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Throughout my graduate studies, I will introduce myself to a plethora of research techniques and technologies. The opportunity to work in state-of -- the art laboratories with the leading minds in the field is thrilling and I will take full advantage of my time at Oregon State by collaborating with teammates on complex, ambitious research projects. Keeping focused on my core career goals, I will also be networking with professionals in the field and becoming a part of one of the most exciting professional communities. Our field is growing, and I am looking forward to being a part of it.
Another reason why I am sure I will make a good fit at Oregon State is that the student body is diverse. Moreover, the motto of the school, "Open Minds, Open Doors," underscores the core philosophy of my education. One of my best friends is a graduate from the Oregon…… [Read More]
Criminal Behavior and Healthcare Professionals: An Examination of Pharmacists
When it comes to health care professionals like doctors, nurses, pharmacists or nurse practitioners, it's hard to picture them engaged in actions that are not helping-focused, as these professional have ultimately devoted their lives towards helping other people. However, the reality is that these health care professionals are people too and still subject to weaknesses, temptation and even criminal activity. This paper will examine the reality of pharmacists becoming addicted to the controlled substances they are responsible for along with the phenomenon of rogue pharmacists who help facilitate the illegal drug trade.
When it comes to pharmacists and prescription drug abuse, many people are unaware of just how common this actually is. As one pharmacists explains, "According to statistics, many of us do take part in self-medicating. A study by McAuliffe et al. reported that 46% of pharmacists use prescription drugs…… [Read More]
Neck Pain in Pharmacists
The work of Plagakis (2010) reports that his time spent working as a pharmacist had ultimately resulted in his neck being bent downward. He reports that he experienced extreme pain in 2009 beginning with discomfort across his shoulders and neck. Plagakis reports that he had to enter physical therapy to combat the pain and bent posture. The study reported by Markotic-Bogavcic (2012) reports the study objective of establishing the effect of working at personal computers on vision and neck pain in pharmacists. The cross-sectional study examined vision and subjective disturbances at work in 50 pharmacists with the average age being 41.8 years of age that used PCs at work for 40 hours per week. The report states "Pharmacists work mostly in the standing position…Excessive lacrimation and neck-pain during work" was found to be pronounced in pharmacists.
The study results are stated to support "the recommendations set…… [Read More]
Pharmacists' Legal Obligations: The McLaughlin v Hooks Case
Pharmacists have ethical and legal obligations to ensure that the prescriptions they fill are valid, both in that the physician must be prescribing the medication for a valid reason and that the person filling the prescription must be doing so for valid therapeutic reasons (ASHP, 2008; Brushwood, n.d.). The court needs to take these obligations into account, and then must determine whether the frequency with which the prescription was refilled would have required a pharmacist to check with the patient's physician or at least another pharmacist in order to determine if the pattern represented abuse (Brushwood, n.d.). The basic considerations before the court, then, are the pattern of behavior (i.e. prescription refilling) represented in the facts and the relationship of this pattern to the legal and ethical standards of pharmacists. The addition was certainly a foreseeable consequence, and this means…… [Read More]
Interviewing a Pharmacist
A prescription is written for you by your doctor by directly handing it to you in handwritten form or sends it electronically to your pharmacy. Such a pharmacy could be a mail order pharmacy, a retail one, or even a pharmacy at the doctor's office.
The pharmacy benefits manager inspects your insurance plan to ensure that the prescribed medicine is part of your insurance plan.
Your insurer will decide one of the following to facilitate your access to the prescribed medicine.
Once you make the co-payment indicated in the insurance policy for your medicine, you access the medication.
You access the prescribed medicine after executing a higher co pay or you can make part of the total payments; also referred to as co-insurance.
