In "Strategies used for phonics instruction in early childhood classrooms," Morrow & Tracey (1997) examine patterns of phonics instruction in early education. The authors first provide a history of phonics instruction, noting that phonics instruction stretches back as far as the 18th century. Since then, the debate between phonics vs. whole word reading instruction methods has been ongoing and unresolved. Whole word, or whole language, instruction suggests that phonics should ideally be taught within the context of reading for content and meaning. In other words, phonics instruction should not be a separate intervention. Educators and parents in favor of phonics believe the opposite: that phonics should be taught in a "direct" and "systematic" way (Morrow & Tracey, 1997, p. 645). Morrow & Tracey (1997) note that there is a third, middle way, called "centering," which blends both of these reading instructional strategies for optimal learning. The purpose of the…… [Read More]
The book chosen is "Tigger" (ISBN 0-525-46233-3 © 1999). Tigger is a very short book that is physically in the shape of the Tigger character from A.A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh series. Most children have had some exposure to Winnie the Pooh prior to school so all should understand the story easily.
The story reads:
Tigger loves to bounce.
He bounces to Pooh's house,
Where there is honey for breakfast.
Tigger does not like honey.
Tigger doesn't like Eeyore's thistles, either. Ouch!
Tigger and Roo climb a tree
But Tiggers can't climb down. Uh-oh.
Tigger bounces Eeyore right into the river!
Then he bounces home. Good-bye, Tigger!
The story is very simple. The book is beautifully illustrated so the children's attention should be kept by both the illustrations and the rhythm of the words.
Sight words will be Pooh, Tigger, honey, climb, and bounce. These words repeat themselves…… [Read More]
Balanced Literacy Program
Phonemic awareness and phonics are two components of a balanced literacy program in K -- 3 classrooms. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are made of sounds. Phonics builds on this awareness by teaching the relationships between sounds and letter-symbols. esearch supports direct instruction of these components as a precursor to reading success. Commercially-published programs and books, software and apps, and numerous Internet sources can provide teachers with materials needed for a strong program of direct, explicit instruction. Kindergarten programs level attempt to level the playing field, as students begin school at various stages of reading readiness. Phonics builds on early phonemic awareness activities. By the time students are in third grade, they are starting to "read to learn" instead of "learning to read."
Balanced Literacy Program for K --
Phonemic awareness and phonics are two components of a balanced literacy program in K -- 3…… [Read More]
" (Official ebsite, 2004)
But although this act specifies quantifiable results, and phonics may be more easily tested in quantifiable methods, there is no proof as to the superiority of this method. "Saxon Publishers salutes our federal government in its belief that every child can learn." (Official ebsite, 2004)
It states that Saxon Publishers salutes our federal government in its belief that every child can learn, an assertion repeated upon the act's website. (NCLB, 2002) The publishing company additionally advertises its correlation with the strategies advocated by NCLB, but does not specify if the act itself is good, only that NCLB has passed as policy. It does not state that the fact the pedagogical methodology of the Saxon organization is similar to NCLB and, more fundamentally from an educator's point-of-view, if the NCLB act's stress upon standardized tests really promote learning at all, and the stress of the act upon…… [Read More]
Phoneme, Phonics, And Sightwords as They elate to eading Acquisition
In Orangeburg Consolidated School District Three, there is a failure to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals, mostly in the content area of ELA on the state mandated test. Unfortunately, that failure is not unique to that particular school district. There are many school districts across the country that fail to meet AYP. Because of that, programs including SIPPS and Dibels have been introduced in various schools districts in an effort to help the students learn to perform better and to determine how students rank in their reading comprehension and readiness to read.
It has also been done in an effort to help teachers, many of whom are underpaid and overworked. In rural school districts there are more problems in schools because there are fewer efforts made by parents to help their children get an education. Since education is not…… [Read More]
Content Area: English, Grammar, phonics.
Grade Level:8th Grade
Overview of Lesson: The students will be introduced to 30 to 40 punctuation symbols and be expected to understand and repeat their meaning and association
Learning Objectives: The purpose of this lesson is to enhance the English speaking and writing skills of these underdeveloped students in order to increase their ability to communicate.
Target Student Group: 8th Grade Hispanic Girls
Key Content Concepts: Symbols, communication, grammar, logic, rhetoric, social cognition.
ationale for Instructional emediation Strategy and Universal
Design Principles: Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
Materials equired for Lesson: Paper, pen, pencil, chalk chalkboard, classroom, 45 minutes.
