Philosophy Of Religion Essays (Examples)

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Philosophies of Religion Generally Fall

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32518654

Nevertheless, personal experience is a powerful method of argument, especially when the credibility of the individual is not called into question. The moral argument in favor of the existence of God is weak because the existence of human morality does not in itself mean that God is the origin of morals. Rather, God has often been used as a motive to prompt people to act a certain way, according to religious scripture or doctrine. Miracles pose a significant problem for the philosopher of religion, because if an act is deemed miraculous, it supercedes the laws of nature. However, the laws of nature are always subject to God; therefore, a miracle cannot theoretically exist.

Pascal's "wager" is yet another theistic philosophy of religion, one that is based primarily on self-interest. Pascal suggested that believing in God is a "better bet" than not believing in God. The individual who believes has nothing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Holt, Tim. "Arguments for Atheism." Philosophy of Religion.info. http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/atheisticproofs.html.

Holt, Tim. "Arguments for the Existence of God." Philosophy of Religion.info. http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/theisticproofs.html.
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Philosophy Myth Religion

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21730768

human beings have attempted to make sense of their world. Being creative creatures, this attempt often takes the form of stories and myths on the basis of religion and mythology. For the more rational mind, philosophy has played an important role to think about and explain the world to oneself, one's students, and one's children. For me personally, philosophy has played the most important part to make sense of the world, the people, and the things that share my life. This is not to say, however, that mythology and religion do not also play a role in such attempts.

I believe that today, philosophy is the most important of the humanities that can be used to impose a sense of structure and sense on the world, history, and current events. Philosophy has arisen not based upon an existing system of story telling or myth, but rather as a result of…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Life

Words: 1544 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4190642

Philosophies of Life:

Personal and Traditional

hen one considers the many aspects of one's "inner life," it becomes clear that most, if not all of them are based upon some philosophical conception. Psychologists have long known that individuals, who have a strong sense of their life's purpose, as well as a spiritual, religious, or ethical viewpoint, tend to live longer, healthier lives. Further, they are less likely to suffer from depressive episodes (Hassad, 2000). Although each person's individual "philosophy of life" is different, there are some well-known philosophical interpretations that can shed some light upon common attitudes concerning personal identity. Six famous life philosophies are attributed to Socrates, Freud, Albert Camus, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Muhammad.

Although there are several ways in which one can interpret the meaning of life and personal identity, perhaps one of the most useful steps one can take in the process is to recognize…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Locke, John. "Some Thoughts Concerning Education." 1693. Retrieved from Web site on May 3, 2005< http://www.socsci.kun.nl/ped/whp/histeduc/locke/locke052.html

Hassad, Craig J. "Depression: dispirited or spiritually deprived?" Medical Journal of Australia. 2000. Web site. Retrieved on May 3, 2005< http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/173_10_201100/hassed/hassed.html

Todd, Oliver. "Albert Camus: A Life." Knopf. New York. 1997.
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Religion in the Leviathan the

Words: 968 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30972305

" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).

This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.

In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.

Instead, we can…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Reason and Faith the

Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83614043

"(32) Through faith, a man or a woman entrusts his or herself to another, and thus a human bond is formed.

Therefore, it can be concluded that philosophical reasoning is as vital as faith for diaconal ministry. The unity of truth, that is, the importance of realizing that both philosophy and religion lead to the same ultimate truths, shows that reason and faith are more related than they are usually considered to be: "The unity of truth is a fundamental premise of human reasoning, as the principle of non-contradiction makes clear. Revelation renders this unity certain, showing that the God of creation is also the God of salvation history."(35) as Fides et Ratio emphasizes Christian philosophy points to this unity of truth by showing that the God of creation is also the God of history and that God is at the same time the transcendental truth and the historical, immediate…… [Read More]

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Religion in Public Schools Religious Fundamentalists vs

Words: 1622 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1591438

Religion in Public Schools: Religious Fundamentalists vs. Atheists

The relevance of raising children with an insistence on the development of a high moral character cannot be overstated. Essentially, individuals raised with a well founded moral character have the ability to clearly distinguish between bad/unacceptable behavior and good/acceptable behavior. With this in mind, it is understandable that parents usually prefer to have their children undertake their education in an enabling environment that allows for their moral development. Further, it is also understandable that religious fundamentalists and atheists alike would prefer to have their children schooling in a setting that has high regard for moral virtues such as respect, concern for others, responsibility as well as honesty.

Religion in Public Schools: Religious Fundamentalists vs. Atheists

According to Lebron, "for most religious theists, their faith practices provide the basis for their entire understanding of morality and moral values" (521). This is a view…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cox, Robert. Sabbath Laws and Sabbath Duties: Considered in Relation to their Natural and Scriptural Grounds, and to the Principles of Religious Liberty. London: Maclachlan and Stewart, 1853. Print.

In this text, Cox tries to explain some principles relating to religious liberty amongst other things. At some point, the author presents a case for atheists as individuals who also live good peaceful lives. The author is of the opinion that there aren't enough facts to conclude that atheism is incompatible with morality.

Estes, Yolanda & Curtis Bowman. J.G. Fichte and the Atheism Dispute (1798-1800). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2010. Print.

This book is essentially a collection of previous texts as well as essays relating to the atheism dispute. The book's commentary helps the reader make sense of some of the writings which may seem out of context in some instances based on the time in which they were written. Basically, the book helps the leader grasp some key concepts relating to religion and philosophy.
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Religion in the Modern World Religion Modern

Words: 2625 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75312986

eligion in the Modern World

eligion Modern World

eligion is something that is as old as man. It means "almost everything because religions deal with the whole of human life -- and death" (Bowker 2006). Since the beginning of mankind, individuals have searched themselves and others, contemplated the universe and all its elements, and religions are what were formed through these personal and public explorations. But what exactly are religions? What does it mean to be a religious person? Bowker (2006) states that the most modern term today for religions is "communities of people who share practices and beliefs (often in God or gods), who gather in special buildings for worship and meditation, and who live in special ways in the world." It is estimated that over three-quarters of the world's population consider themselves to belong to a religion, whether or not they decide to practice or not (2006). Judaism,…… [Read More]

References.