You could be given medicine that is less expensive but provides similar benefits as the medicine prescribed but isn't a generic of the prescribed…… [Read More]
Working as a pharmacist has always been my dream, more than any other avenue of health care work. I decided to pursue a career in pharmacy in earnest shortly after I began attending community college. Especially after I found work at a local pharmacy, my desire to work in this industry increased. I had only worked at the store for a few weeks and I had already taken note of a number of procedures related to the pharmaceutical business that aren't taught in the classroom. For example, I picked up on the level of care and personal interaction required between pharmacist and customer, as well as the distinct relationships between the pharmacy, the customer, the physicians, and the insurance agencies. Pharmaceuticals are a booming business, one in which I know I will thrive professionally. Yet it is also a health care industry, one that combines clinical work with patient interaction.…… [Read More]
Pharmacy Practice in the United States
From its very beginnings, pharmacy was considered the art of making medicines. Like most arts that originated in earlier times, it came eventually to be regarded as a science in the modern age (utoh 2). Throughout history, various cultures have practiced pharmacy by creating drugs "to treat illness, relieve pain, create euphoria and promote health" (utoh 3). All of the medicinal creations around the globe over the past millennium show that the making of medicines has been a universal process that is natural to humankind. Yet, in the United States, the science of pharmacy has taken a new trajectory -- with the pharmaceutical industry representing a significant portion of gross domestic product. Pharmacy practice in the United States is not just an art or science -- it is also a big business. Nonetheless, while the usage and significance of medicines has differed from culture…… [Read More]
Results of an Interview with a Pharmacist
Health care practitioners are frequently required to engage in interprofessional collaboration in order to provide optimal patient care (Poling, Wilson & Finke, 2016). Because the vast majority of inpatients will receive some type of pharmaceutical as part of their health care regimen, collaboration between tertiary care pharmacists and nurses as well as other health care providers is an ongoing need (Angel & Friedman, 2016; NLN releases a vision for interprofessional collaboration, 2016). This paper presents the results of a face-to-face interview with a pharmacist employed in a major medical center operated by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), including a description of the process of filing a prescription, some of the more common reasons that pharmacists call providers to clarify orders, the information contained on a proper prescription, and some of the more common omissions that pharmacists experience when they receive prescriptions.…… [Read More]
A reflection on the case shows me that ethical and moral guidelines must be instilled in pharmacy as a profession. It is therefore necessary for the pharmacies to collaborate with other key stakeholders in ensuring that proper guidelines are put in place together with polices aimed at ensuring an ethical and moral pharmaceutical practice. Case esolution Model (CM) (Brincat & Wike,1999) is therefore an important model since it has taken me through all the necessary steps that can allow me to effective conclude this case amicably.
World Health Organization (2001). The ole of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf
Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.
Passmore P, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.
outledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW…… [Read More]
ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…… [Read More]
The feeling that I was cut out for this role of a pharmacist came when I was fascinated in the chemistry classes about the medications, and the origin of bio-medicals. My fascination and the interaction with the patients where I work have made me known and liked in the current place of work. That would take this argument to the work experience and qualifications.
3. I am now a student for the masters in biomedical science at Midwestern University. Earlier qualifications include a bachelor's degree in computer engineering from Iraq in 2004. I also have completed the pre-pharmacy courses. Thus I have had a strong academic background. Further along with my academic background, I have had working experience as a pharmacy technician. I have found pleasure in working for the Walgreen's Pharmacy for three years as a pharmacy technician. Working with the employer namely Walgreen's allowed me to develop skills…… [Read More]
What kind of work do I envision myself doing ten years from now?
I have a substantial plan that I intend to follow once I complete my education as a major in pharmaceutical chemistry. That is, I plan to complete the additional education necessary to obtain my license as a pharmacist, and ten years from now I plan to be serving a vital role as a highly qualified, competent and compassionate pharmacist in a hospital in California.
Frankly this is not a new idea for me at all because since I was a young person I have given serious thought to the important role that a pharmacist plays in the healthcare field. My own family has illnesses that require prescriptions of specific medicines to keep them alive.
My parents struggle with cardiovascular disease and with diabetes, and for many years I have seen how they are being kept…… [Read More]
I was also inspired by the communication skills and dedication pharmacists showed in making my aunt's course of treatment comprehensible, so my aunt understood why she was taking certain medications, the possible side effects that she should be aware of, and also of possible drug interactions. The pharmacists involved my aunt's nurses and family in their interactions with my aunt, and I began to envision myself in a similar role, combining chemistry with communication, compassion, and caring.
The future of pharmacy, in a world where medication's side effects and interactions are often dangerous, and treatment schedules because of drug interactions can be quite complex, requires pharmacists who are caregivers and teachers, not mere dispensers of prescriptions. A pharmacist is part of a patient's plan of care, right along with the patient's doctors and nurses. The sick, confused, and elderly, depend upon their pharmacist to ensure that their prescriptions are correct,…… [Read More]
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…… [Read More]
I have an Associate Degree in Science from Community College of Philadelphia (2004), accumulating a GPA of 2.75 out of 4.00, and I am currently enrolled in courses in Biology, Statistics, and Physics at that same Community College. My college-level experience includes classes in Chemistry, Math and Physics at LaSalle University in Philadelphia -- in the autumn of 2010 through Summer 2011 -- and I proudly accumulated a 3.16 GPA out of 4.00.
My Personal Professional Motivation
I am proud to reflect that when I am asked to be trained in a new area, one I am not the least bit familiar with, I eagerly accept that new assignment. On our hospital staff, I was among the first few that was asked to be trained in a new IV automation technology. My passion is to always be prepared, to learn everything I can learn, and to work cooperatively…… [Read More]
Pharmacy Personal Statement
Over the course of my life, I have been confronted with many obstacles, yet one core passion has kept me focused: that of my desire to enter the medical profession as a pharmacist. I came to the United States when I was seventeen, relatively late to enter the U.S. school system, but I was still able to become a part of the Honors Program at the College of the Canyons as a pre-pharmacy major, with a focus in chemistry. I had already worked at my aunt's pharmacy, and seeing how the work of a pharmacist could make such a difference in people's daily lives cemented my decision to pursue the profession. While at College of the Canyons I was a participant in the EOPS (Educational Opportunity Programs and Services) and volunteered at the pharmacy of Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital in Valencia. The latter enabled me to…… [Read More]
He is not depriving the pharmacist of his livelihood. He is not depriving another sick individual from having access to the same medication. Harvey only risks getting caught stealing and even if he were caught would be unlikely to spend any time in jail given the extenuating circumstances. Therefore, Harvey should steal the medication from a utilitarian perspective.
