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Non-Pharmacological Management of Plantar Fasciitis
The ideal management of plantar fasciitis is prevention, which is through appropriate warm-up exercises, quality shoes and exercises at an appropriate training level on a safe surface (Miller 2004).
arrett and O'Malley (1999) recommend a conservative treatment that addresses the inflammatory element causing the discomfort and the biomechanical factors producing the disorder. To complement the treatment, the patient should be adequately educated on the etiology of their pain, the biochemical factors that produce the symptoms, home therapy that can relieve some of the discomforts and changes that must be introduced to their daily activities, such as wearing suitable athletic shoes with enough medial arch while walking. If the patient has had an increase in exercise or activity associated with the symptoms, he or she should adopt a less straining regimen until the plantar fasciitis condition resolves (arrett and O'Malley).
1. A removable longitudinal metatarsal…
Barrett, S.L. And O'Malley, R. 1999, Plantar Fasciitis and Other Causes of Heel Pain, vol 59 number 8, American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp.org/afg/990415ap/2200.html
Beck, K 2005, Carrie Tollefson: a Case Study in Talent, Tenacity and Treatment, January-February, Running Times Magazine. http://www.runningtimes.com/issues/05janfeb/tollefson.htm
Edwards, a. 2003, Plantar Fasciitis Treatment Steps into New Territory, CMP Media LLC. http://www.biomech.com/db_area/archives/2003/0309.roundtable.bio
Lukowsky, M 2005, Pedorthic Management of Plantar Fasciitis, Comfort Shoe Specialists. http://www.comfortshoe.com/pedorthic_management_of_plantar_html
Non-Pharmological interventions for ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively common affliction that affects approximately 3 to 5% of school age children in the United States (Friel, 2007). Although the majority of research into effective interventions for this disorder are primarily focused on pharmacological therapies (Karpouzis et al., 2009), some researchers have explored the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatments, such as types of psychotherapy and alternative interventions. It has been determined that the best clinical outcomes of treatments for ADHD are interventions that take a multidisciplinary approach, combining pharmacological therapy with behavioral or psychosocial therapies (Karpouzis et al., 2009). However, it is crucial that researcher further investigate the most effective means of treating ADHD outside of medication in order to provide clinicians and parents with more intervention options. The following discussion will review current research investigating non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD, and will evaluate these investigations according to their findings…
Baijal, S. & Gupta, R. (2008). Meditation-based training for attention defifict hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry, 5(4), 48-55.
Black, D.S., Milam, J., and Sussman, S. (2009). Sitting-meditation interventions among youth: a review of treatment efficacy. Pediatrics, 124(3), 532-41.
Chang, C.C., Tsou, K.S., Shen, W.W., Wong, C.C., & Chao, C.C. (2004). A social skills training program for preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chang Gung Medical Journal, 27(12), 918-22.
Friel, P.N. (2007). EEG biofeedback in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Alternative Medicine Review, 12(2), 146-51.
Analyze the Pathophysiology of Asthma
The complex chronic inflammatory disease known as asthma, involves several inflammatory cells, more than a hundred distinct mediators of inflammation, and various inflammatory outcomes, such as plasma exudation, broncho-constriction, activation of the sensory nerves, and hyper-secretion of mucus. Mast cells contribute immensely to mediation of acute symptoms of asthma; on the other hand, T-helper 2 cells, eosinophils, and macrophages are factors that cause airway hyper responsiveness, by inducing chronic inflammation. It has been realized by an increasing number of researchers that structural airway cells, including smooth muscle and epithelial cells in airway, are a major inflammatory mediator source. Asthma involves several inflammatory mediators, such as growth factors, peptide and lipid mediators, chemokines, and cytokines. Chemokines have a crucial role to play in selective inflammatory cell recruitment from circulation, while cytokines coordinate chronic inflammation, which may cause structural airway modifications, including angiogenesis, sub-epithelial…
Bahadori, K., Doyle-Waters, M. M., Marra, C., Lynd, L., Alasaly, K., Swiston, J., & FitzGerald, J. M. (2009). Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review. BMC pulmonary medicine, 9(1), 24.
Brown, E. S. (2003). Asthma and psychosomatic syndromes. Basel: Karger.
Clark, T. (2002). Pocket Guide for Asthma Management and Prevention. In Based on the Workshop Report: Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, revised.
Gelfand E. W. (2008). The impact of asthma on patient, the family and society. Retrieved 24 October 2015 fromhttp://www.jhasim.com/files/articlefiles/pdf/GELFAND-%20Article1.pdf
Mental Health Counseling
Discuss the role in relationship to the prescription and monitoring of pharmacological treatments for mental health issues.
Unique advances have been achieved in the treatment offered to clients suffering from mental illness. Mental health care providers must understand the original causes of mental health disorders in order to provide treatment to clients with these disorders. Therefore, mental healthcare providers are able to treat disorders associated with mental health. This is being done with much success as physical disorders (Madden, 2008).
The profession of mental health provision has categorized strategies of treating mental health problems as either psychotherapeutic or somatic. Somatic methods of treating mental disorders include therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy, which have the potential of stimulating the brain. Psychotherapeutic method includes behavioral therapy strategies, hypnotherapy, and psychotherapy. esearchers have established that most mental health disorders require treatment strategies that involve both psychotherapy and drugs. This is…
Madden, R.G. (2008). Legal issues in social work, counseling, and mental health: Guidelines for clinical practice in psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Palmo, A.J., Weikel, W.J., & Borsos, D.P. (2011). Foundations of mental health counseling.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
World Health Organization (2009). Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health: A
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
Restraining the Elderly
The Project Management path for this research proposal will follow the path of quantitative research in a 'quasi-experimental' environment. Adhering as closely as possible to quantitative experiments designed to establish the causal factors or interdependent links between grouped variables, the researcher will follow a natural course of progression in administering dependent and independent variables, designing the sampling set, determining the optimal time(s) and location(s) for conducting the research, developing the measures and instruments necessary for evaluation of non-empirical evidentiary conclusion (i.e., the thought processes and reasoning of medical staff), measuring the response to education and procedural methodology, documentation to include evaluation materials, response forms, and restraint logs, preparing the education program, delivering the lectures, and evaluating the results in change or lack of change in care providers attitudes toward patient restraint.
Any project that measures the process of learning, comprehension, acceptance or denial,…
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…
Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.
332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf
Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,
Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
Miller, . (1985). Herkovits v. Group Health Cooperative: Negligent Creation of Substantial Risk of Injury is a Compensable Harm. Puget Sound Law Review.
