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In addition Peru is second largest producer of zinc, third in copper and tin, fourth in lead, and sixth in gold ("Peru"). Additionally Peru's export revenue is dominated by mineral exports at nearly 63% in 2008("Peru").
According to an article found in the all Street Journal, Low metal prices will have a negative impact on Peru's economy well into 2009. The article explains that the Lima Stock Exchange which is dominated by mining shed 60% in 2008. This is the most significant percentage loss in the region. The decrease in stock price coincided with the problems occurring in the global economy.
The article also explains that recovery will be slow because of the condition of economic growth world-wide. According to Gustavo Urrutia, chief of research at Peruvian brokerage Centura SAB, "In terms of metals prices, I don't think the outlook will change much (Josephs, 2009)." However, the exchange's president asserts…… [Read More]
Again, Peru is far from being the most impoverished country in South America, and its export capabilities as well as the rural practices of many of the country's citizens suggest higher levels of development than might be accurately measured through statistical means alone. There is still definitely a poverty situation in the country that needs to be addressed, however. The disparity of wealth distribution amongst the country's population and the consistent underemployment faced by many are situations that require attention.
Determining the true poverty threshold for the country of Peru and its citizens is also a somewhat complex task. The World Bank's use of $1.25 per day in 2005 purchasing power parity dollars could be seen as inadequate given the level of activity in rural traditional economies and subsistence practices, which generally increase the standard of living for many of the nation's poor yet which are not taken into account…… [Read More]
Economic Conditions of Peru
The Peruvian economy is of modest size, with a GDP of $332 million that equates to a GDP per capita of $10,900. The GDP growth rate is 6.3% and this rate of growth has been slowing for the past couple of years. The country's unemployment rate is relatively low but over a quarter of the country lives below the poverty line. Agricultural accounts for 6.4% of the total economy of Peru (CIA World Factbook, 2013). Coffee is among the country's leading agricultural exports.
The Economics of Coffee in Peru
The coffee industry in Peru remains relatively unorganized, with most production coming from small landowners. The main growing areas are removed from markets and the transportation infrastructure is poor, with many farmers taking their goods to market by donkey. Such markets are often not sophisticated either, with only one or two buyers, meaning that coffee…… [Read More]
Cultural Resume of Peru
Customs and Courtesies
Greetings: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized. Many speak Spanish and an indigenous language; those with higher education often also speak English (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2). It is polite to greet all people you meet. Greetings such as "Buenos Dias" ("Good Day") and smiling are important. The address of "Gringo/Gringa" ("Foreigner") is meant politely. The most common man/woman and man/man greeting is the handshake (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2); women friends may give/receive a kiss on the right cheek but because it's slightly less formal, only the Peruvian should initiate (Debenham, 20); men may also pat each other on the shoulder and children may be greeted with an arm around the shoulder or a pat on the shoulder (International YMCA, n.d., p. 2).
Visiting: Passports are required for all international visitors except some citizens of Bolivia, Chile and Ecuador who are…… [Read More]
Capital (% of GNI per capita)
Source: The World ank (2009)
The following table shows the procedures time and costs involved in construction of a warehouse, obtaining the licenses and permits necessary and completion of the required notifications and inspections as well as obtaining utility connections.
Procedures and Costs Involved in Warehouse Construction
Cost (% of income per capita)
Source: The World ank (2009)
Peru is stated to rank 149 among other countries in the 2009 ranking for 'Employing Workers' and rates 151 among other countries in the 2008 ranking for 'Employing Workers'. This shows a two spot advance for Peru in this category. Stated to be the difficulties employers face in hiring and firing workers are stated to be those shown in the following table. The index value assigned is between 0 and 100 with higher values in representation of regulations…… [Read More]
Information Technology in Peru
The current environment in Peru is not conducive for huge IT investments
The IT revolution has encouraged people to look for opportunities in different countries, particularly the third world countries which have been successful in providing the basic amenities at a cost lesser when compared to developed nations. This study is an effort to rank Peru as a possible IT destination for businesses that are planning to expand into other countries
As the world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in technology and science, business managers are trying to find new avenues to apply their knowledge and experiences, which would eventually help their business. Among other things, the choice of a new destination is determined by a variety of factors. These may include technology preparedness and literacy of the local population, stability and policies of the government that is favorable to the industries and the infrastructure of…… [Read More]
Landowners in Colonial Peru by the author Keith Davies.