Although a duty-based system of ethics would propose that the immorality of stealing can never be justified, it is impossible to prove why Harvey should let his wife die instead. If Harvey did let his wife die, he would have committed a far more insipid act than if he stole.
Knowing that the medication will save his wife's life, Harvey commits a petty crime only. The act of stealing is clearly immoral. However, under the circumstances only an inhumane individual could censure him. Given the tremendous good that would come from Harvey's…… [Read More]
When our family moved to United States five years ago, I began to see more opportunities for my chosen career unfold before me. Greater access to drugs and medicines, as well as improved treatments for my grandmother's condition, are the opportunities that led to my acquiring increased knowledge in pharmacy. I have fueled my passion in being a pharmacist while in Iran, and now I am ready to realize this goal in life by aspiring to attend in a medical school here in U.S.. Armed with my impressive credentials, field experience working as a pharmacy technician at Walgreen's, and personal history of being acquainted with the field of pharmacy through my grandmother's battle with Alzheimer's disease, I am now ready to start a new life as a pharmacist. Pharmacy as a career is the best path for fulfilling my aspirations to ease suffering among people, particularly the elderly, and perhaps,…… [Read More]
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]
The applicant's response to the real-life scenarios show how effective a pharmacist he or she will become more than their test scores. Real-life scenarios would also test the applicant's ability to handle stress and make accurate, informed decisions that impact customer health. This second session could either be offered to all applicants or as a second level of interviews offered to candidates who shine during the first session.
3. Pharmacists face enormous challenges each day they work. Communication between staff members, communication with clients, and communication with insurance representatives, health care staff, and doctors. Patient diversity is a challenge, especially when language or health care expectations come in the way of the effective delivery of service. Pharmacists must also stay abreast of new treatments, new research, and new pharmaceuticals on the market. Learning about the pharmaceutical industry by attending conferences may be the most effective solution to the challenges that…… [Read More]
Secondary Career Option Cardiovascular Perfusionist
Second Career Option Cardiovascular Perfusionist
Second Career Option: Cardiovascular Perfusionist
Second Career Option: Cardiovascular Perfusionist
A cardiovascular perfusionist is a specialized health professional who operates the heart-lung machine during cardiac surgery and other surgeries that require cardiopulmonary bypass (Goeckner, Hicks, and Wanzer, 2011, p. 136). The perfusionist is a highly trained member of the cardiothoracic surgical team whose responsibilities center around the support of the physiological and metabolic needs of the cardiac surgical patient so that the cardiac surgeon may operate on a still, unbeating heart (Lackatta, 2002, p. 29). Perfusionists are vital to the completion of such operations, and are vital to the hospitals in which they work as these individuals are often responsible for purchasing equipment and supplies relative to their duties, hiring support technicians and overseeing department management and quality improvement regarding their area of work and expertise. In addition to playing…… [Read More]
Jamil, who had supported me financially and emotionally during these tough times, persuaded me to continue my studies when I felt ready.
For nearly a decade I struggled to redefine myself in a completely foreign culture. It has been difficult but after we had our first son a year ago, my perspective shifted and life situation has become more stable. Now that I have also become more proficient in English and rooted in my community, I am well-prepared to meet the challenges of university-level courses here in the United States. I am therefore applying for admission to the Doctor of Pharmacy program, to complete the education I started years ago in my home country.
My academic background will illustrate that I am nothing but focused and dedicated and that I will make an ideal candidate for the program. Because I have already taken many of the prerequisite courses here and…… [Read More]
I had yet to become fluent in English, much as I loved the subject matter. My grades initially suffered, but I persevered. As the eldest child in the family, I wished to show a shining example of success to my younger brothers and sisters.
