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Phishing: What is it and how to prevent it?
'Phishing' messages have grown increasingly common online. Phishing is a scam technique used to solicit user's credit card information, social security numbers, and other vital data. "Phishing messages usually take the form of fake notifications from banks, providers, e-pay systems and other organizations. The notification will try to encourage a recipient, for one reason or another, to urgently enter/update their personal data. Such excuses usually relate to loss of data, system breakdown, etc." (What is phishing, 2012, Secure List). These messages may be sent in a general fashion or to a target base of users. It is not unusual to get a phishing message from, say, Bank of America, even though the recipient has no Bank of America account. The hope is that users who do use BoA will mistake the message for a real notification, open the email, and follow…
How to protect yourself against phishing. . (2012). Fraud Watch International. Retrieved:
Phishing email scams. (2012). Fraud Watch International. Retrieved:
Phishing Problem in Internet Security
The number of people browsing the net across the world is increasing with each passing day. There are numerous new internet users each day, and these new users are not aware of the challenges or security issues of the internet. Any online user is vulnerable to numerous security risks like viruses, worms, Trojan horses, hackers, phishing, and pharming. All these are well-documented risks that users face, and some of these risks are constantly evolving. The viruses that users were used to in the past are very different from the ones for today. Scammers have made use of different methods in order to gain access to sensitive user information. The scammers mainly target financial, banking, credit card, and personal information in the frauds. Phishing is a method of gaining personal information from a user by masquerading as the trustworthy entity (Marforio, Masti, Soriente, Kostiainen, & Capkun,…
Goodman, J.T., Rehfuss, P.S., Rounthwaite, R.L., Mishra, M., Hulten, G.J., Richards, K.G., . . . Deyo, R.C. (2012). Phishing detection, prevention, and notification: Google Patents.
Hong, J. (2012). The state of phishing attacks. Communications of the ACM, 55(1), 74-81.
Levin, R., Richardson, J., Warner, G., & Kerley, K. (2012). Explaining Cybercrime through the Lens of Differential Association Theory, Hadidi44-2. php PayPal Case Study. Paper presented at the eCrime Researchers Summit (eCrime), 2012.
Marforio, C., Masti, R.J., Soriente, C., Kostiainen, K., & Capkun, S. (2015). Personalized Security Indicators to Detect Application Phishing Attacks in Mobile Platforms. arXiv preprint arXiv:1502.06824.
This means that you must train employees how to identify various forms of phishing. At the same time, you must implement some kind of security procedures that will place a restriction, on how personal information is distributed. For example, employees could be trained in spotting various kinds of fictitious emails. However, when they run across an email like that is requesting information, there would be a procedure where the company will call the customer at the telephone number on file. This is significant, because it will improve the vigilance of: employees involving various phishing related emails. If for some reason, one happens to go through, no information can be released until you contact the customer at the telephone number they provide. This will prevent phishing, by having an initial process for detecting vulnerabilities and having some kinds of checks / balances in place. (Goldman, 2009)
Once you have an effective…
Phishing. (2010). Retrieved June 24, 2010 you're your Dictionary website: http://www.yourdictionary.com/computer/phishing
Goldman, P. (2009). The Scam Model. Anti-Fraud Risk and Control Workbook (pp. 103 -- 105). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Jones, a. (2005). Risk Analysis. Risk Management for Computer Security (pp 198 -- 204). Burlington, MA: Elsevier
As such, people that use high amounts of bandwidth should be on the up and need to be paying for any extra bandwidth they use. Indeed, many ISP's put hard data caps on data usage and punish (if not throttle) people that are abusive. In the age of Netflix, figuring out what is what can be hard but drilling down to the network traffic in question can clarify that.
However, this even pertains to network managers/engineers at businesses. Whether it be for the data management/hassle avoidance items mentioned above and/or because employees are engaging in unethical (if not illegal) things at work, all of the above needs to be done. General training on virus/malware avoidance has to be engaged in but users should not be expected to get it all right themselves as they will often make very poor choices. Technologies such as firewalls, internet filters and overall limits on…
Some programs are even able to track keystrokes and take snapshots of computer screens, allowing criminals even more information, such as credit card numbers and usernames (Bahl, 219).
While the obtaining of information through fraud is a problem related to Internet activity, there are other concerns with privacy that are still considered legal. For example, a company can obtain your personal information from transactions, and legally sell that information to the highest bidder (Sinrod, 17). While information traded between companies can increase competition, when the information is purchased by unscrupulous buyers, such transactions can threaten the security, privacy, and identity of consumers.
In addition, while restrictions exist on the government's collection of private and personal information from the Internet, loopholes exist that allow the government to obtain information without the knowledge of consumers. An example is the FBI's "Carnivore" system, developed to conduct surveillance of electronic communications by intercepting and…
Bahl, Shalini. "Consumers' Protection of Online Privacy and Identity." Journal of Consumer Affairs 38.2 (2004): 217-235.
Bielski, Lauren. "Security Breaches Hitting Home: Phishing, Information Leaks Keep Security Concerns at Red Alert." ABA Banking Journal 97.6 (2005): 7-18.
Brin, David. "Privacy Under Siege." The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose between Privacy and Freedom? Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998: 54-89.
Dunham, Griffin S. "Carnivore, the FBI's E-Mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals." Federal Communications Law Journal 54 (2002): 543-566.
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…
references the CISA Review Manual, 2006.
Thompson, S.C. (2006). Phight Phraud: Steps to Protect against Phishing. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2).
This study by Thompson provides some significant aspects that the business owner and customers in online commerce should pay attention to. These include basic but important aspect that should include in e-training; for example, never e-mail personal or financial information or never to respond to requests for personal information in e-mails. This provides useful background to the issue of risk identification and is also related management of this threat.
Wetzel R. ( 2005) Tackling Phishing: It's a Never-Ending Struggle, but the Anti-Fraud Arsenal Continues to Grow. Business Communications Review, 35, 46+.
This study A sheds light on the implications in term of the costs of identity fraud to financial institutions. The study underscores the severity of the vulnerabilities faced by today's organizations in the online world. The author refers to the obvious cost to intuitions like banks and also discusses hidden costs that relate to the erosion of customer confidence as a result of ID theft.
The responsibility to seek out and use the most appropriate form of protection for a particular system lies with its user. If a user does not regard these duties with the appropriate seriousness, the consequences could be dire indeed. Another very threatening form of computer crime is the phishing scam.
Phishing involves email from an apparently legitimate source such as a bank or other place of business that requires the user to respond with personal information. Most commonly, banks are used as a front for these scams. The most common messages of this type is that a user's account has been disabled and will only be reinstated once the apparent company has received the specific requested data. When a user sends this data, the criminal can then use it for his or her own purposes, such as identity theft or credit card fraud.
