the ability to encourage their children's school performance. This scenario is worsened by the fact the individuals with low-schooling and therefore low-income earning capacities, tend to join together and form households
( Attansio * Sxekely, 2001; Smith & Skidmore, 2001).
Peru governments have been promoting the testing and implementation of some initiatives to reduce poverty, guided and founded by international institutions such as IADB, ECLAC, WB, etc. The 20 / 20 approach launched by UNICEF, supports the UN MDG. It refers to a coordinated intervention between donor and the receiving country This….
Alarcon, W. ( 2004). Genero y Trabajo Infantil. Working paper. Lima . IPEC
Attanasio, Ol. & Szekely, M. ( 2001). Portrait of the poor. New York. John Hopkins University Press.
INEI ( 2005). Report of the situation of children and adolescents in Peru. Retrieved on March 28, 2010 from http:/ / www.inei.gob.pe/reports.pdf
Skidmore, T. & Smith, P. ( 2001). Modern latin America, 5th ed . New York. Oxford University Press.
The Other SideElliott enters the supermarket with a sigh. The doors slide open automatically and the chilled air from inside hits him in the face. The bright lights and the huge interior, the loud music coming at him from the loudspeakers that are everywhere in the USin the restaurants, at the gas pump, at the diners, in the grocery storesand the rows and rows of items for sale. It is as though he were in some giants store, where everything possibly imagined could be had. Elliott is almost stunned, unsure of where to go, as is always the case whenever he enters a store like this. It is an overwhelming experience for the young man from Peru. He tries to get through the store and on his way as quickly as he can, but he cant help but notice how the stores are always set up to distract you from….
Carey, Mark. \\\\\\"Living and dying with glaciers: people\\\\\\'s historical vulnerability to avalanches and outburst floods in Peru.\\\\\\" Global and planetary change 47.2-4 (2005): 122-134.
“Elliott Interview.” May 1, 2022.
Norget, Kristin. \\\\\\"Mediat (iz) ing Catholicism: saint, spectacle, and theopolitics in Lima, Peru.\\\\\\" Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 27.4 (2021): 757-779.
Literature - Latin-American
In addition Peru is second largest producer of zinc, third in copper and tin, fourth in lead, and sixth in gold ("Peru"). Additionally Peru's export revenue is dominated…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Again, Peru is far from being the most impoverished country in South America, and its export capabilities as well as the rural practices of many of the country's citizens…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Peru Sbux Economic Conditions of Peru The Peruvian economy is of modest size, with a GDP of $332 million that equates to a GDP per capita of $10,900. The GDP growth…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Cultural Resume of Peru Customs and Courtesies Greetings: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized. Many speak Spanish and an indigenous language; those with higher education often also speak English (International…Read Full Paper ❯
Capital (% of GNI per capita) Source: The World ank (2009) The following table shows the procedures time and costs involved in construction of a warehouse, obtaining the licenses and…Read Full Paper ❯
Information Technology in Peru The current environment in Peru is not conducive for huge IT investments The IT revolution has encouraged people to look for opportunities in different countries, particularly…Read Full Paper ❯
Landowners in Colonial Peru by the author Keith Davies. Landowners in Colonial Peru In this book, Keith A. Davies writes about the families of Arequipa, that the Spaniards founded in…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
The nine day festival approaching in late June is intended to honor Inti, the Sun God. The festival's importance is found not just in its explicit celebrations of…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
" Being in a higher position, Yupanqui formed alliances and ultimately succeeded in creating an Empire composed of the four parts of the world named Tawantinsuyo. The Northern part…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Shining Path-Terrorist Group in Peru In Peru, there are two main rebel groups operating in Peru: the Maoist Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
First, these practices stimulated the growth of economics: GDP grew on 16%, inflation rate was reduced nearly twice, but still temporary economic growth was changed by new crisis.…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Franciscan Beginnings in Early Colonial Peru, Antonine Tibesar provides an account of the Franciscans' role in converting the native population of Peru to Christianity. Basing his work on…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Inca and Spaniard: A Battle of Two Cultures It is rare to find one people placidly submitting to the will of another. Rarer still, is to meet with a people…Read Full Paper ❯
While in 2000, 77% of women who were well educated were part of the labor force, only 39% of women with incomplete elementary education had access to some…Read Full Paper ❯
The Other SideElliott enters the supermarket with a sigh. The doors slide open automatically and the chilled air from inside hits him in the face. The bright lights and…Read Full Paper ❯