1000 results for “Philosophy Of Education”.
y "personal" and "social" goals, I meant the achievement of ideals set by the individual for himself/herself and for the society in general, respectively. Education and learning gained from it is meaningless if the individual cannot enjoy and optimize it to achieve his/her own needs and aspirations in life. However, similarly, one's success in achieving his/her aspirations becomes irrelevant if these achievements do not benefit society.
A recognize the need to balance an individual's need to favor one's self and accepting the responsibility of being a productive member of the society. I have seen this equilibrium in both the humanistic and progressive philosophies. On one hand, it is in humanistic philosophy that I was able to develop my thoughts on the student being a rational individual, pursuing education for his/her eventual success in life (which is mainly motivated financially and socially (i.e., prestige and renown)). On the other hand, I…
Campbell, a. (2006). "Understanding your motivation for teaching." Intercom, Vol. 53, Issue 3.
Higgins, C. (2005). "Dewey's conception of vocation: existential, aesthetic, and educational implications for teachers." Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 37, Issue 4.
Education fulfills personal psychological needs: the innate desires for understanding and the acquisition of knowledge that facilitates understanding. Individual differences, however, suggest that students may not all agree as to what facts or figures are important to learn. We all remember wondering in school, "How is this going to help me find a job?" Or "When am I going to need to know this when I grow up?" While structure is an essential component in educational institutions, so too is an exploration of meaning. Placing curricular subjects in real-world context will allow educators to select materials that inspire students rather than turn them off to learning entirely. Cavell's philosophy of education inspired me to appreciate individual differences in the quest for truth, as Cavell was "concerned with the finding or recovery of the human voice, and of finding one's own voice," (Peters 1999).
Education also serves a distinct sociological function.…
History of Educational Theory." Educational Theory. Ed. Burbules, N.C. Retrieved Mar 10, 2007 at http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/Educational-Theory/50Years.html
Garrison, J. (1999). John Dewey. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved Mar 10, 2007 from http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Peters, M. (1999). Stanley Cavell and philosophy of education. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrived Mar 9, 2007 from http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
Shook, J.R. (2000). Truth and the pragmatic theory of learning. Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved Mar 10, 2007 from http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm
It is important for students to understand that the world does not exist in isolation, but the skills we learn overlap in our journey into learning.
Epistemology: Epistemology asks us to ponder the question: what is knowledge how does knowledge of one event or process impact other events, how do we know what we know? Within my educational philosophy, the concept of knowledge is, as it is in Bloom's hierarchy, at the bottom of the pyramid -- knowledge is there as factual information. It is however, the function of my concept that knowledge is just the base; it is how we slice and dice that information, how we ponder, bring in past experiences, tie together other thoughts and ideas, and ultimately actualize a unique and individual set of ideas.
Axiology: Axiology is the study of value, or a common term for combining ethics and aesthetics. My theory of education requires…
Logic: Logic examines arguments and how knowledge is verified. Within my philosophy, the concept of basic knowledge is not enough. Truth must be verifiable, not simply accepted. It is the skill of vetting sources, of analyzing what bias or point-of-view the author may have, or in the case of mathematics asking how that theory om came to be that moves us towards a logical conclusion (Gutek, 2008).
Discuss those philosophies you chose not to include and explain what elements (metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and logic) you did not agree with and why.
In reading a number of philosophers and their approach to education, I was struck with the amount of similarity many had -- saying the same thing but adapting it for their own particular culture. Some of the Ancients, for instance Plato and Aristotle, were viable as a basis for asking about the quality of knowledge, but certainly not about Pedagogy. Milton was a reformer, but seemed to focus education on a skillset, a tangible "means to an end" philosophy, certainly practical for the time period. Then, of course, there's the famous Locke-Hobbes debate about the nature of humans; needing control (Hobbes) or needing total freedom (Locke) -- when in actuality we have found that it depends on the situational and the individual. I also use John Dewey, who seemed to be a reformer against authoritarianism as well, but also campaigned for moving beyond mere knowledge, just
Philosophy of Education
I am a nontraditional student and I am returning back to college due to a job loss. I have been given a second chance at obtaining an education. Since I have been attending college, I was accepted into the nursing program, but I turned it down. I did this because I remember my dream has always been to be a math teacher. Everyone knows teachers are not in the profession for the money, and that nurses make more money, so people may ask, why a teacher? ell, I remember when I was growing up, every time someone would ask me what I wanted to be, I always answered, a math teacher. Certain teachers that I have had in the past, and present, have helped me decide that I want to spend the rest of my life teaching math. Helping any age student to learn math…
Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals. New York: McKay.
Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (2002). Knowledge and organization: a social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198-213.
Elmore, R. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development. Washington D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.
Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved. New York: Penguin Group Inc.
Thus, it is incumbent on the modern teacher to understand that one size does not fit all. Is this more work? Most assuredly; one must be constantly aware of the undercurrents that exist within the classroom and work towards those issues; one must be continually creative to ensure that students are exposed to literature and ideas that are less Eurocentric; and finally one must continually adapt one's own view. We can never erase our own bias and our own views on culture and diversity, but what we can do is encourage our students and colleagues to continue to grow. Like continuing education, using methods to include diversity in the classroom are constants -- we will never arrive, nor should we.
