Tollaksen is a researcher concentrating in the field of reverse causality, the idea that both the past and the future affect the present. His results, if fully accepted, defy any sort of reductionist explanation. A necessary reductionist viewpoint -- a reductionist assumption a holist might say -- is the flow of time, and all particles trapped therein, from low entropy to high. Causality is central to reductionism. Yet, in Tollaksen's experiment, by the time the decisions -- the causal phenomena -- are made, the measurements -- the affected phenomena -- are not only already over but all the reduced elements involved with those measurements already dissipated, destroyed, or gone wherever it is photons go when physicists are done with them. Tollaksen's experiment suggests that Pascal's barometer reads 30 inches of mercury not just because of what the atmospheric pressure is (at which it arrived by being what it was) but…… [Read More]
Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.
Date of Submittal
Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.
Arguments for and against the statement
Must every scientific explanation contain a law of nature? For those who support the Deductive-Nomological Account, the answer is yes. Discuss critically the arguments for and against this view, and present your own analysis of which is stronger.
"Explanation" is sometimes used in what might be called its "pedagogical" or "clarificatory" sense, as opposed to the sense of explanation that…… [Read More]
philosophy of science as developed by empiricists such as David Hume and completed by the logical positivist group. hy do they think truth can be best found by using the senses, the experimental method, and probability? Explain the verifiability theory and its meaning for such subjects as God, the super-natural, justice, morality, and political science. hat are the advantages and the limitations of this philosophical view?
The "Verifiability" or "Verificationist Theory of meaning" states that to understand a statement and to verify it one must first begin with a statement that can be proven true or false through sensory data. (Logic: The Verifiablity Theory of Meaning, 2004) In the Empiricist philosophy towards science, the source of all meaning is ultimately human sensory experience. Only meaningful statements can be true or false. Only statements whose meaning can be verified in observational terms can be true or false. This is in contrast…… [Read More]
More importantly, however, contemporary realists differ from Nightingale in four main areas, those of theistic assumption, methods of research, determinism, and naturalism. While contemporary realists certainly agree with Nightingale's position that simply realizing fact is not enough, and that actions based on findings is important (Porter, 2001), Nightingale inserted a certain assumption of God into her realistic viewpoints that modern realism avoids. Whereas Nightingale supported the concept that man's actions were dictated by God, modern realists recognize specific non-theistic causes for behaviors.
Secondly, Nightingale relied solely on quantitative method of research, since such methods were most available in her period. Such methods, involving the scientific, external, specific identification of patterns of events, are useful, but modern realists understand the need for individualistic understanding of information. Whereas Nightingale's focus was on identifying the patterns of relationships, modern realists focus more on understanding those relationships (Porter, 2001).
Third, modern realists differ slightly…… [Read More]
If the anomaly resists explanation within the paradigm, the paradigm is altered to include the anomaly. Therefore, to lead to a true crisis and to form the foundation of a scientific revolution, an anomaly must conflict with the basic tenets of the paradigm. In addition, the anomaly cannot be answered by normal research and problem-solving skills within the paradigm, regardless of the modifications.
Therefore, it can be said that crises and scientific revolution both begin with the recognition of an anomaly and the loosening of a paradigm and its associated rules. As the anomaly becomes more widely recognized, more research is devoted to resolving the anomaly, which changes the face of the discipline. As the anomaly is explained, it causes competition between competing explanations of the original paradigm. The result is that there are only three ways that a crisis can be resolved. The first method is for scientists to…… [Read More]
Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions
"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."
~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions
To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…… [Read More]
Science and Religion: Conflict
Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion
There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:
[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].
Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…… [Read More]
The information collected through these observations would then be documented and organized in ways that support the understanding of the underlying phenomena (Wolff, 2012).
Throughout history, scientific revolution has always centered on investigations that are conducted and developed through various observations. This process of investigation or observation has also included the review of existing scientific beliefs or practices. According to Francis Bacon, scientific revolution begins from existing evidence and gradually proceeds from specific observations to provisional generalizations or theories. The process is then cautiously repeated to establish some general truths that can be the basis of people's beliefs.