Instructional Steps For Conducting The Lesson:
Introduction to Lesson; 3 min
Practical Application Demonstration 3 min
Lecture; 14 min
Class Participation 15 min
Quiz 5 min
Discussion/Conclusions 2 min
Part 2 Assessment ubric
Student participated in class, took an active interest…… [Read More]
Phonic Instruction vs. Whole Language
There is a great debate in America about which is the better method to teach children reading, writing, and spelling skills: The phonic instruction method or the whole language method. This paper will analyze each method and determine which is the proper method to employ.
There have been many studies done on the effectiveness of phonetic instruction and those studies have been positive. The National Reading Panel conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of phonetic instruction on reading and spelling. Overall, the impact of phonetic instruction on children had a large result of (.86) within this meta-analysis. Using phonetic instruction, reading and spelling improved moderately at (.53) and (.56) respectively (Ehri, Nunes, Willows, Schuster, Yaghoub-Zadeh, & Shanahan, 2001).
However, there are some critics of phonics that find that the NRP study on phonetic instruction is flawed and does not prove that phonetic instruction is the…… [Read More]
SIOP® Lesson Plan Template
THM: Properties of Weather
Science for 2nd Grade
KY VOCABULARY: Snow, frost, ice, fog
MATRIALS: The book from which the story will be read is Weather by Seymour Simon. The teacher will need to use a Post chart, "Weather chart ." This will help explain how to make inferences about text and unfamiliar words by applying their schema and other words in the sentences.
Students at this stage may find Weather and climate confusing. Climate is examined by looking at annual patterns. Weather refers to the situation at one given time and the seasons influence the general climate.
(Language and content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, feedback)
Second grade students are expected to apply strategies to comprehend text by making inferences about words describing weather condition when reading.
PRACTIC AND APPLICATION:
(Meaningful activities, interaction, strategies, practice…… [Read More]
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…… [Read More]
Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).
Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html
Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894
Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html
Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.
It is the function of reading instruction to teach…… [Read More]
2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and
Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.
Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…… [Read More]
Accept This Conclusion?
This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.
Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…… [Read More]
05 level as measured by ____(insert the name of your measurement instrument here) on a post-test basis.
There exists no statistically significant difference between multiple intelligence teaching and traditional teaching for reading language acquisition of first graders at the ?… [Read More]
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…… [Read More]
6) Doiron, R. (1994). Using Nonfiction in a Read Aloud Program: Letting the Facts Speak for Themselves. The Reading Teacher, 47(8), 616-624.
This article challenges the pervasive role that fiction has played in read-aloud programs and develops a rationale for including nonfiction. It has a 20-item
Annotated ibliography of nonfiction read-aloud texts.
7) Mountain, L. 2005. Rooting out meaning: more morphemic analysis for primary pupils. Reading Teacher, Vol. 58(8): 742-749.
The research on morphemic analysis is reviewed and explored as to ways to give pupils in grades 1-3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes and roots to construct word meaning. The strategies for teaching morphemic analysis and modification of methods to use with younger children are examined.
8) Joshi, R.M. 2003. Misconceptions about the assessment and diagnosis of reading disability. Reading Psychology, Vol. 24: 247-266.
This article is about the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and talks about…… [Read More]
Balanced Spelling Program
Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…… [Read More]
The author offers some concrete suggestions for creating a literacy-friendly household. The first step offered is to make reading a central household activity. This can be achieved by holding daily reading sessions in which collective reading takes place. Family reading time can consist not just of reading stories aloud but also articles from newspapers or the nutritional information on food containers. When reading is presented as a treat or a reward, rather than as a chore, the young learner is more apt to develop positive associations with literacy.
While the article lacks any scientific analysis or empirical evidence, it does offer helpful tools for parents wishing to improve their child's literacy. When literacy problems are recognized early, the child has a greater opportunity to improve and avoid falling behind in class. Because so many school subjects are reading-dependent, creating a literate household is a primary means of ensuring a child's…… [Read More]
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…… [Read More]
Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead
Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.
The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…… [Read More]
ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.
High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction
With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…… [Read More]
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…… [Read More]
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…… [Read More]
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…… [Read More]
The five components of a reading program -- phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension -- build on one another to help students become readers. At a hypothetical all-African-American elementary school in Philadelphia's inner city, there would be similarities and differences in the way the five components would be taught in first grade, third grade, and fifth grade classrooms.