After freshman year, through perseverance, passion, and dedication, I made the Dean's list. I now excel in my graduate level classes in my master's program in pharmacy, alongside my freshman year classmates. My courses are rigorous, but the challenge feels easy to me, because of my fluency. However, I have not forgotten the difficulties I experienced in adjusting to a new life. My own struggles have fostered patience and compassion within me. Just as I refused to be daunted when I first came to this country, I will bring the same zeal to teaching the sick how to treat themselves with the medicines they have…… [Read More]
Personal Statement for Pharmacy School
Pharmacy School is highly important to me as part of my career path, and I believe I am both personally and professionally well-qualified to attend and be successful. I have work experience in the pharmaceutical field, having worked at my aunt's pharmacy in the past. This work taught me a great deal about pharmacy as a profession, but also gave me a lot of insight about how to properly treat patients and interact with others. I consider myself more well-rounded because of the interaction I had with so many people during my time at the pharmacy. I smile frequently, consider myself a nice person, and have developed a high level of patience with people from all walks of life. In 2000, when I was 17, I came to the United States and earned my diploma from Valencia High School. Just a week later I began…… [Read More]
obert ay Courtney
In 1998, One of obert Courtney's sales employees, Eli Lilly, noticed inconsistencies between the quantity of the cancer drug Gemzar that Courtney shipped in and the amount he sold. Lilly upon investigation of the issue was unsuccessful in unearthing any evidence of illegality and concluded the issue without further action. Two years later, Eli mentioned the issue to a medical practitioner who worked in the same building who was also a customer. This medical practitioner, working as an oncologist took a sample of the medication for testing and the results revealed that the prescription was diluted, she notified authorities. It is estimated that Courtney diluted almost 100,000 prescriptions between 1990 and 2001, which were administered to over 4000 patients. In 2002, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison after pleading guilty to 20 counts of tampering and adulterating the chemotherapy drugs Taxol and Gemzar.…… [Read More]
3). How exactly did he get caught? After learning that it was possible that Courtney was diluting medications, the FBI and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) arranged a sting. In the sting, one of Courtney's customers (Hunter) ordered six prescriptions from Research Medical Tower Pharmacy (Courtney's company); the results of the tests on those drugs showed that "each had been diluted to between 17 and 39% of the required dosage" (Draper, p. 3).
The customer named Hunter than ordered two more prescriptions of Gemzar and one of Taxol. Soon the results from the FDA tests showed the "concentration levels had been reduced to 28%, 24% and virtually zero," Draper explains. A few days later the FBI "swarmed the pharmacy"; in the federal officers' car outside his building Courtney was asked how the doses of cancer drugs could have been so drastically diluted. "I don't understand," he replied. The Times'…… [Read More]
3. The current emphasis on wellness as the overall goal of health care has placed considerable pressure on the health care educational system (Kreitzer, 2009). The wellness emphasis has caused the health care educational system to focus its attention on treating the entire patient and to provide the patient with the maximum amount of choice, quality, convenience, and personal care while maintaining affordability. This means that medical schools must begin to train more physicians interested in performing primary care services and to direct these physicians to areas of the country that have been traditionally poorly served. In order to develop an overall system where preventive medicine is practiced so that more serious medical difficulties can be avoided a solid network of primary care providers is necessary. Ideally, these providers would be in the form of licensed physicians but a system that utilizes a hybrid mixture of physicians, physician assistants, and…… [Read More]
Forbes Magazine entitled, "In the Pill Box" discusses Walgreen's Drugstore and the challenge that it faces from Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBM). The article begins by informing the reader of the astronomical growth of the Walgreen's company. The author explains that the company's stock has risen by 3,000% in the past 20 years and that the store plans to have over 7,000 stores by 2010. (Lambert) The article also asserts that the same-store sales increased by 9% in fiscal 2003. (Lambert)
The author contends that although the company is extremely success, there is a threat on the horizon. This threat comes in the form of Pharmacy Benefit Managers who show health organizations and employers how to make prescriptions drugs more cost effective. The article explains that PBM's often encourage these organizations to persuade patients to get long-term prescriptions through the mail instead of going to a pharmacy. Mail order pharmaceuticals are…… [Read More]
One of my most important life goals is to continue my studies in pharmacology and become the most skilled practitioner that I am able to be. I am applying to the PN [Is it Pacific Northwest? ] University for a Masters Degree in Pharmacology primarily because of two factors. The University has a reputation for developing knowledgeable graduates whose high level of skills positions them to make strong contributions in their field. The second factor stems from experiences in my personal life.
My name is Reem AL Qahtani and I am 25 years old. I live in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where I am currently a teaching assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy at Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University. I became interested in pharmacology because of a family history of breast cancer. My aunt had a benign breast cancer. My grandmother was not as fortunate…… [Read More]
Third Class Of Drugs
In the United States, all pharmaceutical products: from Advil to Zoloft, are sold either as over-the-counter remedies or as prescription drugs. Over-the-counter remedies like Advil, aspirin, and Tylenol, can be purchased by any consumer at any store that chooses to sell them. Therefore, an eight-year-old can go into a convenience store and buy a bottle of aspirin. On the other hand, if an eighty-year-old man wanted to try Viagra, he would need to consult a physician and retrieve a prescription, and from there he would need to buy the drug from a licensed pharmacist. The two-class division evolved from a series of acts and resolutions passed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most significant landmark in the creation of a specific prescription-only class of drugs was the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, passed in 1951. The Amendment, which revised a 1938 congressional act called the…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Statistical Thinking in Health Care
The HMO pharmacy is inaccurately filling prescriptions. Prescribers blame pharmacy assistants, the assistants blame pharmacists and pharmacists blame prescribers. Analysis of their system show points ripe for change in order to improve accuracy. In addition, there are multiple measures that can be applied to substantially enhance the quality of the HMO pharmacy's work.