According to WiredSafety.org (2011), phishing criminals…
AllAboutCookies (2011). What other steps can I take to protect my privacy online? Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutcookies.org/faqs/protect.html
Bickell, K.D. (2011). 4 Tips for Malware Protection. Retrieved from: http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/4-Tips-for-Malware-Protection/1038740
Bukisa (2010, Nov 8). Protecting Your Identity and personal information over the Internet. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/390310_protecting-your-idemtity-and-personal-information-over-the-internet
McCandlish, S. (2002). EFF's Top 12 Ways to Protect Your Online Privacy. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.eff.org/wp/effs-top-12-ways-protect-your-online-privacy
0 is "…a broad name used for a number of different experiments that are being done in the research community" (eddy & Goodman, 2002, p. 12). The emphasis here is in 'experiment' as Web 2.0 is a platform for the testing of new applications and innovation, as well as being an area for research and development in education and science.
The differences in the way that Web 2.0 functions can be seen in the concept of the Internet as a new platform or environment. This is a concept that exceeds the idea that a new Internet would merely offer new applications that would be in essence an extension of Internet 1.0. As Tim O'eilly and John Battelle note, Web 2.0 means "… building applications that literally get better the more people use them, harnessing network effects not only to acquire users, but also to learn from them and build on…
Anderson a. ( 2007) What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for Education. Technology and Standards Watch, Feb. 2007. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf
Atchison S. (2007) Are You Chasing the Web 2.0 Trend? Part 2. Retrieved from http://www.clickz.com/3626152
Bogatin B. ( 2007) Web 2.0 Social Networks: Cool but marginal and unprofitable?
Retrieved from http://blogs.zdnet.com/micro-markets/?p=1062 )
The vision Oracle has is one of unifying all of their enterprise applications into their Fusion architecture and creating a single unifying Service oriented Architecture (SOA) was first announced in 2006 (Krill, 13). Since that time Oracle has continually strived to create an SOA in Fusion that would appeal to its corporate customers. The proposed Fusion SOA platform has been designed to be robust and scalable enough to encompass enterprise-level applications including Enterprise esource Planning (EP) applications while also being flexible enough to provide for individualized application development. There are critics of SOA in general and Fusion specifically, with industry analysts considering it too difficult to create a process-centric model that allows for pervasive, in-depth applications necessary for mission-critical business while at the same time allowing for significant scalability (Handy, 2005). Despite these concerns however Fusion continues to gain market acceptance and provide Oracle with a path to the fulfillment…
Alex Handy. 2005. Oracle Fusion: The 'Frankenstein' of SOA? Software Development Times, October 15, 6
Paul Krill. 2006. Oracle Does SOA. InfoWorld, August 14, 11-13
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
Social Engineering and Information Security
We are in an age of information explosion and one of the most critical problems facing us is the security and proper management of information. Advanced hardware and software solutions are being constantly developed and refined to patch up any technical loopholes that might allow a hacker attack and prevent consequent breach of information security. While this technical warfare continues, hackers are now pursuing other vectors of attack. Social engineering refers to the increasing employment of techniques, both technical and non-technical, that focus on exploiting the cognitive bias in humans as the weakest link in computer security. What is shocking is the fact that in spite of the great vulnerability to human exploitation, there prevails a seemingly careless attitude in this regard in the corporate world. While more and more money is spent on beefing up hardware security and in acquiring expensive software solutions, little…
1) Christopher Hadnagy (2011), 'Social Engineering: The Art of Human Hacking', Wiley Publishing Inc.
2) Greg Sandoval, (Feb 2007), 'FTC to Court: Put an end to pretexting operations', Retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://news.cnet.com/FTC-to-court-Put-an-end-to-pretexting-operations/2100-7348_3-6159871.html?tag=lia;rcol
3) Mindi McDowell, (Oct 2009), 'National Cyber Alert System: Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing attacks', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-014.html
4) Sonja Ryst, (July, 2006), ' The Phone is the latest Phishign Rod', retrieved Mar 5th 2011 from, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2006/tc20060710_811021.htm
Persistent Threats (APT) Summit occurred in July of 2011 over two days in Washington DC and was an attempt to bring together the top leaders from the government and from business to help target the influence that such threats pose. The summit also functioned as a means for drafting up ways to protect against the most detrimental APTs and to discuss defense mitigation (rsa.com). Advanced Persistent Threats are essentially "needles in a haystack" and they are small but significant threats that can too easily go undetected in the entire system. The summit did draft up some of the most multi-faceted recommendations. For instance, the summit leaders urged "chief executives in every industry sector not to delay devoting attention and funding to combat advanced threats and to 'plan and act as though you've already been breached.' Lawmakers urged to remove legal barriers that impede information sharing among global security ecosystem.eal-time intelligence…
Cohen-Abravanel, D. (2013, April 22). Spear Phishing Emails -- Can You Really Prevent Them? Retrieved from Seculert.com: http://www.seculert.com/blog/2013/04/spear-phishing-emails.html
Emc.com. (2011). Cyber Security Leaders Rally to Combat Advanced Persistent Threats. Retrieved from Emc.com: http://www.emc.com/about/news/press/2011/20110913-01.htm
Rsa.com. (2011, April). Anatomy of an Attack. Retrieved from Rsa.com: https://blogs.rsa.com/anatomy-of-an-attack/
Rsa.com. (2011). APT Summit findings. Retrieved from Rsa.com: http://www.rsa.com/innovation/docs/APT_findings.pdf
Information Technology holds great promise for improving the way a government serves its citizens in various services it conducts to the citizens. This rapid adoption of information technology has produced substantial benefits to the citizens, tax payers, and businesses alike. It is therefore recommended for every particular government to develop digital services to streamline all its operations. One area where governments should enhance its key functions is the establishment of online tax preparation services for the citizens.
It is quite obvious that the government is actively involved in taxation, and this is where the provision of information technology makes the entire process easier and more efficient. Electronic provision of tax forms and other tax information is very beneficial to the residents and falls within the traditional scope of government's activity. This is why government must actively engage tax payers in electronic filing since it is appropriate in boosting the efficiency…
Arcot (2009) Arcot Fraud Detection and Risk Analysis for eCommerce Transactions
Solution Guide. Available http://www.arcot.com/resources/docs/Arcot_Fraud_Detection_&_Risk_Analysis_for_eCommerce_Transactions.pdf
A definition from Webopedia "Data Center Tiers" (HTML). Webopedia. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
A document from the Uptime Institute describing the different tiers (click through the download page) "Data Center Site Infrastructure Tier Standard: Topology" (PDF). Uptime Institute. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
The objectives of this project will result in a reduced security risk due to incoming spam and junk email messages. Achievement of the objective will be difficult to measure because it represent something that will not happen if the project is successful. A reduction in threats due to the actions or inactions of employees will result in achievement of these objectives. An employee questionnaire or survey would be useful in determining if the policies result in a greater awareness and adherence to prescribed policies regarding how to treat spam in the company. Increased awareness and willingness to take actions to increase security, as measured by a survey conducted some time after the policies are in place will provide insight into the success or failure of the prescribed measures.
