Peru Essays (Examples)

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Titu Cusi Yupanqui History of

Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49758914

Atahualpa clearly held great respect for the Andean traditional drink and considered that it was an insult for the visitors to show little interest regarding it and even to spill it. He probably considered that the Spanish were trying to impose their power through putting across such behavior and that it was essential for him to employ a similar attitude by throwing the letter. The Spaniards themselves failed to comprehend the ritual that they were taking part in and thus only managed to infuriate their host as a consequence of thinking that the 'chicha' was similar to any other drink (Yupangui & Julien 11).

The fact that the Andean culture was poorly organized made it difficult for Andeans to understand the attitudes that they needed to employ concerning foreigners and local affairs. They thus had the tendency to support any one who was strong enough to become king, regardless of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Diego de Castro Yupangui (titu cussi), Catherine J. Julien, "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru," (Hackett Publishing, 2006 )
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Andres De Santa Cruz Had a Lot

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61413269

Andres de Santa Cruz had a lot of importance in politics, and contributed greatly to the Peru-Bolivia Confederation. He grew up in the aftermath of an indigenous rebellion, which prepared him for the political role he would play (Perea 2011). He made his mark in Peru and Bolivia, but what he accomplished is often overlooked throughout various books on the history of the area. As the Spanish Empire unraveled, Santa Cruz was able to become instrumental in ensuring freedom and growth for a region struggling with where it had been and where it was going in the future (Perea 2011). He wanted to see union between Bolivia and Peru, which he was able to get for a time in the Peru-Bolivia Confederation (Perea 2011). Even though it was only present from 1836 to 1839, it has a time that has been marked in history. Santa Cruz considered Peru to be…… [Read More]


Natalia Sobrevilla Perea, The Caudillo of the Andes, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 1-83.
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Economics Politics Trade Geopolitical Base

Words: 7721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22923523

For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)

At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]


Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"

Retrieved at,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html . Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at  on 25 November, 2004
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Moche Paleoindians the First Human

Words: 4658 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20490999

It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.

Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."

In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]


Bawden, Garth. 1996 the Moche. Blackwell, Oxford.

Berezkin, Juri 1983. Moche Nauka, Leningrad.

Chapdelaine, Claude nd the Moche Occupation of the Lower Santa Valley and the nature of the Southern Moche State Anthropology Department. University of Montreal.

____The Growing Power of the Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru. pp. 69-85 National Gallery of Art: Washington, D.C.
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Chile Officially Known as Republic of Chile

Words: 2102 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18423621

Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).

The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").


The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…… [Read More]


Chile. (n.d.). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from 

Chile. (n.d.). Geographia - World Travel Destinations, Culture and History Guide. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from 

Chile from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from 

Chile, the Country. (n.d.). In Chile Travel Planner. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from
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Natives and Slaves New Granada

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83433869

The most significant revolution began and continued from Socorro (in Santander). It was stimulated by the imposition of new taxes by the viceroy and later by actions of a regent, Juan Francisco Gutierrez de Pineres. The rebels, expressed their loyalty to the king and the church while calling for a cancellation of the new taxes and a modification of government monopolies, especially on tobacco and rum. The government wanted new revenues to wage war with England (Blutstein, 1991).

The rebels at first appeared to achieve a victory by getting government representatives to agree to abolish the war tax, the taxes for the maintenance of the fleet, customhouse permits, and the tobacco and playing-card monopolies and to reduce the tribute paid by the Indians and the taxes on liquor, commercial transactions, and salt. The rebels also asked that those born in the New World be given preference in appointments to certain…… [Read More]


Blutstein, Howard I. 1991. Colombia: Chapter 3B. Characteristics of Colonial Administration. Countries of the World. Bureau Development, Inc.
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Cultural Dimension Theory One of

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31126435

Schwartz Values -- Conformity

Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence

Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.

Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.


Hodgetts, ., (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House,, (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from:

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds

Metropolitan University. Cited in:,%20David.pdf

Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]


Hodgetts, R., (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House,, (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: 

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
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Vinos Andinos Vineyard Report Dating

Words: 2570 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74627828

Yet another argument in favour of the expansion towards Luxembourg is the fact that the country is most specialized on producing high quality white wines. This means that Vinos Andinos has an increased chance of selling their red and rose wines to a population that might desire a change from Luxemburg's white wines.


Switzerland (fifth by GDP and sixth by wine consumption) produces low amounts of wine internally, but has an increased consumption and demand as well as high salaries that allow consumers to afford the prices of the Chilean wines. Therefore, the Western Europe country should be one of the three destinations towards which Vinos Andinos ought to focus their attention.