Finally, to prepare for the assignment I researched Benjamin Bloom and the numerous other philosophers and teachers who have contributed to the ideas on teaching over the last few centuries…
Blooms Taxonomy." (2007). Special Connections. Cited in:
Fisher, D. And N. Frey. (2007). Checking for Understanding. ACSD Books.
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences -- New Horizons. Basic Books.
All these little faults of speech, which you are so afraid the children will acquire, are nothing. They may be prevented or corrected with the greatest ease, but the faults that are taught them when you make them speak in a low, indistinct, and timid voice, when you are always criticizing their tone and finding fault with their words, are never cured." 
Similarly, ousseau uses the example of late-onset language as another consequence of the unnatural focus on language instruction in early childhood. In that respect, ousseau suggests that the commonly observed phenomenon that children who begin to speak later than others are never able to recover completely and will always communicate somewhat less effectively than children who begin speaking at the normal stage of development.
ousseau believed that some children simply begin speaking later than others and that if they were just left alone and allowed to absorb…
Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Allyn & Bacon.
ILT. (2009). Rousseau's Emile, ou l'education. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from the Institute for Learning Technologies website, at http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/pedagogies/rousseau/Contents2.html
Pretty soon, he was learning to read and was successful. I want to be this kind of teacher, one who believes in students and doesn't give up on them.
A good teacher tries new things. it's the way to keep from getting "burnt out." Some teachers do things the same way year after year without changing anything. Some of them even save their bulletin boards so they can put them up again the next year. I intend to try something new every semester.
It's exciting to try something new. Sometimes I lie awake at night, excited, and thinking about how things might go during a new activity or a new project. Trying new things to do will also help me to develop a "fund" of useful activities that excite the children and keep them actively learning (and getting rid of the stuff that doesn't work). I think I learn the…
Progressivism has been used instead, and many think that this has been a serious problem for education. agley is one of those who holds that opinion (Essentialism, n.d.). He believes that not using essentialism in schools has contributed to children who grow up weak academically, and who also struggle with morals, ethics, and values, as well as the understanding that one has to work hard for things that are worthwhile.
This is largely the issue that Rickover and Sizer have with schooling in America today, as well (Essentialism, n.d.). It is not that children are not being taught -- it is that they are not being taught in a way that is determined to be meaningful to what they will actually have to accomplish in life. They are not taught the essentials of functioning as a human being in today's society. Until they learn that they will continue to have…
Barrett, H.C. (2001). On the functional origins of essentialism. Mind and Society, 3(2), 1 -- 30.
Essentialism and Education (n.d.). Chapter 17. http://ellis.melton.com/TCNJ/Essentialism _and_Education.pdf
Kemerling, Garth. (2002). Aristotle. Philosophy Pages. http://www.philosophypages.com / ph/aris.htm
Ornsteind, Allan C., Pejak, Edward F. & Orstein, Stacey B. (2007). Contemporary Issues in Curriculum, 4th Edition, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Evolution of Personal Philosophy of Education
What is institutional education supposed to do for people in the future? Education is something that happens now and that should happen forever. Institutional education cannot service every need or prepare a person for every life experience. Institutional education happens in the classroom with the material and the teacher. Institutional education also occurs in the everyday experience and interaction with classmates, teachers, other staff. But because institutional education is an institution, the scope of the experience allowed within it is articulated and therefore limited. Education can help assist us in life outside of it, but it is not a substitute for real life. The point of the paper is to scrutinize objectivism and constructivism. Any educators aiming at transforming the ideal educational experience and outcome into the real educational experience and outcome must incorporate both perspectives and practices in their philosophy of…
Hein, G.E. (1991). Constructivist Learning Theory. International Committee of Museum Educators Conference, Israel. Web, Available from: http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html . 2012 November 28.
Lewis, D. (2001). Objectivism vs. Constructivism: The Origins of this Debate and the Implications for Instructional Designers. University of South Florida -- College of Education, Web, Available from: http://www.coedu.usf.edu/agents/dlewis/publications/Objectivism_vs_Constructivism.htm . 2012 November 28.
Personal Philosophy of Education
Describe the resulting curriculum planning process.
My philosophy as a realist / experimentalist (leaning more towards experimentalist) is that students need to critically examine historical events in context (why did certain important events happen and was the result what was expected?); they need to understand (although they don't have to agree with) contemporary social values (some of which are not rational) and how to reconcile their future place in society; and in the process they should be able to mark moments of important personal growth and learn to solve problems, both academic problems and personal problems, if possible. As an experimentalist instructor that believes in creating original curriculum to deal with the rapidly changing world, I also believe that my original curriculum should be updated contemporarily. The difference between a school's standard (and sometimes out-of-date) curriculum in social studies and my own creative class work --…
Personal Philosophy of Education
There are many schools of thought on the learning process and there is no single philosophy that covers every aspect of the learning experience.
My personal philosophy for education is to provide the most positive learning experience possible right from the onset of the educational process. Integral to this experience is the environment that must stimulate the child from early childhood to maturity.
