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Siop® Lesson Plan Template Standards Theme Properties
Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90546622
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SIOP® Lesson Plan Template


THM: Properties of Weather




Science for 2nd Grade


KY VOCABULARY: Snow, frost, ice, fog

MATRIALS: The book from which the story will be read is Weather by Seymour Simon. The teacher will need to use a Post chart, "Weather chart ." This will help explain how to make inferences about text and unfamiliar words by applying their schema and other words in the sentences.


(Building background)

Students at this stage may find Weather and climate confusing. Climate is examined by looking at annual patterns. Weather refers to the situation at one given time and the seasons influence the general climate.


(Language and content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, feedback)

Second grade students are expected to apply strategies to comprehend text by making inferences about words describing weather condition when reading.


(Meaningful activities, interaction, strategies, practice…


(Reproduction of this material is restricted to use with Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP® Model.)

© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Action Reading Response DVD 3
Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27118769
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By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).

Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…


Elam, S. (2010). Phonics primer. Accessed 19 March 2012.

Fox, B. (2011). Word identification strategies. Toronto: Lavoisier.

Language Philosophy Advocates Teaching Children
Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55574837
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.., 2004).

Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).


Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute:

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET:

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools:

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from

Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…


Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: 

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at BNET: 

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools:

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from

Repeated Reading Instruction a Powerful and Effective
Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7823424
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epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?

This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.

It is the function of reading instruction to teach…


Boudah, D. & Weiss, M. (2002). Learning disabilities overview. (ERIC Document (Reproduction Service No. ED. 462808).

Cromwell, S. (1997). Whole language and phonics: Can they work together? Education World.

Accessed March 2, 2003 at

Fitzsimmons, M. (1998). Beginning reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED.

2000 the National Reading Panel Developed and
Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60963147
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2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and

Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.

Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…


Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Retrieved from: 

Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Retrieved from: 

What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from: 

Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.

Assessment of the Validity of a Research Design
Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74592429
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Accept This Conclusion?

This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.

Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…

Individuals Professional or Lay Have
Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48240669
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05 level as measured by ____(insert the name of your measurement instrument here) on a post-test basis.

There exists no statistically significant difference between multiple intelligence teaching and traditional teaching for reading language acquisition of first graders at the ?


Eysenck, H.J. And Eysenck, M.W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum.

Ferguson, George a. (1964). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education.

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kerlinger, Fred (1964. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart,

Goal of Indiana Students Reading
Words: 3549 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44891359
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Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson

Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education


Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.

Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.

About the Concept:

There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…


Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: 

Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: 

Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools:

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test:

Journals That Support the Potential
Words: 889 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67642295
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6) Doiron, R. (1994). Using Nonfiction in a Read Aloud Program: Letting the Facts Speak for Themselves. The Reading Teacher, 47(8), 616-624.

This article challenges the pervasive role that fiction has played in read-aloud programs and develops a rationale for including nonfiction. It has a 20-item

Annotated ibliography of nonfiction read-aloud texts.

7) Mountain, L. 2005. Rooting out meaning: more morphemic analysis for primary pupils. Reading Teacher, Vol. 58(8): 742-749.

The research on morphemic analysis is reviewed and explored as to ways to give pupils in grades 1-3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes and roots to construct word meaning. The strategies for teaching morphemic analysis and modification of methods to use with younger children are examined.

8) Joshi, R.M. 2003. Misconceptions about the assessment and diagnosis of reading disability. Reading Psychology, Vol. 24: 247-266.

This article is about the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and talks about…

Bibliography of nonfiction read-aloud texts.

7) Mountain, L. 2005. Rooting out meaning: more morphemic analysis for primary pupils. Reading Teacher, Vol. 58(8): 742-749.

The research on morphemic analysis is reviewed and explored as to ways to give pupils in grades 1-3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes and roots to construct word meaning. The strategies for teaching morphemic analysis and modification of methods to use with younger children are examined.

8) Joshi, R.M. 2003. Misconceptions about the assessment and diagnosis of reading disability. Reading Psychology, Vol. 24: 247-266.