There are several contributing factors that will affect the outcome of the project and the ability to achieve the intended objectives…
D'Antoni, H. 2003. Span Tests Employees' Productivity, Patience. Information Week. May 13, 2003. [online]
http://www.informationweek.com/news/software/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=9800038 [Accessed 17 March 2009].
McCusker, R. (2005). Spam: nuisance or menace, prevention or cure? Trends and Issues in crime and criminal justice. March 2005. No. 348. [online] http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi294.pdf [Accessed 17 March 2009].
Winslow, L. 2005. SPAM Killing Small Business Productivity. Ezine Articles. [online]
Social Engineering as it Applies to Information Systems Security
The research takes into account several aspects that better create an overview of the term and the impact it has on security systems. In this sense, the first part of the analysis reviews the concept of social engineering and the aspects it entails. Secondly, it provides a series of cases that were influenced by social engineering and the effects each had on the wider picture of information security. Thirdly, the research looks at what policies are set in place to avoid this type of practice and how has the information security society responded to the threat posed by social engineering. Finally, possible solutions to the issues social engineering raises are also presented in the context of the increased technological environment in which business is conducted in the world we live in today.
General aspects on social engineering
A non-academic definition of…
Allen, Malcolm. "Social Engineering: A Means To Violate A Computer System," SANS Institute, 2006, available online at https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/engineering/social-engineering-means-violate-computer-system-529
Dimension Research. "The Risk Of Social Engineering On Information Security:
A Survey Of It Professionals" in Dimension Research, Sept. 2011, available online at http://www.checkpoint.com/press/downloads/social-engineering-survey.pdf
Honan, Mat. "How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking" in Wired. 8 June 2012, available at http://www.wired.com/2012/08/apple-amazon-mat-honan-hacking/
According to an article entitled "Three Vulnerability Assessment Tools Put to the Test"
Vulnerability assessment systems scan operating systems and applications for potential problems, such as the use of default passwords or configurations and open ports. This can give administrators a head start in fixing problems and will, hopefully, let IT organizations more effectively beat bad guys to the punch."
The above factors are only true when vulnerability systems find all the problems that may be present in an application.
Research has often demonstrated a gap between the best vulnerability assessment tools and the weaknesses in a test network. However IT employees who are responsible for securing IT assets will find the use of a vulnerability assessment tool beneficial even if all it does is eliminate some of the monotonous work they are confronted with.
When vulnerability assessment tools were first made available, scanning was the primary method utilized. However,…
James M. Snyder. Online Auction Fraud: Are the Auction Houses Doing All They Should or Could to Stop Online Fraud. Federal Communications Law Journal. Volume: 52. Issue: 2. 2000. Page Number: 453.
20 EBay Security and Resolution Center. http://pages.ebay.com/securitycenter/stop_spoof_websites.html08/16/03
Identifying Phishing or Spoofed E-mails. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=15835501
Protecting Personal Information
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, large firms must be able to effectively globalize their operations in order to reach a greater potential client base, stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields and sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and computerization of business and learning, consumers have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In accomplishing the aforementioned objectives, firms must also be able to supply a secure environment in which clients can feel safe in accessing the products and services of the business. Knowing that many organizations are utilizing the highly effective means of online systems construction…
Allen, C., & Morris, C. (2007). Information Sharing Mechanisms to Improve Homeland Security. Retrieved March 28, 2011, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/expectmore/issue_summary/issueDetailedPlan_24.pdf
Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 43 (2).
Chou, N., Ledesma, R., Teraguchi, Y., & Mitchell, J.C. (2004). Client-Side Defense Against Web-Based Identity Theft. 11th Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium. San Diego, CA.
Jagatic, T.N., Johnson, N.A., & Jakobsson, M. (2007). Social Phishing. Communications of the ACM, 50 (10), 94-100.
Privacy and security is a major concern for any person in the technological era that we are living in today. Everything today is revolving around technology in some aspect. Our academic career, professional life and even personal lives are affected by technology. Because of social media, people are likely to put very personal details and images on the World Wide Web. When people are not reluctant about uploading their personal information online, they also wouldn't have any problem uploading their financial and company relations.
Social media websites like LinkedIn, Facebook and twitter is affecting the way people interact with each other on the global scale. They are also affecting the way company's brand, advertise and even distribute their products (Edosomwan et.al, 2011) It has been stated that majority of the companies and corporations are receptive to online collaboration tools and social media. Nonetheless, when it comes to information technology, there…
Colombe, J., & Stephens, G. (2004). Statistical profiling and visualization for detection of malicious insider attacks on computer networks, 138 -- 142.
Cloudsecurityalliance.org. (2011). Top threats to cloud computing: cloud security alliance. [online] Retrieved from: https://cloudsecurityalliance.org/research/top-threats [Accessed: 10 Aug 2014].
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal Of Applied Management And Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79 -- 91.
Ho, P., Tapolcai, J., & Mouftah, H. (2004). On achieving optimal survivable routing for shared protection in survivable next-generation internet. Reliability, IEEE Transactions On, 53(2), 216 -- 225.
goals of this study are to reveal some of the common and prevailing cyber security threats. Here we plan to explore the risk that is most difficult to defend: social engineering. We seek answers to the human elements and characteristics that contribute to the frauds and how they themselves unwittingly give out information that eventually leads to difficult situations. There are many ways in which the attackers 'phish' their targets. We will look into the origin of such techniques and proceed to develop a methodology to avert such attacks. In the highly computerized environment that we are living, a new method of multitenant services has been evolved to substitute for the demands on memory space and time- the Cloud. The impact of these vast and complex systems has raised newer kinds of concerns that will then be assessed and hence a strategy to safeguard the interests of the user because…
The twenty-first century observed the information and computer revolution; empowering people to have instant communication and permitting them in carrying out activities using computers. The use of the computer is not limited to a single or specific industry and its use would be seen in all the industries or sectors. Presently, we are living in a world wherein nearly everyone has heard about computer technology and over sixty percent of people have information on its usage. We can now find laptops or computers in shops, homes, educational institutions, ticket counters, and so on (Daily Alert, 2013). It is important to have an understanding of some important terms used in the field of computer technology. This essay will provide an understanding of the various terms involving the Internet such as, web browser, URL, Wi-Fi, network, firewalls, email, phishing, malware, and more.
The internet, in simple terms, occasionally called as…
(Harris & Dennis, 2002, p. 72) These human factors will be explored in more detail below.
2.3. Human Barriers
As is evident from the above discussion, while many of the barriers to e-marketing are technological and demographic in nature, what is also apparent from the literature on the subject is that there are many human barriers to these developments. Central to these human barriers is resistance to change. As one pundit states, there are a number of reasons why people may be unwilling to accept organizational and technological changes implicit in e-marketing; for example when their stability and security is threatened and "… Coping strategies and comfort zones are affected." (Harris & Dennis, 2002, p. 74) This can occur when new emerging technologies are introduced.
The growth of e-marketing methods can therefore cause anxiety in some people who may feel threatened by these new technologies and approaches to marketing and…
Bielski, Lauren (2006) 'Debit's Growing Popularity', ABA Banking Journal, vol. 98, no.1.