Landowners in Colonial Peru
In this book, Keith A. Davies writes about the families of Arequipa, that the Spaniards founded in 1540 in Southwestern Peru. These families belonging to the middle and upper class status acquired land and used its proceeds to attract prominent spouses, that way they could acquire prestigious political and military posts and also enhance their standing in the society by being benefactors of the Church.
Study of the colonial period has been a favorite amongst the educationist and the students in the United States. It is quite intriguing to discover that at a time when most people are just studying the colonial rule in the European history, others are turning their attention to the period of the colonial rule in Peru.
Peru has been able to attract a lot of attention from authors especially because of the…… [Read More]
The nine day festival approaching in late June is intended to honor Inti, the Sun God. The festival's importance is found not just in its explicit celebrations of the harvest, the winter solstice and the deity connected with the warmth, heat and sustenance of the sun but additionally in its demonstration of the ancient cultural heritage of Peru. Indeed, most especially in the time of the Incan kingdom's rule, this was a context where spirituality marked all aspects of Peruvian daily life.
The connection between religious worship and the sun demonstrates the degree to which this permeation occurred. Contrary to the Judeo-Christian tradition that would soon invade the region, religious observance was less bound to a Creator deity than it was to this deity of the elements. According to Davis, Viracocha is the deity to whom the creation of man and earth are attributed in Incan mythology, however a far…… [Read More]
" Being in a higher position, Yupanqui formed alliances and ultimately succeeded in creating an Empire composed of the four parts of the world named Tawantinsuyo. The Northern part which was mainly formed of mountains became known as Kuntisuyo, the West which was mainly deserts and coastal areas became known as Chinchaysuyo, the South that was mainly plateau surrounding Lake Titikaka was called Quollasuyo, and the East which faced the Amazons was called Antisuyo. (Milla Vidal, C.)
Tawantinsuyo began to flourish with Cusco as its capital city and the Incas started to evolve as a race by taking in customs and traditions from all the villages they conquered. From there on, the Incas and their leader Pachakuteq were dedicated on having a capital worthy of its fame. At Pachakuteq's order, the city's architects and astronomers co-worked in reconstructing the city so that it would resemble a Puma. (Milla Vidal, C.)…… [Read More]
Shining Path-Terrorist Group in Peru
In Peru, there are two main rebel groups operating in Peru: the Maoist Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru). oth groups are leftist organizations (Stern, 1998). This paper will discuss the Shining Path, including the history of the group and its focus.
The Shining Path terrorist group launched a series of attacks in Peru, terrorizing the country for decades before they were beaten back in a 1990's crackdown (CFR, 2003). However, in March 2002, a car bomb attack near the United States embassy in Lima made Peruvian citizens recall their fears of terrorism. While the Shining Path has remained low-key for several years, the national and state government still recognize it as a terrorist organization.
The Shining Path was created in the late 1960's by a former university professor, Abimael Guzman, in response to Peru's entrenched…… [Read More]
First, these practices stimulated the growth of economics: GDP grew on 16%, inflation rate was reduced nearly twice, but still temporary economic growth was changed by new crisis. Growing incomes caused the growing demand in imported goods, while the income from country's export reduced, which caused inflation and later hyperinflation (up to 2500% in 1988). Moreover international monetary fund proclaimed Peru to be "undesirable debtor" which cut country from foreign credits. As the result, starting from 1988 government lost the control over economics.
Failure of political reforms of democratic governments had tragic outcomes: as the society was turned into a prolonged economical and social crisis, income in 1980 ies was nearly equal to the income of 1960's. People were lost in changes of governments, political ideologies and courses of government. They lost either the trust to democratic powers or to conservatives. As a result Peruvians start referring to the most…… [Read More]
Franciscan Beginnings in Early Colonial Peru, Antonine Tibesar provides an account of the Franciscans' role in converting the native population of Peru to Christianity. Basing his work on primary sources wherever possible, Tibesar asserts that although the Franciscan Order was by no means the primary religious order in colonial Peru, the Franciscans successfully integrated the Indians into Spanish culture. The author seems to have developed his thesis by convenience: the Franciscan Order in Peru opened its doors to him, offering him access to their documentary materials. Therefore, Tibesar was able to write this thorough and specific historiography.