This article is about the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and talks about how the relationship between IQ and reading skill is not straightforward and is, in fact, controversial and why. While 25% of the school population has some form of reading problem, diagnosis based on IQ is not relevant, but a model called the componential model of reading is put forward as more accurate.

Elements of a Balanced Spelling Program
Words: 1653 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94418458
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Balanced Spelling Program

Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…


Cowen, J.E. (2003). A Balanced Approach to Beginning Reading Instruction: A Synthesis of Six Major U.S. Research Studies. International Reading Assoc.

Lacina, I., and Silva, C. (2010). Cases of Successful Literacy Teachers. SAGE.

McLaughlin, M., and Allen, B.M. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Grades 3-8. International Reading Assoc.

Moss, B., and Lapp, D. (2009). Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms, Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. Guilford Press.

Paton G 2010 English Spelling
Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 33080470
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The author offers some concrete suggestions for creating a literacy-friendly household. The first step offered is to make reading a central household activity. This can be achieved by holding daily reading sessions in which collective reading takes place. Family reading time can consist not just of reading stories aloud but also articles from newspapers or the nutritional information on food containers. When reading is presented as a treat or a reward, rather than as a chore, the young learner is more apt to develop positive associations with literacy.

While the article lacks any scientific analysis or empirical evidence, it does offer helpful tools for parents wishing to improve their child's literacy. When literacy problems are recognized early, the child has a greater opportunity to improve and avoid falling behind in class. Because so many school subjects are reading-dependent, creating a literate household is a primary means of ensuring a child's…

Functional Literacy Activities What Are Some Examples
Words: 2109 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95972034
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functional literacy activities? What are some examples?

Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.

What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?

One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…


Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from

Decoding Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for
Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64881066
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Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead

Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…


Alexander, A.W., Anderson, H.G., Heilman, P.C., Voeller, K.K.S., & Torgesen, J.K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193-206.

Carver, R.P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of research and theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cooper, N. (1999). Literacy today: Phonics fun. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from Literacy Trust Website: .

Dias, K. & Juniper, L. (2002). Phono-Graphix - who needs additional literacy support? An outline of research in Bristol schools. Support for learning, 17(1).

Improving Reading Comprehension Education Is
Words: 4005 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30914450
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ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.

High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction

With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…

Reference List

Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)

Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research

Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Language and Literacy
Words: 3722 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60384444
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Language and Literacy

Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.

hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.

Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…

Works Cited



The Guilford Press, March 2000

Best Practices for Students Diagnosed
Words: 4937 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 57499707
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(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)

The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…


Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children

Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at 

Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum

Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at

Balanced Literacy
Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20845053
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Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade

This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.

ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…


Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:

International Reading Association .

Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.

Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs

Philadelphia the Five Components of a Reading
Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7374411
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The five components of a reading program -- phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension -- build on one another to help students become readers. At a hypothetical all-African-American elementary school in Philadelphia's inner city, there would be similarities and differences in the way the five components would be taught in first grade, third grade, and fifth grade classrooms.

Phonemic awareness is the first stage in a comprehensive reading program. It is the foundation upon which other reading skills are built. The International eading Association (IA) defines phonemic awareness as "the ability to segment and manipulate the sounds of oral language" (2011). The IA points out research shows that a child's awareness of the sounds of spoken language are a strong predictor of success in learning to read. Language "play" helps children develop this awareness of sounds. ead-alouds, songs, riddles, poems, and rhyming activities are effective ways to…


Morris, D. (2011). Practicum training for teachers of struggling readers. Phi Delta Kappan 92(8),

pp. 5457.

Penner-Wilger, M. (2008). Reading fluency: A bridge from decoding to comprehension.

International Reading Association. Retrieved from

Academic Progress
Words: 4062 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21203156
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Therapist Name: Case Name/#:

Reason for Referral:

The client is an eight-year-old female who may not have be making adequate academic progress consistent with her age and grade level. She is currently in the third grade. The client was assessed over two sessions.

Presenting Problems:

Clinical concerns: Difficulty in school/with academic progress.

Clinical concerns: Possible learning disability.

Clinical concerns: Reading difficulties.