Bowker, John. (2006). World religions: the great faiths explored and explained. DK

Adult.

Breuilly, Elizabeth., O'Brien, Joanne., & Palmer, Martin. (2005). Religions of the world:

the illustrated guide to origins, beliefs, traditions & festivals. Checkmark Books;
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Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and

Words: 2274 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72047580

Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and Body

Throughout human history, philosophers, doctors, and most recently, psychologists, have attempted to understand the relationship between the mind and body and how it results in human beings' awareness and perception of reality. At least since the golden age of Greek philosophy, thinkers have been aware of an ostensible distinction between the mind and body, a distinction that nonetheless allows for some intermingling such that physical issues affect the mental state just as mental issues may result in physical symptoms. Thus, if one desires to truly understand how contemporary estern psychologists and philosophers consider the nature of consciousness via the interaction between mind and body, one must trace the history of these concepts starting with the Greek philosophers, moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and on to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when psychology first began to develop as a formal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bunge, M. (2010). The mind-body problem. Matter and Mind, 287(2), 143-157.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (Ed.). (2009). An introduction to the history of psychology. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.

Kendell, R.E. (2001). The distinction between mental and physical illness. British Journal of Psychiatry,178, 490-493.
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Philosophy Philosophy of Organized Religion

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043828

Smith's view seems to play out in the comparison of a state such as Iran, which imposes Muslim religious beliefs on its citizens, and that is extremely rigid and zealous in those beliefs, which impose strict religious control over households and especially women. Compare that with a country like the United States, which is more moderate and reasonable, and open to new religious beliefs.

Some experts believe that diversity is another reason religion plays a role in moderate, reasonable societies. Author Barro continues, "A greater diversity of religions available in a country or region is thought to promote greater competition, hence a better quality religion product, and therefore higher religious participation and beliefs" (Barro). In a country with only one supported religion, tolerance and quality are not part of the equation, adherence and rules are the most important, and that does not give any tolerance for any diversity or competition…… [Read More]

References

Barro, Robert J. "Spirit of Capitalism: Religion and Economic Development." Harvard International Review 25.4 (2004): 64+.

Cimino, Richard, and Don Lattin. Shopping for Faith: American Religion in the New Millennium. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.

McCleary, Rachel M. "Religion and Economic Development." Policy Review (2008): 45+.

Rossi, Phillip. "Kant's Philosophy of Religion." Stanford University. 2005. 8 May 2009.
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Philosophy of Evil

Words: 1124 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86100702

Evil Problems

The role of evil is generally misunderstood in the human approach to life. The fear of committing evil lies paramount within all facets of society. The purpose of this essay is to argue that to solve the problem of evil, humanity must begin to embrace the benefits and solutions to problems that evil provides. This essay will first define the concept of evil and discuss the problem in a philosophic manner that can help transmute evil ideas into more productive energies that can be used for growth and evolution

Defining Evil

The power of words carry emotional value that create energetic fields that permeate in the environment. Some words carry great power and instantly polarize the conditioned mind into an immediate and often irrational emotional reaction. "Evil" carries with it spiritual, moral and ethical values and energy that suggest the word's meaning has super power on and over…… [Read More]

References

Boase, E. (2008). Constructing meaning in the face of suffering: Theodicy in lamentations. Vetus Testamentum, 58(4-5), 4-5.

De Wijze, S. (2002). Defining Evil: Insights from the Problem of" Dirty Hands." The Monist, 210-238.

Jung, C.G., & Stein, M. (1977). Jung on evil. Jung, 436.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (nd). "Evil." Viewed 7 Dec 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/evil
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What Is Philosophy

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68310525

Philosophy is a one of the most perplexing, interesting and intriguing branch of study that seeks to understand the world from a viewpoint not commonly used. Three are many different branches of philosophy and three important ones include metaphysics, epistemology and axiology.

Epistemology refers to the branch of study that tries to go deeper into the meaning and scope of knowledge. The field is concerned with important and pertinent questions concerning knowledge such as what is knowledge, how is it acquired and how do we know some of things that we know. For example we understand that adding 2 and 2 would give us 4. Epistemology is simply concerned with the origin of this knowledge and not with how we add etc. Moser (2002) writes: "Epistemology characterized broadly, is an account of knowledge. Within the discipline of philosophy, epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification: in…… [Read More]

References

1. Edgar Sheffield Brightman, A Philosophy of Religion (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1940)

2 W.H. Walsh, Metaphysics (London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963)

3. Paul K. Moser, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)

4. Enrique Dussel, Philosophy of Liberation.
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Philosophy and Morality Instructions the Exam Consists

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10011484

Philosophy and Morality

INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.

Philosophy

John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"

A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.

Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.

Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.

Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
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Religion Qualifications of the Divine and the

Words: 2413 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83807781

eligion

Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…… [Read More]

Reference

Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm

"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online:  http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm 

Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.

The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
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Religions of Rome

Words: 817 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43120600

eligions of ome

Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.

In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…… [Read More]

References

Sol in the Roman Empire, 1 -- 30.

Beard Mary. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Goldhill Simon. Being Greek Under Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006.

Mary Beard, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 167 -- 363.
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Religion Anselm Aquinas and Hume

Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24187463



Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.

The dialogue between Sam…… [Read More]

References

Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp.

Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.

Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.

Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
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Religions of East Asia Including

Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61109450

. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.

The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.

Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
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Philosophy What Did Kierkegaard Mean

Words: 2576 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61109929

How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?

Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."

In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.

4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?

Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allison, Henry E. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. Yale University Press; Rev Exp edition, 2004.

Descartes, Rene., Cottingham, John., Ameriks, Karl. & Clarke, Desmond M. Descartes:

Meditations on First Philosophy: With Selections from the Objections and Replies. Cambridge University Press; Revised edition, 1996.

Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling (Penguin Classics). Penguin Classics, 1986.
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Religion and Science Are Often

Words: 2242 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98794853

The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).

Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.

McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
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Religion Should Be Eliminated From

Words: 2379 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55729778



Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.

Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.

Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Plato's Works on Euthyphro

Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 710226

The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.

Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason

Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Happiness Are There

Words: 2405 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69596797

eligion has the ability to give people hope especially the hopeless. Despite the harsh situations and challenges that people face, religion plays a fundamental role of giving them hope and optimism from which they draw strength. eligion is also an agent for socialization. It is no doubt meeting with other believers for religious events is more than just practicing faith (eeve 2006).

People use the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones, sing together and above all socialize. Interactions can be a powerful source of happiness to individuals. eligion provides more than just individual hedonism to guide behavior. In essence, religion provides guidelines for faithful to follow and in the end live an orderly and moral life (Furness & Gilligan 2010). Even though people appear to be happier within the spheres of religion, many researchers show that people in relatively nonreligious nation are the happiest lot. Scandinavian societies…… [Read More]

References

Eid, Michael, & Larsen, Randy J. (2008). The Science of Subjective Well-being. Guilford Pubn.

Fitzgerald, J.T., Obbink, D., & Holland, G.S. (2003). Philodemus and the New Testament world. Leiden: Brill.

Furness, S., & Gilligan, P. (2010). Religion, belief and social work: Making a difference. Bristol:

Policy.
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Religion of the Spirits in Responding to

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17287136

Religion of the Spirits

In responding to adherents of the Religion of the Spirits, one might expect very different statements by St. Thomas Aquinas and the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Indeed, these two personalities are opposite ends of the religious scale, with the former believing without any doubt that God exists and Catholicism is the true religion, and the latter being a believer in nihilism, physical life as the only existence that can reasonably be expected, and the non-existence of God. One similarity between Aquinas and Nietzsche is that they both believe unshakably in their respective viewpoints. There is therefore not much likelihood that the Religion of the Spirits will be able to convince either of their "truth."

If believers in the Religion of the Spirits were therefore to try and convince Thomas Aquinas of the truth of their religion, I believe he would in turn explain to them that there…… [Read More]

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Religion and or Science

Words: 1625 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4479455

eligion or Science?

Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…… [Read More]

Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science

And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Religion Comparison Religions in Ancient

Words: 2389 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75013626

According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.



Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old

Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
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Religion State Shinto as the BBC Points

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57946345

eligion

State Shinto

As the BBC points out, "Shinto can't be separated from Japan and the Japanese." This fact led to the fusion of Shinto with Japanese national identity during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Prior to the age of nationalism, Shinto was used to create a sense of allegiance not necessarily with the state but with the lineage of emperors that were the spiritual and political leaders of the Japanese people. The Shinto sun goddess Amaterasu is said to be the mother of the Imperial family ("Shinto and Nationalism," 2009). Therefore, one of the reasons why Shintoism is connected with Japanese nationalism is that Shinto has been the heart and soul of Japanese identity for centuries. Shinto infuses every aspect of daily life in Japan, including social and political culture. The easiest way to create a national identity in the modern sense was to use Shinto as…… [Read More]

References

Irani, D.J. (1998). The Gathas: The Hymns of Zarathustra. Center for Ancient Iranian Studies.

"Shinto and Nationalism," (2009). BBC. Retrieved online:    http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/history/nationalism_1.shtml
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Religions and Development it Is Popularly Believed

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6893573

Religions and Development

It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.

The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa

Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:

Probe Ministries International

Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
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Religion & Life Cycle Different Religious Visions

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49387521

Religion & Life Cycle

Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite

Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…… [Read More]

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Philosophy Kuhn's Rationale on the Irrationality of

Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87324781

Philosophy

Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions

"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."

~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions

To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…… [Read More]

References:

Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. 'Kuhn's mature philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.' Philosophical Psychology, Volume 9, issue 3, 1996, p. 347 -- 363.

Bird, Alexander, 'Thomas Kuhn', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), , 2011 (accessed 2012 March 14).

Budd, J.M., & Hill, H. 'The Cognitive and Social Lives of Paradigms in Information Science.' , 2007 (accessed 2012 March 15).

Eng, L. 'The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.' STS Concepts, , 2011, (accessed 2012 March 14).
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Philosophy While There Is Plenty to Criticize

Words: 3858 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51871612

Philosophy

While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]

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Religion and Globalization and Religion

Words: 500 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1913183

This book, written from a scholarly viewpoint by professors of religion, looks at the dynamics of seven major religious traditions and how those traditions are adapting to the world of globalization.

Rifkin, I. Spiritual Perspectives on Globalization: Making Sense of Economic and Cultural Upheaval. Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing. Print.

For author, speaker and journalist Ira Rifkin, globalization is changing how humans live at a very rapid, and sometimes unpredictable, rate. Some of this change revolves around the shift in values from individual cultures and the anger and uncomfortability humans are left with when faced with change. The book, written in lay terms without undue citations, examines Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Baha'i, tribal religions and Protestantism to explain how each view the economic, social and religious aspects of globalism. The major point focuses on how the social constructs that tend to arise out of spirituality can not only enhance…… [Read More]

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Religion Is Jesus the Only Savoir Is

Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2051126

eligion

Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.

Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]

References

Bible: New International Version (NIV)

Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-

Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online:  http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html 

Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online:  http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/
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Philosophy and History

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68391342

Philosophy

In his discourse, The Republic, Plato describes the "ideal state" as composed of three social classes: the merchant class, military class, and philosopher-kings. The merchant class maintains and provides service to the society by safeguarding the people's economic activities, while the military class provides the society's security needs. However, in order to establish a stable society, the class of philosopher-kings must govern, having the knowledge, skills, and talent to govern and lead over the society politically. Moreover, the philosopher-king is appropriate for the role of a political leader because he (Plato assigns the role to men) possesses virtues of temperance, courage, wisdom, and justice. These three classes provide balance in the society in terms of the security, prosperity, and leadership, thereby establishing what Plato calls the "ideal state."