Chan-Olmsted, S 2002, 'Branding and Internet Marketing in the Age of Digital Media', Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol 46, no. 4, pp. 641+.
Dholakia, N, Fritz W, Dholakia R. And Mundorf N (Eds.) 2002, Global E-Commerce and Online Marketing: Watching the Evolution, Quorum Books, Westport, CT.
Doyle P. 2000, Value-Based Marketing: Marketing Strategies for Corporate Growth and Shareholder Value, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Criminals don't always need to have shotguns and masks to threat and rob money; it only takes a social security number, or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to make things according to their wicked way (ID Theft, 2004).
Some consumers have had credit card numbers and Social Security numbers stolen and used fraudulently or identity theft. By taking reasonable steps to protect your personal information, this can mitigate the chance that it may be stolen (What you should know about internet banking, 2007) by identity thieves.
Identity theft is a term used for serious crimes associated with someone uses your name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge to commit fraud. This fraud may only take setting up accounts in your name and make online transactions without you knowing (Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime, 2004).
Convenience Factors. (2002). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://jobfunctions.bnet.com/whitepaper.aspx?docid=50925
Bank Information - Internet and Online Banking. (2005). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.uk-bank-account.co.uk/online.html
Einhorn, Monique F. (2005). Coping with identity theft: imagine discovering that someone has opened credit card accounts or secured a home equity or car loan under an assumed name: yours. Consider receiving an IRS W-2 form reporting wages earned by someone else who has used your name and Social Security number (Cover Story). Partners in Community and Economic Development. Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132841950.html
Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime - Protect Your Identity With a Few Simple Tips; Your Credit Card Companies Alerts Consumers About Ways to Fight Back Against Identity Theft Scams. (2004). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-893980/Get-the-Upper-Hand-on.html
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Align. Make your solutions part of an overall email security solutions.
Every email security solution should align with the needs of every department in an organization. For instance, for anti-fraud solution, there can be an option that records a trail of fraudulent emails that can be used a technical department to keep track of fraud attacks. Or, there can also be an option that sends out alerts and warnings to users about possible causes of email security risks.
Inform. Increase communication and awareness on email security measures and procedures.
Let the employees know the causes and consequences of risks that email vulnerabilities provide. Also, an increased awareness on the measures and procedures which employees can take to strengthen email security can minimize threats to sensitive information. Thus, adding to a guarantee of having secured email system.
Why Corporate Customers Should Outsource Their Email?
Outsourcing emails has been one of the…
Email: Know the Facts, Deal with the Risks. http://www.computerweeklyms.com/research/Whitepapers/Email-BusinessRiskContinuityandCompliance_april.pdf.
Stop Email Fraud Before It Stops You. http://www.mailfrontier.com/docs/MF_StopFraud.pdf
Why Outsource Email. http://www.gothamweb.com/mail/why.cfm
Email Services. http://www.nisa.com/products/email.php
Some of the violations of civil and human rights that have resulted for the PA include "aggressive deportations, crackdowns at borders, surveillance of mosques and homes...destroyed livelihoods, splintered families and the loss of a sense of belonging and citizenship," the group asserts on their eb site. Moreover, many peace activists, demonstrators at anti-war rallies, animal-rights groups, student organizations, and critics of the U.S. policy towards Cuba, have been monitored and added to FBI and CIA databases as potential "enemies of America."
ID CHIPS: An article in ABA Journal (Tebo, 2006) points out that employees of some companies are being asked to have ID chips implanted in their arms so their employers "can monitor their movements," Tebo writes. And while the company that is using these ID chips, (www.Cityatcher.com) can rightly say absolute security is pivotal to their customers, many experts, the article continues, "worry that the law is not…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2006). Federal Court Strikes down NSA Warrantless
Surveillance Program. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/26489prs20060817.html .
Berghel, Hal. (2006). Phishing Monger and Posers. Communications of the ACM, 49(4), 21-25.
Eggan, Dan. (2005). Bush Authorized Domestic Spying. Washington Post, Retrieved 27 Oct, 2006, at http://www.washingtonpost.com .
Vulnerable Areas of Industrial Security Operations:
Industrial security has become one of the most important aspects in the business world because of the need to protect the business' assets and enhance productivity. The need for industrial security is also fueled by the growth of the industrial sector that is constantly changing. The backbone of the every industrial environment or sector is security because of the vulnerable areas within these sectors. Some of the threats that a business is likely to face in industrial operations include sabotage, espionage, competition, utility industry security issues, and transportation challenges.
The banking sector is one of the industries that are likely to experience several vulnerabilities in the operations of the banks. As one of the major players in the American banking industry, Bank of America has some vulnerable areas. First, the financial institution is likely to experience espionage, which involves technical means and attempts by…
McGlasson, L. (2011, January 3). Top 9 Security Threats of 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from http://www.bankinfosecurity.com/top-9-security-threats-2011-a-3228/op-1
Strohm, C. & Engleman, E. (2012, September 28). Cyber Attacks on U.S. Banks Expose
Vulnerabilities. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-09-27/cyber-attacks-on-u-dot-s-dot-banks-expose-computer-vulnerability
Contending With Cybercrime Issues
Attacks and Malware
There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.
One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…
Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.
Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/
Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312
Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
All of these tools make it possible for a hacker to not only corrupt the application itself in terms of accessing confidential information, but further allow for the hacker to spread damage deep into the application to attack other systems, essentially able to shut down an entire application with the corruption of contained information.
Though some of the aforementioned tactics involve the physical infiltration of a company in order to gain information and access into applications, the more common hacking tactics are the use of technological tools that allow the hacker to access information from the comfort of their own computer. The SANS (SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security) Institute notes that there currently "appear to be two main avenues for exploiting and compromising applications: brute force password guessing attacks and web application attacks" (Dhamankar, Eisenbarth & King, 2009). This type of attack seems to be trending at an unparalleled level as…
Dalton, M., Kozyrakis, C. And Zeldovich, N. (2009). Preventing authentication and access control vulnerabilities in web applications. Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium, 2009. Retrieved from: LexisNexis database.
Dhamankar, R., Eisenbarth, M., and King, J. (2009). Top security risks. SANS
Institute Report 2009. Retrieved from: ProQuest database.
McCollum, T. (2008). Applications control. The Internal Auditor. 59:2, 23-26. Retrieved
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
IT Security Assessments (Process of matching security policies against the architecture of the system in order to measure compliance
The systems security assessment is the method of creating a security policy that would be complimentary to the architecture of the system and the method would allow for the measure of compliance. Security assessments are activities that belong to the phase of the design cycle, and that is because it is very difficult to assess the risk of a system that is already functioning. Assessing risk alone does not make the process true. The issues of costs, and the types of security architecture and many other necessities that are outside the actual security measures need to be considered because they come into play. (amachandran, 2002) There is also the complexities of the networks itself to consider. Modern internet-based systems have created hybrid network configuration that brings the problems of scalability. One…
Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M; Agha, Khaldoun A; Pujolle, G. (2005) "Mobile and wireless communication networks" Springer.