Clinical concerns: Client potentially not motivated to perform in class.

Clinical concerns: Rule out depression and/or anxiety.


Jailah was born on September 11, 2007. Jailah is the third child and a sibship of five. According to her mother Jailah is of Hispanic and African-American descent. Her native language is English.

With respect to her family Jailah has three sisters ages 16 years old, 14 years old, and five years old. She also has a younger brother age seven years old. The children the family have three different fathers.…

Literacy Action Plan
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99165114
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teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.

"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .

Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.

Literacy Intervention Plan

Literacy Intervention Action Plan

Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes

*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling

* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.

* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .

*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…

C: TSW read along with an audio book in which the emphasis is a word with a short vowel sound.

PA: With digital media (Raskind & Stanberry, 2009), TSW hear a list of words and put a thumb up if they think the vowel is short in a word. Short vowels, as well as long vowel words will be used.

P: TSW plays the sound game. TTW will have two words on the board representing the two different sounds for student to practice, e.g., RUN, RAN. TTW

2015 Corporate Governance'section Executive'summary
Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22264015
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Curriculum: Catch a Little Fox


Good afternoon Judge Jacobs, how is everybody doing? Today, we have a case that needs to be defended. ecently, my client, Donna Mills, used a book called "Cat in the Hat" by Dr. Seuss. Today, I stand to support the book. The reason for this defense is simple. The children's book is being accused of having not developing phonemic awareness. As we know, Phonemic awareness is important since it is critical to reading and spelling accomplishment. Children who cannot decide and operate the sounds inside spoken words have trouble distinguishing and learning the vital print=sound association that is critical to quick reading and spelling achievement. Phonological awareness is essential for learning to read any alphabetic writing system. And plenty of research shows that trouble with phoneme awareness and other phonological proficiencies are a predictor of poor reading and spelling growth.…


David J. Chard, Jean Osborn. Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility. 2 November 2015. . 2 November 2016.

Education Reading Disorders Reading Disabilities
Words: 3924 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77672184
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In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).

Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…


Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.

Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.

Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.

Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.

Iri Impact of Qualitative Reading Inventories and
Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 63049159
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Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans have on literacy development in elementary students

Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans on literacy development in elementary students

eading inventories are frequently used both to assess students who are struggling and to identify strategies that are helpful in supporting reading success for the larger student body. "Procedurally, [informal reading inventories] IIs assess a student's instructional level in reading using sets of passages that are written or selected to be representative of the difficulty level of texts at different grade levels, and in different schools and reading programs" (Specter 2005: 595). "By charting and analyzing patterns in oral reading error types, educators identify whether students rely on one cueing system & #8230; to the exclusion of the others, as beginning readers typically do, or if they use a balance of strategies, as mature readers at…


McIntyre, E., Petrosko, J., Jones, D., Powell, R., & al, e. (2005). Supplemental instruction in early reading: Does it matter for struggling readers? The Journal of Educational

Research, 99(2), 99-107,128.

Nilsson, N.L. (2008). A critical analysis of eight informal reading inventories. The Reading

Teacher, 61: 526 -- 536. doi: 10.1598/RT.61.7.2

Individual Child Help You to Better Understand
Words: 3193 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Other (not listed above) Paper #: 30260467
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individual child help you to better understand some problems of the struggling reader?

A major part of the classrooms in the nation's public schools consist of struggling readers. It has been suggested by researchers that subject teachers can enhance reading abilities of students by imparting: (a) strategy and skill instruction and (b) reading and text-discussion opportunities in several ways. However, giving better or more reading instruction doesn't mean students will apply it. It has been suggested by some researchers that poor as well as good readers don't apply reading skills that have been imparted to them, despite understanding how it is to be done and being interested in learning information through texts. Moreover, struggling readers might opt for engaging with instructions and texts in ways that they realize are damaging to their progress as readers, despite saying that they aspire to improve (Hall, 2009).

Not much is known regarding the…


Brann, A., & Gray, T. (2012). Embedded Supports to Differentiate Instruction for Struggling Students. Retrieved from Reading Rockets:  Psychology. (n.d.). California: McGraw Hill.