The entrance onto the Swiss wine market might however pose some difficulties. Even though statistics do not mention Switzerland as a major wine producer, this is not entirely true. The inconsistency is due to the fact that…… [Read More]



Davis, P., 1983, Alcohol Problems and Alcohol Control in Europe, Gardener Pr.

Fielden, C., 2003, the Wines of Argentina, Chile and Latin America, New Edition, Mitchell Beazley

Lapsley, J., Moulton, K., 2001, Successful Wine Marketing, First Edition, Springer
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El Nino Southern Oscillation Enso

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9924721

Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)

In the last twenty…… [Read More]

(2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In K. Trenberth, P. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, et al., S. Solomon, & M.M.D. Qin (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project. (1998). What is an El Nino? Retrieved December 1, 2011, from El Nino Theme Page: 

Yeh, S.-W., Kug, J.-S., Dewitte, B., Kwon, M.-H., Kirtman, B.P., & Jin, F.-F. (2009). El Nino in a changing climate. Nature, 511-514.
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LAN and WAN Analysis Current Release OS

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2948384

LAN and WAN Analysis

Cuent Release

OS X Mountain Lion

Linux kenel 3.4; GNU C. Libay

Windows Seve 2008 R2 (NT 6.1.7600)



IBM AIX Vaiant

(UNIX System V Release

Range of compatible hadwae



High fo fine-tuned applications to the pocesso and O.S. API calls (1)

Vey High fo natively-witten applications

Medium fo applications using emulation mode; vey high fo 64-bit applications

Slow fo applications emulating MS-Windows; fast fo diect API-call based applications

Vey high fo applications witten diectly to the UNIX API; suppot fo emulated API calls slows down pefomance

Copoate Acceptance


Vey High

Vey High



Installed Base

Millions of Uses

Millions of Uses

Millions of Uses

Thousands of Uses

Millions of Uses

Diectoy Sevices Powe

Medium; not as well defined as Micosoft

Vey Stong; suppoting taxonomies

Vey Stong with Win64-based Diectoies

Vey High; the opeating system is based on this


Stability…… [Read More]

references in server operating systems: A case of Linux vs. windows. Journal of Econometrics, 167(2), 494.

MacKinnon, James G. (1999). The Linux operating system: Debian GNU/Linux. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 14(4), 443-452.

Spinellis, D., & Giannikas, V. (2012). Organizational adoption of open source software. The Journal of Systems and Software, 85(3), 666.

Tankard, C. (2012). Taking the management pain out of active directory. Network Security, 2012(4), 8-11.
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History From 1865 to the Present Day

Words: 3112 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82260009

istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.


Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.

Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…… [Read More]

Pula, James S. "American Immigration Policy and the Dillingham Commission," Polish-American Studies (1980) 37#1 pp 5-31

Yakushko, O et al. (2008) Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 3, 167-178
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Architectural Monuments of Chavin Written

Words: 1063 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10679693

As an example of the Chavin builder's keen attention to seemingly minor design details, the author's highlighted the monument's multifaceted use of structural columns throughout Chavin de Huantar's Old Temple and Circular Plaza, observing that "these structural columns ... are the only two architectural stages, illustrating possible ways in which builders at Chavin de Huantar may have adapted and continued architectural meaning across major architectural stages" (64). In the estimation of Conklin and Quilter, the Chavin people demonstrated an uncanny ability to evolve architecturally, imbuing the design of their civilization's greatest monument with a sense of continuity that expanded its influence across the span of generations.

One of the primary motivations for Chavin builders to design Chavin de Huantar with continuity as their goal was that the site served as the center of worship, celebration, and ceremony for many thousands of people across hundreds of miles of territory. Despite the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conklin, William J., and Jeffrey Quilter. Chavin: art, architecture, and culture. Vol. 61. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2008.
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Resolving Various Issues Relating to Social Work

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60778277

Social Work

Scenario One; Mr. K

M.K Elements

My Life is a train Wreck

I can't sleep at night

I can't do my work

I think my boss is getting tired of my mistakes

I also forgotten to pay my some of my bills

Creditors are calling the time

The Chief Reason: My Life is a train Wreck

Rationale- Thinking

Mr. K, I have heard about your story and I regret what you and your wife had to experience. I do not consider divorce as a fruitful option, especially if the culprits are not prepared for their outcomes. However, with a close analysis, you should rethink about your life, especially in relation to your mental health. Based on the synopsis you have been having about your social and economic life, you will agree with me that you might need to change the way you view life.