Learning is an ongoing process and requires a broad vision of education to maximize the learning opportunity. I personally have been greatly influenced by the Montessori approach. The Montessori approach is designed to help children with their task of inner construction as they grow from childhood to maturity. It succeeds because it draws its principles from the natural development of the child. Its flexibility provides a matrix within which each individual child's inner directives freely guide the child toward wholesome growth.
Personal Philosophy of Education
Education is the process of establishing a solid, long-term foundation for the future of society through the development, training and teaching of the children by guiding them into professional young adults. Education is literally creating and forming this country. Many people look at the teaching profession as a low paying, non-thankful job.
The visibility of a teacher's success is not only watching the children cite the AC's or seeing their faces light up when they discover that 2 + 2 = 4.
The success of a teacher is also obvious on graduation night, and those graduates entering into the work place, landing that first high paying job, and succeeding at it. The results of the teaching profession is also transparent when inventions are created, such as the Internet, computers, advanced communications etc... In this essay, I will discuss my philosophy on teaching and which teaching methods…
Inspiring Words For Educators
Curriculum Review, Vol 37 Issue
Finn, Jr., Chester.E., Kanstoroom, M. (Summer 2000)
This is closely associated with the subject matter being taught. It is my belief that many students are marginalized because teachers fail to make the effort not only to teach cultural content, but also to learn how to handle such content or to communicate in an intercultural way in class. Because part of my teaching philosophy is to honor each culture I encounter in my class, I will investigate ways to communicate effectively with them. Ladson-Billings (1995) emphasizes that classroom interaction should mimic students' cultural interactions in their homes and societies as closely as possible to help them internalize new material as effectively as possible. In my class, all students must, at all times, feel that they are free to be themselves.
Finally, a very important part of my teaching philosophy is to remain academically and socially active. This is vitally important to maintain an effective teaching paradigm, where my…
Fuller, B. (2003). Educational Policy Under Cultural Pluralism. Educational Researcher, Vol. 32, No. 9. Retrieved from: http://first5kids.com/files/Education%20Policy%20Under%20Cultural%20Pluralism.pdf
Hansen, D.T. (1994). Revitalizing the Idea of Vocation in Teaching. Philosophy of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/eps/PES-Yearbook/94_docs/HANSEN.htm
Kozol, J. (2005, Sep. 1). Still Separate, Still Unequal: America's Educational Apartheid. Harper's Magazine. Vol. 311, No. 1864. Retrieved from: http://gayleturner.net/kozol.html
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995, Summer). But That's Just Good Teaching! The Case for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. Theory into Practice, Vol. 34, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://edt2.educ.msu.edu/DWong/Te150S10/CourseReader/LadsonBillings-ButThatsJustGoodTeaching.pdf
Personal Philosophy of Education
My Personal Philosophy of Education in Nursing
Almost 20 years ago I immigrated to United States from the Ukraine. I received my Associate's degree from junior college and then attained my Bachelor degree in nursing. Subsequent to this I entered graduate school and studied Health Sciences with a track in midwifery. Presently I am working on earning another degree in Nursing Administration.
My core values have been shaped by these experiences. Foremost I believe caring is central to everything I do. I believe in promoting health, healing and hope in response to the human condition. I value my personal integrity, which is respecting the dignity and moral wholeness of every person without limitations or conditions. Every person is unique and I respect the differences among individual's ideas, values, and ethnicities. I pride myself in striving for excellence in all thinks I do.
I learn best by…
Personal Philosophy of Education
One of the most important elements in teaching practice is developing a personal educational philosophy that guides practices in the classroom and shape the decision-making process. My personal educational philosophy for my classroom environment is to provide opportunities that challenge students and provoke them to grow and develop towards realization of their individual full potential. This would entail taking students or learners through different levels in the learning process and experience and witness their collective development towards the betterment of every individual.
Based on my personal educational philosophy, there are two major perspectives that will characterize the learning process and experience. First, every student in my classroom will have freedom that enables self-expression and creativity during learning. In this case, the learners will have the liberty to experiment with likes and dislikes in order to identify their individual strengths and weaknesses. Once this is achieved, I…
Schuh, K.L. & Barab, S.A. (n.d.). Philosophical Perspectives. Retrieved from King Saud University website: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/Alhassan/Hand%20book%20on%20research%20in%20educational%20communication/ER5849x_C007.fm.pdf
Yurumezoglu, K. & Oguz, A. (2007). How Close Student Teachers' Educational Philosophies and Their Scientific Thinking Processes in Science Education. Retrieved from The Education Resources Information Center website: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498253.pdf
Personal Philosophy of Education
Many teachers enter the classroom for the first time armed with the training and knowledge they receive from their higher education, but with no personal philosophy of education to help guide them in the process. In fact, some teachers believe that a personal philosophy of education is irrelevant to the real-world needs of education today, but a growing consensus of teachers maintain that a personal philosophy of education is an integral part of curricular and professional development. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the literature to define a philosophy of education and its importance, the differences between teacher-centered philosophies of education and student-centered philosophies, and a description of a major philosophy of education and how it is reflected in school practice. Finally, a discussion concerning some of the psychological and cultural factors influencing education is followed by an assessment concerning how the legacies of Socrates,…
Cainbridge, J. (2012, November). Internationalizing teacher education in the United States. The International Schools Journal, 32(1), 82-85.