Ganske, K., Monroe, J., & Strickland, D. (2003). Questions teachers ask about struggling readers and writers. International Reading Association.

Hall, L.A. (2009). Struggling Reader, Struggling Teacher: An Examination of Student-Teacher Transactions with Reading Instruction and Text in Social Studies. National Council of Teachers of English. How to Write a Case Study. (n.d.). Retrieved from: 

Kelly, C., & Campbell, L. (n.d.). Helping Struggling Readers. Retrieved from John Hopkins School of Education:

Phonemics and Its Assessment
Words: 1643 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66286153
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employed in case of a phonemic lesson plan, are discussed. Each assessment's suitability, pros as well as cons are discussed. Charting and data capture are also dealt with.

Assessment of lesson plan

Phonemic Awareness Assessment (Professional Development-Phonemic Awareness Assessment)

Stage of Literacy Development

Characteristics of This Stage

Phonological Focus Areas



Has partial knowledge of the alphabet

Inability to match voice with print (word concept)

No connection between sound and symbol in spelling (later in this step, may start with beginning or salient sounds)

Learned eadiness-nursery rhymes, preprimary 1 text




Awareness of Word

Awareness of Syllable



Can accurately track print

Employs knowledge of letter-sound for word deciphering

Development of sight vocabulary

Consistent use of starting and ending sounds while spelling words; also, learning digraphs, and medial vowels

Learned Preprimary-Primer text

Combining, manipulating and segmenting:




Early Instructional


Has large sight vocabulary…


(n.d.). Bright Hub Education Provides Teaching Tips & Lesson Plans, Homework Help & Study Guides, Homeschooling Advice & Much More. Pros and Cons of Dibels Reading Assessment. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from 

(n.d.). Emat634languageandliteracy [licensed for non-commercial use only] / EMAT634-LANGUAGE and LITERACY. Yopp - Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from 

(n.d.). Homepage - ReadWriteThink. Building Phonemic Awareness With Phoneme Isolation - ReadWriteThink. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from building-phonemic-awareness-with-120.html

(n.d.). Official DIBELS Home Page: UO DIBELS Data System. Training: UO DIBELS Data System. Retrieved June 25, 2015, from

Literacy Instruction ' Additionally This Work
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.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…


Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at

Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at

The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at

Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at

Teaching a Beginning Reader Especially
Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23516206
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Flexibility is necessary because of the very basic fact that all children with autism seem to express different needs and learning styles. The teacher needs to be able to modify instruction to meet the diverse needs among the spectrum of students with autism. As far as a reading ideology is concerned, an eclectic approach is best, because an autistic student requires several methodologies to obtain the appropriate education.


Hall, M., ibovich, J. & amig, C. (1979). eading and the Elementary School Child. New York, NY: D. Van Norstrand Company.

Iovannone, ., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003) Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders.

Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 18(3): 150

Jennett, H.K., Harris, S.L., & Mesibov, G.B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33: 583-593.

Katims, D. (2000).…


Hall, M., Ribovich, J. & Ramig, C. (1979). Reading and the Elementary School Child. New York, NY: D. Van Norstrand Company.

Iovannone, R., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003) Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders.

Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 18(3): 150

Jennett, H.K., Harris, S.L., & Mesibov, G.B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33: 583-593.

Classroom That Work
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Classrooms That ork

The paragraphs below respond to the text and look at alternative ways to demonstrate reading comprehension to students. These paragraphs will offer new ways to look at ways to enhance students' reading experience.

Reading comprehension is an important part of developmental learning for young students. It helps build confidence and an eagerness to acquire knowledge. Reading is important because it expands the mind and promotes creativity. Promotion of comprehension furthers the learning experience because by understanding one concept, a student can understand others more easily. This is not just about retention of subject matter or a student moving onto the next level. For teachers, it is acquiring the tools to know how to access the strengths and weaknesses for each student to cater an individual strategy. A teacher needs to have the skills to know that each student works at their own pace regardless of making the…

Works Cited

Cunningham, P.M., & Allington, R.L. (2002). Classroom's that work: They can all read and write (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.