The scientific investigations that form the nature of scientific revolution are also based on observations that are directed by theory. ather than the mere collection and tabulation of data, scientific observations are in the form of hypotheses, which are also known as experiments. This is largely because experiments help in approving or…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Chemistry
The work of Scerri (2000) asks the question of what could the connections between chemistry and philosophy possible be "apart from the obvious superficial one of their both representing quests for knowledge?" (p.1) Scerri states that in the view of the chemist "the philosopher -- who conducts no experiments whatsoever -- is not worthy of very high esteem. From the scientific perspective, philosophical views do not seem very dynamic, since they sometime stem from established philosophical doctrines or a priori beliefs about the ways the world should be." (2000, p.1) It is reported as well that philosophers "for their part are proud of their training in rigorous ways of thinking. They freely admit to not engaging in the grubby details of the experimental world because such activities might limit the generalities of their claims and of their attempts to depict reality in its broadest terms." (Scerri, 2000,…… [Read More]
In other words, scientific realism says that science can find the truth about everything (Erickson, 2005, 58-60).
Conversely, if there is realism, there must follow anti-realism which, in science, means that there are certain unobservable, and therefore only speculative, claims about the universe. These speculations are not detectable within the construct of human understanding, ability to observe, or even to adequately define other than theoretically. For example, we can observe the function of quantum space, but not the reality (if there is such). We can observe the characteristics of the DNA molecule, but not the actual mechnism by which DNA actually works. By the very nature of our construct, then, even our instrumentation is biased to measure what we expect, not necessarily what is (Braver, 2007). Irrealism takes both these theories nd asks if the objects we study really exist -- or if it is the nature of the study…… [Read More]
Hume's Problem Of Induction
David Hume is known as one of the foremost skeptics and humanists of his time, who exalted in mankind's ability to transform the world through science. Somewhat ironically, then, one of his most far-reaching philosophical contributions was to phrase the problem of induction which today is often thought to deny scientific knowledge. Just a couple chapters of a single book, Hume posed a question which has yet to be satisfactorily answered, despite the great intervening time. In its most simple form, Hume's problem merely asked what evidence there was to support the instinctive understanding that the future would resemble the past, and then pointed out that since he could see no logical reason why this should be the case, then he could not with reasonably say that it must be so. And despite attempts to dismiss his challenge, it seems no one has yet come up…… [Read More]
Brain, and Heart: A Feminist Epistemology for the Natural Sciences," Hilary Rose attempts to create a philosophy of science that is not contingent upon female scientists seeing the world 'like men,' or as male scientists do. In other words, Rose suggests that rather than suggesting that the scientific perspective is gender neutral and can be assumed by both male and female individuals, females in the scientific profession must create a different epistemology or way of understanding and learning about the world that transcends the binaries created by the men whom have dominated the scientific profession until now.
Rose states that the sciences have traditionally created a sharp division between what is done by the hand, the mind, and the heart -- or through craft, intellect, and emotion. Rose suggests that such a division has not simply traditionally and falsely been used to exclude women from excelling in the intellectual, objective…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Science
Scientific theories allow scientists to organize their observations regarding reality and existence, and predict or create future observations or results. Scientific theories need to be consistent, testable, verifiable and useful in order to be valid and reliable. Theories are typically ideas about the ways in which things work. Scientific theory relates to logical and empirical criteria that can be tested and validated. For science to exist and to be considered valid there must be a logically consistent idea presented to the public that explains certain conditions or realities. To be valid, science must explain something and should be proven via experimentation. Science should also enable the user to have a better understanding of the item or issue it is explaining. This relates to validity.
Thesis) will argue in this paper that science needs to be independently verified to be considered science but also that science does not…… [Read More]
Philosophy is a one of the most perplexing, interesting and intriguing branch of study that seeks to understand the world from a viewpoint not commonly used. Three are many different branches of philosophy and three important ones include metaphysics, epistemology and axiology.