From my understanding,…… [Read More]

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Guano The Rise and Fall

Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59703325

The year 1858 had been the most successful when concerning the amounts of money made over guano. Subsequently, people lost their interest in guano, since it seemed to have lost its fertilizing superiority. It appears that the success experienced by guano had been owed to several intervening factors. Firstly, guano had no serious competitors at the time when it became known around the world. Secondly, the fact that its British supporters had promoted it brought confidence to the farmers. The industry only lasted for a few decades, as people had focused their attention on alternatives. Farming changed along with the coming of artificial fertilizers, which surpassed guano both in price and in efficiency.

Not only did guano have to suffer as a result of better fertilizers emerging, but it also lost important ground because of its reserves being consumed. It seemed that all hope had been lost when concerning guano…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Goodman, Jordan. "Guano Happens (Sometimes): The Discovery during the Mid-19th Century That Bird Droppings Could Be Used to Reverse Falling Crop Yields Saw Governments around the World Join a Frenzied Rush to Annex Any Guano-Encrusted Outcrop They Could Get Their Hands on. Jordan Goodman Delves into the History of the Excreta Change the World." Geographical, Vol. 78, November 2006.

2 W.M. Matthew. "Peru and the British Guano Market." 1840-1870. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Apr., 1970)

3 W.M. Matthew. "Foreign Contractors and the Peruvian Government at the Outset of the Guano Trade ." The Hispanic-American Historical Review, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Nov., 1972)

4 W.M. Matthew. "A Primitive Export Sector: Guano Production in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Peru." Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1 (May, 1977).
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Moche Food Most of the

Words: 4718 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77174953

For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.

In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…… [Read More]


Barth, Fredrik

1969 Introduction. In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, edited by Fredrik Barth, pp. 9-38. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.

Bawden, Garth

1996 the Moche. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Chimu Indians the Fifteenth-Century Spanish Travelers Who

Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59889176

Chimu Indians

The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).

This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.

Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.

McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at
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Less Economic Integration With the United States

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84399412

Less Economic Integration Within the United States

Over the last several decades, the total amount of trade between the United States and Canada has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the two nations share a common boarder that has encouraged both of them to trade more with each other. As time has evolved, this relationship has continued to increase exponentially with the two becoming increasingly interconnected based upon NAFTA. This has helped to fuel large amounts of natural resources that are exported from Canada into the U.S. Where, America has considerable demand for raw materials to meet the needs of: manufacturers, businesses and consumers. (Schwanen, 2005, pp. 309 -- 406) Evidence of this can be seen by looking than the below table, as this illustrates the total amounts of trade between both nations from 1996 to 2010.

Annualized Trade Figures between the…… [Read More]


Canada GDP Growth Rate. (2011). Trading Economics. Retrieved from:

Chinese Think Tank. (2011). Mercopress. Retrieved from: 

Peru. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: 

Trade in Goods with Canada. (2011). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from:
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Conquest of the Inca Empire

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47307694


Francisco Pizarro: The Conqueror of the Inca Empire

The Inca Empire was a vast tract of territories that stretched up and down the western seaboard of South America. It was connected by roads through the Andes Mountains to the capital of Cuzco in Peru. Pizarro and his men made friends with natives in these territories who were tired of the civil war between the ruling brothers of the Inca Empire. ith their help and the help of the in-fighting of the Incas (as well as his own cunning and trickery) Pizzaro was able to gain control of the Emperor, capture him and execute him and his top general. In this manner Pizarro gained control of the capital of the Empire. But control of the vast fortune made his friend Almagro jealous and Almagro attempted to seize the fortune by laying siege to Cuzco after an exploration southward ended in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hemming, J. The Conquest of the Incas. NY: Harcourt Brace, 1970. Print.

Leon, P. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru. Durham: Duke University, 1998. Print.

Prescott, William H. The History of the Conquest of Peru. NY: Dover Publications,

2005. Print.
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Moche Subsistence Timeline From Pozorski

Words: 2411 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6368579

This increase in seed size probably results from the continuous use of water through irrigation.

The Moche pottery also provides insights into the agriculture of the inland valleys. Nineteen races of maize are found on Moche jars. Nine of these include the Peruvian races Confite Iqueiio, Confite, Morocho, Kculli, Enano, Perla, Mochero, Pagaladroga, Huancavelicano, and Perlilla, which had evolved by a.D. 800. Ten races identified are found today only outside Peru from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. This dispersal suggests that the prehistoric ranges of these races were wider than is known in present times. In fact, the Moche pottery shows that most maize forms had a wider geographical distribution prehistorically than they have today. Ceramic maize replicas on Moche jars demonstrate evidence that the north coast of Peru was a major center for cultural exchange and connected the distant areas of South America perhaps extending as far as Central…… [Read More]


Bawden, Garth.

1996. The Moche, New York: Blackwell Press..

Billman, Brian R.