Process Map & SIPOC Analysis
Process Map of Prescription Filling Process
Process Map of Prescription Filling Process
Prescriber determines patient needs medication
Prescriber selects medication type
Prescriber selects medication dosage
Prescriber hand-writes prescription
Prescription delivered to pharmacy
Prescription entered into pharmacy computer system by pharmacy assistant
Pharmacist selects medication
Pharmacist measures medication
Pharmacist counsels patient about prescription
Medication delivered to patient
SIPOC Analysis of Business Process
SIPOC Analysis of Business Process
Determines need for medication
Determines type of medication
Determines…… [Read More]
The Head Pharmacist has worked as a pharmacist in the area for a long time, including at the small pharmacy in the medical clinic near the hospital where many doctors have their offices. As such, he is well positioned to make contacts with those doctors in order to build the reputation of our pharmacy.
The financial plan will begin with the income statement. There are two main revenue streams, being retail and pharmacy. A third revenue stream within Pharmacy will be the online ordering, whereby customers can order over the eb and have their drugs ready for pick-up, or for delivery via the courier of their choice. Such revenue will be attributed to Pharmacy, and retail products will not be included in these orders.
ith respect to costs, labor costs are expected to reflect the staffing levels. hile there will be as many as 20 staff members, there…… [Read More]
Wal-Mart was formed by Sam Walton in 1962 with the intention of concentrating on small towns and not on downtown retail districts. He had set up the super store from small beginnings on a town's interiors, stock various kinds of goods in the shelves, and sell the goods to the customers at comparatively lower prices. The progress of Wal-Mart has been tremendous, with the expansion to 4,300 stores recently from 874 stores in the year 1985. Wal-Mart is a 39-year-old retail store which is very popular in U.S. companies, and it is only behind ExxonMobil in annual turnover. (Lawsuits a volume business at Wal-Mart) It could be witnessed that every week, certain 138 million do their shopping at Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has its retail stores in all states and more than 80% of U.S. families have had made at least a single purchase from a Wal-Mart retail store. (Analysis: Wal-Mart's growing…… [Read More]
In addition, pharmacists often work with people who are very ill, which can be emotionally difficult work, and a professional pharmacist must be able to offer support and advice to patients during these difficult times, without becoming overwhelmed by sickness and death.
III. While working at a retail pharmacy, I had a dispute with a pharmacist regarding the pharmacist's interpretation of the doctor's orders on the prescription. I believed that the pharmacist read the dosing information incorrectly and wanted to call the prescribing doctor to verify. The pharmacist disagreed with me and filled the patient's prescription. Because incorrect medication dosages can kill people, I did not drop the issue. I called the doctor's office, ascertained that the dosing information was incorrect, and had the office email the correct dosing information to the prescribing pharmacist. While the pharmacist could have been upset, I could not allow my personal concerns about office…… [Read More]
evolution of academic infrastructure (such as colleges, associations, training requirements, etc.) for pharmacists in the U.S. versus one another country in the world. Please be precise and limit your answer to no more than one paragraph of 7-10 statements per country.
From the 1940s onwards the expansion of the pharmaceutical armamentarium led to rapidly increasing pharmaceutical sales in the U.S. This industry-led success helped to assure pharmacy incomes. The flexibility and diversity of the American system also permitted innovation in hospital and community practice alike, and over time lead to the establishment of a number of differing corporate pharmacies, internet pharmacies, and 'pharmacy benefit management' models. It may also be argued that the plurality and lack of consistently defined primary medical care in the U.S. system has created opportunities for pharmacies and pharmacists to play relatively strong care coordinating roles. In the absence for many people of a 'medical home',…… [Read More]
.....prescription process can incur high costs in the healthcare industry due to poor risk management. Lack of continued assessment, technological upgrades, and information sessions can lead to an increased rate of data entry errors. Data entry errors may result in patient deaths, and lawsuits that lessen the financial success of any hospital/clinic. However, there is opportunity to reduce data entry errors in order to minimize negative outcomes related to prescription errors and patient satisfaction. The recommendation for minimizing negative outcomes is to incorporate a cloud service that allows for integration of existing electronic prescription records, allowing optimization of prescriptions from doctor/nurse to pharmacy to patient, thus minimizing potential data entry error. The impact the cloud service application can have on healthcare can be great. Costs may be reduced and legal ramifications from human error can be avoided by exemplifying the risk management essentials of assessment, technological upgrades, and training.
Part…… [Read More]
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…… [Read More]
organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.