Machan, T. R. (2010, January). A problem with Aristotle's ethical essentialism. Libertarian Papers, 2, 37-39.
Razek, N. A. & Coyner, S. C. (2013, January). Cultural impacts on Saudi students at a Mid-Western American university. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 17(1), 103-107.
Scurton, R. (2006, June). Schools and schooling. The American Spectator, 39(5), 48-51.
Robinson Crusoe & Don Quixote
The character of Robinson Crusoe have shown as to how faith helps a person to survive purely on determination and will. This story has conveyed that how Robinson has survived in difficult situations even though he had no previous knowledge of tools, navigation, or even a belief in God. It was only his will power and ambition that helped him to acquire these skills by himself when he was trapped on a deserted island.
The story begins with the wreck of the ship in which Robinson was traveling. At first he considered himself as to be very fortunate that he survived from the accident. However, when he further evaluated the situation, he realized that he was facing a real challenge as he was all alone without any accompanying person or any hope to escape from that deserted island. Though, in the beginning he was very…
Pragmatism emerged from the writings of John Dewey who believed that experimentation was the best approach for educating young minds. For example, pragmatists feel that field trips, educational excursions etc. are more effective in teaching students about the world instead of audio-visual aids. Pragmatism includes such as thoughts as futurism, and educational humanism and econstructionism. Pragmatic education philosophy doesn't assign a traditional role to the teachers who are only seen as guides and not exactly more knowledgeable beings. George . Knight in his book on education philosophies explained that pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and education. They gives the example of field trips as he says that for a child to learn about dairy products, its better to take him to a barn and let him experience the whole thing himself instead of showing him a movie on the subject.…
John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916)
Knight, George. Philosophy & Education, An introduction in Christian Perspective, Berrien Springs, Michigan: Andrews University Press. 1989
Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre, Edited by Walter Kaufmann, The World Publishing Company, 1956
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…
Bullen, Mark. (2004) "Andragogy and University Distance Education." University of British Columbia. http://www2.cstudies.ubc.ca/~bullen/bullen1.html
Kett, J.F. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990, Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.
Merriam, S.B. And Caffarella, R.S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.Last updated: January 30, 2005
This can shatter the confidence of the student and may even make him lose interest in the subject and teacher's views. For the development of students' critical thinking skills and their confidence, responsible teaching is highly desirable.
Teachers need to understand that while they can foster discussion and debate, it is not necessary to impose their views on any student. Students come from variety of backgrounds and hence may need some healthy debate and discussion to change or alter their views if they need to be changed. They shouldn't be forced to believe something or discard some view. In the case of Virginia Foster for example, we learned that when she didn't want to share a table with a black student, her supervisor told her that this was how things worked at the college and if she didn't want to do it, she could leave. This is a classic example…
Personal philosophy of education statement
Although the settings that are used to deliver educational services today differ markedly from those used a century ago, the fundament purpose of education has remained essentially the same: to provide young learners with the academic background and experiences they need to become contributing citizens to American society (Stone, 2014). The introduction of numerous technological innovations in recent years, though, has also resulted in growing numbers of educators questioning the efficacy of conventional pedagogy that ignores the ability of students to locate information instantaneously online about the 50 state capitals, the names of all the presidents, how far it is to Jupiter, or any of the other countless facts that were once widely regarded as indicators of learning. As Trybus (2013) emphasizes, “The future of education may seem daunting and challenging if educators lack a vision of what matters most for students to be prepared…
Philosophy is an extensive branch of knowledge that deals with the notions of reality and existence with a solid correlation to wisdom. Therefore, education philosophy is an applied field of specification dealing with conventional development of educative standards, for example, from ethics. For years, the development of education has undergone several transitions from fields of concern and especially through theoretical pedagogic philosophies. These theories and philosophies have had a significant implication towards shaping normative education philosophies and personal beliefs towards education nowadays. This context draws attention to two philosophers whose substantial efforts in improving education depended greatly on their contributions; Socrates and Plato.
Socrates was an ancient educator, termed as the father of Western philosophy. Although he was a controversial philosopher, his tactics and wise sayings concerning life were always acknowledged. He developed several philosophies concerning education. Under them, he asserted the importance of self-education based…
Curren, R. (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Education. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Lodge, R.C. (2000). Plato's Theory of Education. Volume 8. New York: Routledge.
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…
(3) How might you pose a question regarding No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in order to reveal your interviewee's philosophy regarding education?
"Do you believe that the increased focus on standardized testing within the NCLB concept is beneficial to the educational interests of students or harmful to those interests?"
"Do you believe that educational systems should place greater emphasis or less emphasis on standardized testing and why?"
(4) Does the tenure of your interviewee affect his or her philosophy? How do you pose a question so that it will reveal this information?
Absolutely. The tenured of educators would naturally affect their philosophies, particularly to the extent the length of time since their training makes more experienced educators less aware of changes in and the evolution of educational concepts to which they were never exposed. One question that might be useful to reveal this information would be: "What recent changes or…
Denying certain individuals access to education at all, in a society that privileges literacy, also creates a societal imbalance and social inequality, as manifested in the examples of Frederick Douglass in America (Gutek, 2005).