Chakrabarti, Anirban. (2007) "Grid computing security"
Merkow, Mark S; Breithaupt, Jim. (2005) "Computer security assurance using the common criteria" Thomas Delmar Learning.
In either case, privacy issues were known to be much more complicated than mere issues of personal secrecy. In fact, as Richard Posner suggested more than 20 years ago, there is a fundamental economics of personal privacy -- an economics that is in large part responsible for, and untiringly organic to, our Constitution.
It is feasible, therefore, that there are rudimentary, biological, economic bases at the very roots of humankind's insatiable desire and need for privacy and security. (Posner, 1983)
As Mcride's research further indicates, "In 2002, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies initiated Project Guardian: Maintaining Civil Liberties in the Information Age. The effort is aimed at shepherding discussion from all qualified voices on issues central to the tradeoff between privacy and security, particularly as this balance is threatened, or is perceived to be compromised, by advances in technology. Guardian is enriching the discussion by establishing a rigorous, multiway…
1) David Brin. "Coming Full Circle -- 21st Century Defense Will Stress Citizenship." Proceedings from Out of the Box and into the Future. Arlington, Va.: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 2001.
2) Michael Fitzgerald. "Alien lands big Gillette deal, but privacy is not on razor's edge." Small Times. 24 January 2003. www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?document_id=5363.
3) Amitai Etzioni. The Limits of Privacy. New York: Basics Books, 1999.
4) Richard a. Posner. The Economics of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Prior to the corporate financial scandal, WorldCom was one of the largest long distance telephone companies (euters, 2003). Initially headquartered in Mississippi it later moved to Virginia. The company grew fast by acquiring other companies such as MCI Communications in 1998 and UUNET technology in 1996. Other companies acquired included, Metromedia in 1992, esurgens Communications Group in 1993. In the course of this acquisition spree, WorldCom undertook two complex takeovers. The first was the 1998 acquisition of CompuServe from H& Block where it retained the network division, sold off the online service to American Online (AOL) and the second, the acquisition of Digex in 2001, and disposed of all Digex assets to Allegiance Telecom (Kaplan & Kiron, 2004). With these acquisitions, it gained a favorable reputation in the market as a company with a solid foundation.
Facts of the WorldCom Case
The WorldCom fraud case is one of the…
Kaplan, R.S., & Kiron, D. (2004). Accounting Fraud at WorldCom. HBS Premier Case Collection .
Reuters. (2003, April 14). WorldCom to emerge from collapse. Retrieved from www.cnn.com: http://edition.cnn.com/2003/Business/04/14/worldcom/
Ryerson, F. (2009). Improper Capitalization and The Management of Earnings. Las Vegas: Macon State College.
The Securities and Exchange Commission, 02 Civ. 3288 (United States District Court For the Southern District of New York June 26, 2002).
You just received a brand new computer for your home environment. It comes with the latest Operating System. You also have an Internet Service Provider where you can easily use the existing network to connect to the Internet and to perform some online banking. Describe the steps you plan to go through to ensure this system remains as secure as possible. Be sure to discuss the details of firewall settings you plan to implement within your operating system, browser privacy settings, and recommended software (e.g., Anti-virus and others) you will install. Also, describe your password strength policy you plan to adopt, and what you envision to do to ensure your online banking site is encrypted and using the proper certificates. Discussion of operating system patches and application updates should also be included. As you discuss these steps, be sure to justify your decisions bringing in possible issues if…
Increasing Your Facebook Privacy and Security By Dave Taylor onSeptember 16, 2011
Safe Computing provided by the Office of Information Technology University of California, Irvine Last Updated: January 28, 2011
International Information System
Security of a Global Enterprise IT Network
Managing the security for an international network that supports key enterprise applications including marketing, sales, human resources, finance and administration across four continents must be coordinated with a strategic security information systems plan. The intent of this analysis is to show what some of the potential security threats are to managing a diverse IT network across diverse geographic locations, and what strategies or tools can be used to mitigate and even in some cases eliminate these threats altogether.
Analysis of Global IT Strategic Planning
There are a myriad of potential threats that could impact a global IT infrastructure, especially one distributed across four nations, supporting several key enterprise applications. The most common and potentially lethal threat is the network's perimeter is compromised through access of a corporate server at a firewall location. Hacking through authentication proxy servers has become commonplace…
Chang, K., & Wang, C. (2011). Information systems resources and information security. Information Systems Frontiers, 13(4), 579-593.
Gillies, A. (2011). Improving the quality of information security management systems with ISO27000. TQM Journal, 23(4), 367-376.
Pernul, G. (1995). Information systems security: Scope, state-of-the-art, and evaluation of techniques. International Journal of Information Management, 15(3), 165-165.
The organizations are usually run by a core group, which divides the different responsibilities of an operation (e.g. spamming, web design, data collection) among the members. The members run their own outer networks to fulfill those responsibilities -- rarely even having contact with each other online. The decentralized structure of the internet, as well as the high levels of anonymity it provides makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to locate cybercriminal groups. A group could have networks in a myriad of different countries, whilst using servers based in numerous different countries and jurisdictions. Furthermore, many national jurisdictions lack the legislative framework required to properly prosecute online crime." (Collins, 2012)
These insights are illustrating how the lack of self-control is creating a situation where more criminals or organizations are turning to cyber crime. What makes the situation worse; is they can work anonymously and be able to conduct these activities…
Casey, E. (2011). Digital Evidence and Computer Crime. London: Academic.
Collins, a. (2012). Contemporary Security Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gregg, M. (2010). Hacker Techniques, Tools and Incident Handling. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Gryzbowski, K. (2012). An Examination of Cyber Crime and Cyber Crime Research. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Arizona State University, Scottsdale.
Portability vs. Privacy
Electronic Medical ecords (EM) refers to the digital version of papers containing all the medical history of a patient. EMs are mostly applied in healthcare institutions for treatment and diagnosis.
Benefits of Electronic Medical ecords
The following are some of the benefits associated with electronic medical records (Thede, 2010). EMs are more efficient than paper records because they encourage providers to:
Track patient's data over time
Spot clients who are due for screening and preventive visits
Conduct patient monitoring to measure their parameters including blood pressure and vaccinations
Improve the overall quality of service provision in the practice
Electronic medical records store information in a manner that makes it impossible for outsiders to access. It might be necessary to print patients' medical records and delivered through the mail to other health care members or specialists.
HIPAA egulations and EM
The federal government passed the Health Insurance Portability…
Thede, L. (2010). Informatics: Electronic health records: A boon or privacy nightmare? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(2), 8.
Jacques, L. (2011). Electronic health records and respect for patient privacy: A prescription for compatibility. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law, 13(2), 441-462. http://www.jetlaw.org/wp-content/journal-pdfs/Francis.pdf
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2012). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community. Maryland Heights, Mo: Elsevier Mosby.