Organizational Studies: Article eviews
The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,
Jisu Huh, Leonard N. eid & Soontae An
The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the…… [Read More]
Project Title: Examining the Effects of Multiple Medications
Project Description and Background
Seniors in New Brunswick long-term care facilities are often prescribed multiple different drugs. This polypharmacy comes with particular risks. The drugs treat different conditions. Each drug comes with contraindications . Some contraindications indicate that the drugs should not be used together at all, but in other instances the situation is less serious, and caution must be used. The question at hand is how often do such contraindications result in difficulties for the patient. There are situations where a patient will need to be prescribed multiple drugs to manage different conditions, and it is better medically to do so than to avoid potentially dangerous combinations. Medical staff are advised under such circumstances to be aware of the contraindications, and have a plan in place to manage any adverse effects that might occur.
This study will examine the…… [Read More]
college majors is daunting to all but those who had a clear vision of their future career since childhood. For most students, exposure to a wide range of academic subjects kindles a desire to explore a multitude of subjects with possible career options. Sometimes a student is drawn to two completely different subjects, which can considerably complicate the decision of which academic major to pursue officially. In my case, both accounting and pharmacy are compelling areas of study. Two totally different fields, accounting and pharmacy do have points of intersection that may make it easier for me to make a decision about my immediate future.
Pharmacy is a growing field with a good variety of career options and working environments. For example, a pre-pharmacy major who pursues an advanced degree in pharmacy can work in a research laboratory for a university or major pharmaceutical company. A pharmacy major can go…… [Read More]
academic studies with a passion for the health sciences. In college, I tutored physics and mathematics in my spare time, and felt privileged to meet people from different backgrounds and to be able to help them understand the fundamentals behind different scientific problems. Yet months after entering college, my father suffered from a cervical disk disorder. Doctors were initially unable to accurately diagnose the problem, torn between the possibilities of a brain tumor, a spinal tumor, or multiple sclerosis, leaving me no choice but to begin working full-time in my family's restaurant in order to support my family. I found myself cooking, managing the restaurant, and also doing my studies. It was difficult to adjust to this schedule, but I was eventually able to cope by learning how to use my time as efficiently as possible, working night shifts regularly while still maintaining my academic focus.
Just as everything was…… [Read More]
It is my belief and the underlying purpose of this
correspondence to make the argument that our children's health and well-
being is far too important to leave subject to a question of economic
As many ordinary citizens can certainly attest, "far too many people
who are not poor enough to be on social assistance and certainly not
wealthy enough by any definition to afford the cost of these drugs are left
to fend for themselves." (Gillis, 1) The idea that any of our citizens
could slip through the cracks of the public system is suggestive of some
disconnect between these citizens and their government. Therefore, I
believe that you have to do more to reach out directly to those who in the
areas of greatest need. A good way to do this might be to channel the
selected message of access universality needed through an effective
conduit. On…… [Read More]
Tylenol to a friend with a headache I have desired to be in pharmacy. Pharmacists, like so many other medical professionals, have the ability to ease pain and suffering, to help cure disease, and to bring comfort to those who are ill. I have admired the pharmacist's ability to take a piece of paper and turn it into relief for a patient. I have watch with wonder as a person, struck with fear or pain, receives compassionate advice from a pharmaceutical professional.
I want to go to Pharmacy School in order to learn the science behind the acts of human kindness that pharmacists perform every day. I am interested in learning how and why certain elements and chemicals bring so much relief and how to avoid brining further pain and suffering to another's life with the wrong treatment. I also desire to learn and study how to bring comfort to…… [Read More]
Patient Safety in the Medical Environment
Medicines cure various infectious conditions, avert chronic diseases issues, and alleviate pain. However, an incorrect dosage and usage of drugs could invite negative effects. Errors from incorrect medicine usage are unavoidable and can happen at home, doctor's place, pharmacies, or even at hospitals. Such erroneous activities are one of the prime triggers behind paediatric patients experiencing iatrogenic injuries. Triggers of such medication errors, as put forward by studies, include lack of adequate knowledge, work pressure, lack of awareness that such errors exist, and insufficient training. Avoiding such errors is a clinical and government necessity. Some strategies that have been employed to lower recurrences of such errors include better input from clinical pharmacists, changes in system by using critical incident analysis and using information technology (Simpson, Lynch, Grant, & Alroomi, 2004). This paper looks into two major healthcare system failures, how to lower and avoid…… [Read More]
Map of Prescription Filling at an HMO and SIPOC for Problem Analysis (Bertrand
Filling prescriptions and the estimated time each activity takes consist of four steps in most pharmacies (Bertrand, 2012). The first is entering the prescription when received from two to 10 minutes. It may be longer according to the duration of the billing process and the ease or complicatedness of the prescription. The second is filling the medication, which takes from three to 15 minutes or longer, depending on the type of prescription and its storage or if it has to be reconstituted or compounded. The third is checking it, which can take between three and 10 minutes. The pharmacist makes sure it is the correct prescription, the dose, the interactions and the genuineness of the prescription. The duration depends on the prescription and the patient's history and profile. And the fourth is the release of the prescription.…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
Education for the Mind, Heart, And Soul
Intellectual growth, social stimulation, and holistic development: these are the main thrusts that I subscribe to; main thrusts that I used as my motivations in planning to pursue a career in pharmacy. One important reason why I chose to have a career in pharmacy is I want to achieve a formal education that constructively affects my mind, heart, and soul. These three important elements, I believe, are present in the pharmacy course I intend to take.