Retrieved and available for viewing at: http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1214&context=sulr&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dherkovits%2520v.%2520group%2520health%2520cooperative%253A%2520negligent%2520creation%2520of%2520%2520substantial%2520risk%2520of%2520injury%2520is%2520a%2520compensable%2520harm%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CCMQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1214%2526context%253Dsulr%26ei%3Df-mYT-aaK8SmiQLMkbDDDw%26usg%3DAFQjCNEKTiHzBxbVrEjyORcjH0OnmRAEjw#search=%22herkovits%20v.%20group%20health%20cooperative%3A%20negligent%20creation%20substantial%20risk%20injury%20compensable%20harm%
ithin any discipline, there are various ethical issues that constitute an overall rubric of the topic. In the case medicine, the thrust of the ethical template surrounds the reasons for, and moral imperatives surrounding the use experimental drugs and/or procedures. There are mandates and global legal maxims in place to protect human subjects; however the very nature of the topic also requires specific ethical paradigms that govern the field: beneficence, justice and autonomy for instance. .Beneficence is the core of the Hippocratic Oath -- "as to disease & #8230; do no harm." Justice -- models fairness and equity in all medical research regardless of race, age, or cognitive ability, and autonomy -- the respect for the individual in making a…
Hardi v. Mezzanotte, 818Z.2d 974 (District of Columbia May 8, 2001).
Hardi v. Mezzanotte Appeal, 99-CV 1386 99-CV-1540 (District of Columbia Court of Appeals March 20, 2003).
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…
Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.
Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
The Management of Constipation in Palliative Patients
hich strategy is considered the best when nurses must intervene with a patient suffering from constipation? The PubMed publication put out by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine explains that there is some uncertainty within the healthcare field about the choice between managing constipation with drugs (pharmacologically) or with other various clinical programs in palliative care settings (Clemens, et al., 2013).
A section in the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing dedicated to bowel management -- written by researcher Denice Caraccia Economou -- explains that there is no absolute rule as to what intervention is best (220).
Pharmacological Management: The use of opioids is not always recommended for constipated patients, because they increase electrolyte and water absorption in both intestines which can lead to dehydration and dry, hard stools, according to Economou (221). Also morphine is not…
Clemens, K.E., Faust, M., Jaspers, B., and Mikus, G. (2013). Pharmacological treatment of constipation in palliative care. PubMed. Retrieved September 8, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov.
ConvaTec. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from http://www.convatec.com .
Economou, D. C. (2015). Bowel Management: Constipation, diarrhea, obstruction, and ascites. In the Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing, Ferrell, Coyle, and Paice, Eds.
Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press.
eduction of Malpractice
One of the key manners in which direct-to-physician advertising of pharmaceuticals can lead to health promotion is in the reduction of malpractice on the part of physicians when it comes to the administering of pharmaceuticals. It is of course the primarily (and ultimately, solely) the physicians' responsibility to ensure the proper and effective use of pharmaceutical products, just as it is their responsibility to ensure that all care practices and interventions are in the best interests of the patient. Pharmaceutical companies have this goal and this responsibility as well, however, and they can be instrumental in making sure that true best interests are served with current knowledge of best practices and new potentials. As advertising is ultimately the provision of information, it can be seen that the direct advertising of pharmaceuticals to physicians can provide more comprehensive, detailed, and current information regarding new products, new…
Aguado, A., Guino, E., Mukherjee, B., Sicras, A…. & Moreno, V. (2008). BMC Health Services Research 8(1): 53.
Fleetcroft, R., Cookson, R., Steel, N. & Howe, A. (2011). Correlation between prescribing quality and pharmaceutical costs in English primary care: national cross-sectional analysis. British Journal of General Practice 61(590): 556-64.
Frosch, D., Grande, D, Tarn, D. & Kravitz, R. (2010). A Decade of Controversy: Balancing Policy With Evidence in the Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising. American Journal of Public Health 100(1): 24-32.
Gagnon, M. & Lexchin, J. (2008). The Cost of Pushing Pills: A New Estimate of Pharmaceutical Promotion Expenditures in the United States. PLoS Medicine 5(1).
Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to pain, experienced globally. Secondary symptoms, which are also common in sufferers, include chronic fatigue, cognitive and memory dysfunction, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Women are far more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men, and age of onset is generally between 30 to 50 years. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are recommended, with the latter taking precedence over the former in evidence-based practice. Prognosis is relatively good when the right combination of lifestyle and treatment options is employed.
The cause of fibromyalgia remains a mystery. ecent research reveals the possibility of a genetic marker for pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients, in that haplotypes of the COMT gene and genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism play a key role on…
Fitzcharles, M. et al. (2013). 2012 Canadian Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: Executive summary. Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-Jun; 18(3): 119 -- 126.
Martinez-Jauand, M. et al. (2013). Pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia is associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. European Journal of Pain 17(1): 16-27.
Mayo Clinic (2015). Fibromyalgia. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20019243
Neusch, E. et al. (2011). Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in fibromyalgia syndrome: network meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:955-962
Environmental Interventions for Patients With Dementia
Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that has been treated in various ways throughout all history. The modern era has proposed pharmacological interventions in the past but these have proved dangerous and degrading to the quality of life that dementia patients and their loved ones prefer. For this reason, environmental interventions have emerged as an alternative method for treating elderly dementia patients. This intervention method consists of altering the environment in which the patient lives by accommodating for the needs of the patient with clearly identifiable pathways, open spaces for communication, naturalistic settings, adequate stimuli and private rooms for quiet. This paper discusses the fundamental principles of environmental interventions for patients with dementia and includes a justification for this approach as a suitable alternative to prevailing psychoactive drug interventions. It also includes a discussion of the historical context of the disorder, its current description according…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015). Non-pharmacologic Interventions
for Agitation and Aggression in Dementia. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?productid=1999&pageaction=displayproduct
Bupa. (2015). A dementia friendly society. Bupa. Retrieved from https://www.bupa.com/corporate/our-purpose/healthy-ageing-and-dementia/reports-and-publications/a-dementia-friendly-society
Fleming, R., Purandare, N. (2010). Long-term care for people with dementia:
MDD: Tina's Case Study…"
Tina's Case Study MDD
"MDD: Tina's Case Study.."
Major Depressive Disorder: Tina's Story
Tina's Story- Case Study
Tina is a 23-year-old black female. She is currently separated from her husband of five years. She is currently employed by two companies, one at which she works Monday- Thursday mornings, and the other on Wednesday -- Friday evenings, and all day Saturday and Sunday. However, she hasn't shown up for work on a consistent basis for the last four weeks, and not at all in the last two days.