Oral Reading Fluency Final Action
Words: 4792 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38611613
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Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).

The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…


Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: 

Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.

Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.

Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from:

Effects of Social Promotion
Words: 3204 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19605836
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Social Promotion

There are concerns that schools are performing an injustice by passing students onto the next grade level although they fail the basic requirements for the current grade level. Underachieving middle school students are being promoted with little regard as to how it may impact their future success in education. It sets the precedence for some students who believe that they do not have to make any effort and they will still move to the next grade without suffering any consequences. This gives the message that accountability in middle schools is unimportant.

The purpose of this research study is to identify and evaluate the effects of social promotion amongst middle school students.


Teachers have encountered many cases in which students should have been retained in the same grade as a result of poor attendance, limited ability, and lack of effort. However, school administrators have granted social promotion to…


The balanced view: social promotion & retention.

Westchester Institute for Human Services Research,

Christie, K. (2001). The middle level: more than treading water. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 1-3.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Avoiding both grade retention and social promotion. Education Digest, 64(3), 48-53.

Learning to Read
Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 31401527
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Early Childhood

In "Emergent Literacy," uth Wilson claims that formal reading instruction "especially if introduced too early…can actually interfere with emergent literacy," (p. 1). The author bases her claim on personal observation with her own children, as well as on empirical evidence related to early childhood literacy education. Using a combination of anecdotal and empirical evidence strengthens the author's stance, and offers a rich opportunity for personal reflection. Wilson does not disparage structured or formal literacy training in early childhood. Instead, she calls for a more organic approach that stresses parental engagement.

Wilson cites evidence from a number of sources showing that literacy emerges in many different settings, and is not dependent on print. Folk practices, including playing with sounds and simply engaging children with words, can be as effective if not more, in helping immerse the child in a literate universe. Finally, Wilson emphasizes the importance of the home…


Wilson, R.A. (n.d.). Emergent literacy. Early Childhood News. Retrieved online:

Learning From Leapfrog Creating Educational
Words: 1501 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 99164816
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Also, by creating school-centered products for older children, it can lessen the criticism that it is imposing technology upon the young, impressionable minds of preschoolers.

Available action alternatives

LeapFrog could continue to stress its core model, or 'razor and blades' approach. However, given that other educational and toy companies are capitalizing upon the LeapFrog platform model, LeapFrog cannot afford to ignore the fact that this market will eventually shrink, even if LeapFrog remains the industry standard. However, the Obama Administration is expanding the focus of the nation on standards-based education. Thus, shifting LeapFrog's focus to its K-high school Leap Start initiative, ESL programming, and other devices that make teaching standards-based education easier for teachers in crowded and cash-strapped classrooms would seem to be the ideal way to ensure that LeapFrog has a comprehensive market approach that covered all potential 'bases' for the company, regardless of the market environment. Furthermore, even…


Bennett, Haynie, McKelvie, Tarallo, Torrens, Wiklund. (2009). Strategic and entrepreneurial management. McGraw-Hill Primis Custom Publishing.

SWOT or TOWS analysis. (2010). Quick MBA. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at

Beginning to Read
Words: 489 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 81848113
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learning how to read, and the development of language as well as language skills. Much of the book is descriptive and historical in nature, though ample space is also provided to contemporary empirical research and its findings concerning reading development and current issues being faced in teaching beginning readers. The conclusions in this regard are that the teaching of phonics is inconsistent both in terms of what is considered to fall under the umbrella of "phonics" and in the specific methodologies and perspectives brought to bear in trying to provide phonics instruction to beginning readers. The focus on mechanical understanding rather than critical understanding in later readers and budding writers is also discussed, with direct implications for beginning readers and on beginning reading instruction.

The research findings suggest that other modes of instruction and greater consistency and clarity in certain methodologies are necessary in order to achieve more effective beginning…

Learning Case Study - Literacy
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" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"

Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.