Consider in our own contemporary public schools, how even simple actions taken for granted like pledging allegiance to the flag affirms the value of citizenship, how demarcating winter break as a time of rest reinforces the importance of Judeo-Christian holidays, and the content of the textbooks used determines what the child will later consider 'American history' or 'Great Literature.' Editing out certain authors or entire groups of people from the body of knowledge transmitted in a nation's schools creates an exclusionary message of what is intellectually valuable that the child will carry within his or her set of core assumptions, possibly forever.
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of…
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Gutek, Gerald L. 2005. Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction. 4th ed. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Q1. The mind-body problem in psychology has been discussed consistently since Plato. Discuss Dewey’s approach to understanding experience using Heidegger’s conception of mind and body and any relation to Heidegger’s approach to ontology? In what way does Husserl’s concept of ontology relate to the ideas of Dewey and Heidegger?
According to Neill (2005), the educational philosopher John Dewey attempted to overcome the deficits of both traditional and progressive education by stressing that experience is a product of a dialogue between continuity, defined as the individual’s concept of the past, and interaction, defined as the immediate experience of the individual’s environment. Therefore, two students may be experiencing the same phenomenon but react very differently, based upon their past experiences. Similarly, two individuals with the same past may become quite different, if they have different, later environmental influences.
Dewey’s education philosophy may be seen as reflective of the German philosopher Heidegger’s approach to…
Education mirrors life. And, life follows from education. Both entities are inextricably linked. This is a salient point that most teachers and students must recognize. And by teachers, one also means students of a particular domain -- even if that domain is global and extensible to every aspect of life -- since the process of learning never stops. In developing a philosophy of education, one must also be able to dissociate education from literacy -- the latter being far more important. The crux of this essay will be to show that since each individual -- and this is common knowledge -- is different, then the process of education should not devolve into a one- size-fits-all groupthink straitjacket. How should education then be defined? As a mode of instruction that leaves avenues open, into which, aspects of a student's (or teacher's) life experiences and richness of talents and culture might be…
My 7th grade student, Alice Harding, had problems since the beginning of the year. Not only was she painfully shy and never participated in group work; she also appeared not to be interested in either studying the lessons or doing her homework. Whereas her work in the beginning of the years was promising, it had reached a point where I felt intervention is necessary. Her grades had dropped with nearly 20% since the beginning of the year. I have chosen Alice for this project, because I feel she is a perfectly intelligent girl, who with the right methods can be motivated to perform much better.
I had previously tried several methods to attempt to enhance Alice's feelings of security in the classroom. One of the methods was dividing the class into smaller groups of four, and giving them simple tasks to do. Alice however still failed to…
Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Brophy, J.E. & C.M. Evertson. (1976). Learning from Teaching: A Developmental Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Good, T.L. & J. Brophy. (1978). Looking In Classrooms. New York: Harper & Row.
1995). Contemporary Educational Psychology. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
In terms of ethics, I believe we feel happiest when we are acting and behaving in ways that will promote our survival and the survival of our offspring. This does not mean we feel best when we act selfishly, because I believe there is a universal spiritual dimension (also part of the metaphysics of the world) which makes all living creatures feel connected. Therefore, we cannot feel truly happy unless we are behaving in ways that promote the health and prosperity of all of life in general. As human beings with a developed conscience, we cannot ignore our own unethical actions; they will always affect our own well-being in one way or another (less restful sleep, mental or emotional disorders, difficulty learning, lack of achievement, low self-esteem, etc.).
Dominant Worldview in America Today: My Perception
I believe the dominant worldview in America is axiology-based and influenced heavily by modern technology…
Archie, L., & Archie, J.G. (2004). Reading for Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking. philosophy.lander.edu.
Lowe, E. (1998). The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time. Oxford: Clarendon.
Steup, M. (2010). Epistemology. Retrieved 01-26, 2011, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition): http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=epistemology
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…
Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education
Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).
Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education. Calhoun.org.
Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions
"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."
~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions
To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…
Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. 'Kuhn's mature philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.' Philosophical Psychology, Volume 9, issue 3, 1996, p. 347 -- 363.
Bird, Alexander, 'Thomas Kuhn', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), , 2011 (accessed 2012 March 14).
Budd, J.M., & Hill, H. 'The Cognitive and Social Lives of Paradigms in Information Science.' , 2007 (accessed 2012 March 15).
Eng, L. 'The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.' STS Concepts, , 2011, (accessed 2012 March 14).
Philosophies of Life:
Personal and Traditional
hen one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception. Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives. Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes (Hassad, 2000). Although each person's individual "philosophy of life" is different, there are some well-known philosophical interpretations that can shed some light upon common attitudes concerning personal identity. Six famous life philosophies are attributed to Socrates, Freud, Albert Camus, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Muhammad.