Once an energetic, active, healthy female who loved to exercise at the local gym three days a week, Tina now spends most of her time in her apartment. She hasn't been to the gym in over four weeks, and her body movements that used to be quick and marked are now slow and sluggish. Even though she hasn't changed…
Aglan, A., Williams, J.G., Pickles, A., & Hill, J. (2010). Overgeneral autobiographical memory in women: Association with childhood abuse and history of depression in a community sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(3), 359-372. doi:10.1348/014466509X467413
American Psychological Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition (Text Revision) DSM IV-TR, Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Craigie, M.A., Saulsman, L.M., & Lampard, A.M. (2007). MCMI-III personality complexity and depression treatment outcome following group-based cognitive -- behavioral therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(12), 1153-1170. doi:10.1002/jclp.20406
Hybels, C.F., Blazer, D.G., Steffens, D.C., & Judith A., N. (2006). Partial remission. Geriatrics, 61(4), 22-26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
treatment modalities for conduct disordered adolescent males has primarily been focused on comorbidity. Adolescent males with conduct disorder typically receive individual and family therapy, but when overt behaviors are extreme, pharmacotherapy may supplant insight-based therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and social skills training are complementary approaches to intervention. Using an experimental approach, this study examines the impact of combined intervention approaches on perceived and observed improvement in the expression of problem behavior and life change strategies of adolescent males with conduct disorder.
Adolescents, across the board, experience a range of emotions. Negative impacts of these emotions include struggling with acceptance, self-esteem, isolation, confusion, anxiety, and depression, which can also be a result of instability at home (earight, et al., 2001). In addition to these social effects, many adolescents experience a distorted perception of reality (earight, et al., 2001). On occasion, this distortion may cause them to make poor choices, which demonstrates…
Subjects were adolescent males previously diagnosed as having conduct disorder (CD) and new to the family therapy milieu. The subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The treatment and control groups were as follows: (A) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) plus a placebo (B) Administration of Fluoxetine; (C) CBT in family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) (Control Group). A total of 9 subjects were included in the study. All treatment took place in clinical settings and was configured to be individual or family therapy rather than peer-group treatment.
The unit of analysis is the behavioral and cognitive processing performance changes in individual subjects (patients). Changes in the expression of problem behavior are noted by clinicians. Self-perception scores of the changes in cognitive processing were recorded on the surveys and two CBT instruments. The level of measurement is ordinal as dictated by the scales used in the formal CBT tools, and on the Likert scale used for the structured surveys. The Cognitive Therapy Awareness Scale (CTAS) and the Cognitive Behavior Therapy Supervision Checklist (CBTSC) will be used to measure the effectiveness of the treatment groups (Sudak, et al., 2001; Sudak,
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).
Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). APA practice guidelines for major depressive disorder (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Antonuccio, D., Danton, W., & DeNelsky, G. (1995). Psychotherapy vs. medication for Depression: Challenging the conventional wisdom with data. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 6, 574-585.
Barrett, B., Byford, S., & Knapp, M. (2005). Evidence of cost-effective treatments for depression: The McSad utility measure for depression health states. Journal of Affective disordersI, 84, 1-13.
Chambless, D., & Hollon, S. (1988). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.
By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…
Davis L.L., Frazier E.C., Williford R .B., and Newell J.M. "Long-Term
Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." CNS Drugs, Vol. 20, No.
6 (2006): 465-476.
Foa E., Keane T.M., Friedman M.J., and Cohen J.A. (2008). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress
NICE Compliance Standards eview
NICE has developed a set of guidelines and standards to help minimize the risk of VTE and ensure healthcare protocols are in place to educate patients about the risks of VTE. The purpose of this literature review is to examine a tool to access a Hospital Trust compliance with the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) published standards on Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention. The tool will have the capability to monitor, report, and disseminate relevant information.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, or NICE, is an institution whose goals including providing clinical quality guidelines and standards to help manage a nationwide database. The purpose of this database includes help improve total healthcare at multiple levels, including at the cardiovascular, vascular, mental, neurological at other levels of health (NICE, 2011). The goals of NICE include prevention of disease,…
Department of Health (DH). (2010 March). "Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Risk
Assessment." Department of Health. Retrieved July 23, 2011: Publications PolicyAndGuidance
NHS Evidence. (2011). NHS Evidence: Evidence in Health and Social Care. NHS Evidence,
Retrieved July 23, 2011: http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/
Freeman's work, however, advanced the understanding of the human brain in ways that probably helped pharmaceutical companies develop pharmacological interventions for people suffering from mental illness.
Long past its mythological place in the history of mankind and medicine, epilepsy continued to be perceived by many in very medieval terms; as the possession of a person by the devil, demonic possession, and, by some, as a form of mental illness (Szasz 117). Sir John Russell Reynolds (1828-196) was one of the earliest physicians to observe and conclude that people suffering from epilepsy were not necessarily suffering from a mental disorder or even possession by demonic monsters (117-118). Many psychiatrists and mental health experts, however, continued to look at epilepsy as a mental impairment (117-119). From 1890 to 1940 people suffering from epilepsy were "colonized" into institutional settings for the mentally ill, and treated for their seizures with a variety of drugs…
11 Most Endangered: St. Elizabeths Hospital, National Trust for Historic Preservation,
found online at http://www.preservationnation.org/travel-and-sites/sites/southern-region/st-elizabeths-hospital.html , 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2010. Web.
Lawrence, Christopher and Weisz, George. Greater than the Parts: Holism in Biomedicine, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.
Pressman, Jack D. Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine, Cambridge,
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…
Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html
Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml
Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf
Physically, massage or TT eases muscle tension and improves circulation. In turn, it improves digestion and breathing, enhances mental clarity, and encourages better sleep. TT is particularly useful to terminally ill patients in reducing or mitigating pain to the extent of making prescription painkillers unnecessary. Emotionally, TT or massage is a gentle and compassionate experience for the dying. It reduces the sense of isolation by providing him or her with physical connectedness. It can also re-establish dwindling or lost self-esteem and self-acceptance on account of disease. As a result, it contributes to increased quality of life and a much-needed release of emotions. Medicare as yet does not cover massage therapy for hospice settings but an increasing number of group have been lobbying for its inclusion.
Useful Alternatives to Pain and Discomfort Management
These alternatives have shown to be effective in easing spiritual, emotional and psychological pain that contribute to the…
Aghabati, N et al. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Evidence-based Complementary Alternative
Medicine: PubMed. Retrieved on June 16, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887328
Catlin, A. (2009). Hospice massage: easing the pain of a life-limiting illness (Part 1).
vol 9 # 3, Massage Today: MPA Media Publications. Retrieved on June 19, 2011
The preliminary data suggests that nurses need to adopt a holistic approach toward care as more and more mothers seek out non-pharmacological and natural methods for improving comfort and reducing the pain associated with labor and delivery.
Nurses can also help patients by educating them about their choices during labor, as well as potential unexpected events that occur during labor and delivery. As this study shows, mothers prepared for the unexpected are much more likely to report satisfaction than those who are not.