According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…

Sociocognitive Dual Coding and Processing Models
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Dual Coding Theory (DCT) was originally developed for memory research. The basic notion is that images and words influence memory differently. DCT has been applied to reading and has been used to improve reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. Verbal code would be language in any form; nonverbal codes are tangible objects, pictures, feelings, and events. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing in DCT which fosters learning. The following paper describes the basic elements of DCT.

According to Dual Coding Theory (DCT) information is represented in the brain via both verbal and imagined codes (Paivio, 1971). These two…

Solid Ground by Sharon Taberski by Intelligently
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Solid Ground, by Sharon Taberski

By intelligently using her ten years of primary level teaching experience as a foundation and a resource, Sharon Taberski has achieved an extraordinary level of excellence in her field, according to Shelly Harwayne -- a colleague of Sharon's at Manhattan New School. Shelly, writing in the Foreword of On Solid Ground, asserts that Sharon makes "literacy teaching look easy," because she is well prepared, well organized, and is continually searching for a better way to carry out her work teaching children to read.

Sharon points out in the book's Introduction that the teaching of reading, and the act of learning how to read, "are complex endeavors," but those challenges can be met, she states (page xvi), by pursuing practices and strategies that are "purposeful and connected." And precisely how does she go about establishing a good solid footing with students -- especially those struggling with…


Taberski, Sharon. On Solid Ground: Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3. Portsmouth:

Heinemann, 2000.

Phonological Awareness
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Phonological Awareness and Literacy

It appears that in the last ten years that there has been a growing consensus on the range of skills that have been serving as the basis for reading and writing ability in the 3- to 5-year-old age group (Diamond K., 2014). In order to become a skilled reader before kindergarten, children need a language that is rich and they need something with conceptual knowledge base, and to be able to understand messages that are communicated through print. It is also important that children also must be able to develop the notion that spoken words are made up of smaller substances of speech (phonological awareness) before they enter kindergarten. (Gallagher, 2015)

Nonetheless to attain a high level of skill, the 3- to 5-year-old group need chances to change these strands, not in isolation, but then again interactively. Making the point, not sounds or letters, encourages the…


Baroody, A.E. (2015). Associations Among Name Writing and Alphabetic Skills in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children At Risk of School Failure. Journal of Early Intervention, 35, 20-39.

Diamond, K. (2014). Links Among Home Literacy Environment, Literacy Interest, and Emergent Literacy Skills in Preschoolers At Risk for Reading Difficulties. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2), 78-87.

Diamond, K.E. (2013). Implementation Fidelity of a Coaching-Based Professional Development Program for Improving Head Start Teachers' Literacy and Language Instruction. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(7), 102-128.

Gallagher, P.A. (n.d.). Progress in Language and Literacy Skills Among Children With Disabilities in Inclusive Early Reading First Classrooms. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education February, 33(12), 249-259.

Iddings Risko and Rampulla Entitled
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 91925742
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The state has long held an English-only language policy in the classroom. By law, teachers are not allowed to provide instruction in any other language than English. However, many students do not have the English language skills to understand directions or vocabulary. In addition, many parents cannot help their children with their homework because they do not speak English. This creates a difficult environment for students, parents and educators.

Web Site

The NCELA, or National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition, provides a great deal of meaningful information for ELL educators. They share information from scientific research studies that have been conducted into the current condition and future trends for ELL learning in America. They also offer information concerning assessment accommodations by state for ELL learners, best practices for educating populations such as Native American and Alaskan natives, and the school readiness of pre-K ELL children. The site provides links that…


Bland, K. (2006, February 26). State struggles to help English-learners achieve. Arizona Republic. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from 

Diaz-Rico, L. & Weed, K. (2010). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook. (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Iddings, A., Risko, V. & Rampulla, M. (2009). When you don't speak their language: guiding English-language learners through conversations about text. The Reading Teacher, (63)1, 52-61.

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from

Politics a Policy Issue in
Words: 2723 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66406281
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Superintendents must deal with student populations that change yearly as school choice options alter. These alterations will influence schools that have to present school choice, and schools that do not get Title 1 funds. The child who uses school choice does not have to attend another Title 1 school. They may decide to go to a school that does not get Title 1 funding (Whitney, 2011).