2002. Irrigation and the Origins of the Southern Moche State on the North Coast of Peru Latin American Antiquity 13(4), 371-400
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Narco Terrorism You Live in

Words: 2557 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84301956

Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.

In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…… [Read More]


Chouvy, Pierre-arnaud. "Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan." Terrorism Monitor, Volume 2, Issue 6 (March 25, 2004). Retrieved June 30, 2008, at .

Hutchinson, Asa. Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror= (Speech). Institute for International Studies. Washington, DC., April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at .


Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
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Fall of Fujimori the Film Fall of

Words: 689 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39374350

Fall of Fujimori

The film Fall of Fujimori captures the modern dictatorship of President Alberto Fujimori in Peru. Fujimori comes to rise in 1990 when insurgents and poverty appears to be dominating Peru, and he represents the poor and the disenfranchised population. The support Fujimori gained from this faction of people helped him win the elections for the office of the Presidency. Though, after being sworn in as President, the President launches a "War on Terror" against the guerrilla organization called Shining Path, which he wins. Ten years after the beginning of his reign, Fujimori is accessed of "kidnapping, murder and corruption" and flees from Peru to Japan, "where was in exile for four years" (PS, Documentaries with a Point-of-View, 2006). The documentary illuminates Fujimori in a rather personal light by interviewing him one-on-one, where it is noted that he was "nervous, gracious, diffident and anxious to tell his story"…… [Read More]


PBS, Documentaries with a Point-of-View,. (2006). The fall of fujimori. Retrieved from
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Inca Empire or Inka Empire Was the

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85785788

Inca Empire, or Inka Empire, was the biggest empire in pre-Columbian America. The organizational, political and military center of the empire was situated in Cusco in modern-day Peru. "The Inca civilization came about from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia" (Inca Civilization, n.d.).

The Incas were a powerful group in South America from the 1200s until the middle of the 1500s. Then Spanish conquistadors, who had better weapons than the Incas, arrived and defeated them. Diseases arrived, too, and killed many Incas. Incas…… [Read More]


Devlin, H. (2009, Jul 27). How changing climate helped the Incas to go up in the world [edition 2]. The Times, pp. 13.

Inca Civilization. (n.d.). Retreived from 

Incas of Peru. (2006, Jan 30). The Atlanta Journal - Constitution, pp. C.8-C.8.

Krajick, K. (1998). Green farming by the Incas? Science, 281(5375), 323-323.
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Emerging Market

Words: 1917 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59386059



There has been an ongoing process for the integration and co-operation of the countries in South America for quite sometime, but the individual countries have their own structures and problems. This leads to a situation where not much progress seems to be made.

The first attempt at the regional development of Latin America through the cooperation of the member states was through the Latin American Free Trade Association, set up in 1960. On 12 August 1980, the foreign ministers of the 11 member countries of the Latin American Free Trade Association signed an agreement in Montevideo, Capital of Uruguay. This announced the establishment of the Association for the Latin American Integration. The treaty officially entered into force on 18 March 1981. On the same day, the Latin American Free Trade Association stopped its activities.


The association is an inter-governmental integration organization for the Latin American region. It…… [Read More]


Association for Latin America Integration" 8th May, 2002 Retrieved at . Accessed on 03/01/2004

CAF's role in Integration" Retrieved at  on 03/01/2004

Commercial integration in South America initiates the complete destruction of the Amazon area" Retrieved at . Accessed on 03/01/2004

Eden, Lorraine. Venezuela and Regional Integration in South America Retrieved at Accessed on 03/01/2004
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Women Blacks and Natives in Colonial Latin America

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57415977

Women, lacks and Indigenous People in Colonial Latin America

Colonial Latin America was a diverse country, though it largely consisted of women, blacks and indigenous peoples. The manner of life for these groups was not always the same, as class could be divided between slaves and owners; and even in the work, there was diversity according to region. For example, in various urban areas, women "administered bakeries and worked in wax and tobacco factories."[footnoteRef:1] Thus, women's work depended upon social and ethnic orientation, with "some being considered more appropriate for the urban non-affluent white woman, and others most commonly carried out by Indians, castas or blacks."[footnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss the ways in which these particular groups worked and lived in Colonial Latin America. [1: Asuncion Lavrin, "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie ethell (UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 330.]…… [Read More]


Burkholder, Mark; Johnson, Lyman. "Population and Labor" in Colonial Latin America.

UK: Oxford University Press, 2008

Hemming, John. Red Gold. MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Lavrin, Asuncion. "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge
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Domestic Violence in United States

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53662039

Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).

According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).