These findings provide significant insight with regard to nursing education protocols, and open the doors for new approaches to care for patients. Nursing programs of the future should focus on educating staff members regarding alternative therapies that can improve a mother's comfort before, during and after the labor process.
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain:…
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: A systemic review." Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 191(1): 36-44.
Kannan, S., Jamison, R.N. & Datta, S. (2001, Sep-Oct). "Maternal satisfaction and pain control in women electing natural childbirth." Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 468-72.
Ketterhagen, D., VandeVusse, L & Berner, M.A. (2002 - Nov, Dec). "Self-hypnosis:
Alternative anesthesia for childbirth." MCN Am J. Matern Child Nurs. 27(6): 335-40.
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…
AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,
2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx
CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
heumatic heart disease is caused by heumatic Fever or group a streptococci. It consists of "cardiac inflammation" accompanied by scarring which itself is a reaction to the autoimmune system fighting the group A streptococci. The myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium are each affected in turn. In the chronic stage, heumatic heart disease results in valvular fibrosis (Burk, 2013).
The pathophysiology of heumatic heart disease is as follows: The causative agent is group A streptococci. It develops into strep throat, which if untreated can turn into heumatic fever. At this point, the individual suffers inflammation of the layers of the heart as well as the mitral valve. Vegetation also begins to develop. This will lead to valvula regurgitation plus stenosis. The result of all of this is heart failure (Burke, 2010).
heumatic fever typically occurs in individuals between the ages of 5 and 25, so it is neither a newborn's disease nor…
Burke, A. (2013). Pathology of Rheumatic Heart Disease. Medscape. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1962779-overview#a7
Wallace, M. (2014). Rheumatic Fever Medication. Medscape. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/236582-medication
Endometriosis' is taken from the Greek work endon which means "within," metra, meaning "uterus" and osis, meaning "uncommon or sick state." Endometriosis is said to be very complicated and tiring gynecological sickness. This disease causes the functional endometrial stroma and glands grow outside of uterus that is usually present inside (the endometrium). These areas mostly consist of fallopian tubes, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, rectovaginalseptum, bladder, pelvic peritoneum and unusually Pleura and pericardium. Endometriosis is a widespread disease most common in women who are in age of reproduction. This disease depends on estrogen and involves a chronic inflammatory component. Sampson was the first person to classify hemorrhagic ovarian lumps. He further explained these cysts as follicular, stromal, endometrial and corpus luteal. He also presented the endometrial hematomas based on thehistologic form. A number of categories have been formed after that, which is based on the histologic appearance, anatomic size, location and the…
1. Batt, R. (2011). A history of endometriosis. Springer Science & Business Media.
2. Burney, R. O., & Giudice, L. C. (2012). Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis. Fertility and sterility, 98(3), 511-519.
3. Brown, J., & Farquhar, C. (2015). An overview of treatments for endometriosis. JAMA, 313(3), 296-297.
4. Gupta, S., Harlev, A., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Update. Springer.
Biopsychosocial Approach to Treating Self-Injurious Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
My initial thoughts/feelings on the topics were: (This section contains your general feelings on the topic and NOT what the readings have informed you.
Initially, I did not have much knowledge about self-injurious behavior (SIB). Though I had from time to time heard about the behavior, it never actually crossed my mind that it is a behavior that could warrant significant medical attention. In my life, I have actually not encountered an individual with the behavior. I have not even heard many people mention or talk about it. I thought that people who would perhaps contemplate harming themselves are suicidal people, substance abusers, or insane people. In fact, I thought the behavior was more relatable with non-human animals as opposed to humans. I did not even think the behavior was evident in children. I also viewed it as some…
References in APA format and submitted on time and followed format: (10 points)
Askew, M., & Byrne, M. (2009). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(3), 115-119.
Jefic, J. (2010). Biopsychosocial approach to treating self-injurious behaviors: an adolescent case study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(2): 51.
Juhnke, G., Granello, P., & Granello, D. (2010). Suicide, self-injury, and violence in the schools: assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Wilkinson, B. (2011). Current trends in remediating adolescent self-injury: an integrative review. The Journal of School Nursing, 27(2), 120-128.
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
As Karnik and Kanekar (2012) show, there are many interventions available to health care providers for childhood obesity, which has fast become a "global public health crisis" in the world (p. 1). These interventions include the promotion of family bonding, education, and pharmacology.
The specific aim of this project is to improve outcomes with regard to children's health. By measuring the impact of one intervention against another, primary care providers can better understand which intervention may be more effective in helping to reduce the rate of childhood obesity for their patients.
This study will measure the weight, dietary and physical exercise habits of children and adolescent patients at a primary care facility over the duration of 6 months time. During that time, the patients will be exposed to two separate interventions -- a pharmacological intervention and a health literacy intervention.
The PICOT is as follows:…
Karnik, S., Kanekar, A. (2012). Childhood obesity: A global public health crisis.
International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(1): 1-7.
Anomic Aphasia is also known as nominal aphasia, dysnomia, and amnesic aphasia and refers to a disorder that generates difficulties in recalling names or words. This brain disorder is considered as a dearth of expressive language that makes it difficult for an individual to recall names or words. In addition, patients suffering from anomic aphasia experience difficulties in recalling numbers. While an individual has clear understanding of what he/she is attempting to name or write, he/she requires a relatively long period of time to recall it or may experience tremendous challenges in articulating the word, name or numbers. In some cases, patients suffering from anomic aphasia produce jargon words or other words when attempting to recall or express certain words, names or numbers. The other symptom of this condition is the inability for a patient to identify the appropriate word for an object or individual through he/she has the capability…
Does taking Metoprolol before cardiac surgery reduce the incidence of post-op atrial fibrillation
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) remains a prevalent supraventricular arrhythmia. PoAF has associated effects such as deteriorating hemodynamic, increased risk of stroke and increased probability of death. Beta-blockers have been recommended as effective intervention mechanism of preventing PoAF. Metoprolol is one such beta-blocker that is commonly administered to prevent the incidence of PoAF. The systematic review below entails an analysis of six clinical trials that explore the effectiveness of metoprolol. The analysis identifies reduced hospitalization length, reduced mortality and reduced financial burden as the beneficial impact associated with the administration of prophylactic. The small number of studies reviewed limits the validity of the conclusion warranting future large sample size research.
Annually, approximately 750,000 cardiac surgery are performed globally with postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) being the prevalent complications (George, et al., 2018). With the increasing proportion of elderly population…
hile the literature offers various ways to confront and treat the symptoms, ranging from self-help and spiritual cleansing; none of them deny the more traditional means of pharmacological intervention, especially when the depression is prolonged, persistent, and puts the patient's well-being at risk (suicidal ideations).