The author constantly admits that there is a dearth of documentary materials written by religious persons of the sixteenth century. Rather, most documents were written by military personnel or conquistadors. Rather than become discouraged by this lack of source material, Tibesar works closely with the materials provided to him by the Franciscan Order…… [Read More]
Inca and Spaniard: A Battle of Two Cultures
It is rare to find one people placidly submitting to the will of another. Rarer still, is to meet with a people who gleefully welcome their conquerors, embrace their culture, way-of-life, and worldview. Yet, it is all too common to discover that those conquerors believe, or want to believe, that they have been welcomed with open arms. How many times in the course of history has one nation justified its aggression by claiming that it has brought civilization to another? How many more times have the victors transformed themselves into saviors ... In their own minds? Call it what you will: the hite Man's Burden, the mission to the heathen, the saving of souls -- such ideas have been repeated endlessly down through the centuries. In the Sixteenth Century, the Spanish found virtue in their brutal conquest of the Inca by discovering…… [Read More]
While in 2000, 77% of women who were well educated were part of the labor force, only 39% of women with incomplete elementary education had access to some level of employment ( Attanasio & Szekely, 2001). However, women with little schooling are not able to improve their children's living standards, are more likely to have more children and lack the ability to encourage their children's school performance. This scenario is worsened by the fact the individuals with low-schooling and therefore low-income earning capacities, tend to join together and form households
( Attansio * Sxekely, 2001; Smith & Skidmore, 2001).
Peru governments have been promoting the testing and implementation of some initiatives to reduce poverty, guided and founded by international institutions such as IADB, ECLAC, WB, etc. The 20 / 20 approach launched by UNICEF, supports the UN MDG. It refers to a coordinated intervention between donor and the receiving country…… [Read More]
Business Plan: El Inka Peruvian estaurant in Kerrville
El Inka Peruvian estaurant in Kerrville will aim at maximizing its favorable geographical location. Kerrville is approximated to an hour drive from San Antonio in relation to the Kerrville County and popular escape destination in Texas. The mission of the El Inka Peruvian estaurant in Kerrville is to ensure that each guest receives prompt, friendly, courteous, and professional service. This is with a view of enhancing clean comfortable and well maintained premises for our guests and staff. The main objective of the new business entity will be to provide a fair price, nutrition, and well prepared meals through utilization of quality ingredients. The organization focuses on meeting and exceeding our customers or target audiences' expectations with the aim of becoming the leading Peruvian estaurant in Kerrville hence an opportunity to address the preferences of the consumers. The products of the organization will…… [Read More]
Atahualpa clearly held great respect for the Andean traditional drink and considered that it was an insult for the visitors to show little interest regarding it and even to spill it. He probably considered that the Spanish were trying to impose their power through putting across such behavior and that it was essential for him to employ a similar attitude by throwing the letter. The Spaniards themselves failed to comprehend the ritual that they were taking part in and thus only managed to infuriate their host as a consequence of thinking that the 'chicha' was similar to any other drink (Yupangui & Julien 11).
The fact that the Andean culture was poorly organized made it difficult for Andeans to understand the attitudes that they needed to employ concerning foreigners and local affairs. They thus had the tendency to support any one who was strong enough to become king, regardless of…… [Read More]
Andres de Santa Cruz had a lot of importance in politics, and contributed greatly to the Peru-Bolivia Confederation. He grew up in the aftermath of an indigenous rebellion, which prepared him for the political role he would play (Perea 2011). He made his mark in Peru and Bolivia, but what he accomplished is often overlooked throughout various books on the history of the area. As the Spanish Empire unraveled, Santa Cruz was able to become instrumental in ensuring freedom and growth for a region struggling with where it had been and where it was going in the future (Perea 2011). He wanted to see union between Bolivia and Peru, which he was able to get for a time in the Peru-Bolivia Confederation (Perea 2011). Even though it was only present from 1836 to 1839, it has a time that has been marked in history. Santa Cruz considered Peru to be…… [Read More]
For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)
At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]
Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).