Epistemology refers to the branch of study that tries to go deeper into the meaning and scope of knowledge. The field is concerned with important and pertinent questions concerning knowledge such as what is knowledge, how is it acquired and how do we know some of things that we know. For example we understand that adding 2 and 2 would give us 4. Epistemology is simply concerned with the origin of this knowledge and not with how we add etc. Moser (2002) writes: "Epistemology characterized broadly, is an account of knowledge. Within the discipline of philosophy, epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification: in…… [Read More]
Philosophy & Science
The Subjectivity of Science: The role of philosophy in explaining the nature of science
James L. Christian, in his book "Philosophy," centers his discussion in providing a philosophical perspective to the nature of science. In his discussion of science in a philosophical context and its relation with human society, Christian asserts, " ... In general there is so much mathematical inconsistency to our experience of nature's operations that we have arrived at the point of accepting a naturalistic world-view of nature." In this passage, the author elucidates on the point that despite science's objective nature, its root and origin is still determined by human nature, which is inherently objective. This thesis is reflected in the works of Carl Hempel, Bertrand Russell, and Richard Feynman, men of philosophy and science, who have expressed their understanding of science's nature as human society experiences it in the contemporary society.
Carl…… [Read More]
Philosophy Scenario Evaluation
In many situations, certain questions can be answered in a manner that can be regarded as true in viewing the answers from different contexts. An answer that would not be widely-regarded as "truth" in today's day and age, may have been considered true in the context of an earlier time, which does not necessarily mean that this respective answer is wrong. In viewing the following three scenarios, one can better understand how a truth can be found not only in viewing certain subjective situations, but in the sense of being true in the context of a more objective world.
For instance, if asked, "What is the height of the Washington Monument?" A knowledgeable American would say, "555 feet 51.8 inches," while a knowledgeable Italian would say, "169,294 meters." In this instance, both speakers can be regarded as saying something true. While each individual's respective answer may seem…… [Read More]
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…… [Read More]
The differences between the empirical inductivist approach to science and the Popperian one are immense. Based on induction, the former approach is thesis to Popper's antithesis. The Popperian approach is a response to and a rejection of the value of induction in the scientific process. This rejection pits these two approaches against one another. In the end, while the empirical inductivist approach does have some value and has a long tradition of function to back it up, this is not the same as saying that it is a rigidly scientific approach to scientific inquiry. In this case, the Popperian approach provides us with a clearer division between theories that are and are not scientific.
Dolhenty, J. (2005). A basic introduction to the methods of science -- part 1. The Radical Academy. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://radicalacademy.com/essayscience1.htm
McKinlay, S. (1998). The problem of induction: an analysis and critique…… [Read More]
While there is plenty to criticize in the work of Descartes, Locke, and Hume, one cannot justifiably claim that Jose Vasconcelos criticisms of traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge apply to these theorists if only because Vasconcelos' criticisms do not really apply to anything, as his criticisms are largely based on straw men. This is not to say that traditional Western views on the nature of knowledge should be free from criticism, but rather that the problems with these traditional views are more fundamental than Vasconcelos realizes, to the point that Vasconcelos suffers from many of these same issues. Essentially, both Vasconcelos and the previously mentioned authors suffer from a simply ignorance regarding the functioning of the human brain, the nature of consciousness and memory, and the evolutionary processes by which organisms and ideas evolve, with this ignorance born out of an implicit or explicit maintenance of…… [Read More]
Further, warfare and poverty have all but been eliminated. But in order to have happiness, the people are dependent on government produced stimulation, including Soma and promiscuous sex. The reason for this is because this society lacks the staples of human identity and individuality, such as family, culture, art, literature, science, religion and philosophy.
n this sense, Huxley's utopia is an ironic, or false utopia as without individuality and happiness, society is not really a utopia. Thus, Socrates would agree with Huxley's underlying philosophy that true happiness is only possible through an expression of individuality. Without individuality, society is in fact a distopia.
This is a sentiment that Thoreau would agree with as the premise of his Walden Pond was to create a personal utopia through an expression of complete individuality. Thoreau's premise was that by depending on pure individuality one would experience true happiness. n order to accomplish this,…… [Read More]
Given that experience is argued to be the foundation of knowledge (according to Locke) how - if at all - does Locke make room for what Leibniz would call 'necessary truths'?