However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Forgey, Mary Ann. "Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence." Journal of Social Work Education. March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Ganapathy, Narayanan. "Between the devil and the deep-blue sea: conceptualising victims' experiences of policing in domestic violence in the Singaporean context." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. April 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Hart, Sandra J. "Domestic violence: legal, practice, and educational issues."

MedSurg Nursing. June 1, 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research
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Lost City Radio the Debut

Words: 1739 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13318346

These are the places where the people who cannot afford the life in the city live. Therefore, the use of the city setting, and the development of the slums indicates the impacts of war on the development of the personal economic status. The war aftermath does not allow people to rebuild their lives. Alarcon writes, "Nothing builds community like complaining" (Daniel 186). They have suffered huge losses of the property; there are no jobs and thus the income is limited. This is the severity of the conditions of living in the city. Therefore, the description of the city setting and its development in the novel shows the theme of the war and violence effects.

In conclusion, Daniel Alarcon uses the setting of the novel to propagate the various themes. Additionally, he uses the stylistic devices of vivid description and symbolism to illustrate how the various wars and violence incidences affect…… [Read More]

Works cited

Cross, Stephanie. "Review: Books: Lost City Radio Daniel Alarcon Harper Perennial Pounds

7.99." The Observer: 25. May 11, 2008. ProQuest. Web. 30 Apr. 2013 .

Hickling, Alfred. "Review: Paperbacks: Fiction: Lost City Radio, by Daniel Alarcon (Harper

Perennial, Pounds 7.99)." The Guardian: 19. Apr 26, 2008. ProQuest. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
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Winged Figures in Religious Art

Words: 1873 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28067469

(Hall, 1974) Wings are additionally attributed to "Father Time, the winds and Opportunity, who all pass swiftly." (Hall, 1974) It is clear that wings when used in religious art are used in symbolic representations of beings that are divine, heavenly, or directly connected to the heavens and its creator. Wings are representative of heavenly beings, gods, or messengers of gods, or beings that are endowed with powers not of the realm of the earth. Wings also are symbols of protection and sheltering and this is particularly true in Egyptian art. While few studies exist in relation to wings and winged beings in ancient Peru, it is very likely that the representation of these in art symbolism is much akin to artistic representations in other cultures and since ancient Peruvians have been found to be buried with feathered garments it is likely that these individuals viewed wings and winged beings to…… [Read More]


Hall, James (1974) Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. Westview Press 1974.

Curtis, J., Tallis, N. And Andre-Salvini, B. (2005) Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. University of California Press, 2005.

MacKenzie, Donald A. (2003) Migration of Symbols. Kessinger Publishing 2003.

Perrot, G. And Chipiez, C. (1892) History of Art in Persia: from the French of Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez. Chapman and Hall, limited 1892 University of Michigan digitized 12 Dec 2007.
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Ethical Evaluations About Doe Run

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70639503

With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.


Table showing metals mined by Doe un

Dollars in thousands)





Gold Bullion


Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services

Dollars in thousands)

Primary lead metal sales

ecycling operation:


Metal…… [Read More]


Cheryl Whittenauer. U.S.: Doe Run ordered to clean up tailings site. 2 October, 2006.

DeVous, Philip. Utopian solutions vs. real corporate social responsibility. 

Doe Run Resources Corp: Annual Report 10-K. 

Final Award allowing Compensation. The Labor and Industrial relations Commission.
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Southern Cone Common Market Mercosur Marketing Since

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63466152

Southern Cone Common Market: Mercosur


Since the signing of the Assucion treaty signed in 1991, the hoped for benefits for the countries in the Mercosur have not been completely realized for all involved. This work will concentrate on the marketing and trade issues of each country in the region.

The Southern Cone Common Market is a Latin American trade organization that is called Mercosur and was established in 1991 for the purpose of increasing the cooperation in economic efforts in the member countries. Member countries are Argentina, razil, olivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Peru. The economies are different from country to country inside the Mercosur region. razil and Argentina were originally at odds and had been for many years top competitors preceding entrance into Mercosur. The goals in Mercosur are gradual elimination of tariffs between the member nations. Since the 1991 signing of the Assuncion Treat trade between the…… [Read More]


The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2004, Columbia University Press.

Kim, Kwan S. & Kim, Seok-Hyeon (2003) "Financial Cooperation in East Asia; Possibilities and Prospects with reference to Other Regional Experiences" University of Notre Dame 2003 Mar 12.