Why these three elements? For me, an education must not only focus on matters that promote intellectual growth, but education must also develop an individual socially and spiritually. Combination of these elements will not only make me a successful Pharmacy student, but also prepare me for a life ahead of me as a pharmacist in the future. The following are my reasons why I chose Pharmacy as…… [Read More]
Back in high school is where my determination and resolution to pursue pharmacy started. Throughout my school life, I have always enjoyed mathematics and science. This is my realisation that I can combine both in the career path that I want to follow, which is pharmacy. I have been able to gain some important skills from these key subjects which I believe are going to be beneficial to what is ahead. I can well enough scrutinize and study information. I have also performed a series of experiments that demanded scrutiny. My analytical skills such as careful study skills have added value to my communicational skills, as well as the ability to work in a team. I am certain that the above skills will go hand-in-hand with my career of choice. The application of mathematical and scientific doctrines gives me such joy, the fact that it enables people to…… [Read More]
Compensation and Benefits Package for a Secretary
A pharmaceutical company has recently hired a new director for its human resource department as part of its initiatives to enhance productivity and organizational success. The company is also seeking to hire a new secretary for the H department and develop an employee compensation and benefits package for this position. This package will be utilized for the position of secretary for the H department once a suitable candidate is hired. Generally, pharmaceutical companies hire educated and highly talented individuals because of the nature of their operations, which requires high academic qualifications. In essence, the need for high academic qualifications for this industry is fueled by the fact that these professionals deal with patients whose needs are constantly evolving. The development of a suitable compensation and benefits package for a H secretary in this pharmaceutical company requires examining compensation and benefits packages in the…… [Read More]
This would likely have resulted in a long delay in raising suitable support to those health care professionals already at the disaster site.
Duties of the DMAT
The initial duties of the DMAT were to assist the nursing team at Charlotte egional Medical Centre as most nurses there had been on duty for around 40 hours. This was due to the problems which relief staff had in getting to the facility and also the problems which had been caused at the hospital due to the power failures and the structural damage that had been inflicted on the hospital (Cohen and Mulvaney). This initial aid that the DMAT provided was invaluable, as if they had not been so well prepared and arrived so early there would have been far greater pressure on the staff at the hospital, which would have greatly reduced the quality of care which the patients received.
By…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
Kmart -- Soaring High
ShopperTrak's National Retail Sales Estimate (NRSE) reported that U.S. retail sales for the week ending April 23 increased 9.9% as compared to the same week last year. Although adverse weather throughout the Midwest led to a sharp 13.0% week-over- week decline, the Easter holiday calendar shift continued to positively impact the year-over-year retail comparison, posting one of the strongest yearly increases seen in 2005. (Vargas, 2005)
Retail industry in U.S. has seen profits soaring high for most of the big retailers like the Wal-mart and Home Depot. While the rich gets richer, the profit of some others has also shot high. One of such names is Kmart. etter customer care, good marketing strategies, reorganization, and now the acquisition of Sears Corp has helped it revive from its bankruptcy condition of 2002.
Kmart Holding Corporation and its subsidiaries (together, "Kmart") is a mass merchandising company that offers…… [Read More]
Because of the importance that pharmaceuticals will play in the 21st century, getting a degree in this field can provide me with numerous career alternatives. In addition to preparing drugs and providing advice, pharmacists can educate physicians and other healthcare workers on the choice, amount, and side effects of medications. Pharmacists can also work in a host of different sites.
Increasingly, pharmacists are playing a role in nontraditional situations as well. Some are involved with research for pharmaceutical manufacturers, developing new medications and therapies and testing their effects on patients. Others take jobs in marketing or sales, offering numerous resources and expertise to clients on a medication's use, effectiveness, and possible concerns. Some pharmacists also are employed by health insurance companies, developing benefit packages and implementing cost-benefit analyses on specific medications. Others are working with the government, pharmaceutical professional associations, or universities as professors and researchers.
Regardless of what avenue…… [Read More]
Aunt Hattie and Chester
hat might Chester have done to avoid this tragic outcome?
Relatives like Chester want the best for their family and loved ones. However, when Aunt Hattie was no longer able to live completely independently, Chester had little choice but to seek some kind of care or assistance. For people like Hattie who are still capable of caring for themselves to a certain degree, assisted living facilities are often the most appealing option. These facilities offer constant care and supervision, while allowing the individuals to live in the independent and self-sufficient manner that they are used to.