Gottfried Leibniz made many criticisms of the work of John Locke, while acknowledging its sophistication and importance, observing that 'although the author of the Essays says hundreds of fine things which I applaud, our systems are very different' (Leibniz, 1982, p. 47). There is indeed a philosophical gulf between the two thinkers. Locke does not believe human beings can have any access to accurate knowledge of the actually existing reality of things, their 'real essence.' Only through the words we use to stand for things do we have any relationship to those things:
Nor indeed can we rank and sort things, and consequently (which is the end of sorting) denominate them, by their real essences; because we…… [Read More]
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…… [Read More]
The naturalist position is further "bolstered" by a fundamental faith in the veracity of sensory inputs and human cognitive processes, a faith that is woefully misplaced. In fact, the naturalist belief in random evolution undermines any belief in the ability of human senses to derive truth about the workings of the universe (Plantinga 2). Those who believe in a supernatural deity often believe that said deity imbued human beings with the ability to acquire and understand knowledge. If this is the case, it is possible for human beings to use their minds to discern the nature of reality. But if instead humans are simply the product of randomly accrued changes through natural selection, then there can be no such guarantee. Our physical senses and cognitive processes wouldn't have developed with reliability in mind, but rather with survivability. The mind or the senses are only important, in the naturalist context,…… [Read More]
Their lack of foresight was really their downfall, and the crux at the heart of this story. If they did it, how many other labs do it too, and how much research is suspect?
Ultimately, Cliff's story and the controversy surrounding it is a study in ethics, and that's the real issue for us here at the Globe. Sandy and Marion knew the results were preliminary, but they chose to release them to Nature anyway. That was unethical and unprofessional. Marion fought against it, but Sandy won out with his attitude they had to release to get a lock on the research. He tells Marion, "We can't afford to wait six months for the review. In the meantime, everyone and his brother is going to try this" (Goodman 71). It is Sandy's need for attention and publicity that helps fuel the situation, and he should be held accountable for the…… [Read More]
Objects had primary qualities of an independent of the observer, like mass, motion, texture, etcetera, as opposed to subjective qualities like color, taste, and smell. As the Matrix world was wholly subjective, it was therefore a false world and one should seek to escape it, as it shut a person out from full participation in a world of external substances, including God, and also the primary qualities of other objects. The Matrix world was entirely a world of secondary properties. Furthermore, because of Locke's stress upon human freedom, having one's body and perceptions controlled and determined by an external entity like a tyrant would be horrifying to the philosopher.
Question 2 Opinion
On an emotional level, it is hard not to cry out 'of course I would not want to dwell in the world of the Matrix and I would choose the red pill' the idea that we do not…… [Read More]
Philosophy and Psychology of the Mind and Body
Throughout human history, philosophers, doctors, and most recently, psychologists, have attempted to understand the relationship between the mind and body and how it results in human beings' awareness and perception of reality. At least since the golden age of Greek philosophy, thinkers have been aware of an ostensible distinction between the mind and body, a distinction that nonetheless allows for some intermingling such that physical issues affect the mental state just as mental issues may result in physical symptoms. Thus, if one desires to truly understand how contemporary estern psychologists and philosophers consider the nature of consciousness via the interaction between mind and body, one must trace the history of these concepts starting with the Greek philosophers, moving through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and on to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when psychology first began to develop as a formal…… [Read More]
When professors work with students with special needs they should always be certain to create an inclusive environment that encourages all students to shine. Moreover, community college professors need to develop curricula that honor diversity whenever possible. A comprehensive teaching philosophy for the community college professor therefore expands student awareness of diversity as well as of their subject matter. The community college instructor must also keep in mind that many students will have families, part-time, or full-time jobs and must therefore respect the needs for students to juggle differing demands. Professors should always listen to their students needs: if work loads appear too hard for many students then the professor should consider reducing them. Expanding awareness also includes helping students network. The community college professor should introduce students to various campus organizations, clubs, other classes, and community resources. The instructor should direct students to campus bulletin boards and career development…… [Read More]
A reductive explanation of consciousness will explain this wholly on the basis of physical principles that do not themselves make any appeal to consciousness. According to materialism, consciousness is the direct result of brain activity. Nonreductivism admits the existence of consciousness as part of the explanation. Nonmaterialism, on the other hand, views consciousness as an essential but nonphysical part of the human being. In order to emphasize the nonphysical nature of consciousness, Chalmers offers a number of convincing arguments against materialism.