Managing the elationship Between Customer and E-Banking
E banking or the Electronic banking is an Electronic method of money transfer or the EFT. This is a means whereby, an individual transfers money directly from different accounts by use of an Electronic system. This service allows clients to make use of computers or electronic gadgets to access the accounts information and conduct the various transactions involved. The service is beneficial for customers working in remote locations or a workplace. Its biggest advantage is that the service is convenient to customers. A customer can access a transaction at any given time of the day whether at night or during the day. Other advantages of E-Banking include; lower operating system in that, the general operating costs for the E-banking system is usually lower for the banks. A customer registered for the Electronic banking system is guaranteed few errors during the transaction. The…
Alessandrini, P., Fratianni, M., & Zazzaro, A. (2009). The changing geography of banking and finance. Dordrecht, Springer Verlag.
Amin, H 2009, 'AN ANALYSIS OF ONLINE BANKING USAGE INTENTIONS: AN EXTENSION OF THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL', International Journal Of Business & Society, 10, 1, pp. 27-40, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 May 2012.
Computer Crime research Center. Fears over e-banking in the UK, Research. Retrieved From:
Darsow, M, & Listwan, L 2012, 'Corporate practitioners moving to mobile banking: Key factors driving adoption', Journal Of Payments Strategy & Systems, 5, 4, pp. 360-372, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 May 2012.
Networks Security Management
Network Security Management
Why Threat Management Is Different from Vulnerability Management
Studies have attempted to examine on the possibility of implementing an all rounded technology that seeks to manage several layers of OSI networking levels. However, this implementation has considerably lost influence since this approach is defeated by the nature of attacks. Currently, 2600 hacking publication presents to a user several methodologies of attacks. In fact, hacking as become complex for the single - headed approach. This research will be integral in differentiating threat management from vulnerability management. Their importance in implementing a hybrid network management on the operating system and vulnerability Management approach on the layer side is also addressed. The research will further clarify that the security approach designated by hybridism factor is responsive to all nature of attacks in the OSI networking models.
The research is based on the following studies. Firstly, Nikolaidis…
Andre, M. (2008). RSA: Sinowal Trojan stole vast volume of data. Computer Fraud & Security,
Ariba, Y., Gouaisbaut, F., & Labit, Y. (2009). Feedback control for router management and TCP/IP network stability. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORK AND SERVICE
Management, 6(4), 255-266.
Security Flaws and Risks in loud omputing
Significance of the Problem to Leadership
Review of the Literature
Title searches, Articles, Research Documents, and Journals
History of loud omputing
Enhance cloud-computing security
Data is entrusted to a stranger
Government & Marketing Intrusion
No standardization of safety
No customer service
Vodafone phishing scam
Eric Snowden NSA Breach
Salesforce.com phishing attack.
ontrasting Views: Safety of loud computing
Historical Summary of loud computing
Evolution of loud computing
Evolution of loud omputing as outsourcing agent
urrent Security Tools in loud computing
Intrusion Detection Systems
Risk management in loud computing
Manage Inside Attacks: Ensure safe hiring practices
2.24 Make a proper contract with your cloud provider 64
2.25 Know the protocol for Data Loss and Recovery 65
2.26 Outsourcing: A Risk Management Strategy 65
2.27 Summary 66
3 hapter 3: Methodology 68
Chapter 1: Introduction
Foster et. al (2011) defined that cloud computing is a large-scale computing paradigm that is moved by economies of scale. In this pool, there is abstracted, dynamically scalable, virtualized, storage and platforms delivered to external customers over the internet (Foster et. al, 2011). This known as cloud computing basically encompassed activities such as interpersonal computing and use of social network sites. Beginning from 2008, a variety of services came into being that enable computing resources to be accessed over the Internet. Nonetheless, cloud computing basically is concerned with data storage, accessing online software applications and processing power. In simpler terms, cloud computing is referred to a way on adding capabilities or increasing capacity without having to invest in more infrastructure, personnel or software (Popovic & Hocenski, 2010). In the old days, people used to save everything on the computer; either data was stored on the computer or on a personal storage device.
Cloud computing has enabled the coming generation to be exposed to internet based and distributed computing system. The cloud system is quite elastic and multi-tenant. This means that within the cloud computing system, more than one tenant can make use of a single service. Elasticity means that resources can either be added or reduced from a service depending on the demand the service has (AlMorsy et.al, 2010) The end result is that the resource can be utilized in a much easier and cost effective way. The cloud model that was introduced has encouraged various different industries and academia to adopt this method of computing to host various applications. This model is preferred by various businesses because it allows for the business to make use of technology without putting in a lot of investment in infrastructure and other costs. A survey carried out by Gartner revealed that cloud computing has been increasing in profit and has been expanding ever since it was introduced (Gartner, 2011). In 2009, the cloud market
Traffic Analysis/Homeland Security
One of the biggest challenges currently faced by the Department of Homeland Security is guaranteeing cybersecurity. Each and every day some type of cyber crime occurs. Such crimes have the potential to affect the country's national security. This paper investigates the significance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security. It will look at the importance of internet traffic and analysis to Homeland Security as well as encrypted traffic and its implications to cyber-security. The manner in which the U.S. has handled cybersecurity over the past twenty years and the methods that the government has used in this time period will be discussed. Encrypted mobile messaging applications will also be discussed. At the end of the discussions, solutions are recommended and a conclusion given.
In the recent past, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) and the DoD (Department of Defense) signed an agreement to enhance the…
Bobby, M. (2010, November 10). Harvard National Security Journal. Harvard National Security Journal -- DoD-DHS Memorandum of Understanding Aims to Improve Cybersecurity Collaboration. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://harvardnsj.org/2010/11/dod-dhs-memorandum-of-understanding-aims-to-improve-cybersecurity-collaboration/
(2012). DHS Can Strengthen Its International Cybersecurity Programs. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIGr_12-112_Aug12.pdf
(2015, May 10). Fox News - Breaking News Updates -- Latest News Headlines -- Photos & News Videos. 'Terrorism has gone viral': U.S. officials, lawmakers warn of growing jihad-inspired attacks -- Fox News. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2015/05/10/mccaul-terrorism-has-gone-viral.html
Harknett, R., & Stever, J. (2015). The Cybersecurity Triad: Government, Private Sector Partners, and the Engaged Cybersecurity Citizen. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1).
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. According to statistics, each year hundreds of thousands of people have their identities stolen. The thieves will use the person's personal information like bank account numbers, credit card numbers, social security numbers, and insurance information to purchase goods fraudulently. The Federal Trade Commission has reported that over 7 million people were victims of identity theft in the past year. This is quite a huge number, and it indicates identity theft is a growing in the United States. When someone manages to use another person's personal information to obtain credit,…
Holt, T. J., & Turner, M. G. (2012). Examining risks and protective factors of online identity theft. Deviant Behavior, 33(4), 308-323.
Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.
Saleh, Z. (2013). The Impact of Identity Theft on Perceived Security and Trusting E-Commerce. Journal of Internet Banking and E-Commerce, 18(2), 1-11.