The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").
The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…… [Read More]
The most significant revolution began and continued from Socorro (in Santander). It was stimulated by the imposition of new taxes by the viceroy and later by actions of a regent, Juan Francisco Gutierrez de Pineres. The rebels, expressed their loyalty to the king and the church while calling for a cancellation of the new taxes and a modification of government monopolies, especially on tobacco and rum. The government wanted new revenues to wage war with England (Blutstein, 1991).
The rebels at first appeared to achieve a victory by getting government representatives to agree to abolish the war tax, the taxes for the maintenance of the fleet, customhouse permits, and the tobacco and playing-card monopolies and to reduce the tribute paid by the Indians and the taxes on liquor, commercial transactions, and salt. The rebels also asked that those born in the New World be given preference in appointments to certain…… [Read More]
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]
Yet another argument in favour of the expansion towards Luxembourg is the fact that the country is most specialized on producing high quality white wines. This means that Vinos Andinos has an increased chance of selling their red and rose wines to a population that might desire a change from Luxemburg's white wines.
Switzerland (fifth by GDP and sixth by wine consumption) produces low amounts of wine internally, but has an increased consumption and demand as well as high salaries that allow consumers to afford the prices of the Chilean wines. Therefore, the Western Europe country should be one of the three destinations towards which Vinos Andinos ought to focus their attention.
The entrance onto the Swiss wine market might however pose some difficulties. Even though statistics do not mention Switzerland as a major wine producer, this is not entirely true. The inconsistency is due to the fact that…… [Read More]
Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)
In the last twenty…… [Read More]
LAN and WAN Analysis
OS X Mountain Lion
Linux kenel 3.4; GNU C. Libay
Windows Seve 2008 R2 (NT 6.1.7600)
IBM AIX Vaiant
(UNIX System V Release
Range of compatible hadwae
High fo fine-tuned applications to the pocesso and O.S. API calls (1)
Vey High fo natively-witten applications
Medium fo applications using emulation mode; vey high fo 64-bit applications
Slow fo applications emulating MS-Windows; fast fo diect API-call based applications
Vey high fo applications witten diectly to the UNIX API; suppot fo emulated API calls slows down pefomance
Millions of Uses
Millions of Uses
Millions of Uses
Thousands of Uses
Millions of Uses
Diectoy Sevices Powe
Medium; not as well defined as Micosoft
Vey Stong; suppoting taxonomies
Vey Stong with Win64-based Diectoies
Vey High; the opeating system is based on this
Stability…… [Read More]
istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.
Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.
Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…… [Read More]
As an example of the Chavin builder's keen attention to seemingly minor design details, the author's highlighted the monument's multifaceted use of structural columns throughout Chavin de Huantar's Old Temple and Circular Plaza, observing that "these structural columns ... are the only two architectural stages, illustrating possible ways in which builders at Chavin de Huantar may have adapted and continued architectural meaning across major architectural stages" (64). In the estimation of Conklin and Quilter, the Chavin people demonstrated an uncanny ability to evolve architecturally, imbuing the design of their civilization's greatest monument with a sense of continuity that expanded its influence across the span of generations.
One of the primary motivations for Chavin builders to design Chavin de Huantar with continuity as their goal was that the site served as the center of worship, celebration, and ceremony for many thousands of people across hundreds of miles of territory. Despite the…… [Read More]
Scenario One; Mr. K
My Life is a train Wreck
I can't sleep at night
I can't do my work
I think my boss is getting tired of my mistakes
I also forgotten to pay my some of my bills
Creditors are calling the time
The Chief Reason: My Life is a train Wreck
Mr. K, I have heard about your story and I regret what you and your wife had to experience. I do not consider divorce as a fruitful option, especially if the culprits are not prepared for their outcomes. However, with a close analysis, you should rethink about your life, especially in relation to your mental health. Based on the synopsis you have been having about your social and economic life, you will agree with me that you might need to change the way you view life.