The Explanatory argument holds that at most, structure and function can be explained by physical arguments relating to the brain and its connections, and as seen above, these do not sufficiently explain the manifestations of consciousness. It follows that consciousness cannot be explained by physical account. The conceivability argument holds that entities without any consciousness - such as zombies, for example - could exist. All their physical functions would…… [Read More]
Europeans invented a more complex sewer system and sewers spread across Europe's most important cities in a short time.
Mechanical clocks had been invented before the half of the second millennium, but, in the 16th century, they have been perfected by Galileo with the help of the pendulum. Clocks have become more advanced in time as people discovered ways of making the mechanism more precise and also of smaller proportions.
Europeans also became acquainted with the gunpowder in the Renaissance period and warfare had been taken to a whole new level. It is not clear whether Europeans have invented gunpowder alone or if they've been inspired for the concept from the Asians. As a result of this invention, knights had become out-dated as the new armed foot-soldiers became more numerous, replacing them.
The invention of eye-glasses earlier in the millennium led to the invention of the telescope somewhere between the…… [Read More]
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, personal experience is a powerful method of argument, especially when the credibility of the individual is not called into question. The moral argument in favor of the existence of God is weak because the existence of human morality does not in itself mean that God is the origin of morals. Rather, God has often been used as a motive to prompt people to act a certain way, according to religious scripture or doctrine. Miracles pose a significant problem for the philosopher of religion, because if an act is deemed miraculous, it supercedes the laws of nature. However, the laws of nature are always subject to God; therefore, a miracle cannot theoretically exist.
Pascal's "wager" is yet another theistic philosophy of religion, one that is based primarily on self-interest. Pascal suggested that believing in God is a "better bet" than not believing in God. The individual who believes has nothing…… [Read More]
"(32) Through faith, a man or a woman entrusts his or herself to another, and thus a human bond is formed.
Therefore, it can be concluded that philosophical reasoning is as vital as faith for diaconal ministry. The unity of truth, that is, the importance of realizing that both philosophy and religion lead to the same ultimate truths, shows that reason and faith are more related than they are usually considered to be: "The unity of truth is a fundamental premise of human reasoning, as the principle of non-contradiction makes clear. Revelation renders this unity certain, showing that the God of creation is also the God of salvation history."(35) as Fides et Ratio emphasizes Christian philosophy points to this unity of truth by showing that the God of creation is also the God of history and that God is at the same time the transcendental truth and the historical, immediate…… [Read More]
The cosmological disagreement can take many forms, but it works with the basis since the cosmos (universe) exists, there must be a God. How can the information that the universe exist point to any other conclusion than that the universe exists? The first argues that God must exist because He is "The Temporal First Cause" of the universe. The second argues that God must exist because He is "The Ontological First Cause" of the universe.
It is by no means clear that the logical relations between sense experiences and physical objects are significantly different from the logical relations between mystical or numinous experiences and an object like God. It is thus not clear that some sort of special justification is needed in the one case, which is not needed in the other. If a special justification is not needed in the case of sense experience, and it…… [Read More]
How is it possible, then, that we can come to know anything?
Methodological doubt is best represented in the first of the Meditations, "hat can be called into doubt."
In this meditation, the meditator is forced to think about everything that he has believed throughout the course of his life. He must then make a conscious decision to do away with all of these lies and begin again so that the basis of his knowledge is free of any lies.
4. hat is the difference between atheism and agnosticism?
Atheism means that there is a denial of theism (i.e., the existence of God) while agnosticism means that there is a question concerning the existence of God, a heaven, or any type of spiritual being. An atheist would believe that God does not exist and therefore does not have any control over his or her life while an agnostic would believe…… [Read More]
eligion has the ability to give people hope especially the hopeless. Despite the harsh situations and challenges that people face, religion plays a fundamental role of giving them hope and optimism from which they draw strength. eligion is also an agent for socialization. It is no doubt meeting with other believers for religious events is more than just practicing faith (eeve 2006).