Aristotle's philosophy on happiness and the good life is illustrated in his discourse, the Nicomachean Ethics, wherein he posits that in…… [Read More]

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Religion Augustine Divine Grace and

Words: 6715 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32713443

In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.

Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth (though less movable than air) while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow.

This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made. Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Thirdly,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101597555

Augustine. Augustine of Hippo, Selected Writings. Translated by Clark, Mary T. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.

Augustine. Confessions, Trans. Albert C. Outler, Ph.D, D.D. (1994, orig. pub. 1955).

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101602917
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Religion Meaning Ethics Future Monotheism Means the

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37019438

eligion

Meaning

Ethics

Future

Monotheism

Monotheism means the worship of one god.

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions: God demands an exclusive relationship with His followers and an acknowledgement of His unique power.

All major monotheistic faiths have a concept of the 'end of days' or final judgment

Deism

God as the divine watchmaker.

God sent into motion the universe with His power but we are now able to use our own reason to govern our lives.

Enlightened reason and science is the best way to understand the future.

Naturalism

The natural world is the source of meaning.

Ethics can be found 'in nature.'

ather than formal religion, we must look to nature for guidance.

Nihilism

Life has no inherent meaning.

There is no system of morality inherent to the human condition beyond that which we construct.

We are adrift and not heading to a purposeful future.

Existentialism…… [Read More]

References

Exodus. (2012). Bible Gateway. Retrieved at:

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus+20%3A5&version=NIV

Zunjic, Bob. (2012). Jean Paul Sartre. Phil 358. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved at:

http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/human2.htm
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Religion Judaism and Christianity European

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95099784

ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.

Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.

The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Judaism; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted July 22, 2006; Website;

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Judaism

Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History; David Klinghoffer (March 2006) Extracted July 22, 2006
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Philosophy Socrates Has Been Accused of Not

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88325806

Philosophy

Socrates has been accused of not recognizing the gods of the state, and also of inventing gods of his own. In fact, this is a two-part accusation. Socrates is first being accused for not believing in the state-sanctioned religion. Of course, it is impossible to know what Socrates does or does not believe. Based on his words, though, it would seem Socrates does actually believe in the gods although may not pay them the kind of respect that the Athenian courts would prefer.

The second part of the accusation is different. Here, the state accuses Socrates of inventing new divinities of his own. Socrates is in fact not starting a new religion and he does not tout the divine authority of any deity. If the accusation is taken collectively, that is, if declaration of guilt or innocence is made on the fulfillment of both these two parts, then Socrates…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plato. Apology. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved online:  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html 

Plato. Euthyphro. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved online:  http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/euthyfro.html
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Religion Desilva David 2001 New

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54243867

The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.

These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…… [Read More]

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Religion Cults a ND Establishments

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82509261

Religion, Neibuhr, And Daly

That hich is Holy

Of all the creatures on the planet, only mankind seeks to establish the ideas of worship, and engages in practices which look in a direction to identify that which is holy. There are no shrines built by schools of fish. Monkeys and Dolphins, which are some of the more intelligent creatures on the planet next to mankind, do not construct temples, or raise up images of which they seek to identify as greater than themselves. Only human beings seek a greater power to give their lives meaning and purpose.

After filling the earth with creatures which walked, swam, flew on feathered wings and slithered on the ground, God says this about mankind. "God said let us create mankind in our own image, male and female we will create them."

So from our very first breath, mankind is different from the rest. e…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Daly, Mary. 1971, After The Death Of God The Father. Women's Liberation and the transformation of Christian consciousness. [online] Originally published in Commonweal, March 12. [cited 13 Oct. 2003] Available from World Wide Web:
Daly, Mary. 1974. Beyond God the Father. New York: Beacon Press.

Neibuhr, R. 1972. Radical Monotheism. New York: Harper Collins College division.
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Religions of the Far East Are Often

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56766101

Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.

First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
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Religion Part Two of Ronald Nash's Book

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63946071

eligion

Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…… [Read More]

References

Bible: New International Version

Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf

Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online:   http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm
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Religion Before I Started This

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50828742



Divine Command Theory is the ethical theory that says that what God wills or command determines the moral status of various actions, or in other words, "an act is right if and only if God wills or commands it...an act is wrong if and only if God forbids it" (Religion pp). Yet, this simply states what people are supposed to do, and does not take into account free will and individual accountability (Religion pp). This is also a version of absolutism, for it claims that certain acts are right or wrong universally, whether or not one believes in God (Religion pp).

Divine Command Theory presents two problems:

There are many different interpretations of God's commands (and one would think that if God were God he would make the truth explicit so that it could be known).

DCT presupposes God's existence.

Religion pp).

hen faced with a situation, I generally seek…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Divine Command Theory." http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/divinecommandtheory.html

Religion and Morality." http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/philosophy/courses/Bengson/PR%204-2123.htm
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Philosophy Immanual Kant's Ethics Have

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50183372

" (ohlf) These maxims may be as simple as gratifying a desire or something complex like becoming a lawyer. Kant then distinguishes between two basic kinds of maxims: material and formal principles. If I am acting in order to satisfy some desire, such as going to a Starbucks to get a coffee, that is acting on a material principle. According to Kant, maxims are rules that describe how one does act and imperatives prescribe how one should act. A categorical imperative commands that I should act in some way unconditionally. Kant regards these categorical imperatives as moral laws and they apply to everyone in the same way. In other words, if stealing is morally wrong, we cannot say that stealing is okay., because we are hungry and lack the money to buy food for ourselves or our families.

Part II

Kant's Categorical Imperative commands that we should act in some…… [Read More]

References

McCormick, M. (2005) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, A Peer-Reviewed Academic Resource.