Phonemic awareness is the first stage in a comprehensive reading program. It is the foundation upon which other reading skills are built. The International eading Association (IA) defines phonemic awareness as "the ability to segment and manipulate the sounds of oral language" (2011). The IA points out research shows that a child's awareness of the sounds of spoken language are a strong predictor of success in learning to read. Language "play" helps children develop this awareness of sounds. ead-alouds, songs, riddles, poems, and rhyming activities are effective ways to…… [Read More]
Therapist Name: Case Name/#:
Reason for Referral:
The client is an eight-year-old female who may not have be making adequate academic progress consistent with her age and grade level. She is currently in the third grade. The client was assessed over two sessions.
Clinical concerns: Difficulty in school/with academic progress.
Clinical concerns: Possible learning disability.
Clinical concerns: Reading difficulties.
Clinical concerns: Client potentially not motivated to perform in class.
Clinical concerns: Rule out depression and/or anxiety.
Jailah was born on September 11, 2007. Jailah is the third child and a sibship of five. According to her mother Jailah is of Hispanic and African-American descent. Her native language is English.
With respect to her family Jailah has three sisters ages 16 years old, 14 years old, and five years old. She also has a younger brother age seven years old. The children the family have three different fathers.…… [Read More]
teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.
Literacy Intervention Plan
Literacy Intervention Action Plan
Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes
*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling
* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…… [Read More]
Curriculum: Catch a Little Fox
CUICULUM: CAT IN THE HAT
Good afternoon Judge Jacobs, how is everybody doing? Today, we have a case that needs to be defended. ecently, my client, Donna Mills, used a book called "Cat in the Hat" by Dr. Seuss. Today, I stand to support the book. The reason for this defense is simple. The children's book is being accused of having not developing phonemic awareness. As we know, Phonemic awareness is important since it is critical to reading and spelling accomplishment. Children who cannot decide and operate the sounds inside spoken words have trouble distinguishing and learning the vital print=sound association that is critical to quick reading and spelling achievement. Phonological awareness is essential for learning to read any alphabetic writing system. And plenty of research shows that trouble with phoneme awareness and other phonological proficiencies are a predictor of poor reading and spelling growth.…… [Read More]
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…… [Read More]
Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans have on literacy development in elementary students
Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans on literacy development in elementary students
eading inventories are frequently used both to assess students who are struggling and to identify strategies that are helpful in supporting reading success for the larger student body. "Procedurally, [informal reading inventories] IIs assess a student's instructional level in reading using sets of passages that are written or selected to be representative of the difficulty level of texts at different grade levels, and in different schools and reading programs" (Specter 2005: 595). "By charting and analyzing patterns in oral reading error types, educators identify whether students rely on one cueing system & #8230; to the exclusion of the others, as beginning readers typically do, or if they use a balance of strategies, as mature readers at…… [Read More]
individual child help you to better understand some problems of the struggling reader?
A major part of the classrooms in the nation's public schools consist of struggling readers. It has been suggested by researchers that subject teachers can enhance reading abilities of students by imparting: (a) strategy and skill instruction and (b) reading and text-discussion opportunities in several ways. However, giving better or more reading instruction doesn't mean students will apply it. It has been suggested by some researchers that poor as well as good readers don't apply reading skills that have been imparted to them, despite understanding how it is to be done and being interested in learning information through texts. Moreover, struggling readers might opt for engaging with instructions and texts in ways that they realize are damaging to their progress as readers, despite saying that they aspire to improve (Hall, 2009).
Not much is known regarding the…… [Read More]
employed in case of a phonemic lesson plan, are discussed. Each assessment's suitability, pros as well as cons are discussed. Charting and data capture are also dealt with.
Assessment of lesson plan
Phonemic Awareness Assessment (Professional Development-Phonemic Awareness Assessment)
Stage of Literacy Development
Characteristics of This Stage
Phonological Focus Areas
Has partial knowledge of the alphabet
Inability to match voice with print (word concept)
No connection between sound and symbol in spelling (later in this step, may start with beginning or salient sounds)
Learned eadiness-nursery rhymes, preprimary 1 text
Awareness of Word
Awareness of Syllable
Can accurately track print
Employs knowledge of letter-sound for word deciphering
Development of sight vocabulary
Consistent use of starting and ending sounds while spelling words; also, learning digraphs, and medial vowels
Learned Preprimary-Primer text
Combining, manipulating and segmenting:
Has large sight vocabulary…… [Read More]
.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…… [Read More]
Flexibility is necessary because of the very basic fact that all children with autism seem to express different needs and learning styles. The teacher needs to be able to modify instruction to meet the diverse needs among the spectrum of students with autism. As far as a reading ideology is concerned, an eclectic approach is best, because an autistic student requires several methodologies to obtain the appropriate education.