People use the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones, sing together and above all socialize. Interactions can be a powerful source of happiness to individuals. eligion provides more than just individual hedonism to guide behavior. In essence, religion provides guidelines for faithful to follow and in the end live an orderly and moral life (Furness & Gilligan 2010). Even though people appear to be happier within the spheres of religion, many researchers show that people in relatively nonreligious nation are the happiest lot. Scandinavian societies…… [Read More]
Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the Western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…… [Read More]
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…… [Read More]
As the roles and functions of religions and their leaders changed according to the changing needs of the communities they served, they provided both stability in times of change as well as the leadership to effect changes as necessary.
Of the three theorists, Marx appears to include the most negative elements in his considerations of religion. It must also be noted however that Marx places more focus on elements other than religion, whereas the other two theorists study religion in itself as it connects with society and its needs. Marx instead viewed religion as one of the elements that could be detrimental in effecting social change when necessary. Durkheim in turn places greater emphasis on the spiritual and esoteric quality of religion than the others, but nevertheless also places it within the context of a society that creates their gods as reflections of themselves. Weber is the most practical of…… [Read More]
Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.
Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."
ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.
One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…… [Read More]
Truth and Error in Science
The relationship between reason, truth, and belief is one of the central questions of the philosophy of science, and has been addressed by nearly all of the major scientific thinkers. In 1880, the famous scientific thinker and professor Thomas Huxley claimed that "irrationally held truths may be more harmful [to science] than reasoned errors" (qtd. In Bridges, 93). This claim gets to the heart of problems not only with the scientific method but also with human reason in general.
In order to understand what Huxley meant by this assertion, we must understand the context in which he wrote it. This claim was made in an essay written about the future of Darwin's evolutionary theory. Huxley had long been a strong supporter and defender of Darwin's work, so much so that he was known as "Darwin's bulldog" (UCMP site). However, even Huxley's commitment to Darwinism did…… [Read More]
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…… [Read More]
When one attends a post-secondary institution, one of the most challenging things is to find your place, both scholarly and intellectually. That is, who am I supposed to be? What do I want to be? What is my passion in academia? Moreover, ultimately, what contribution do I wish to make within the scholarly community? With that said, then, this brings me to how I found philosophy as an interest and passion. I remember being in second year of college with a still undecided major. I knew I wanted to go to law school, but I had no idea what I wanted to focus as a major. I was taking classes at McGill University at the time, and I took my very first Philosophy class, an Introduction to Philosophy.
From the very start of the class, I became fascinated with the premise or philosophy. I knew that I had finally…… [Read More]
Consequently, physicalism or materialism is seen by some as a form of reductionism of the potential of human mind and consciousness. It is therefore a point-of-view that should be questioned in terms of the modern exploration of the complexity of human consciousness.
A Case for Physicalism about the Human Mind (the Great Debate). etrieved from http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/andrew_melnyk/physicalism.html
Jackson. F. (1986): 'What Mary Didn't Know'. Journal of Philosophy, 83.
Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy].
etrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/know-arg/
Mandik, P. ( 2004). Physicalism. etrieved from http://philosophy.uwaterloo.ca/MindDict/physicalism.html
Moral Theology. etrieved from http://www.arthurstreet.com/moraltheology.html
Nagasawa, Y. The Knowledge Argument Against Dualism. Australian National
University. etrieved from http://www.yujinnagasawa.com/resources/dualism.pdf
Pratt, B. ( 2012). What is Physicalism? etrieved from http://www.toughquestionsanswered.org/2012/03/16/what-is-physicalism/
Qualia: The Knowledge Argument. ( 2002). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
etrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qualia-knowledge/
Sperring P. ( 2004). Should We Give Up on eductive Physicalism? ichmond Journal
of Philosophy, 8 (Winter 2004). etrieved from http://www.richmond-philosophy.net/rjp/back_issues/rjp8_sperring.pdf… [Read More]
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…… [Read More]
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…… [Read More]
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…… [Read More]
Einstein's Theory of Relativity Jewish Science?