From my understanding,…… [Read More]
The year 1858 had been the most successful when concerning the amounts of money made over guano. Subsequently, people lost their interest in guano, since it seemed to have lost its fertilizing superiority. It appears that the success experienced by guano had been owed to several intervening factors. Firstly, guano had no serious competitors at the time when it became known around the world. Secondly, the fact that its British supporters had promoted it brought confidence to the farmers. The industry only lasted for a few decades, as people had focused their attention on alternatives. Farming changed along with the coming of artificial fertilizers, which surpassed guano both in price and in efficiency.
Not only did guano have to suffer as a result of better fertilizers emerging, but it also lost important ground because of its reserves being consumed. It seemed that all hope had been lost when concerning guano…… [Read More]
For example, the possibility exists that one site was a specialized food production area; it remains unknown if the occupants were farmers, herders or involved in a variety of activities. Similarly, another site may be a specialized elite compound. Evidence of food processing in rooms located at the bottom of the mound and storage jars in the center of the building, indicate that the elite may have fulfilled more than one function or specific individuals had access to certain areas of the building for food processing.
In addition, the elite and farmers were dependant on each other. The theory is if one of these sites produced food daily for the other, elites most likely had the means to ensure that food supplies were provided. Thus, it can be supposed, notes Dionne (2002) that the elite power was based on a redistribution system and exchanged services or resources against food. That…… [Read More]
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…… [Read More]
Less Economic Integration Within the United States
Over the last several decades, the total amount of trade between the United States and Canada has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the two nations share a common boarder that has encouraged both of them to trade more with each other. As time has evolved, this relationship has continued to increase exponentially with the two becoming increasingly interconnected based upon NAFTA. This has helped to fuel large amounts of natural resources that are exported from Canada into the U.S. Where, America has considerable demand for raw materials to meet the needs of: manufacturers, businesses and consumers. (Schwanen, 2005, pp. 309 -- 406) Evidence of this can be seen by looking than the below table, as this illustrates the total amounts of trade between both nations from 1996 to 2010.
Annualized Trade Figures between the…… [Read More]
Francisco Pizarro: The Conqueror of the Inca Empire
The Inca Empire was a vast tract of territories that stretched up and down the western seaboard of South America. It was connected by roads through the Andes Mountains to the capital of Cuzco in Peru. Pizarro and his men made friends with natives in these territories who were tired of the civil war between the ruling brothers of the Inca Empire. ith their help and the help of the in-fighting of the Incas (as well as his own cunning and trickery) Pizzaro was able to gain control of the Emperor, capture him and execute him and his top general. In this manner Pizarro gained control of the capital of the Empire. But control of the vast fortune made his friend Almagro jealous and Almagro attempted to seize the fortune by laying siege to Cuzco after an exploration southward ended in…… [Read More]
This increase in seed size probably results from the continuous use of water through irrigation.
The Moche pottery also provides insights into the agriculture of the inland valleys. Nineteen races of maize are found on Moche jars. Nine of these include the Peruvian races Confite Iqueiio, Confite, Morocho, Kculli, Enano, Perla, Mochero, Pagaladroga, Huancavelicano, and Perlilla, which had evolved by a.D. 800. Ten races identified are found today only outside Peru from Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. This dispersal suggests that the prehistoric ranges of these races were wider than is known in present times. In fact, the Moche pottery shows that most maize forms had a wider geographical distribution prehistorically than they have today. Ceramic maize replicas on Moche jars demonstrate evidence that the north coast of Peru was a major center for cultural exchange and connected the distant areas of South America perhaps extending as far as Central…… [Read More]
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…… [Read More]
Fall of Fujimori
The film Fall of Fujimori captures the modern dictatorship of President Alberto Fujimori in Peru. Fujimori comes to rise in 1990 when insurgents and poverty appears to be dominating Peru, and he represents the poor and the disenfranchised population. The support Fujimori gained from this faction of people helped him win the elections for the office of the Presidency. Though, after being sworn in as President, the President launches a "War on Terror" against the guerrilla organization called Shining Path, which he wins. Ten years after the beginning of his reign, Fujimori is accessed of "kidnapping, murder and corruption" and flees from Peru to Japan, "where was in exile for four years" (PS, Documentaries with a Point-of-View, 2006). The documentary illuminates Fujimori in a rather personal light by interviewing him one-on-one, where it is noted that he was "nervous, gracious, diffident and anxious to tell his story"…… [Read More]
Inca Empire, or Inka Empire, was the biggest empire in pre-Columbian America. The organizational, political and military center of the empire was situated in Cusco in modern-day Peru. "The Inca civilization came about from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia" (Inca Civilization, n.d.).