Many assisted living centers lure clients in with things like fireplaces and big-screen television, giving the impression that they are a much better alternative to bare-bones nursing homes. However, the facilities are often less safe than they seem. It is things like staff shortages and insufficient training that place elderly…… [Read More]
Application Quality Improvement Models Organizations Systems, Part I Analysis equired esources eadings Course Text: Applying Quality Management HealthCare: A Systems Approach eview Chapter 9, "Improving Processes Implementing
oot cause analysis
According to Nicolini (2011)
the first step in CA is identifying the incident to be analyzed. This step requires for the problem or incident to be clearly defined and identified. Identifying the problem will assist in determining what caused the incident and how the incident occurred. In the case study, the mother requested for pain medication, and this was within her right. The nurse performed the request, and it was approved by the pharmacist, but the incident occurred when the nurse did not check the IV line correctly. The nurse confused the infants IV line with the mothers, which resulted in the infant been administered with Morphine. This should be an indicator, and it should be recorded as a fact.…… [Read More]
Grossman, J.M., Cross, D.A., Boukus, E.. & Cohen, G. (2011). Transmitting and processing electronic prescriptions: experiences of physician practices and pharmacies. Journal of the American Medical Association. Doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000515
Electronic transmission of prescription medication requests from doctors' practices to pharmacies has the potential to improve efficiency and reduce medical errors, according to Grossman, Cross, Boukus & Cohen (2011). This paper explores the subjective experiences of physicians and pharmacists, with the intent of identifying both facilitators and barriers of use. The researchers note that use of e-prescription methods is relatively low in spite of federal financial incentives to switch to electronic medical records across the treatment spectrum. Understanding barriers to use is therefore a core component of improving the delivery of care, reducing error, and improving the cost-effectiveness of healthcare.
Grossman et al. (2011) designed a qualitative study to reveal physician and pharmacist impressions of electronic prescription handling. More than one hundred…… [Read More]
Long-Term Care Facility Safety: Prevention and Reduction of Injuries Due to Falls
One out of every three adults ages 65 and older experiences a fall annually however, only about 50% of health care providers discuss falls with these individuals. Falls are the leading cause of injury death in adults 65 years of age and older. More than 19,700 adults died in 2008 form accidental fall injuries and in 2009 out of the 2.2 million nonfatal fall injuries in older adults in excess of 581,000 individuals had to be hospitalized. The direct medical costs were over $19 billion in 2000. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) According to the National Council of Certified Dementia Practitioners, "One of the most challenging, life-threatening issues related to care of the person with cognitive loss is the occurrence of wandering, wherein the person strays into unsafe territories and may be harmed." (2012) It is…… [Read More]
career in 2008, I knew right away that I would undertake a major course of study in pharmacy and have since been completely dedicated to my field. Within two years of matriculating, I became a trainee at the King Fahad Medical City Hospital, where I worked in both inpatient and outpatient pharmacies. After the six weeks of training, I had a much clearer vision of how I wished to develop and apply my skills as a pharmacist in the future. Witnessing the direct interactions between pharmacist, medical care team, and patient, I have become passionate about all elements of pharmaceutical research. I have also become keenly aware of the connections between pharmaceutical research as a business endeavor and the need to provide pharmaceutical interventions to the global population, especially those who lack access to medical care. An advanced degree in the United Kingdom provides me with the thorough indoctrination into…… [Read More]
Liquid Dosage Forms
Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter, focusing on "the viscosity characteristics of powders, fluids and semisolids" (Adesina "Rheology" 2). As such, it is this branch of physics that enables pharmacists to determine the proper mix and flow of materials used in the treatment of patients. Everything from the way in which a drug is packaged to how it is poured, squeezed, or injected must be considered by the pharmacist trained in the art of rheology prior to the drug's serving as an effective intervention. This paper will discuss that factors that would be considered when prepping a liquid dosage form and explain the relationships between these factors and the desired effects or outcomes that the drug form should possess.
There are various types of liquid dosage forms -- pharmaceutical solutions (liquid preparations that have chemical substances in them) and sterile dosage forms.…… [Read More]
Workflow is a term that is utilized to refer to processes or steps undertaken to complete a specific task (Mastrian & McGonigle, 2015). In a healthcare organization, this concept refers to initiatives undertaken to provide patient care services. This essentially means that workflow is crucial towards the achievement of organizational goals since it plays a critical role in the accomplishment of desired tasks/activities. Given its significance to realization of organizational objectives, organizations conduct workflow analysis to help identify workflow patterns that maximize effective resource utilization and reduce those that do not add value. Workflow analysis process is carried out using several tools to examine workflow processes and shed light on potential areas for removing waste. This paper provides a workflow analysis through flowcharts of medication administration in a community health center.
Common Event in My Organization
The organization I work for is a community health center that provides…… [Read More]