This study examines the work of Gimbel (2012) entitled "Einstein's Jewish Science: Physics at the Intersection of Politics and Religion" and specifically pages 112-217 and seeks to answer the question of how the categorization of Einstein and others functions from a sociological perspective. This study seeks to answer as to if Einstein as a second-class Jewish citizen also resounded in the Jewish community itself and particularly among the Jewish intelligentsia and how important this is for understanding the nature of religion? This study will answer as to whether there are Jewish aspects to liberal universalism and if so what was found in the reading of Gimbel. Finally, this study will answer as to what was found to be most interesting and most insightful and what was found to be contentious in Gimbel's work.
Gimbel: Categorization of Einstein and Function from Sociological Perspective
Gimbel conducts…… [Read More]
However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…… [Read More]
Fundamental and inherently subjective (and thus at least partially false) systems of though cannot be avoided, and in Western thought this basic system consists of these ultimately false binary oppositions. This makes an understanding of a science that could incorporate objective and subjective elements a logical contradiction to Western minds.
Sivin concedes that Chinese science is not exactly the same as Western science (though this is arguably not really true in the present era), but he doesn't really put this in terms of a concession. Advances in Chinese astronomy and mathematics were made at approximately the same time they were being made in Europe, he contends, but due to a long and unbroken working understanding of how the observable world and universe worked -- even if it was more flawed than Ptolemy had achieved -- these advances did not cause or warrant the type of Scientific Revolution experienced in the…… [Read More]
5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?
The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them…… [Read More]
Every coach would like to be a successful coach and that is the main target of each coach as they go about their coaching business each day. They all want to be a coach who wins, one who relates well with the athletes, one who motivates the players, one who knows how to recruit successfully, one with good financial support, with a strong work ethics, one who has the right equipment and most of all good knowledge of the sport.
Aspects of formulating coaching philosophy
The coach will have to take into account three main aspects or guiding principles when formulating the coaching philosophy that will enable him to operate successfully over a long period of time.
Self-awareness; this simply implies knowing self and can be achieved through getting the feedback from peers, sufficiently understanding the real self, the ideal self and the public self and how these…… [Read More]
In terms of ethics, I believe we feel happiest when we are acting and behaving in ways that will promote our survival and the survival of our offspring. This does not mean we feel best when we act selfishly, because I believe there is a universal spiritual dimension (also part of the metaphysics of the world) which makes all living creatures feel connected. Therefore, we cannot feel truly happy unless we are behaving in ways that promote the health and prosperity of all of life in general. As human beings with a developed conscience, we cannot ignore our own unethical actions; they will always affect our own well-being in one way or another (less restful sleep, mental or emotional disorders, difficulty learning, lack of achievement, low self-esteem, etc.).
Dominant Worldview in America Today: My Perception
I believe the dominant worldview in America is axiology-based and influenced heavily by modern technology…… [Read More]
Empiricism is fundamentally the belief that all knowledge is eventually resultant from the senses and experience, and that all conceptions can be linked back to data from the senses. John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume are considered to be three of the most persuasive empiricists in philosophy. The key aspects that the philosophies of these three empiricists have are that knowledge develops from sensory experience. However, it is imperative to note that each of these three empiricists have their own views (Meyers, 2014).
To begin with, Locke repudiated the prospect of intrinsic ideas and that when an individual is born, his or her mind is blank. Therefore, Locke makes the argument that all notions come from experience and that devoid of such experience, reason does not have a benchmark for differentiating the truth from fallacy. In turn, Locke asserted that the foundation of all ideas stem from sensation and…… [Read More]
science is the supreme form of all knowledge. Is this view reasonable, or does it involve a misunderstanding of science or of knowledge?
The Greeks trumpeted a sound mind and sound body, but even within the sound mind component, there is a clear breakdown: the hard sciences and the cultural sciences. The International Baccalaureate Organization, in its curriculum choice and assessment criteria, establishes firmly that both traditional sciences and cultural sciences constitute knowledge, and a focus solely on and not the other is fraught with misunderstanding.
The IBO uses six criteria to assess progress, and those six domains illustrate clearly that different components make up "knowledge" and the knower cannot only know sciences and expect to have gained "knowledge."