Evaluation of the Effect and Effectiveness of NCLB

Holding schools and school districts responsible for the level of education that they supply is the chief principle of the No Child Left Behind Act. The key to the Act's approach is the make use of measurement tools like standardized tests to be given on a regular schedule, the utilization of benchmarks, and a scheme of encouragements and punishments linked to the generation of higher test scores. On some accounts, the outcomes of this law have…


Cleary, Robert E. (n.d.). The NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT of 2002. Retrieved from

Garrett, Rose. (2010). The New NCLB Blueprint: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Retrieved from 

History and Overview of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (n.d.). Retrieved from 

Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson, Martinez, Felipe, O'Day, Jennifer, Stecher, Brian, Taylor, James and Cook, Andrea. (2007). State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act

Attitude Influence Model of Reading
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Attitude-Influence model of reading involves teaching good attitudes about reading in an effort to influence how children feel about the reading experience. Attitude was chosen as the most important component of the model because it plays such a strong role in research done on a psychological level. However, attitude can be hard to measure, because it is very subjective and can fluctuate wildly. That is one of the cons of the attitude-influence model, and one of the cons of attempting to address attitude in general when it comes to research. However, in this model, attitude is not all that is considered. Influence is also very important. Influence means how a person is influenced to read and how he or she sees reading. If a person's attitude is good but there is no influence, reading might not take place. The same is true if the attitude is bad but there is…

Scientifically-Based Research in Education of Course it
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Scientifically-Based Research in Education

Of course, it would be nice if it were easy to standardize reading education across all schools, for all students. This would make instruction much easier for instructors as well as students. But students alas, are not machines and what 'works' for one gifted student may not 'work' for another student with a learning disability. The allure of easy standardization of educational methodology in something as difficult to teach as reading, however, partially explains appeal the REA, or Scientifically-Based Reading Research approach. This approach is advocated by the National Reading Panel's methodological overview. Although the NRP proclaims its neutrality, in its actual language it stresses a "phonics awareness" based approach. This approach involves teaching children to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables and words. It involves teaching children to blend or segment the sounds in words using letters. (NIH, 2004)

However, hat Really Matters…

Work Cited

Allington, Richard L. (2000) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers- Designing Research-Based Programs. First Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

National Institute of Health. (2004) "Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at

Scripted Reading Holcomb Sabrina What's All the
Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22159516
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Scripted Reading

Holcomb, Sabrina. "What's All the Fuss About?"

Holcomb's article looks at the issue of scripted reading instruction. Scripted reading programs are highly directive, telling the teachers in great detail exactly what to teach and even what to say while instructing the students. Scripted reading instruction has become more prominent since the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" law (NCLB). The publishers of these programs have made great effort to base the programs on "best practices," or reading instructional techniques proven in research to teach students well.

In the article, the author talks about two different schools, one in LIttle Rock, Arkansas, and one in Los Angeles, and their differing opinions. In LIttle Rock, the teachers have found their scripted program highly effective, and the students have made great gains. The Arkansas teachers were fully included in decision-making regarding the program. In Los Angeles, the program was forced…

Use of Technology to Support Beginning Readers in K-3
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Technology to Support Beginning eaders in K-3

More and more technology is being adopted in the classroom to facilitate student learning. ecent initiatives established by the no child left behind act have strengthened educators desire to ensure that all students achieve an acceptable level of literacy by grade three. As such educators have adopted various techniques including use of technology to support literacy in the classroom. Studies suggest that technology use in the classroom is beneficial for promoting literacy. This report examines the various technologies that are effective and what techniques can be adopted to facilitate student literacy at the K-3 level with regard to literacy.

What Techniques Have Been Tried

Computers are considered "versatile tools" that can support a wide range of scholastic activities including facilitating reading in the classroom (Kerawalla & Crook, 2002). As such more and more classrooms are inundated with technology tools to facilitate learning. Computers…


Barish, S. & Daley, E. (2005 -- Oct). "Low-tech and non-tech obstacles to information technology." EduExec, 24(10): 1-7.