The Incas were a powerful group in South America from the 1200s until the middle of the 1500s. Then Spanish conquistadors, who had better weapons than the Incas, arrived and defeated them. Diseases arrived, too, and killed many Incas. Incas…… [Read More]
There has been an ongoing process for the integration and co-operation of the countries in South America for quite sometime, but the individual countries have their own structures and problems. This leads to a situation where not much progress seems to be made.
The first attempt at the regional development of Latin America through the cooperation of the member states was through the Latin American Free Trade Association, set up in 1960. On 12 August 1980, the foreign ministers of the 11 member countries of the Latin American Free Trade Association signed an agreement in Montevideo, Capital of Uruguay. This announced the establishment of the Association for the Latin American Integration. The treaty officially entered into force on 18 March 1981. On the same day, the Latin American Free Trade Association stopped its activities.
The association is an inter-governmental integration organization for the Latin American region. It…… [Read More]
Women, lacks and Indigenous People in Colonial Latin America
Colonial Latin America was a diverse country, though it largely consisted of women, blacks and indigenous peoples. The manner of life for these groups was not always the same, as class could be divided between slaves and owners; and even in the work, there was diversity according to region. For example, in various urban areas, women "administered bakeries and worked in wax and tobacco factories."[footnoteRef:1] Thus, women's work depended upon social and ethnic orientation, with "some being considered more appropriate for the urban non-affluent white woman, and others most commonly carried out by Indians, castas or blacks."[footnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss the ways in which these particular groups worked and lived in Colonial Latin America. [1: Asuncion Lavrin, "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie ethell (UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 330.]…… [Read More]
Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).
According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).
However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…… [Read More]
These are the places where the people who cannot afford the life in the city live. Therefore, the use of the city setting, and the development of the slums indicates the impacts of war on the development of the personal economic status. The war aftermath does not allow people to rebuild their lives. Alarcon writes, "Nothing builds community like complaining" (Daniel 186). They have suffered huge losses of the property; there are no jobs and thus the income is limited. This is the severity of the conditions of living in the city. Therefore, the description of the city setting and its development in the novel shows the theme of the war and violence effects.
In conclusion, Daniel Alarcon uses the setting of the novel to propagate the various themes. Additionally, he uses the stylistic devices of vivid description and symbolism to illustrate how the various wars and violence incidences affect…… [Read More]
(Hall, 1974) Wings are additionally attributed to "Father Time, the winds and Opportunity, who all pass swiftly." (Hall, 1974) It is clear that wings when used in religious art are used in symbolic representations of beings that are divine, heavenly, or directly connected to the heavens and its creator. Wings are representative of heavenly beings, gods, or messengers of gods, or beings that are endowed with powers not of the realm of the earth. Wings also are symbols of protection and sheltering and this is particularly true in Egyptian art. While few studies exist in relation to wings and winged beings in ancient Peru, it is very likely that the representation of these in art symbolism is much akin to artistic representations in other cultures and since ancient Peruvians have been found to be buried with feathered garments it is likely that these individuals viewed wings and winged beings to…… [Read More]
With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.
Table showing metals mined by Doe un
Dollars in thousands)
Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services
Dollars in thousands)
Primary lead metal sales
Metal…… [Read More]
Southern Cone Common Market: Mercosur
Since the signing of the Assucion treaty signed in 1991, the hoped for benefits for the countries in the Mercosur have not been completely realized for all involved. This work will concentrate on the marketing and trade issues of each country in the region.
The Southern Cone Common Market is a Latin American trade organization that is called Mercosur and was established in 1991 for the purpose of increasing the cooperation in economic efforts in the member countries. Member countries are Argentina, razil, olivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Peru. The economies are different from country to country inside the Mercosur region. razil and Argentina were originally at odds and had been for many years top competitors preceding entrance into Mercosur. The goals in Mercosur are gradual elimination of tariffs between the member nations. Since the 1991 signing of the Assuncion Treat trade between the…… [Read More]
Moon is an outsider and stranger from a strange American place who has found a home in a formerly colonized non-white area, like Denoon. The missionary family of the Quarriers and the anonymous narrator of Mating provide, by virtue of their recent entry into such societies, an outsider's view of such insider figures as Denoon and Moon.