Berlinski Julio (2000) Mercosur Economic Research Network: Serie Brief No. 3 ITDT Instituto Torcuato di Tella (Argentina)

"The Mercosur" [Online] available at:
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Nelson Denoon From Norman Rush's

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35112140

Moon is an outsider and stranger from a strange American place who has found a home in a formerly colonized non-white area, like Denoon. The missionary family of the Quarriers and the anonymous narrator of Mating provide, by virtue of their recent entry into such societies, an outsider's view of such insider figures as Denoon and Moon.

In at Play in the Fields of the Lord, evangelical missionaries are attempting to spread their religion to the Indians, much as Denoon wished to spread the gospel of self-empowerment and chastity to the abused women of Tsau. But like Denoon's anthropological community, the missionary work and zeal of the missionaries proves be a mistaken example of artificial cultural tampering, and is destructive to both the missionaries and the Peru Indians' ways of life, just as Denoon's chaste utopia, however attractive to the narrator, is not really workable in reality.

Denoon's tampering is…… [Read More]

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Transportation Systems

Words: 4671 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67907820

Therefore, Trains are best for freight traveling long distances where loading and unloading efficiency and times are less of a concern. For shorter distances, rail travel is less efficient unless it is incorporated into the transportation network that serves passengers in gridlocked parts of town. In these instances, people can efficiently use light rail as a form of mass transit, and this mode of transport makes sense.

Each mode of transport has its pros and cons, and there is often much overlap between these pros and cons for each mode. The situation in New Jersey calls for a very definitive answer in transport management, and for a high level of understanding relative to cargo and passenger demands and the supply of transport vehicles.

This is a written paper APA style

Provide a two-page response for each of the following questions. Defend your answers with the appropriate citations. (Note: You may…… [Read More]


Rodrigue, Jean-Paull; Comtois, Claude; and Brian Slack. (2009). The Geography of Transport Systems, Second Edition. New York: Routledge.

World Port Source. (2010). "The Port of Callao." World Port Source Homepage.

Accessed via internet on August 11, 2010. .
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Global Business International Trade Has

Words: 1719 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14738072

Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.


The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.

The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Das, Dilip K. (2003). Financial Flows and Global Integration. Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from

Steil, Benn. (2007). The end of National Currency. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from
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Latin Women Throughout the Colonial

Words: 5168 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71524581

hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).

This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
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Columbian Drug Problem and Its Political and Economic Ramifications and the United States Recourse

Words: 2979 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45899797

Columbian Drug Trade

If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.

However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.

We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.

It is certainly…… [Read More]

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Nature of Inequality Between the North and

Words: 3958 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83026105

nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.

According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…… [Read More]


Angloplat Goes the Extra Mile to Pioneer Black Empowerment. Sunday Times; November 10th 2002.

Immanuel Wallerstein, The Eagle Has Crash Landed. Foreign Policy, July, 2002.

Between Here and There. The Economist, July 5, 2001.

Does Population Matter? The Economist, December 5, 2002.
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Globalization of Hybrid Cultures

Words: 2811 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98566538

Globalization of Hybrid Cultures

Argentine Nestor Garcia Canclini, in his book, "Globalization of Hybrid Cultures," presents a culture made up of surviving traditions and incoming modernity, particularly in Latin America, where he was born. Viewing the quaint merger at a pluralistic perspective, he asserts that pluralism is indispensable in dealing with Latin America, that is, in considering its "contradictory and unequal components" of modernization, which are emancipation, expansion, renovation and democratization (Canclini 1995). In presenting the theoretical and practical challenges of a hybrid culture, he asks (1) how to hybrid cultures constituting modernity can be studied and given a specific profile in Latin America; (2) how the partial knowledge of the different disciplines on culture can be combined in better interpreting the contradictions and the failure of modernization; and (3) what should be done with the mix of "heterogeneous memory and truncated innovations." He writes on his concept of Latin…… [Read More]


1. Canclini, Nestor Garcia. Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity. Christopher L. Ciappari and Silvia L. Lopez, translators. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995

2. Everett, Margaret. Latin America Online: the Internet, Development, and Democratization. Human Organization. Portland: Portland State University, 1998

3. Harvard Magazine. David Carrasco. Harvard Portrait. Harvard Magazine, Inc., 2002.

4. Keohane, Robert. Globalization:What's New? What's Old? (And So What?). Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Gale Group and LookSmart, 2000. (accessed 22:03:03).
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Case Analysis of Camu

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67881401

Nativas Naturals is looking at ways to bring the Peruvian plant camu into the mainstream, capitalizing on the "superfood" trend wherein exotic foods with high nutrient value are elevated in their status and sold on the basis of their high nutrient value. Prior superfoods such as chia seeds, goji berries and kale have enjoyed success in the past, and marketers are searching for the next big superfood trend. There is a high failure rate for such products, and in some cases there are institutional barriers to bringing these products to market, but the payoff can be significant. Nativas Naturals has distribution pathways in several countries already, so can help to bring a new product to market, using their knowledge and experience with other, similar products.