Although there are several ways in which one can interpret the meaning of life and personal identity, perhaps one of the most useful steps one can take in the process is to recognize…
Locke, John. "Some Thoughts Concerning Education." 1693. Retrieved from Web site on May 3, 2005< http://www.socsci.kun.nl/ped/whp/histeduc/locke/locke052.html
Hassad, Craig J. "Depression: dispirited or spiritually deprived?" Medical Journal of Australia. 2000. Web site. Retrieved on May 3, 2005< http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/173_10_201100/hassed/hassed.html
Todd, Oliver. "Albert Camus: A Life." Knopf. New York. 1997.
The success of every teacher is measured by the ability of her students to progress in their learning and think more critically about the world. The student's relationship to the teacher is that of a person seeking guidance to realize his or her dreams. This does not mean that discipline and rules should be ignored. Far from it, for to create an atmosphere of mutual respect, all students' needs must be acknowledged. Everyone must wait for his or her turn to shine. There must be rules, but rules with value and purpose, and children must understand the consequences of their actions, not merely be punished to satisfy the teacher's need for authority. Always, the teacher must have an idea of how motivated the students are as a group, what values are important to individual students, the ability level of the class and individual students, and see the educational process as…
Given that experience is argued to be the foundation of knowledge (according to Locke) how - if at all - does Locke make room for what Leibniz would call 'necessary truths'?
Gottfried Leibniz made many criticisms of the work of John Locke, while acknowledging its sophistication and importance, observing that 'although the author of the Essays says hundreds of fine things which I applaud, our systems are very different' (Leibniz, 1982, p. 47). There is indeed a philosophical gulf between the two thinkers. Locke does not believe human beings can have any access to accurate knowledge of the actually existing reality of things, their 'real essence.' Only through the words we use to stand for things do we have any relationship to those things:
Nor indeed can we rank and sort things, and consequently (which is the end of sorting) denominate them, by their real essences; because we…
Leibniz, G.W. (1982). New Essays on Human Understanding. Translated by P. Remnant and J. Bennett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, G.W. (1698) The Monadology. Translated by Robert Latta. At http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/leibniz/monadology.html
Locke, J. (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. At http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke1/Essay_contents.html
In sections 37 thru 45 of the Monadology Leibniz offers three different proofs of the existence of God. Explore the way in which each of these proofs is derived from the 'two great principles' introduced immediately before.
The 'two great principles' expounded in paragraphs 31-2 of the Monadology are the principle of contradiction and the principle of sufficient reason. The principle of contradiction states that any statement containing a contradiction is false, and its opposite is true (para. 31); the principle of sufficient reason states that no state of affairs can exist, and no statement can be true, unless there is a sufficient reason why it is so and not otherwise, and that these reasons cannot usually be humanly known (para. 32). If these principles are accepted then it follows that there are two kinds of truths, each being based upon one of the two principles. Truths of…
Leibniz, G.W. (1698). The Monadology. Translated by Robert Latta. At http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/leibniz/monadology.html
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
In his writings, Hegel is concerned about the concept of the Absolute. He provides many different definitions of the term Absolute. One of those definitions is that the Absolute is what people normally conceive of as God. However, the god of Hegel is not confined to the Judeo-Christian definition. Hegel's Absolute is pure mind and consciousness.
In Philosophy of Mind, Hegel defines the Absolute as both "mind" and "spirit" that inform a "supreme definition" of God (Mickelson). The Absolute is supreme and eternal. It is indivisible. As the word "absolute" suggests, it is not soluble; it does not dissolve.
As Scott puts it, "the Absolute is Spirit, and Spirit is Reality." Therefore, all reality can be explained by the understanding of the Absolute. Human beings exist only in relation to the Absolute, but the Absolute does not depend on any other entity or being for its self-definition or its…
The Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved online: http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/a/b.htm
Mickelson, Carl. "Hegel Glossary." Retrieved online: http://www.class.uidaho.edu/mickelsen/texts/Hegel%20Glossary.htm
Scott, Alex. "Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind." Retrieved online: http://www.angelfire.com/md2/timewarp/hegel.html
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
In this narrative, the story teller tells of both his informal education in his tribe and the formal education he received through the Indian boarding school run by whites which attempts to assimilate him to the Anglo world, one that differs greatly from the Cherokee way. What the educator can take away from this book is that the best educational approaches are those that are culturally sensitive. One of the main reason our schools are failing in low-income and high minority areas is because it was originally created to teach middle class white children. When this same curriculum is used in a low-income classroom, what is essentially happening is a modern-day form of assimilation. Instead, a more culturally sensitive approach needs to be developed, as was done by Ms. Guell.
Finally, like the educational memoir of Ms. Guell, Jesse Stuart's the Thread that Runs so True, provides a personal account…
Carter, Forrest. (2001): Education of Little Tree. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico Press.
Gruwell, Erin. (2007): Teach with Your Heart: Lessons I Learned from the Freedom Writers. New York: Broadway Books.
Stuart, Jesse. (1950): The Thread that Runs so True. New York: Simon and Schuster Adult Publishing Group.
In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.
Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…
Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.
Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
This cultural enrichment would provide nutritional information all the children could use when with their families or in their neighborhoods.
constructionist teacher will find examples of careful and systematic thinking about how children learn that can guide him or her in the classroom. Piaget and Vygotsky (Gredler, 2002) give us solid examples of what children are ready for and at what ages they are most likely to benefit from specific kinds of instruction. Piaget's theories help the constructionist teacher be aware that although children think about what they're doing, they go through cognitive developmental stages. Respecting the types of cognitive thinking a child is likely to use at a given age is another way to teach the child respectfully -- by neither teaching below their abilities or by demanding that they perform as little adults.