Hall, M., ibovich, J. & amig, C. (1979). eading and the Elementary School Child. New York, NY: D. Van Norstrand Company.
Iovannone, ., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003) Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders.
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 18(3): 150
Jennett, H.K., Harris, S.L., & Mesibov, G.B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33: 583-593.
Katims, D. (2000).…… [Read More]
Classrooms That ork
The paragraphs below respond to the text and look at alternative ways to demonstrate reading comprehension to students. These paragraphs will offer new ways to look at ways to enhance students' reading experience.
Reading comprehension is an important part of developmental learning for young students. It helps build confidence and an eagerness to acquire knowledge. Reading is important because it expands the mind and promotes creativity. Promotion of comprehension furthers the learning experience because by understanding one concept, a student can understand others more easily. This is not just about retention of subject matter or a student moving onto the next level. For teachers, it is acquiring the tools to know how to access the strengths and weaknesses for each student to cater an individual strategy. A teacher needs to have the skills to know that each student works at their own pace regardless of making the…… [Read More]
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…… [Read More]
There are concerns that schools are performing an injustice by passing students onto the next grade level although they fail the basic requirements for the current grade level. Underachieving middle school students are being promoted with little regard as to how it may impact their future success in education. It sets the precedence for some students who believe that they do not have to make any effort and they will still move to the next grade without suffering any consequences. This gives the message that accountability in middle schools is unimportant.
The purpose of this research study is to identify and evaluate the effects of social promotion amongst middle school students.
Teachers have encountered many cases in which students should have been retained in the same grade as a result of poor attendance, limited ability, and lack of effort. However, school administrators have granted social promotion to…… [Read More]
In "Emergent Literacy," uth Wilson claims that formal reading instruction "especially if introduced too early…can actually interfere with emergent literacy," (p. 1). The author bases her claim on personal observation with her own children, as well as on empirical evidence related to early childhood literacy education. Using a combination of anecdotal and empirical evidence strengthens the author's stance, and offers a rich opportunity for personal reflection. Wilson does not disparage structured or formal literacy training in early childhood. Instead, she calls for a more organic approach that stresses parental engagement.
Wilson cites evidence from a number of sources showing that literacy emerges in many different settings, and is not dependent on print. Folk practices, including playing with sounds and simply engaging children with words, can be as effective if not more, in helping immerse the child in a literate universe. Finally, Wilson emphasizes the importance of the home…… [Read More]
Also, by creating school-centered products for older children, it can lessen the criticism that it is imposing technology upon the young, impressionable minds of preschoolers.
Available action alternatives
LeapFrog could continue to stress its core model, or 'razor and blades' approach. However, given that other educational and toy companies are capitalizing upon the LeapFrog platform model, LeapFrog cannot afford to ignore the fact that this market will eventually shrink, even if LeapFrog remains the industry standard. However, the Obama Administration is expanding the focus of the nation on standards-based education. Thus, shifting LeapFrog's focus to its K-high school Leap Start initiative, ESL programming, and other devices that make teaching standards-based education easier for teachers in crowded and cash-strapped classrooms would seem to be the ideal way to ensure that LeapFrog has a comprehensive market approach that covered all potential 'bases' for the company, regardless of the market environment. Furthermore, even…… [Read More]
learning how to read, and the development of language as well as language skills. Much of the book is descriptive and historical in nature, though ample space is also provided to contemporary empirical research and its findings concerning reading development and current issues being faced in teaching beginning readers. The conclusions in this regard are that the teaching of phonics is inconsistent both in terms of what is considered to fall under the umbrella of "phonics" and in the specific methodologies and perspectives brought to bear in trying to provide phonics instruction to beginning readers. The focus on mechanical understanding rather than critical understanding in later readers and budding writers is also discussed, with direct implications for beginning readers and on beginning reading instruction.
The research findings suggest that other modes of instruction and greater consistency and clarity in certain methodologies are necessary in order to achieve more effective beginning…… [Read More]
" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"
Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.