Treatment Plan: The plan for this client is to admit her for 3-5 days of inpatient evaluation, pharmacological intervention, and psychological testing. The patient will be oriented to group and individual counseling, which she will continue in an outpatient setting following discharge from inpatient care. Family counseling sessions with her mother and brother are recommended.
Treatment goals will be 1) to resolve the client's unresolved grief over her father's passing; 2) resolve control issues that compel client to keep her business in a pace and image of her father's business; 3) help client work through the family issues that compel her to control her…
Hunt, Jane (2008). How to Handle Your Emotions: Anger, Depression, Fear, Grief,
Rejection, Self-Worth, New York, Harvest House Publications.
Leader, Darian (2009). The New Black: Mourning, Melancholia, and Depression,
New York, Graywolf Press
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…
Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.
Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.
Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.
Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
Most individual's who actually exhibit a decrease in appetite happen to be men, "Men tend to have a greater reduction in appetite immediately after working out at moderate to high intensity levels than women do," (Leon 2009:1). In fact, most women tend to eat more after a work out on average than their male counterparts. Along with increasing the client's health, a regular exercise regiment may have a positive affect on the other symptoms of depression she has been exhibiting. Exercising within a social situation can also have the potential to open up social situations and keep the mind focused, both of which can also have a favorable outcome in terms of stimulating the client's appetite. In fact, an exercise routine would in deep perk up not only the body, but also the mind, "stay socially active and mentally alert. Both tend to increase appetite," (Clemen-Stone et al.:658). This is…
Clemen-Stone (2002). Comprehensive community health nursing. Elsevier Health Services.
Meiner, Sue. (2004). Care of gastrointestinal problems in the older adult. Springer Publishing Company.
MFI Fellowship. (2008). Understanding depression. Mental Illness Fellowship of Australia Inc. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria.
Morton, Meredith Jean. (2005). Exercise in cold water may increase appetite. Medical News. Retrieved Mach 29, 2009 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/23856.php .
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
Taste and Smell
Age elated Changes in Perception of Flavor and Aroma
It has been posited that the perception of flavor and aroma are derived from the senses of chemical irritation, taste and smell (awson, 2003).
Together, these senses constitute what has been termed chemosensation, although these sensory systems are purportedly considerably variant in their physiology and anatomy. Nevertheless, they do have the ability to regenerate, and their noted susceptibility to aging and age associated diseases has been noted (awson, 2003). It has been reported that nearly one third of all older individuals report dissatisfaction with their sense of smell and taste, and the actual occurrence of sensory loss amongst the elderly is maintained to be even higher (Pelchat, 2001). Furthermore, it has been asserted that age related sensory loss affects both personal safety and quality of life (awson, 2003). Moreover, the impact of the loss on the elderly's physical…
Chodosh, S., et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of a ten day course of 400 or 600
milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: comparison with a ten day course of 500 milligrams of Ciprofloxacin twice daily. Antimicrobial Agents in Chemotherapy, 42(1), 114-120.
Mathey, M., et al. (2001). Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents. Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(4), 200-205.
McConnell, R., et al. (1975). Defects of taste and smell in patients with hypothyroidism.
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Alopecia areata is a systemic hair loss disorder, which affects roughly around 4.7 million people in the United States alone. [NAAF]. It is characterized as an autoimmune disease that leads to either localized or complete hair loss. The disease is independent of race, gender or age specifications, and hence affected people represent a diverse group. The effects of the disease may either be permanent or reversible depending on the nature and extent of damage to the hair follicles. It is believed that both genetic as well as environmental factors have an influence in the onset of the condition. However, the pathology of the disease is yet to be ascertained concretely. Though there is no physical distress accompanying the disease the psychological devastation suffered by the affected person is debilitating. Let us have a brief overview of the different types of alopecia before we discuss in detail the possible pathophysiology and…
1) NAAF, "What is Alopecia Areata," Accessed on March 8th 2005,
2) Ralph Paus, M.D and George Cotsarelis, M.D, "The Biology of Hair Follicles," NEJM, Vol 341, No 7, Pg 491.
3) Kyle Kennedy, M.D, "Management of Alopecia," Accesses on March 9th 2005,
Alzheimer's disease has developed into a major health concern for the elderly population throughout the world. This degenerative brain disorder was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1907. Today Alzheimer's is one of the most prevalent forms of brain disorders contributing to as much as 50 to 70% of all reported cases of dementia. Over the years the study of early onset Alzheimer's disease (pre-senile AD) has kind of overshadowed the study of late onset Alzheimer in elderly group. However the disease statistics indicate an increasing susceptibility of the older population. Approximately 5% of the population above 65 years of age and around 20% of the people above 85 years of age are affected by Alzheimer's disease. Hence what was previously ignored as an inevitable old age symptom (senile dementia) is now being properly recognized as an illness. This new perspective of AD has resulted in a drastically altered understanding…
Simon Lovestone and Martin Dunitz, " Early diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer's
Disease," Published by Martin Dunitz Ltd., 1998
Gerry Bennett and DR Mark Jones, "The Alzheimer's Handbook," Vermilion
Drug addiction has been the scourge of our times. Heroin and cocaine especially are the leading cause of imprisonment in the civilized world. (Johnson, 1973) The anti-drug lobbies aver with statistics that show that marijuana users often fall prey to more potent narcotics -- especially those that are seeking that perennial "high."
This essay will present a comprehensive picture of the factors -- physical, pharmacological, societal and epidemiological -- that surround heroin in Australia. (Hirst, 1979)
Heroin (Hulburd, 1952). Pharmacologically, heroin belongs to a class of drugs called depressants. This is because heroin use slows down the brain and central nervous system.
Heroin usually comes in powder form. In its pure form, heroin is white. ut depending on how it is "cut" or diluted, it can have different colors. In some third world countries, users are familiar with "brown sugar" (severely cut heroin, occasionally even with rat poison). (Charles,…
Ashbrook, D.L., & Solley, L.C. (1979). Women and heroin abuse: a survey of sexism in drug abuse administration. Palo Alto, Calif.: R & E. Research Associates.
Bucknall, A.B.V., & Robertson, J.R. (1986). Deaths of heroin users in a general practice. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 36, 120-122.
Burgess, M. (1998). Smack (1st American ed.). New York: Holt.
Charles, M., Nair, K.S., Britto, G., & National Addiction Research Centre (Bombay India). (1999). Drug culture in India: a street ethnographic study of heroin addiction in Bombay. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.