One of the major restrictions on the marketing of superfoods is the Novel Food egulation in the European Union, which in a fit of bureaucratic…… [Read More]


EU (2014) Food. European Commission. Retrieved March 3, 2015 from
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Wari and Tiwanku - The

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67450059

And Smiley, 2005-2007: 9). Because the Aztec rulers were also connected to the local religion, loyalty to these rulers was even easier to gain.

hus, the Roman, Incan, and Aztec empires allow students of archaeology and political science to understand what really composes an empire. From these three major examples, students can infer that the empire was primarily a combination of domestic and foreign political expertise. Domestically, empires had to keep people loyal to a single ruler, or in the case of the Aztecs, a set of conquering rulers. his occurred through taxation, political systems designed to distribute labor, and empire's ties with religion. A personality cult around the emperor as a legendary hero or source of strength was also important in keeping locals appeased. Internationally, the empire must be, above all other characteristics, strong militarily. hey must be able to launch successful conquests, which made slaves or subordinates of…… [Read More]

Thus, the Roman, Incan, and Aztec empires allow students of archaeology and political science to understand what really composes an empire. From these three major examples, students can infer that the empire was primarily a combination of domestic and foreign political expertise. Domestically, empires had to keep people loyal to a single ruler, or in the case of the Aztecs, a set of conquering rulers. This occurred through taxation, political systems designed to distribute labor, and empire's ties with religion. A personality cult around the emperor as a legendary hero or source of strength was also important in keeping locals appeased. Internationally, the empire must be, above all other characteristics, strong militarily. They must be able to launch successful conquests, which made slaves or subordinates of other nations. Their military strength must also be great enough to ward of other attacks. Finally, empires must be have successfully completed enough of these conquests to take up significant geographical, political, economic spaces in a region.

Both the Wari and Tiwanku cultures can quickly meet the significance requirement. The Wari were the predominate rulers of much of Peru, specifically the highland and coastal areas, while the Tiwanku were the primary rulers of a great deal of Bolivia, Northern Chili, and Southern Peru (G. And Smiley, 2005, 2006: 2). In addition to their geographic and political influence, the Tiwanku was an economic center of its region, containing much of the population, and negotiating much of the trade between different nearby spatial locations. Furthermore, the pyramids, courts, and other structures located in the Tiwanku regions are evidence of the domestic political loyalty that the culture exhibited, as domestic residents would have been necessary for the labor (G. And Smiley, 2006, 2006: 3-5). Thus, the domestic and international significance of the Tiwanku suggests that the culture was, indeed, an empire, although perhaps not one of as much significance as the Roman, Incan, and Aztec empires. On the other hand, the Wari's display of domestic and foreign political control is similarly impressive. With a central government at Huari and administrative centers throughout the region, the Wari rulers could keep control of their domestic population (G. And Smiley, 2005, 2006: 5). This suggests that the Wari had the organizational skills necessary of an empire. Furthermore, the Wari exemplified excellent international political skills, including successful conquests of surrounding areas. Like many other empires, the Wari combined religion with subordination by capturing other cities' ancestors' remains (G. And Smiley 2005, 2006: 6). Although the empire did not last for a long time, its combination of domestic and international political expertise suggests it is not only an empire, but also one greater than the Tiwanku. Thus, while both the Tiwanku and Wari cultures can be classified as empires based on their domestic and foreign influence, they were not empires of Rome's caliber.

Note: The article, "The Rise of the Incas," did not include an author or publication date.
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Complaints From Individuals Under the

Words: 4646 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73436908

Human rights according to the practice of the UN also imply "the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food" (UNESCO, 2004). Therefore, given this example one of the means used by the UN in its attempt to offer the possibility for the respect of this right has been to give "the mandate to the High Commissioner for Human Rights to better define the body of rights related to food. In 2000 a UN Special Rapporteur for Right to Food was appointed and in 2003 an intergovernmental working group was formed to establish guidelines to promote the progressive realization of the right to food" (UNESCO, 2004).

Indeed there are several types of responses that can be given to the breach of human rights throughout the world. Depending on the type of rights being placed under discussion, there can be several mechanisms set in place. Thus, when there…… [Read More]


General Assembly. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the Human Rights Council. (2006)

Human Rights Education Association. The European Human Rights System. (n.d). 

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. Submitting Complaints to the Individual Complaint Procedure of United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies. (N.d). .