Maria Montessori might serve as an excellent role model for such a teacher. Montessori looked…
Author not available, "Montessori, Maria." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2004.
Gredler, Margaret E. 2002. "A review and analysis of constructivism for school-based practice." School Psychology Review, Jan. 12.
Shaughnessy, Michael F. 1994. "Educating for understanding (Howard Gardner Interview)." Phi Delta Kappan, March 1.
When professors work with students with special needs they should always be certain to create an inclusive environment that encourages all students to shine. Moreover, community college professors need to develop curricula that honor diversity whenever possible. A comprehensive teaching philosophy for the community college professor therefore expands student awareness of diversity as well as of their subject matter. The community college instructor must also keep in mind that many students will have families, part-time, or full-time jobs and must therefore respect the needs for students to juggle differing demands. Professors should always listen to their students needs: if work loads appear too hard for many students then the professor should consider reducing them. Expanding awareness also includes helping students network. The community college professor should introduce students to various campus organizations, clubs, other classes, and community resources. The instructor should direct students to campus bulletin boards and career development…
This view is described as, "...mutually reinforcing qualities of a fully functioning mind and body." (Dustin, Hibbler, Mckenney & Blitzer, 2004)
The idea of educating the whole child is particularly relevant to early teaching methods and aims. "This philosophy of educating the whole child has led early education theorists to emphasize the importance of addressing children's social and emotional needs as well as their cognitive and physical ones..." (Kowalski, Pretti-Frontczak & Johnson, 2001) the concept of educating the whole child is also aligned to an interdisciplinary approach in education.
Education that makes a difference"
This commonly heard phrase refers to the importance of education in the development of the child and individual. It is also a specific concept which expands on the idea of holistic education and points to the way that education can shape and change life. It also contains within it the idea that education makes a difference…
Cochran-Smith, M. (2005). No Child Left Behind: 3 Years and Counting. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(2), 99+. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009261632 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007207981
Conley, M.W., & Hinchman, K.A. (2004). No Child Left Behind: What it Means for U.S. Adolescents and What We Can Do about it the No Child Left Behind Act Promises All Students a Better Chance to Learn, but Does That Promise Include Adolescents?. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(1), 42+. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007207981 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002578145
Dustin, D., Hibbler, D., Mckenney, a., & Blitzer, L. (2004). Thinking outside the Box: Placing Park and Recreation Professionals in K-12 Schools. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(1), 51+. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002578145 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000924834
Kowalski, K., Pretti-Frontczak, K., & Johnson, L. (2001). Preschool Teachers' Beliefs concerning the Importance of Various Developmental Skills and Abilities. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 16(1), 5+. Retrieved October 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000924834 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108100385
" (ohlf) These maxims may be as simple as gratifying a desire or something complex like becoming a lawyer. Kant then distinguishes between two basic kinds of maxims: material and formal principles. If I am acting in order to satisfy some desire, such as going to a Starbucks to get a coffee, that is acting on a material principle. According to Kant, maxims are rules that describe how one does act and imperatives prescribe how one should act. A categorical imperative commands that I should act in some way unconditionally. Kant regards these categorical imperatives as moral laws and they apply to everyone in the same way. In other words, if stealing is morally wrong, we cannot say that stealing is okay., because we are hungry and lack the money to buy food for ourselves or our families.
Kant's Categorical Imperative commands that we should act in some…
McCormick, M. (2005) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource.
"Immanual Kant:Metaphysics." (June 2005). Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/kantmeta/#SH8a.
Rohlf, Michael, "Immanuel Kant," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition),
Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/kant/ >.
Socrates has been accused of not recognizing the gods of the state, and also of inventing gods of his own. In fact, this is a two-part accusation. Socrates is first being accused for not believing in the state-sanctioned religion. Of course, it is impossible to know what Socrates does or does not believe. Based on his words, though, it would seem Socrates does actually believe in the gods although may not pay them the kind of respect that the Athenian courts would prefer.
The second part of the accusation is different. Here, the state accuses Socrates of inventing new divinities of his own. Socrates is in fact not starting a new religion and he does not tout the divine authority of any deity. If the accusation is taken collectively, that is, if declaration of guilt or innocence is made on the fulfillment of both these two parts, then Socrates…
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
Even within the United States, the education system has proven itself to be extremely vulnerable to the detrimental influence of intellectual corruption by the excessive entanglement of ideology and formal education. Specifically, the infamous Scopes Trial featured the criminal prosecution for teaching evolutionary biology because it conflicted with prevailing religious dogma (Davidson, 1999). Much more recently, a conservative political agenda has dominated the educational systems of individual American states in which educational administrative authorities have sought (in some cases, quite successfully) to promote religious or quasi-religious dogma under the very thinly veiled guise of teaching nonsense such as "Intelligent Design" (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005). Specifically, that approach (in conjunction with renewed attempts to challenge the legitimacy of established evolutionary science) was a deliberate attempt to promote particular religious beliefs in a manner designed to circumvent very explicit constitutional prohibition against that church-state entanglement (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005).