According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…… [Read More]
Dual Coding Theory (DCT) was originally developed for memory research. The basic notion is that images and words influence memory differently. DCT has been applied to reading and has been used to improve reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. Verbal code would be language in any form; nonverbal codes are tangible objects, pictures, feelings, and events. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing in DCT which fosters learning. The following paper describes the basic elements of DCT.
According to Dual Coding Theory (DCT) information is represented in the brain via both verbal and imagined codes (Paivio, 1971). These two…… [Read More]
Solid Ground, by Sharon Taberski
By intelligently using her ten years of primary level teaching experience as a foundation and a resource, Sharon Taberski has achieved an extraordinary level of excellence in her field, according to Shelly Harwayne -- a colleague of Sharon's at Manhattan New School. Shelly, writing in the Foreword of On Solid Ground, asserts that Sharon makes "literacy teaching look easy," because she is well prepared, well organized, and is continually searching for a better way to carry out her work teaching children to read.
Sharon points out in the book's Introduction that the teaching of reading, and the act of learning how to read, "are complex endeavors," but those challenges can be met, she states (page xvi), by pursuing practices and strategies that are "purposeful and connected." And precisely how does she go about establishing a good solid footing with students -- especially those struggling with…… [Read More]
Phonological Awareness and Literacy
It appears that in the last ten years that there has been a growing consensus on the range of skills that have been serving as the basis for reading and writing ability in the 3- to 5-year-old age group (Diamond K., 2014). In order to become a skilled reader before kindergarten, children need a language that is rich and they need something with conceptual knowledge base, and to be able to understand messages that are communicated through print. It is also important that children also must be able to develop the notion that spoken words are made up of smaller substances of speech (phonological awareness) before they enter kindergarten. (Gallagher, 2015)
Nonetheless to attain a high level of skill, the 3- to 5-year-old group need chances to change these strands, not in isolation, but then again interactively. Making the point, not sounds or letters, encourages the…… [Read More]
The state has long held an English-only language policy in the classroom. By law, teachers are not allowed to provide instruction in any other language than English. However, many students do not have the English language skills to understand directions or vocabulary. In addition, many parents cannot help their children with their homework because they do not speak English. This creates a difficult environment for students, parents and educators.
The NCELA, or National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, provides a great deal of meaningful information for ELL educators. They share information from scientific research studies that have been conducted into the current condition and future trends for ELL learning in America. They also offer information concerning assessment accommodations by state for ELL learners, best practices for educating populations such as Native American and Alaskan natives, and the school readiness of pre-K ELL children. The site provides links that…… [Read More]
Superintendents must deal with student populations that change yearly as school choice options alter. These alterations will influence schools that have to present school choice, and schools that do not get Title 1 funds. The child who uses school choice does not have to attend another Title 1 school. They may decide to go to a school that does not get Title 1 funding (Whitney, 2011).
Evaluation of the Effect and Effectiveness of NCLB
Holding schools and school districts responsible for the level of education that they supply is the chief principle of the No Child Left Behind Act. The key to the Act's approach is the make use of measurement tools like standardized tests to be given on a regular schedule, the utilization of benchmarks, and a scheme of encouragements and punishments linked to the generation of higher test scores. On some accounts, the outcomes of this law have…… [Read More]
Attitude-Influence model of reading involves teaching good attitudes about reading in an effort to influence how children feel about the reading experience. Attitude was chosen as the most important component of the model because it plays such a strong role in research done on a psychological level. However, attitude can be hard to measure, because it is very subjective and can fluctuate wildly. That is one of the cons of the attitude-influence model, and one of the cons of attempting to address attitude in general when it comes to research. However, in this model, attitude is not all that is considered. Influence is also very important. Influence means how a person is influenced to read and how he or she sees reading. If a person's attitude is good but there is no influence, reading might not take place. The same is true if the attitude is bad but there is…… [Read More]
Scientifically-Based Research in Education
Of course, it would be nice if it were easy to standardize reading education across all schools, for all students. This would make instruction much easier for instructors as well as students. But students alas, are not machines and what 'works' for one gifted student may not 'work' for another student with a learning disability. The allure of easy standardization of educational methodology in something as difficult to teach as reading, however, partially explains appeal the REA, or Scientifically-Based Reading Research approach. This approach is advocated by the National Reading Panel's methodological overview. Although the NRP proclaims its neutrality, in its actual language it stresses a "phonics awareness" based approach. This approach involves teaching children to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables and words. It involves teaching children to blend or segment the sounds in words using letters. (NIH, 2004)
However, hat Really Matters…… [Read More]
Holcomb, Sabrina. "What's All the Fuss About?"