The first domain is building and enforcing students' sense of identity and cultural awareness. One of the greatest challenges today, in times of fierce nationalism bordering on xenophobia, is to truly…… [Read More]
Augustine's main problem when it came to conceiving of the spiritual nature of God? What solution did he find?
Before answering this question, it is important to clarify what exactly is meant by "spiritual nature of God." Many things could be meant by this phrase, but for the purposes of this essay, I stipulate that it refers to "any substance... other than that which the eyes normally perceive" (Conf., VII.i.1). In many senses, Augustine was rather positivistic in his inability to imagine that things existed beyond what his physical eyes could see. He relied completely on his physical senses for information concerning the nature of reality, and was intent on describing the world around him strictly in human terms. Thus his difficulties with understanding what people meant when they portrayed God in ways that were not readily evident to his five senses:
was becoming a grown man. But the older…… [Read More]
Smith's view seems to play out in the comparison of a state such as Iran, which imposes Muslim religious beliefs on its citizens, and that is extremely rigid and zealous in those beliefs, which impose strict religious control over households and especially women. Compare that with a country like the United States, which is more moderate and reasonable, and open to new religious beliefs.
Some experts believe that diversity is another reason religion plays a role in moderate, reasonable societies. Author Barro continues, "A greater diversity of religions available in a country or region is thought to promote greater competition, hence a better quality religion product, and therefore higher religious participation and beliefs" (Barro). In a country with only one supported religion, tolerance and quality are not part of the equation, adherence and rules are the most important, and that does not give any tolerance for any diversity or competition…… [Read More]
human beings have attempted to make sense of their world. Being creative creatures, this attempt often takes the form of stories and myths on the basis of religion and mythology. For the more rational mind, philosophy has played an important role to think about and explain the world to oneself, one's students, and one's children. For me personally, philosophy has played the most important part to make sense of the world, the people, and the things that share my life. This is not to say, however, that mythology and religion do not also play a role in such attempts.
I believe that today, philosophy is the most important of the humanities that can be used to impose a sense of structure and sense on the world, history, and current events. Philosophy has arisen not based upon an existing system of story telling or myth, but rather as a result of…… [Read More]
The general problem of the social assistance concept is the eligibility issue. Conditions are very restrictive, and so they should. Too much benefits would lead people into thinking that the Government will provide for them, at the expense of others, which is not what politicians desire (maybe communist rulers do, but this is not the object of this paper). On the other hand, few benefits or no benefits at all would mean that the purpose of the program - i.e. social protection - is not achievable.
One other aspect of the way U.S. citizens (and people from other countries, for that matter) look at the social assistance programs is the stigmatization such a program brings to an individual. No one likes to admit that he/she is in desperate need of help, so people are reluctant to apply. Perhaps some media campaigns against that perception would make a difference.
Another method…… [Read More]
Behaviorism and Positivism
Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind" (Wikipedia, 2010). Positivism believes in scientific method is the best way to explain human events and physical events. Behaviorism and positivism is working together mainly because the behaviorist believes that positivists' analysis of science is correct. "Positivism is based on pro-observation in comparison with other means of justifying scientific claims, and emphasizes verification" (Persson, 2010). Behaviorism and positivism are very similar because they both believe in science and observable, verifiable data.
In the early 1900's psychology was not based on pure science. It was known as a study of the mind, and there were not a lot of documented ways of…… [Read More]
In order to promote the lofty ideals of the Catholic community, our school must sustain an environment in which Christians and Catholics can forge a solid psychological, social, and spiritual identity. To do so, all instructors and faculty must be aware of the intricacies of modern popular culture so that they can relate to students in a way that is meaningful to them. Curriculum, while solidly traditional, must reflect the changing needs of the social, cultural, and psychological identities of the students. To fulfill this goal, teachers need to be hired according to rigorous standards: regardless of age or gender all teachers must prove that they can relate meaningfully to the students they are teaching.
Furthermore, we must stimulate students by providing opportunities for self-expression, creative thinking, problem solving, and aesthetic appreciation. e can accomplish these goals through field trips relevant to a particular subject matter. For instance, the…… [Read More]