Jane Hearn, "Individual communications under international human rights treaties: an Australian Government perspective." Australian Journal for Human Rights. (1999)
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Mesoamerica the History of Mexico

Words: 2707 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11311396

Atahuallpa was the ruler when the conquistadors arrived. The Spanish were under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro. There were a total of 168 Europeans in this group, and they challenged an empire of 6 million people. The Indians were puzzled by the importance Europeans placed on gold, but avarice was only one of the compulsions pressing the Spanish onward. The Inca empire was still relatively new in the early sixteenth century, and at the time of the arrival of the Europeans, it was undergoing a severe internal crisis, a civil war between two rival heirs for the chieftainship. This dissension facilitated the Spanish conquest. Pizarro negotiated with two factions at once and played them against one another. He captured Atahuallpa and ransomed him. The Spanish collected Atahuallpa's treasure, but they then refused to free him as promised. Instead, they tried him, charged him with usurpation, idolatry, polygamy, and other crimes,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coe, Michael D. And Rex Koontz. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.

Coe, Michael D. The Maya. London: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed., 1987.

Davies, Nigel. Human Sacrifice. New York: William Morrow, 1981.

Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.
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Military as an Institution in

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19405491

Such practices led to the growth of foreign loans and investment to Chile, which were stopped during Allende's office, but at the same time it led to the domination of foreign capital in economy sector and weaking positions of national production. Mining industry was privatized by big American corporations, which restored their traditional influence in this sector:

Pinochet's neoliberal economic policies' benefits have been sharply contested. In 1973, unemployment was only 4.3%. Following ten years of junta rule in 1983, unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. eal wages declined by more than 40%. In 1970, 20% of Chile's population lived in poverty. In 1990, in the last year of Pinochet's dictatorship, poverty doubled to 40%.[2] Between 1982 and 1983, the GDP dropped 19%. In 1970, the daily diet of the poorest 40% of the population contained 2,019 calories. By 1980 this had fallen to 1,751, and by 1990 it was down to…… [Read More]


Petras, James Leiva, Fernando Ignacio Democracy and Poverty in Chile: The Limits to Electoral Politics Westview Press, 1994

Pinera, Jose Latin America: a way out. An article from: The Cato Journal January 1, 2003 p.409

Constable, Pamela Valenzuela, Arturo A Nation of Enemies: Chile under Pinochet Norton, 1991

Hewitt, Kenneth Between Pinochet and Kropotkin: State Terror, Human Rights and the Geographers
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William Renwick The Content of

Words: 5769 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841378

The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.

In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…… [Read More]

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Burden of Dreams

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77607340

Burden of Dreams

In 1979, German filmmaker erner Herzog set out to produce a movie about a rubber baron who dreamed of bringing the opera to the jungles of South America. Herzog's film, which would be titled Fitzcarraldo after the protagonist's name, took four years, as well as literal blood, sweat, and tears, to make. Moreover, the plot of Filzcarraldo eerily parallels the actual process by which Herzog made his film. Both depict a European man hauling his pride and ambition to a world in which he remains sorely out of place, imposing on the indigenous society and environment a set of foreign ideals. American documentary filmmaker Les Blank followed Herzog and his crew through the harried production of Fitzcarraldo and the result was the Academy Award-winning feature-length documentary entitled Burden of Dreams. The aptly-titled "making of" documentary captures the near-insanity of Herzog's ambitiousness, and also subtly illustrates the various…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blank, Les. Burden of Dreams. Documentary film. 1982.

"Burden of Dreams." Online at .

"Burden of Dreams." New York Times. 1982. Online at .
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Development of Regional Economy Within Mercosur and the European Union

Words: 1716 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 312096

egional Economy within MECOSU and the European Union

The world has been changing very fast and is having no borders in terms of economies. This is helping people as development in one area is helping people in all areas. This is putting to an end to the belief prevalent in the 19th century that when the interests of individual states were looked after, then the entire society will progress. This is now expected to be covered through mutual cooperation. This quality of mutualism can be seen clearly when the state owned enterprises are being privatized, the streamlining of business is taking place and there being many mergers and acquisitions. The joining up of businesses makes it clear that competition is now a choice that the companies indulge in as and when they desire. The companies are not in a position purely on competition to set the prices that they would…… [Read More]


Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry; Somwaru, Agapi. (Spring, 1999) "Which Came First: Growth in Trade or Trade Arrangements?" Retrieved from  Accessed on 7 June, 2005

'EU-Mercosur relations and negotiations" Retrieved from

Accessed on 7 June, 2005

"First Meeting of the EU-Mercosur biregional negotiations committee" (6-7 April 2000) Buenos
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Native Societies and Disease Numerous Reports From

Words: 2339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7428035

Native Societies and Disease

Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]


Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).

Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).

Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.

Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).