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation as ZXY Corporation where a new building has been procured. This building will be the site of the new information technology (IT) and other infrastructures. However, the current setup is very raw and unfinished and this obviously needs to change. The facets of the information technology setup that will be addressed in this report will include a plan to provide secure access for all users, a viable password policy in terms of complexity and other important factors, a cryptography method to ensure that vital data is encrypted, a remote access plan to ensure that remote access to the network is done in a viable, functional and secure way and a thorough plan to protect the network from malware and various other types of malicious attacks such as phishing, social engineering and so forth. While the overall facets…
Harrison, K. (2016). 5 steps to a (nearly) paperless office. Forbes.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kateharrison/2013/04/19/5-steps-to-a-nearly-paperless-office/#7e1a915b1cda
Nolo. (2016). Vicarious Liability -- Nolo's Free Dictionary of Law Terms and Legal Definitions. Nolo.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from https://www.nolo.com/dictionary/vicarious-liability-term.html
Ou, G. (2007). TJX's failure to secure Wi-Fi could cost $1B -- ZDNet. ZDNet. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/tjxs-failure-to-secure-wi-fi-could-cost-1b/
Rosoff, M. (2016). Netflix and YouTube are America's biggest bandwidth hogs. Business Insider. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/which-services-use-the-most-bandwidth-2015-12
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. Identity theft does not involve any physical theft. Therefore, the victim might not realize the theft until significant damage has occurred. Identity thieves make use of a variety of methods, and not all of them are computer based. Thieves can go through the person's trash or mail searching for bank and credit card information, statements, and tax information. The information stolen can then be used to commit crimes like accessing credit under the person's name and using their details. Another method used to steal information is stealing the person's…
Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.
Tajpour, A., Ibrahim, S., & Zamani, M. (2013). Identity Theft Methods and Fraud Types. International Journal of Information Processing & Management, 4(7).
The rates of reduction of these cases were noted to be about 20% per year as from 2004 when the standards were introduced (UK Payments Administration LTD 2009). The exact phenomenon observed is as indicated in Appendix A.
The mechanism involved in the protection of the card details by means of the EMV technology is discussed by various scholars and organizations. SPA (2010, 1) clearly explains that the need for authenticating data in the various EMV systems is to ensure that the cars being used is genuine. This is made possible via a system referred to as the Card Authentication Methods that is dependent on the capabilities of the chip itself.
How the EMV system protects payment cards
EMV Implementation Challenges
Extant literature has been dedicated towards the study of the various challenges that face the implementation of the EMV technology. Gareth Ellis Solution Consultants (2007,1) clearly point out…
ATM Media,(2010).Challenges to migrating to EMV.
APACS (2007) Fraud -- The Facts 2007
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
The many aspects of online security all emanated from the anonymity the medium provides with very little checks and balances.
Bernoff, J., amp; Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Cunningham, P., amp; Wilkins, J.. (2009). A Walk in the Cloud. Information Management Journal, 43(1), 22-24,26,28-30,54.
Mansfield-Devine, S.. (2008). Anti-social networking: exploiting the trusting environment of Web 2.0. Network Security, 2008(11), 4-7.
Orr, B.. (2008). Security 2.0: Not just a new kettle of phish. American Bankers Association. ABA Banking Journal, 100(2), 54-55.
Tim O'Reilly. (2006, July). Web 2.0: Stuck on a Name or Hooked on Value? Dr. Dobb's Journal, 31(7), 10.
Provos, N., Rajab, M., amp; Mavrommatis, P.. (2009). Cybercrime 2.0: When the Cloud Turns Dark. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 42.
Short, J. (2008). Risks in a Web 2.0 World. Risk Management, 55(10), 28-31,4.
• Consumer Wikis enable users to comment on content, in addition to editing content
• Wikipedia, a community Wiki encyclopedia, includes approximately 1.3 million English-language articles
Sources: (Bernoff, Li, 2008); O'Reilly, 2005. What is Web 2.0. Design Patterns and Business Models of the next generation of Software. Tim O'Reilly. Published September 30, 2005. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
As a result, contemporary computer systems and networks must be well protected against malicious intrusions and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to computers and network systems (Schneider, 1999).
Legal and Privacy Issues in the Workplace and Copyright Issues
The prevalence of digital technology for social networking has also generated entirely new areas of law and issues of public policy, such as in connection with the privacy of individuals in the workplace (Dershowitz, 2002). Nowadays, Internet use and e-mail communications are so prevalent and so much a part of both commercial enterprise functions and social networking that contemporary employers must routinely establish specific rules and policies for authorized non-work-related uses of their equipment and information systems. Likewise, the privacy rights of employees in connection with their Internet use at work are extremely limited and subject to monitoring to an extent that is prohibited by federal law with respect to other…
Dam, K., Lin, H. (1996) Cryptography's Role in Security in the Information Age.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
hen a Social Security number is stolen, contacting the Social Security Administration can help to place a watch on its use as well (SSA 2009). This particular problem can lead to many complications, as obtaining a new Social Security Number can create many difficulties for the victim while keeping the old number might allow the thief to continue using the victim's identity (SSA 2009). Generally, though, a new number is not necessary to stop most identity thieves.
The government also plays a major role both in preventing identity theft and in addressing both the victims and the thieves after the crime has been committed. The Social Security Administration has set limits on the number of replacement cards an individual may obtain, as well as new and more stringent methods of identity verification when fulfilling a request for replacement cards (SSA 2009). Though this can also make things more difficult for…
FTC. (2009). "About Identity Theft." Federal Trade Commission. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html #shouldyoufileapolicereportifyouridentityisstolen' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Third is a series of passwords and personal information chosen by the customer. On top of this they guarantee customers that if they are victims of fraudulent activity on their Egg accounts, any losses are covered in full. "This has never happened," says Andrew. "There has never been any breach of internet security." ("- -- : Safety Net for" 2001:44)
Again internet and bank security are largely overexagertated yet they are occurring more frequently all banks and many other institutions are taking daily active precautions to reduce risk to customers and they are largely successful in doing so Electronic banking can take many forms. A recent trend that is a direct threat to banks is the development of e-money which takes the jurisdiction of stored financial value away from banks. The trend is growing as an alternative way in which to do online commerce transactions without utilizing bank systems including…
Figure 5 Online Banking and Ecommerce in Europe (Meyer 2006: http://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000196129.pdf )
Figure 6 Security Breech Experience is Rare in Europe (Meyer 2006:
Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.
Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…
About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html .
Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/credit-card-fraud.htm .
Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/Default.asp .
Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.
The ramp up of communications services and payment services is crucial for eBay to stay profitable over time. Additional weaknesses include the tendency to overlook support and service for their primary marketplace, leading to buyer and seller frustrations as well (Klein, 2008)
Despite the weaknesses the company is facing, there are many potential acquisitions they can make to bolster their three core businesses, including acquiring more payment processing companies to expand the breadth of their offerings in that area. There are also opportunities to capitalizing on reselling their marketplace solutions in a customized form to companies interested in creating their own. Additional opportunities include global growth through joint ventures and acquisitions to minimize new market entry risk.