"Immanual Kant:Metaphysics." (June 2005). Retrieved from     http://www.iep.utm.edu/kantmeta/    #SH8a.

Rohlf, Michael, "Immanuel Kant," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition),

Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved from  http://plato.stanford.edu/ archives/fall2010/entries/kant/>.
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Philosophy Happiness Is an Emotional

Words: 481 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88257414

Further, warfare and poverty have all but been eliminated. But in order to have happiness, the people are dependent on government produced stimulation, including Soma and promiscuous sex. The reason for this is because this society lacks the staples of human identity and individuality, such as family, culture, art, literature, science, religion and philosophy.

n this sense, Huxley's utopia is an ironic, or false utopia as without individuality and happiness, society is not really a utopia. Thus, Socrates would agree with Huxley's underlying philosophy that true happiness is only possible through an expression of individuality. Without individuality, society is in fact a distopia.

This is a sentiment that Thoreau would agree with as the premise of his Walden Pond was to create a personal utopia through an expression of complete individuality. Thoreau's premise was that by depending on pure individuality one would experience true happiness. n order to accomplish this,…… [Read More]

In this sense, Huxley's utopia is an ironic, or false utopia as without individuality and happiness, society is not really a utopia. Thus, Socrates would agree with Huxley's underlying philosophy that true happiness is only possible through an expression of individuality. Without individuality, society is in fact a distopia.

This is a sentiment that Thoreau would agree with as the premise of his Walden Pond was to create a personal utopia through an expression of complete individuality. Thoreau's premise was that by depending on pure individuality one would experience true happiness. In order to accomplish this, Thoreau sought a return to nature and thus moved away from society and all of its Soma like forms of artificial stimulation and happiness. Thus, as Socrates and Huxley would agree, Thoreau believed that true happiness, or what they all referred to as the "good life" was only possible through an expression of independence and individuality.

Huxley, Aldous. (1998): Brave New World. New York: Perennial.
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Philosophy General Given That Experience Is Argued

Words: 1672 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93674602

Philosophy (general)

Given that experience is argued to be the foundation of knowledge (according to Locke) how - if at all - does Locke make room for what Leibniz would call 'necessary truths'?

Gottfried Leibniz made many criticisms of the work of John Locke, while acknowledging its sophistication and importance, observing that 'although the author of the Essays says hundreds of fine things which I applaud, our systems are very different' (Leibniz, 1982, p. 47). There is indeed a philosophical gulf between the two thinkers. Locke does not believe human beings can have any access to accurate knowledge of the actually existing reality of things, their 'real essence.' Only through the words we use to stand for things do we have any relationship to those things:

Nor indeed can we rank and sort things, and consequently (which is the end of sorting) denominate them, by their real essences; because we…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Leibniz, G.W. (1982). New Essays on Human Understanding. Translated by P. Remnant and J. Bennett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leibniz, G.W. (1698) The Monadology. Translated by Robert Latta. At http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/leibniz/monadology.html

Locke, J. (1690). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. At http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke1/Essay_contents.html
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Religion Saint Anselm the Duke of Canturbury

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14305436

Religion

Saint Anselm, the Duke of Canturbury, was "one of the most important Christian thinkers of the eleventh century," (Sadler). This is because Anselm used a reasoned philosophical argument to address theological questions. In Cur Deus Homo, or hy God Became Man, the author addresses the Incarnation of Christ and the theme of Atonement for sin from this philosophical perspective. Anselm distinguishes between "different ways in which an action or state can be just or unjust, specifically just and unjust at the same time," (Sadler).

hy God Became Man is divided into two sections. The first part addresses sin and redemption in a general fashion. Anselm outlines the concept of sin as fulfilling the satisfaction of God, which is related the concept of being indebted to God. This is outlined best in Chapter 11 of Book 1. The author states, "To sin is nothing else than not to render to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anselm. Cur Deus Homo (Why God Became Man). Retrieved online: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-curdeus.asp

The Holy Bible, NIV.

Sadler, Greg. " St. Anselm of Canturbury." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Oct 2006. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/anselm/
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Philosophy Socrates Was a Proud Citizen of

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40058469

Philosophy

Socrates was a proud citizen of Athens. He loved his native state so much that when he was condemned before her courts, he prefered to be sentences to death instead of exile, because to be away from Athens would have been unbearable to him. He had fought bravely in her wars and won great acclaim, and laid his life on the line for her protection. Considering the degree of patriotism with which Socrates was endowed, it is strange and ironic that he was brought up on charges of corrupting the youth and challenging the laws of his state. It may in fact have been Socrates' passion for the egalitarian values of Athens that led to his prosection and death.

As the first democracy, ancient Athens was a society where lawsuits ran rampant. In that day many people seemed to scorn the constant suing, and it was a matter of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aristophanes. Birds. Project Gutenberg Edition. http://www.promo.net/pg

Plato. Apology. Project Gutenberg Edition. http://www.promo.net/pg
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Philosophy in Defense of Free

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77883963

Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.

Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.

Stanford University.  http://plato.stanford.edu/ entries/fatalism/

Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
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Philosophy There Is a Very

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54200652



Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the Western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]

Reference:

McGreal, Ian P. (1992). Great Thinkers of the Western World. New York: Harper Collins.

Russell, Paul. (2005). "Hume on Religion." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Oct. 4.

Smart, Ninian. "The Experiential Dimension." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2006.
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Religion the New Human Potential

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14434348

In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.

As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.

Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation

Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
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Philosophy Division of Labor the

Words: 2669 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7887827



As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.

Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]

Sources

Cox, Judy. An Introduction to Marx's Theory of Alienation. International Socialism, Issue 79, July 1998.  http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj79/cox.htm 

Deflem, Mathieu. Max Weber (1864-1920): The Rationalization of Society. Sept 2004. http://www.cas.sc.edu/socy/faculty/deflem/zClassics.htm

Dunman, L. Joe. Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor. 2003. http://durkheim.itgo.com/divisionoflabor.html

Townsley, Jeramy. Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Religion. Aug. 2004.  http://www.jeramyt.org/papers/sociology-of-religion.html
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Religion and Politics Religion and

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83348255

Even though the lines may be quite bold between democrats and republicans, the BBC found that 65% of Americans believe "churches should not endorse candidates," and 51% agree that "churches should express views on political matters" (Greene 2002-2008, graphics box).