In at Play in the Fields of the Lord, evangelical missionaries are attempting to spread their religion to the Indians, much as Denoon wished to spread the gospel of self-empowerment and chastity to the abused women of Tsau. But like Denoon's anthropological community, the missionary work and zeal of the missionaries proves be a mistaken example of artificial cultural tampering, and is destructive to both the missionaries and the Peru Indians' ways of life, just as Denoon's chaste utopia, however attractive to the narrator, is not really workable in reality.
Denoon's tampering is…… [Read More]
Therefore, Trains are best for freight traveling long distances where loading and unloading efficiency and times are less of a concern. For shorter distances, rail travel is less efficient unless it is incorporated into the transportation network that serves passengers in gridlocked parts of town. In these instances, people can efficiently use light rail as a form of mass transit, and this mode of transport makes sense.
Each mode of transport has its pros and cons, and there is often much overlap between these pros and cons for each mode. The situation in New Jersey calls for a very definitive answer in transport management, and for a high level of understanding relative to cargo and passenger demands and the supply of transport vehicles.
This is a written paper APA style
Provide a two-page response for each of the following questions. Defend your answers with the appropriate citations. (Note: You may…… [Read More]
Combined with the increasing prevalence of regional trading blocs, higher transportation costs may result in a move towards regional production rather than global. In other respects, however, Lonely Planet's business will remain essentially unchanged over the coming years.
The globalization of international trade has had a profound impact on Lonely Planet's operations. It has allowed the company to use offshore production centers that are capable of serving the global market. The monetary flows even at a relatively simple, one-product firm like LPP illustrate the degree to which economies around the world are intertwined. The company receives monetary inflows from dozens of nations, and disperses monetary flows to dozens more. Including small flows, the operations of Lonely Planet contribute to the economy of nearly every nation on earth.
The recent changes with respect to the global economy will continue to impact operations into the coming years, affecting the firm's ability…… [Read More]
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…… [Read More]
Columbian Drug Trade
If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.
It is certainly…… [Read More]
nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it's not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.
According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don't possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as…… [Read More]
Globalization of Hybrid Cultures
Argentine Nestor Garcia Canclini, in his book, "Globalization of Hybrid Cultures," presents a culture made up of surviving traditions and incoming modernity, particularly in Latin America, where he was born. Viewing the quaint merger at a pluralistic perspective, he asserts that pluralism is indispensable in dealing with Latin America, that is, in considering its "contradictory and unequal components" of modernization, which are emancipation, expansion, renovation and democratization (Canclini 1995). In presenting the theoretical and practical challenges of a hybrid culture, he asks (1) how to hybrid cultures constituting modernity can be studied and given a specific profile in Latin America; (2) how the partial knowledge of the different disciplines on culture can be combined in better interpreting the contradictions and the failure of modernization; and (3) what should be done with the mix of "heterogeneous memory and truncated innovations." He writes on his concept of Latin…… [Read More]
Nativas Naturals is looking at ways to bring the Peruvian plant camu into the mainstream, capitalizing on the "superfood" trend wherein exotic foods with high nutrient value are elevated in their status and sold on the basis of their high nutrient value. Prior superfoods such as chia seeds, goji berries and kale have enjoyed success in the past, and marketers are searching for the next big superfood trend. There is a high failure rate for such products, and in some cases there are institutional barriers to bringing these products to market, but the payoff can be significant. Nativas Naturals has distribution pathways in several countries already, so can help to bring a new product to market, using their knowledge and experience with other, similar products.