The most significant strategic threat that eBay faces is the continual efforts of online criminals to hack into user accounts, in addition to hacking into eBay itself. An exponential risk in…
Karen E. Klein (2008, October). The Growing Frustration of eBay Sellers. Business Week (Online). Retrieved November 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1580373841).
Richard Winter (2008, October). EBay Turns Data Marts Into a Service. InformationWeek,(1206), 34. Retrieved November 28, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1584878591).
This software is used to perform common tasks like storage, data back up and data transfers.
Small and medium businesses have embraced this technology because it involves no start up costs (like servers, hard disks, technicians etc.) therefore making it cost effective. Basically payment is based on the storage space taken by the user, again, this makes it user friendly. It may also be referred to as hosted storage.
The flying Organizations
Smart companies are looking at the various aspects of the cloud and pushing some application into the cloud and some into the traditional data center environment. The most significant value of cloud computing is not just the cost benefit but agility for the whole business. This is done by creating an opportunity for firms to upload anything concerning their IT infrastructure to an outside provider. With cloud you only contract for the services you need and at the…
Allen, B (2009).Cloud Computing Will Reshape IT Forever
Beaman, K. (2010). "Continued Growth of SaaS for HCM."
Zeltser, L. (September 2011). Social Networking Safety. OUCH! The Monthly Security Awareness Newsletter for Computer Users. etrieved September 18, 2011 from http://www.securingthehuman.org/newsletters/ouch/issues/OUCH-201109_en.pdf
The SpyEye Hacking Toolkit ingeniously is being promoted online as an Android application that will guard against exactly what it does, which is steal online logins and passwords. What makes this application so state-of-the-art and unique is that it uses an Android client application on smart phones and other devices running the operating system to transmit data to the command and control (C2) server. The hackers then have the ability to capture logins and passwords and without the user's knowledge, transmit them to the server completely independent of any action taken by the user (Keizer, 2011). While this threat is most predominant in Europe and Australia, the potential exists for it to become global in scope within days due to the pervasive distribution of Android…
Keizer, G. (2011, September 13). SpyEye hacking kit adds Android infection to bag of tricks. Computerworld. Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9219963/SpyEye_hacking_kit_adds_Android_infection_to_bag_of_tricks
Physical vulnerabilities, such as users who leave their systems running while still logged in can also create security concerns, even in the case of a secure system. hile systems should have automatic log-outs after a specific period of time, it is impossible for a system to be totally secure if it is being used by an employee who does not follow proper security protocols.
Question 4: Identify five (5) important documentation types necessary for the assessment and explain why they are important.
Network-based testing tests "components of application vulnerability assessment, host vulnerability assessment, and security best practices" ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011). It is used to "assess the ease with which any outsider could exploit publicly available information or social engineering to gain unauthorized access" from the internet or intranet due to weak encryption, authentication, and other vulnerabilities ("Security assessment questionnaire," CMU, 2011).
Host-based assessment evaluates the "the health and…
Brandt, Andrew. "How to stop operating system attacks." 2009. PC World. [1 Nov 2011]
"Security assessment questionnaire." Carnegie Mellon University. [1 Nov 2011]
Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://www.cmu.edu/iso/service/sec-assess/Assessment%20Questionnaire.doc
Online Transaction Empowered by E-Currency Exchange without credit card
The growth of the internet on a public scale, since its arrival in the eighties has allowed businesses to expand internationally. User interactions are no longer restricted to the local level. Easy to use web interfaces allow voice, message and video-based conversations. Entrepreneurship is much easier than before as individuals can place their product catalogues on websites without much set up costs. Country specific currencies (such as the American dollar, Euro, upee etc.) tend to cause problems if users need to purchase something unavailable in their location. This led to the concept of 'E-Currency' which is geared towards online transactions as it removes usage limitations based on country or nationality. The popularity of this industry grew as a way of handling the restrictions imposed on global businesses. Privacy is a major concern in this regard since there are multiple web-based transactions…
Christian, P.(n.d.) Speed-E-Money: A subsidiary of international load center. Retrieved from http://www.speed-emoney.com
n.a. (2002) Understanding the E-Currency and Exchange maker industries. Retrieved from www.financial-spread-betting.com/e-gold.pdf
n.a. (2011) Terms of service. Retrieved from http://www.e-currencybank.com/nview/title/Terms+of+services/?lang=english
n.a.(2011) E-Currency Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/internet/e_currency.asp
2SWOT analysis of Citigroup UAE
The Porters 5 forces analysis
The future trends in the internet banking arena
Benefits of e-banking
The legal and ethical issues surrounding e-banking
Alan, F (2002).Your e-banking future. Strategic Finance. Available online at Citibank is a bank that is a subsidiary of the larger Citigroup. Citigroup is a leading financial institution that has services an excess of 100 million clients, close to 6 million online relationships as well as worldwide presence that spans 100 nations. Citibank UAE began its operations in 1987 in an environment that was very competitive. It rolled its services that included a comprehensive array of top notch financial services that targeted the high class and the middle class households. The bank employed cutting edge innovation in order to leverage its global expertise. This positioned it in the UAE region as…
Al-Mudimigh, A.S.(2007) "E-Business Strategy in an Online Banking Services: A Case
Study," Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, April 2007, Vol. 12, no. 1.
Alan, F (2002).Your e-banking future. Strategic Finance. Available online at http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/computer-software-customer-relation/171142-1.html
Choi, S., Stahl, D.O., and Andrew B. Whinston.,A.B (1997).The Economics of Electronic
Security Plan: Pixel Inc.
About Pixel Inc.
We are a 100-person strong business dedicated to the production of media, most specifically short animations, for advertising clients worldwide. Our personnel include marketing specialists, visual designers, video editors, and other creative staff.
This security plan encompasses the general and pragmatic characteristics of the security risks expected for our business and the specific actions that aim to, first and foremost, minimize such risks, and, if that's not possible, mitigate any damage should a breach in security happen.
The measures to be taken and the assigned responsibilities stated in this document apply to all the departments that make up the company. Exemptions can be given but will be only under the prerogative of the CEO under the consultation of the Chief Security Officer that will be formally assigned after the finalization of this document. Otherwise, there will be no exception to the security…
Internet Securit Alliance. (2004). Common sense guide to cyber security for small businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/business/_downloads/CSG-small-business.pdf .
Microsoft. (2004). Step-by-step guide to securing Windows XP Professional in Small Businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=9faba6ed-2e9c-44f9-bc50-d43d57e17078 .
Noriega, L. (24 May 2011). Seven Cyber Security Basics Every Small Business Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.openforum.com/articles/7-cyber-security-basics-every-small-business-needs .
Teixeira, R. (4 June 2007). Top Five Small Business Internet Securit Threats. Retrieved from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/top-five-small-business-internet-security-threats.html .