IV. Summary/Conclusion

The question of whether or not a candidate's personal religious beliefs should be used on the campaign trail is a problematic one, with two equally valid points-of-view. Those who say it should state that this is information that they need to know as voters, since religion is important to them. Those who say it should note state that this information increases fraudulent activities among campaigners and casts a frightening forecast for what the candidate may do in office. The data seems to support both sides, suggesting that voters think the candidate's religious ideas and the church should be involved in his or her bid for office. However, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Atheists. (2009, Jan. 20). Atheists Thank President Obama for Mention at Inauguration. Retrieved Jan, 25, 2009, from Opposing Views. Web Site: ttp:/ / www.opposingviews.com/articles/opinion-atheists-thank-president-obama-for-mention-at-inauguration

Greene, R.A. (2004, Sept. 15). Religion and politics in America. Retrieved Feb. 24, 2009 from the BBC. Web Site:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3658172.stm 

Montanaro, D. (2007, Oct. 30). The Role of Religion in Politics. Retreived Jan. 24, 2009 from MSNBC. Web Site: http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2007/10/30/438033.aspx

Chaava, M. (2002-2009). Should religion play an important role in choosing presidential candidates? Retrieved Jan. 24, 2009, from Helium. Web Site: http://www.helium.com/debates/132931-should-religion-important-choosing/side_by_side
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Philosophy Could Socrates Fall in

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70827949

But this Love, too (or satisfaction) has its highest ideal in the metaphysical realm of Knowledge that can grant a man a far more satisfying and blissful existence.

In short, Socrates' hierarchy of Love is the following: Love is a beautiful body that is the beauty of all bodies that is the beauty of all souls. Following from which, Love is also the laws, activities, and customs leading onto the beauty of knowledge, ideas, and theories resulting in Beauty itself. Beauty, therefore, is synonymous with Knowledge and Right Action (Hecht, 25).

Socrates discusses Love, too, in another essay (Hecht, 95) where he talks about the pleasure that gods receive by observing the right actions of man. Here, too, Socrates employs the term 'love' in reference to being pleased by something that is morally right. The gods appreciate someone who is a just person and obtain a sort of pleasure from…… [Read More]

Plato (1999) the symposium London; New York: Penguin Books

Alexander G. (2007) What would Socrates say?: Philosophers answer your questions about love, nothingness, and everything else New York: Clarkson Potter/Publishers

Hecht, J. (1999) Plato's Symposium: Eros and the human predicament New York: Twayne Publishers
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Philosophy the Cosmological Disagreement Can Take Many

Words: 1735 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47744272

Philosophy

The cosmological disagreement can take many forms, but it works with the basis since the cosmos (universe) exists, there must be a God. How can the information that the universe exist point to any other conclusion than that the universe exists? The first argues that God must exist because He is "The Temporal First Cause" of the universe. The second argues that God must exist because He is "The Ontological First Cause" of the universe.

Wainwright states:

It is by no means clear that the logical relations between sense experiences and physical objects are significantly different from the logical relations between mystical or numinous experiences and an object like God. It is thus not clear that some sort of special justification is needed in the one case, which is not needed in the other. If a special justification is not needed in the case of sense experience, and it…… [Read More]

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Philosophy - John Locke the

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50257099

..you will find his portrait in the National Portrait Gallery, but demand is insufficient for a postcard to be on sale" (Goldie, 2004). But today Locke's writings are used by a diverse assortment of organizations to bolster or justify their positions. The National ifle Association (NA) (www.nra.org) uses the 137th paragraph of Locke's Second Treatise on Government as an authoritative source to bolster the NA's position on the right to bear arms. "Whereas by supposing they have given up themselves to the absolute arbitrary power and will of a legislator, they have disarmed themselves, and armed him to make a prey of them when he pleases," Locke wrote.

The John Locke Foundation (http://www.johnlocke.org),a think-tank in North Carolina, uses their perceptions of Locke's philosophy to promote a conservative agenda; for example, the group is opposed to the "costly, immoral, and destructive welfare state," and is against "government corruption and wasteful spending."…… [Read More]

References

Law School Law Library. "John Locke: Chapter II of the State of Nature." Accessed 12 February 2005. Accessed at http://www.4lawschool.com/lib/locke2.htm.

Goldie, Mark. "John Locke: icon of liberty." History Today 54.10 (2004): 31-37.

Institute for Learning Technologies. "John Locke: Two Treatises on Civil Government.." Accessed 13 Feb. 2005. Available at http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/academic/digitexts/locke/bio_JL.html.

Jayne, Allen. "Jefferson's Philosophical Wall of Separation." The Humanist 59.1 (1999):
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Religion and Politics

Words: 2766 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64208888

eligion and Politics

Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Orientalism

There have been many uses and abuses in regard to the cultural and social concept called Orientalism. "Unlike the Americans, the French and British -- less so the Germans, ussians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss -- have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, and experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely…… [Read More]

References

Afzal-Khan, Fawzia (1993). Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya, and Salman Rushdie. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Arac, Jonathan, & Harriet, Ritvo (1995). Macropolitics of Nineteenth-Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Barlow, Tani E. (1997). Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham & London: Duke University Press.

Bruun, Ole (2000). Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia. Curzon: Richmond, England.
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Philosophy the Sects of Islam

Words: 1697 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75056406

They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.

The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.

The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…… [Read More]

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Religion Has Been on the

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61192084

Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.

e. Thomas Demere and Steve Walsh -- Creationism Should Not Be Taught In Public Schools

Demere and Walsh argue that teaching a non-disprovable theory like Creationism would further weaken the already lagging Scientific literacy of American students. Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms.