Davidson, K. (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Feldman, N. (2005). Divided by God: America's Church and State Problem and What
We Should Do about it. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
The definition of an educated person has no doubt altered over time. Certainly, many people have tried to formulate the ultimate definition of what an educated person is, and what achieving that state might entail. In my earliest thoughts about the subject, I probably thought an educated person was probably my grandmother; she seemed so wise, and certainly, I never asked her anything for which she didn't have an answer, and a good one at that. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time. hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. I wanted to wallow in misery. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…
Drucker, Peter F. "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993.
Glickman, Carl D. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001.
Parker, Lynette. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997.
In order to promote the lofty ideals of the Catholic community, our school must sustain an environment in which Christians and Catholics can forge a solid psychological, social, and spiritual identity. To do so, all instructors and faculty must be aware of the intricacies of modern popular culture so that they can relate to students in a way that is meaningful to them. Curriculum, while solidly traditional, must reflect the changing needs of the social, cultural, and psychological identities of the students. To fulfill this goal, teachers need to be hired according to rigorous standards: regardless of age or gender all teachers must prove that they can relate meaningfully to the students they are teaching.
Furthermore, we must stimulate students by providing opportunities for self-expression, creative thinking, problem solving, and aesthetic appreciation. e can accomplish these goals through field trips relevant to a particular subject matter. For instance, the…
Department for Education and Skills. (2005). Online at .
United States Department of Education. 2005. Online at .
He believed, a bit more than Sophocles, that through behavior, humans can actually change fate. Fate does control, yes, but only punishes those who fly in the face of all that is just and divine. For instance, Plato would agree with Sophocles that Fate would have a hand in punishing those who rule via hubris, or supreme confidence in their wisdom and strengths. However, Plato believed that through acting justly and with proper political and logical behavior, humans can actually reroute fate and escape its wrath.
Aristotle was, arguably, the most different in his beliefs on how humans should behave, and the construction of their education, in this group of Plato, Sophocles and Aristotle.
By setting up objective criteria for human behavior, Aristotle prepares the foundation for his aristocratic political views. Perhaps the part of Aristotle's Politics most offensive to the general concept of Greek democracy is his defense of…
The naturalist position is further "bolstered" by a fundamental faith in the veracity of sensory inputs and human cognitive processes, a faith that is woefully misplaced. In fact, the naturalist belief in random evolution undermines any belief in the ability of human senses to derive truth about the workings of the universe (Plantinga 2). Those who believe in a supernatural deity often believe that said deity imbued human beings with the ability to acquire and understand knowledge. If this is the case, it is possible for human beings to use their minds to discern the nature of reality. But if instead humans are simply the product of randomly accrued changes through natural selection, then there can be no such guarantee. Our physical senses and cognitive processes wouldn't have developed with reliability in mind, but rather with survivability. The mind or the senses are only important, in the naturalist context,…
Dubray, C.A. "Naturalism." Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. X. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1991. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10713a.htm .
Johnson, Phillip E. "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism." Access Research Network. 1990. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/pjdogma1.htm.
Plantinga, Alvin. "Naturalism Defeated." Calvin College. 1994. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.calvin.edu/academic/philosophy/virtual_library/articles/plantinga_alvin/naturalism_defeated.pdf.
Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Punishment should be equal, and no favoritism is employed. ules enable a teacher to maintain control of the classroom. Maintaining a good classroom behavior is easier than trying to correct inappropriate behavior. Students who have established inappropriate behavior will resist any changes that a teacher attempts in order to correct their behavior. Therefore, it is better for a teacher to maintain order and discipline for the classroom at all times. Establishing clear guidelines and rules, which have consequences if broken will ensure that students maintain good behavior. Parental influence is vital in maintaining discipline of the students. Parents will be kept in the know of their children behavior, and they can also administer disciplinary measures at home.
Students should also be made to understand that disciplinary measures are undertaken to teach them and prepare them for the future. Good student behavior is vital as it protects other students and ensures…
Evertson, C.M., & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. Florence, Kentucky: LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC Incorporated.
Mehra, R. (2004). Classroom Management. Manhattan, New York: Pinnacle Technology.
Shaw, R. (2008). Philosophy in the Classroom: Improving Your Pupils' Thinking Skills and Motivating Them to Learn. Florence, Kentucky: ROUTLEDGE CHAPMAN & HALL.
Black Studies - Philosophy
y "personal" and "social" goals, I meant the achievement of ideals set by the individual for himself/herself and for the society in general, respectively. Education and learning gained from…Read Full Paper ❯
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
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Black Studies - Philosophy
He believed, a bit more than Sophocles, that through behavior, humans can actually change fate. Fate does control, yes, but only punishes those who fly in the face of…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
3). The naturalist position is further "bolstered" by a fundamental faith in the veracity of sensory inputs and human cognitive processes, a faith that is woefully misplaced. In fact,…Read Full Paper ❯
Punishment should be equal, and no favoritism is employed. ules enable a teacher to maintain control of the classroom. Maintaining a good classroom behavior is easier than trying to…Read Full Paper ❯