Holcomb's article looks at the issue of scripted reading instruction. Scripted reading programs are highly directive, telling the teachers in great detail exactly what to teach and even what to say while instructing the students. Scripted reading instruction has become more prominent since the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" law (NCLB). The publishers of these programs have made great effort to base the programs on "best practices," or reading instructional techniques proven in research to teach students well.
In the article, the author talks about two different schools, one in LIttle Rock, Arkansas, and one in Los Angeles, and their differing opinions. In LIttle Rock, the teachers have found their scripted program highly effective, and the students have made great gains. The Arkansas teachers were fully included in decision-making regarding the program. In Los Angeles, the program was forced…… [Read More]
Technology to Support Beginning eaders in K-3
More and more technology is being adopted in the classroom to facilitate student learning. ecent initiatives established by the no child left behind act have strengthened educators desire to ensure that all students achieve an acceptable level of literacy by grade three. As such educators have adopted various techniques including use of technology to support literacy in the classroom. Studies suggest that technology use in the classroom is beneficial for promoting literacy. This report examines the various technologies that are effective and what techniques can be adopted to facilitate student literacy at the K-3 level with regard to literacy.
What Techniques Have Been Tried
Computers are considered "versatile tools" that can support a wide range of scholastic activities including facilitating reading in the classroom (Kerawalla & Crook, 2002). As such more and more classrooms are inundated with technology tools to facilitate learning. Computers…… [Read More]
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…… [Read More]
third grade children of the class bought into the premise that they were superior or inferior based solely on the color of their eyes and the actions of the teacher. Though I knew prejudice was a learned behavior I was astonished at how readily the behavior was adopted.
Elliot's comment at the end of the first day, "I watched what had been marvelous, cooperative, wonderful, thoughtful children turn into nasty, vicious, discriminating little third graders in the space of fifteen minutes," underscored the power that suggestion has over belief.
Expectations are a powerful motivation for both success and failure. The fact that children were able to get though their phonics card pack more quickly when they believed they were smarter is very significant when you think about it. It implies that you are what you believe you are. Though this may sound simple the ramifications for success and failure are…… [Read More]
esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.
Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…… [Read More]
elevance of Writing and How it Can Be Taught Effectively
Although the relevance of the theoretical perspectives of writing cannot be overstated, the teaching and learning of writing must also incorporate classroom practices. This discussion will largely concern itself with the importance of writing and how it can be taught effectively to primary-aged students.
Writing is an indispensible component of literacy. This is more so the case given that literacy according to the NT Department of Education and Training (2010) essentially "refers to reading, writing, speaking, viewing, and listening effectively in a range of contexts" (p.2). In that regard therefore, the relevance of effective writing skills cannot be overstated. According to the Institute for Educational Sciences (2012), an individual must be an effective writer to fully and actively engage in civic, community, as well as professional activities. Therefore, people who do not acquire this key skill during their elementary education…… [Read More]
Is maturation a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?
For measures of academic achievement, six months (which is the intended length of the study) is not a long enough period of time to be very concerned about maturation as a threat to internal validity. Most academic achievement tests have longer durations. Maturation is something to be considered because of the varying ages of the study participants, and the fact that we know children's brains mature at different rates and some mathematical concepts are not understood until the human brain does mature to certain levels. Moreover, since the boys will move in and out of residency, their exposure to other reading instructions methods and tutoring cannot be controlled.
Is history a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?
Yes. History is the occurrence of some unanticipated…… [Read More]
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…… [Read More]
The eading ecovery Program -- Analysis
The eading ecovery program is an intervention informed by research that seeks to expedite learning and lowering the writing and reading failure rates among learners that fall in the lower 20% within the first year. The approach is a brainchild of a psychologist and educator from New Zealand who came up with the findings in 1980. Dame Marie Clay observed from his research and his observation of good practice in the classroom to evolve eading ecovery. The program was already widely used in New Zealand by 1988. It also spread to Australia, the U.S.A. and lots of other European nations (NSW Government, 2016).
The program is designed to enable learners succeed within a supportive classroom environment. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (1999-2011) acknowledges this with little extra support. The initial years are critical for learners that are on the…… [Read More]
Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…… [Read More]
Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.
Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…… [Read More]
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…… [Read More]