Conclusion

Most Personally Appealing Position

Regarding the broader relationship between Science and Religion, I agree most with Ruse, who…… [Read More]

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Religion and Education Religious Development in Children

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33295296

eligion and Education

eligious development in children and adults alike have been research areas that have historically been of interest to those involved in the developmental psychology arenas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development. Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner.

Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…… [Read More]

References

Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. (2004). 100 Eminent Psychologists. Retrieved on November 8, 2004, from http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#piaget
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Philosophy Narrow and Preference Hedonism

Words: 2788 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4480766

Life is a collection of feelings, and everything that gives us a good feeling will certainly give us happiness. For every person there is a different definition of happiness. Some people associate happiness with spiritual satisfaction which people achieve by practicing their religious activities. The gist of the discussion lies in the point that happiness is relative. One thing might make one person happy and the other sad. There are two sides to every slice therefore you cannot just consider one factor and declare one theory of happiness or school of thought right or wrong.

The battle of objectivity vs. subjectivity is different for every situation. For situations where objectivity is needed narrow hedonism theory of happiness will be considered more plausible as compare to the need for relativity from situation to situation and feeling to feeling will lead to the victory of preference hedonism theory of happiness.

Factor Two:…… [Read More]

References

Dantz, G. (2012). A Reference Guide to Hedonism. Webster's Digital Services.

Edwards, R.B. (1979). Pleasures and Pain: A theory of qualitative hedonism. N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Feldman, F. (2004). Pleasure and the Good Life: Concerning the Nature, Varieties, and Plausibility of Hedonism. Oxford University Press.

Feldman, F., Dancy, J., & Sosa, E. (1997). Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert: Essays in Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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Philosophy Exam Mosca We Hear

Words: 1333 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56435873



In fact, we see that the ruling minority calls upon the ruled majority even for the power to defend itself against the ruled majority, since the ruled majority constitutes the armies of the ruling minority.

Mosca writes: "But the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to enforce respect for his orders and have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be completely paralyzed."

Here, Mosca establishes that the ruler has no love for…… [Read More]

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Religion Taoist Influence in Sun

Words: 1744 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28128079

By placing these lessons within the context of the battlefield, Sun Tzu provided thousands of years of audiences with a Taoist approach to conflict and to warfare.

Taoism is traditionally thought of as a peaceful, natural philosophy that avoids fighting much like Buddhism. But this is untrue. Taoism recognizes that life involves conflict, but that the wise man can mediate this conflict and control it so that it is least destructive and most productive. Thus, war is not an anathema to Taoists, merely a last resort. Sun Tzu concludes, "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence under no circumstances can it be neglected" (Sun Tzu 9). Taoists would agree: conflict is an inescapable part of life, thus a deeper understanding of it such as Sun Tzu provides is the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cantrell, Robert L. Understanding Sun Tazu on the Art of War. Arlington, VA: Center for Advantage, 2003.

Evans-Campbell, Brent. "The Art of Strategy." 1999. 9 April 2007 http://www.langara.bc.ca/prm/1999/strategy.html.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Ed. James Clavell. New York: Delacorte Press, 1983.

Wilson, Jaret. "The Tao of War." 4 Literature.net. 28 July 2002. 9 April 2007 http://www.4literature.net/story/2002/7/28/114855/249.
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Philosophy Leadership According to Plato

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25628349



Unlike Plato, Machiavelli had a much less idealistic view of leadership in mind. or, rather, his view of leadership was not wrapped up in a personal view of ethics and virtue. Plato obviously believed, after all, that the best leader would be the wisest and the most moral. It was these qualities that should be encouraged and these qualities that would make said individual a superior leader. Machiavelli argued implicitly that this was an erroneous understanding of human nature and the characteristics that constitute excellent leaders. At the heart of Machiavelli's description of the perfect leader, his idealized prince, is the argument that personal virtue and ethics are completely unrelated to public success (Kemerling). Hence, from this we see that the good leader will not necessarily be the same as the virtuous individual. This assertion stands in stark contrast to Plato's argument about the nature of leadership and highlights the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kemerling, Garth. "Machiavelli: Principality and Republic." Philosophy Pages. 27 Oct. 2001. 17 Nov. 2007  http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/3v.htm .

Korab-Karpowicz, W.J. "Plato's Political Philosophy." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Bilkent University. 2006. 17 Nov. 2007 http://www.iep.utm.edu/p/platopol.htm.
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Philosophy Summary of Morality as

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24628408

This is a natural development, and is part of a general process of change. This process can be seen in historical context, just as the modern world built in and changes the ideas of the period known as the enlightenment, which in turn built in the period known as the renaissance.

In the past there has been the creation of ideas on the way that people should view and interpret the world. The post modernist approach is different, arguing that reality will be subjective. In other words, there is no single correct model reality; it will vary between different people and reality will always be subjective. There are many post modern philosophers that put forward the idea that the universe is not seen in the same way by everyone, these philosophers include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and ichard orty.

In the past, especially following the enlightenment, it was assumed that…… [Read More]

References

Morality as Ideology, Chapter 13, supplied by the student

Star Trek and the Post Modern Society, Chapter 1, supplied by the student
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Attributes of God Philosophy of

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9492606

This may cause a rift between individuals, even if they are on the same side, so to speak. While one individual may follow a belief system wholeheartedly, another may only partially follow through with it, which raises the question as to whether or not someone must commit themselves one hundred percent or if they can take what they believe and implement the most important parts into their lives and beliefs.

One can see how wise each argument is. If an individual is going to claim that they believe in specific belief systems, it stands to reason that that individual would follow through with these beliefs in everything they do, even if they question some of those beliefs. Many would argue that if you fully believe, you should not question anything. Others take a more realistic point-of-view and understand that there will be many questions surrounding their belief system. Following most…… [Read More]

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Islamic Philosophy

Words: 2042 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58285182

Islamic Philosophy

Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy

Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.