Biopsychosocial View of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia can be a debilitating condition that adversely affects the quality of life of sufferers and their families. Although clinicians in some parts of the world view schizophrenia as a brain disease that is incurable, while most practitioners in the Western world view the condition as having a genetic or organic basis that can be successfully treated with prescription medications and psychosocial interventions. To determine the fact, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning schizophrenia using a biopsychosocial model. The review includes evidence supporting brain localization for schizophrenia, the genetic factors in the onset of this disorder and an evaluation of the environmental factors in the onset of this disorder.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, some researchers have suggested that schizophrenia is a disease of the brain that is common to all human societies, and that it is…
Bemak, F. & Epp, L.R. (2007, Spring). Transcending the mind-body dichotomy: Schizophrenia reexamined. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 41(1), 14-
Cantor-Graae, E. (2009, May). The contribution of social factors to the development of schizophrenia: A review of recent findings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52(5), 277-
Farmer, R.L. & Pandurangi, A.K. (1999, May). Diversity in schizophrenia: Toward a richer biopsychososocial understanding for social work practice. Health and Social Work,
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
PAKINSON'S & ASAGILINE
One of the drugs that has emerged as promising and at least somewhat effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is known as asagiline. This report will explore the neurobiological and psychological implications of the drug as it relates to Parkinson's and in general. The depth and breadth of some of the studies will be discussed as well as how that evidence was found, a general discussion of asagiline and its current/future status as a Parkinson's treatment and how all of the above should be taken with a grain of salt given the limitations that exist. There are some great opportunities for future research when it comes to Parkinson's in general and asagiline in particular.
Parkinson's is a very debilitating and difficult disorder to deal with and treat. Even with the prominence of several major celebrities (e.g. Muhammad Ali, Michael J. Fox, etc.) and increase public…
Badinter, F., Amit, T., Bar-Am, O., Youdim, M. B., & Weinreb, O. (2015). Beneficial behavioral, neurochemical and molecular effects of 1-(R)-aminoindan in aged mice. Neuropharmacology, 99264-272. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.05.041
Giladi, N., Tal, J., Azulay, T., Rascol, O., Brooks, D., Melamed, E., & ... Tolosa, E. (2009). Validation of the freezing of gait questionnaire in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 24(5), 655-661 7p. doi:10.1002/mds.21745
Hanagasi, H., Gurvit, H., Unsalan, P., Horozoglu, H., Tuncer, N., Feyzioglu, A., & Emre, M. (2011). The effects of rasagiline on cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients without dementia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Movement Disorders, 26(10), 1851-1858 8p. doi:10.1002/mds.23738
Naoi, M., Maruyama, W., & Inaba-Hasegawa, K. (2013). Revelation in the neuroprotective functions of rasagiline and selegiline: the induction of distinct genes by different mechanisms. Expert Review Of Neurotherapeutics, 13(6), 671-684. doi:10.1586/ern.13.60
Music Therapy on Depression Name Course Professor Date Part II Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping with psychiatric symptoms exacerbates difficulties brought by a mental health disorder. The ineffective coping strategies are evidenced in poor concentration, low self-esteem, and poor self-care. Population: The population of interest is outpatients suffering from depression. Intervention: Provide opportunities for patients to listening to music to help alleviate or deal with symptoms of this psychiatric disorder. Comparison and Contrast: Does music therapy contribute to less depressive symptoms? How effective is music therapy in helping patients develop suitable coping strategies for depression. Outcome: Improved quality of life including lessened depression levels and improved capabilities to cope with psychiatric symptoms through listening to music. Clinical Question: Is listening to music effective in lessening psychiatric symptoms in depressive patients receiving music therapy? The purpose of this assignment is to explore the effectiveness of using music as an intervention for depressive…
¶ … Music Therapy on Depression Name Course Professor Date Part II Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping with psychiatric symptoms exacerbates difficulties brought by a mental health disorder. The ineffective coping strategies are evidenced in poor concentration, low self-esteem, and poor self-care. Population: The population of interest is outpatients suffering from depression. Intervention: Provide opportunities for patients to listening to music to help alleviate or deal with symptoms of this psychiatric disorder. Comparison and Contrast: Does music therapy contribute to less depressive symptoms? How effective is music therapy in helping patients develop suitable coping strategies for depression. Outcome: Improved quality of life including lessened depression levels and improved capabilities to cope with psychiatric symptoms through listening to music. Clinical Question: Is listening to music effective in lessening psychiatric symptoms in depressive patients receiving music therapy? The purpose of this assignment is to explore the effectiveness of using music as an intervention for depressive symptoms and improved quality of life based on existing evidence-based practice. Narrative Discussion In Chan et al. (2012), the objective of the study was to determine the impact of music on the levels of depression in older adults. To achieve this objective, the researchers conducted a randomized controlled study on 50 older adults who listened to their preferred music at home for 30 minutes weekly for eight weeks. The depression scores that were collected once per week demonstrated that the levels of depression reduced every week among participants in the music group as compared to a non-music group that was subjected to control during the same period. Atiwannapat et al. (2016) carried out a research to explore the impacts of, "active group music therapy and receptive group music therapy to counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder" (p.141). The researchers randomly identified and assigned 14 major depressive disorder outpatients to active music therapy, receptive group music therapy, and group counseling. After assessing participants at baseline, they found that receptive group music therapy is characterized by faster achievement of peak therapeutic effect whereas active group music therapy has higher peak impact. Discussion There were some similarities and differences in both studies that can impact how music therapy is recommended as an intervention for reducing the levels of depression. First, these studies concur that music therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention that can help in management of depression among outpatients. Based on these studies, music therapy is considered because of pharmacological treatment measures are usually associated with adverse impacts and sometimes ineffective. Secondly, the studies involve a randomized controlled trial, which is a true experiment. This research design helps in enhancing the probability that study findings are not due to chance. Given the use of randomized controlled trial for these studies, their findings relatively represent the actual impact of music on outpatient settings. Third, both researches were carried out in outpatient settings and on a weekly basis, which was suitable in determining how the intervention impacted depression patients. Fourth, both studies grouped their participants in different categories i.e. one in which the intervention was used and another control group that was not subjected to the intervention. Chan et al. (2012) conducted the trial in the participant's home where a research nurse visited on a weekly basis to gather depression scores for eight weeks as data was collected between July 2009 and June 2010. The study also utilized a one-tailed repeated measure of assessing covariance i.e. RM ANCOVA to examine effects while a medium effect was selected based on findings from the previous study. Four different categories of music i.e. Malay, Western, Chinese, and Indian were first introduced to the subjects. For data analysis, Chan et al. (2012) utilized descriptive statistics to define the characteristics of the group while chi-square test was used to test homogeneity between groups. Unlike Chan et al. (2012), Atiwannapat et al. (2016) divided their participants into three groups and conducted the study as part of group therapy for outpatients with depression. Participants in this study not only listened to music but also sang and played musical instruments. This study also involved lyric analysis, song writing, and drawing the music by the subjects, which was different from the other study. Therefore, Atiwannapat et al. (2016) explored different aspects relating to music rather than simply listening to music like in the other study. For data analysis, this research utilized statistical analyses including STATA version 13, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Fisher's exact test. While Chan et al. (2012) conducted the study on older patients aged 55 years or more, Atiwannapat et al. (2016) carried out the research on participants aged between 16 and 65 