One of the major restrictions on the marketing of superfoods is the Novel Food egulation in the European Union, which in a fit of bureaucratic…… [Read More]
And Smiley, 2005-2007: 9). Because the Aztec rulers were also connected to the local religion, loyalty to these rulers was even easier to gain.
hus, the Roman, Incan, and Aztec empires allow students of archaeology and political science to understand what really composes an empire. From these three major examples, students can infer that the empire was primarily a combination of domestic and foreign political expertise. Domestically, empires had to keep people loyal to a single ruler, or in the case of the Aztecs, a set of conquering rulers. his occurred through taxation, political systems designed to distribute labor, and empire's ties with religion. A personality cult around the emperor as a legendary hero or source of strength was also important in keeping locals appeased. Internationally, the empire must be, above all other characteristics, strong militarily. hey must be able to launch successful conquests, which made slaves or subordinates of…… [Read More]
Human rights according to the practice of the UN also imply "the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food" (UNESCO, 2004). Therefore, given this example one of the means used by the UN in its attempt to offer the possibility for the respect of this right has been to give "the mandate to the High Commissioner for Human Rights to better define the body of rights related to food. In 2000 a UN Special Rapporteur for Right to Food was appointed and in 2003 an intergovernmental working group was formed to establish guidelines to promote the progressive realization of the right to food" (UNESCO, 2004).
Indeed there are several types of responses that can be given to the breach of human rights throughout the world. Depending on the type of rights being placed under discussion, there can be several mechanisms set in place. Thus, when there…… [Read More]
Atahuallpa was the ruler when the conquistadors arrived. The Spanish were under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro. There were a total of 168 Europeans in this group, and they challenged an empire of 6 million people. The Indians were puzzled by the importance Europeans placed on gold, but avarice was only one of the compulsions pressing the Spanish onward. The Inca empire was still relatively new in the early sixteenth century, and at the time of the arrival of the Europeans, it was undergoing a severe internal crisis, a civil war between two rival heirs for the chieftainship. This dissension facilitated the Spanish conquest. Pizarro negotiated with two factions at once and played them against one another. He captured Atahuallpa and ransomed him. The Spanish collected Atahuallpa's treasure, but they then refused to free him as promised. Instead, they tried him, charged him with usurpation, idolatry, polygamy, and other crimes,…… [Read More]
Such practices led to the growth of foreign loans and investment to Chile, which were stopped during Allende's office, but at the same time it led to the domination of foreign capital in economy sector and weaking positions of national production. Mining industry was privatized by big American corporations, which restored their traditional influence in this sector:
Pinochet's neoliberal economic policies' benefits have been sharply contested. In 1973, unemployment was only 4.3%. Following ten years of junta rule in 1983, unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. eal wages declined by more than 40%. In 1970, 20% of Chile's population lived in poverty. In 1990, in the last year of Pinochet's dictatorship, poverty doubled to 40%. Between 1982 and 1983, the GDP dropped 19%. In 1970, the daily diet of the poorest 40% of the population contained 2,019 calories. By 1980 this had fallen to 1,751, and by 1990 it was down to…… [Read More]
The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.
In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…… [Read More]
Burden of Dreams
In 1979, German filmmaker erner Herzog set out to produce a movie about a rubber baron who dreamed of bringing the opera to the jungles of South America. Herzog's film, which would be titled Fitzcarraldo after the protagonist's name, took four years, as well as literal blood, sweat, and tears, to make. Moreover, the plot of Filzcarraldo eerily parallels the actual process by which Herzog made his film. Both depict a European man hauling his pride and ambition to a world in which he remains sorely out of place, imposing on the indigenous society and environment a set of foreign ideals. American documentary filmmaker Les Blank followed Herzog and his crew through the harried production of Fitzcarraldo and the result was the Academy Award-winning feature-length documentary entitled Burden of Dreams. The aptly-titled "making of" documentary captures the near-insanity of Herzog's ambitiousness, and also subtly illustrates the various…… [Read More]
egional Economy within MECOSU and the European Union
The world has been changing very fast and is having no borders in terms of economies. This is helping people as development in one area is helping people in all areas. This is putting to an end to the belief prevalent in the 19th century that when the interests of individual states were looked after, then the entire society will progress. This is now expected to be covered through mutual cooperation. This quality of mutualism can be seen clearly when the state owned enterprises are being privatized, the streamlining of business is taking place and there being many mergers and acquisitions. The joining up of businesses makes it clear that competition is now a choice that the companies indulge in as and when they desire. The companies are not in a position purely on competition to set the prices that they would…… [Read More]
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]