A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)

In global terms it has been asserted that not only…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allahhakbar. Net. Groundwork on Islamic Philosophy in the context of Modern Western Philosophy. 3 March 2004. www.salaf.indiaaccess.com/atheist/groundwork_on_islamic_philosophy.htm

Fakhry M. Averroes: (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence. 4 March, 2004. www.oneworld-publications.com/books/texts/averroes-his-life-woks-and-influence-intro.htm

Hillier C. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm

IIDL. Abul Walid Muhammed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Rush. 4 March, 2004. http://iidl.net/index.php?ch=15&pg=64&ac=111
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Western Religion

Words: 6937 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99571749

Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
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Absolutism and Exclusionism in Religion in Truth

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83139316

Absolutism and Exclusionism in Religion in Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity of Truth by Mortimer Adler

Numerous discourses discussing issues about the plurality or absolutism of religion, relating these issues in the manner of living, particularly the moral aspect of subsisting to a particular form of religious philosophy. The development of a more complex, yet organized, human society at the turn of the 20th century gave incidence to the development of various philosophical disciplines. These philosophical disciplines include revolutionary viewpoints about philosophy, religion, and morality.

The relationship among philosophy, religion, and morality is studied in Mortimer Adler's discourse on religious philosophy and morality. In Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity of Truth, Adler centers on the argument that in human society, there is only one "truth," which can be illustrated through religion. Hence, it follows that if there is only one "truth," then…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adler, M. (1990). Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religion and Unity. New York: MacMillan Publishing.

Fishbane, M. (1987). Judaism: Revelation and Traditions. CA: Harper-Collins.
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Reason God and Religion With Reference to

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89115533

reason, God and religion with reference to ancient philosophers. These philosophers gave us some interesting views on the subject of God, which may prove helpful in understanding the nature of good in a world where evil often dominates.

PHILOSOPHY

Socrates maintained that 'reason' must dominate every community and its beliefs or else the world would turn into a chaotic, poorly organized unit. He was of the view that with reason comes knowledge, which further helps the statesmen in acting virtuously. Virtue is then the most important product of reason, which is needed to save a society. Here it is important to keep in mind that Socrates wasn't concerned with reason for its own sake but because of the notion that it could give birth to knowledge and virtue. It is also critical to know that for Socrates, reason was not connected with an ability to separate right from wrong. Instead…… [Read More]

References

Augustine. "The Problem of Evil" Classical and Contemporary Readings in Philosophy of Religion, Ed. By John Hick. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964.

Theon of Smyrna: Mathematics Useful for Understanding Plato, by Theon of Smyrna, translated by Robert and Deborah Lawlor from the 1892 Greek/French edition of J. Dupuis, Secret Doctrine Reference Series, Wizards Bookshelf, San Diego, 1979

Augustine, The City of God, XI, Chapter 9.

John Brunet, Early Greek Philosophy, 1920
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Gw Hegel's Philosophy of History

Words: 2606 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30870301



His career at school and university was undistinguished - his certificate mentioned his "inadequate grasp of philosophy." At Tubingen university he studied not philosophy but theology - and in a sense all his philosophy was essentially a theology, an exploration of the workings of the world-spirit which he identified with God."

He spent time as a family tutor and worked in Frankfurt and Berne. His work as a tutor gave him a lot of free time that he could devote to his private examination of the world and history. His private studies were not impeded by a hard or long houred job.

In 1801 he won his first university post at the University of Jena. After the Battle of Jena in 1806 when Napoleon defeated the Prussians, Hegel saw the emperor riding past."

He soke of this years later and said it had a huge and significant impact on his…… [Read More]

References

HISTORIAN LOOKS at HEGEL PHILOSOPHICALLY:

http://dave.burrell.net/hegel.html

CRITICAL EXAMINATION of HEGELIAN DIALECTIC, DETERMINISM, and CONTINGENCY

G.W.F. Hegel: Introduction to the Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1840 edition)
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Science and Religion Conflict Historical and Psychological

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32434492

Science and Religion: Conflict

Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion

There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:

[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].

Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gould, Stephen Jay. Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life (NY: Ballantine Books) 1999.

Holtzmann, Seth. Science and Relgion: The Categorial Conflct. International Journal For Philosophy of Religion. 2003, 54:77-99.
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Shintoism Is a Religion With

Words: 2238 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43497227

However, this trait is magnified in Shintoism because the religion developed in close relationship to the rest of Japanese culture. While a person who, say, married a Japanese person could follow Shinto practice, it is unlikely that someone outside Japan or a Japanese family would do so (Japan-guide).

HOLIDAYS and TADITIONS

Unlike most other religions, celebrations are typically local festivals that focus on local shrines. This is because the festivals honor the kami living in those shrines (Author not given, 2004). Thus, use of festivals and ceremonies varies from location to location. Some festivals may take place over several days (Japan-guide). So, although Shinto is a unifying cultural trait throughout Japan, the expression of the religion can vary greatly from location to location.

However, some traditions are practiced nationwide, such as Kagura, or ritual dances performed to traditional music. Many people wear mamori, or charms intended to protect and heal.…… [Read More]

References

Author not given. Last updated July 2, 2004. Brief history of Shinto, in About Specific Religions, Faith Groups, Ethical Systems, Etc. Accessed via the Internet 7/12/05.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm 

Japan-guide.com. "Shinto." Accessed via the Internet July 12, 2005.  http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html 

Japan-guide)

Kumagai, Fumie. 1995. "Families in Japan: Beliefs and Realities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26:1, pp. 135+.
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Comparative Philosophy

Words: 3983 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96992117

Philosophy

Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).

The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Call, L. Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment. 1995.

Descartes, R. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, 4th Ed. Translated by D. Cress. Hackett Publishing Company, 1999.

Berkeley, G. Principles of Human Knowledge / Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous.

USA: Penguin Classics, 1988.