years. Therefore, the results of the study were difficult to compare because of the differences in age group and the fact that they were completed over different time periods. However, both articles provide significant evidence to demonstrate that music therapy helps in lessening the levels of depression among outpatients. Using Newhouse Level of Evidence, these studies contained weaknesses that need to be addressed as shown in the Appendix. Chan et al. (2012) received a rating of I-B good because of its fairly definitive conclusions that are consistent with an adequate number of well defined studies (Newhouse, 2006). Atiwannapat et al. (2016) obtained a Newhouse score of I-B good because of insufficient sample size but reasonably consistent results and use of reliable and valid research methodology. Part III The patient is 40- to 50-year-old married female a with essentially no psychiatric history presented to the emergency department with her husband due to significant mood lability, feeling a lot of anger towards others and having thoughts of wanting to hurt people over a couple months, but have gotten worse over the last two weeks. She reported that she has been feeling agitated, tensed, and has irritable edge. Thoughts are racing, concentration is poor, feeling more impulsive -- have been hitting wall and kicking a copier machine. She has no psychosis, but has longstanding issues with irritability and anger. Patient denied any previous episodes of depression and agitation. Her symptoms cause interpersonal, employment and familial difficulties. Patient is danger to self and others. She is too impulsive and aggressive to manage outside structured milieu. Despite having no psychiatric history, the 40- to 50-year-old patient is probably suffering from depression since she's showing symptoms of this disorder. She needs an intervention that will help her manage anger and irritation, improve concentration, and avoid tension. These factors have seemingly played a major role in her relationship, family, and employment problems. As evidenced in the two studies, listening to music will be a suitable non-pharmacological intervention to deal with the patient's condition. This is a suitable intervention because the patient has no history of depression and agitation. Music therapy will help improve the patient's condition by giving her other outlets for relieving stress and anxiety, developing safe and appropriate behaviors, and lessening depressive symptoms (Thoma et al., 2013). Final Reflection As a mental health nurse, my work has involved playing different roles that assist patients to control/manage their conditions. I have been involved in maintaining contacts with patients in relation to their health and well being and conducting assessments with regards to management of the patient's condition vis-a-vis the clinical intervention. During this process, I have been involved in ensuring the patient adheres to medication and other intervention measures to effective control and manage his/her condition. Apart from patient interaction and assessment, I have also been involved in care planning and evaluation of evidence of clinical intervention. This has entailed working with physicians to coordinate care processes and conducting research on clinical interventions that are suitable for specific conditions in order to improve care and patient outcomes. This experience has helped me realize that the role of mental health nurse entails carrying out different activities towards delivery of patient care. In this case, mental health nurses not only act as supportive staff to physicians but also carry out other tasks to help improve the health and well-being of patients. This has in turn changed my understanding of the roles and responsibilities of mental health nurses. These practitioners act as the link between the patient and the health care team and coordinating patient care strategies and processes. Moreover, I have realized that planning evidence-based care involves conducting research on evidence-based practices and using them as the benchmark for coordinating and providing care. These experiences have contributed to my growth and development as a nurse by enabling me to understand the role of a nurse and how to use evidence-based practices to plan and coordinate care. In essence, these experiences have been crucial in helping me gain real-world knowledge and skills in nursing. References Atiwannapat et al. (2016, March 26). Active vs. Receptive Group Music Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder -- A Pilot Study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 26(2016), 141-145. Chan et al. (2012). Effects of Music on Depression in Older People: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 776-783. Newhouse et al. (2006). JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales. Retrieved from Vanderbilt University Medical Center website: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/documents/CAPNAH/files/Mentoring/Section%206/JHNEDP%20Evidence%20Rating%20Scale.pdf Thoma et al. (2013). The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response. Plos One, 8(8). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734071/ Appendix Literature review table (Article I) Author, date Purpose of the study Population and setting, and sample size (n). (For a systematic review indicate the setting and number of studies) Methods (For a systematic review indicate search methods) Findings Implication for practice Strength of the evidence (Level I, II, III)/Quality of the evidence, based on the JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales (Newhouse, Dearholt, Pugh, & White, 2005) Moon Fai Chan, Zi Yang Wong, Hideaki Onishi and Naidu Vellasamy Thayala, 2011 To explore the effect of music therapy on levels of depression in older adults. The study targeted older adults suffering from depression in the outpatient setting i.e. at home. 52 older adults aged 55 years or more were selected as the sample size for the research. A randomized control trial was carried out using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and Shapiro-Wilk test for data analysis. The study found that listening to music helps in lessening the levels of depression in older adults. Music is a therapeutic intervention that can be used to enhance the quality of life of older people with depression. It's an inexpensive, simple and non-invasive treatment option. Since it was a randomized controlled trial, it's rated as I-B good. Appendix Literature review table (Article II) Author, date Purpose of the study Population and setting, and sample size (n)b Methodsc Findings Implication for practice Strength of the evidence (Level I, II, III)/Quality of the evidence, based on the JHNEBP Evidence Rating Scales (Newhouse, Dearholt, Pugh, & White, 2005) Penchaya Atiwannapat, Papan Thaipisuttikul, Patchawan Poopityastaporn and Wanwisa Katekaew, 2016 The purpose of the study was to compare the impact of active and receptive group music therapy to group counseling in MDD treatment. The researchers generally targeted outpatients with depression across all age groups and conducted the study as part of group therapy. A sample size of 14 outpatients aged 18-65 years was selected. The study utilized a randomized controlled trial and statistical analyses for data analysis. They found that group music therapy is a suitable alternative treatment approach for depression, especially Major Depressive Disorder. Group music therapy requires more studies and research in the nursing field in relation to treatment of depression. Since it was a randomized controlled trial, it received a rating score of I-B bad. Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Research Evidence Appraisal Chan et al. (2012). Strength of Study Design • Was sample size adequate and appropriate? Yes No • Were study participants randomized? Yes No • Was there an intervention? Yes No • Was there a control group? Yes No • If there was more than one group, were groups equally treated, except for the intervention? Yes No • Was there adequate description of the data collection methods Yes No Study Results • Were results clearly presented? Yes No • Was an interpretation/analysis provided? Yes No Study Conclusions • Were conclusions based on clearly presented results? Yes No • Were study limitations identified and discussed? Yes No Pertinent Study Findings and Recommendations • Will the results help me in caring for my patients? Yes No Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Research Evidence Appraisal Atiwannapat et al. (2016) Strength of Study Design • Was sample size adequate and appropriate? Yes No • Were study participants randomized? Yes No • Was there an intervention? Yes No • Was there a control group? Yes No • If there was more than one group, were groups equally treated, except for the intervention? Yes No • Was there adequate description of the data collection methods Yes No Study Results • Were results clearly presented? Yes No • Was an interpretation/analysis provided? Yes No Study Conclusions • Were conclusions based on clearly presented results? Yes No • Were study limitations identified and discussed? Yes No Pertinent Study Findings and Recommendations • Will the results help me in caring for my patients? Yes No
Treatment of Heart Failure in Nursing Home Residents
Heart failure (HF) symptoms may occur because of systemic and pulmonary congestion, structural defects arising on account of HF, structural defects leading to HF, or from treatment complications. At first, studies addressing the issue of heart failure focused on HF patients and decreased left ventricular contraction. As a result, therapies were tested within this patient cluster. This patient cluster's agreed description is HF with LVSD (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) (NCGC, 2010).
In order to treat chronic HF, non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological therapy ought to be utilized for patients. While this condition is quite frequently witnessed among patients living in nursing homes, whether the suggestions put forward in the pharmacological therapy guidelines are implemented within this cluster of patients is unclear (Daamen, et al., 2016).
Owing to the lack of awareness of the precise prevalence of chronic HF, this phenomenon is…
Barents, M., Horst, V., Voors, A., Hillege, J., & Jongste, M. (2008). Prevalence and misdiagnosis of chronic heart failure in nursing home residents: the role of B-type natriuretic peptides. Neth Heart J., 123 -- 128.
Davidson PM, Cockburn J, Newton PJ, et al. (2010). Can a heart failure-specific cardiac rehabilitation program decrease hospitalizations and improve outcomes in high-risk patients? Eur J. Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:393 -- 402
Dinkelaker S. (1999) Can A Nurse-Managed Medication Discharge Planning and Follow-Up Program Affect Readmission Rates of Patients with a Diagnosis of congestive Heart Failure?
Daamen, M., Hamers, J., Gorgels, A., Tan, F., Schols, J., & Rocca, H. (2016). Treatment of heart failure in nursing home residents. J Geriatr Cardiol., 44 -- 50.
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…
Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35
Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.
Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.
Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…
Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
There is a strong financial incentive to encourage consumers to 'over-consume' drugs. While clearly some patients benefit from taking antidepressants, statins, and even antipsychotics, these drugs have become treatments of first rather than last resort for many people, because of the direct-to-consumer marketing of medications. Behavioral therapy and lifestyle changes, given the side effects of many drugs, might be a better way to treat milder forms of depression, high cholesterol, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD).
Drug companies have a financial incentive in encouraging patients to seek out 'more' treatment for illnesses that disproportionately affect individuals with good health insurance. Additionally, drug companies have an incentive to constantly create and generate interest in new drugs, as patents for existing drugs have a limited shelf life -- although these drugs may not be designed for individuals with the greatest critical health needs. There will always be an ethical problem in the…
Bartlett, Donald & James Steele. (2011, January) Deadly medicine. Vanity Fair.
Retrieved January 9, 2011 at http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2011/01/deadly-medicine-201101
The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
Dependent variables include symptom reduction. The research design is not experimental; rather, the researchers analyze past literature related to pharmacological interventions for various personality disorders. The sample size and selection methods are adequate, and the statistical analyses are sound. A graph would ideally differentiate between the different personality disorders and the different intellectual disabilities to reveal patterns.
The research design does not take into account the need to differentiate between different personality disorders or intellectual disorders -- or how those diagnoses are related. External validity problems stem from the overgeneralization problems and the vagueness: too many variables are included in the one research design. The results are adequately and correctly reported, but with insufficient detail. Narrowing the study to a narrower question would have helped. Moreover, the author does not actually mention why the research is necessary other than to promote the use of pharmacological interventions among a population diagnosed…
43). The pain assessment guidelines set forth in this article will have an immediate effect on my first encounter with a patient, particularly if that patient is a chronic pain sufferer or end-of life patient. The sixth defined responsibility in the INPA is also of particular importance in regards to the information contained in this article; this is the responsibility to "evaluate with the patient/client the status of the goal achievement as a basis for reassessment" (INPA, 2007, p. 43). The evaluation of pain and the assessment of necessary and reasonable care in end-of-life patients is a complex task, as this article points out, so the implications of this article's information on this task of the registered nurse are huge.
Its affects on the practical nurse are similar, though heightened. Many of the basic responsibilities of the registered nurse and the practical nurse are the same; for instance, the language…
Indiana Code and Indiana Administrative Code. (2007). Indiana nurse practice act.
Sherman, D., Matzo, M., Pace, J. & R. Virani. (2004). "Learning pain assessment and management: A goal of the end-of-life nursing education consortium." The journal of continuing education in nursing, 35 (3), pp. 107-120.
Eithe way, such a volume simply could not be as pactical and useful as eithe the two independent volumes of the Physician's Desk Refeence o the single and easily navigable website un by Medline Plus. This website's seach-ability allows fo an easie coss-efeencing between phamaceuticals and nutitional supplements, as well, without tying to keep a book open to seveal pages at once.
Cost is also a majo facto in the two efeences. Though olde editions of the Physician's Desk Refeence can be found elatively cheaply (ionically, via online shopping), the cuent edition costs almost one hunded dollas puchased new. Medline Plus is fee, making the cost benefit of this option at least equal to the benefits deived fom ease of use and completeness of infomation. On this last point, the Physician's Desk Refeence often contains moe detailed infomation on vaious dugs, but these details ae pesented in a vey dy…
references also list common side effects and interaction warnings. Medline Plus, however, also presents all of this information as if in response to specific consumer questions, rather than in a simple list of facts as in the Physician's Desk Reference. Though this reference is still the standard of the industry, the fact that it is mainly directed towards physicians (cf. The title) makes it less easy to use. Overall, Medline Plus is a more effective resource for the average user today.
This is hardly used for detection of H. pylori alone but for ruling out the existence of other stomach maladies. It is quite expensive and requires a highly skilled physician.
Stool Antigen Test; this is when the stool is analyzed for detection of any foreign antigens or proteins that are associated with H. pylori infection. The stool is known to be very sensitive and can also be use to assess the infection status after the treatment has commenced. The disadvantage of this method is that it absolutely depends upon the participation and compliance of the patient, it is inconvenient to handle and the results are not immediate.
Urea breath test; it is used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the stomach. It can also be used to detect whether the treatment has worked, the problem with this test is that it is not always available (WebMD LLC,…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2002). Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Retrieved May 12, 2011 from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1327.html
Dennis Lee, (2011). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from http://www.medicinenet.com/helicobacter_pylori/article.htm
Gastroenterological Society of Australia, (2006). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011