Casey, J. (1997). Early literacy: The empowerment of technology. Englewood, CO:

Libraries Unlimited.

Elmore, R. E (1996). "Getting to scale with good educational practice." Harvard

Does Using Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
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Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners

The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.

Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…

Works Cited

Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: 

Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:

Class Divided
Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37607343
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third grade children of the class bought into the premise that they were superior or inferior based solely on the color of their eyes and the actions of the teacher. Though I knew prejudice was a learned behavior I was astonished at how readily the behavior was adopted.

Elliot's comment at the end of the first day, "I watched what had been marvelous, cooperative, wonderful, thoughtful children turn into nasty, vicious, discriminating little third graders in the space of fifteen minutes," underscored the power that suggestion has over belief.

Expectations are a powerful motivation for both success and failure. The fact that children were able to get though their phonics card pack more quickly when they believed they were smarter is very significant when you think about it. It implies that you are what you believe you are. Though this may sound simple the ramifications for success and failure are…

Works Cited

Elliott, Jane. "Brown Eyes and Blues Eyes." [Video] YouTube. (1970). 21 March 2012.

Response to Intervention Effectiveness
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Intervention Effectiveness

esponse to instruction and intervention TI2 is reported as a general approach in education to closing the gap in achievement. TI2 methods are constructed upon the esponse to Intervention (TI) model that was an option for schools under the 'Building the Legacy, Idea 2004 reauthorization of the individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA. (California Department of Education, 2011) TI and the expanded TI2 are reported as being based upon "17 years of practice that has refined continuous progress monitoring as a strategy for keeping students on a path toward success." (California Department of Education, 2011) TI is reported as a strategy that moves all students through the steps set out in the learning standards and is further more stated to be an approach that views both academic and behavioral achievement of students.

Tier 1-3

Tier 1 included the 'Universal Interventions' which include "preventive, proactive, universal intervention in all…


Benchmark interventions -- reinforcement (2011) Department of Education. Retrieved from:

Case Study: El Rancho Unified School District in Pico Rivera, California (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from: 

Case Study: Pella Community School District, Iowa (2011) International Reading Program. Retrieved from:

Relevance of Writing and How it Can
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elevance of Writing and How it Can Be Taught Effectively

Although the relevance of the theoretical perspectives of writing cannot be overstated, the teaching and learning of writing must also incorporate classroom practices. This discussion will largely concern itself with the importance of writing and how it can be taught effectively to primary-aged students.

Writing is an indispensible component of literacy. This is more so the case given that literacy according to the NT Department of Education and Training (2010) essentially "refers to reading, writing, speaking, viewing, and listening effectively in a range of contexts" (p.2). In that regard therefore, the relevance of effective writing skills cannot be overstated. According to the Institute for Educational Sciences (2012), an individual must be an effective writer to fully and actively engage in civic, community, as well as professional activities. Therefore, people who do not acquire this key skill during their elementary education…


Allington, R. (2003). The Six Ts of Effective Elementary Literacy Instruction. Retrieved from 

Institute for Educational Sciences. (2012). Teaching Elementary School Students to be Effective Writers. Retrieved from 

Lee, S.W. (Ed.). (2005). Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.

NT Department of Education and Training. (2010). Literacy Literature Review for Evidence-Based Practices Framework. Retrieved from

Variables Impacting Internal Validity in Program Evaluation
Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 66831800
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Internal Validity

Is maturation a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?

For measures of academic achievement, six months (which is the intended length of the study) is not a long enough period of time to be very concerned about maturation as a threat to internal validity. Most academic achievement tests have longer durations. Maturation is something to be considered because of the varying ages of the study participants, and the fact that we know children's brains mature at different rates and some mathematical concepts are not understood until the human brain does mature to certain levels. Moreover, since the boys will move in and out of residency, their exposure to other reading instructions methods and tutoring cannot be controlled.

Is history a possible threat to the internal validity of the study? Why or why not?

Yes. History is the occurrence of some unanticipated…


Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In Reis, H. And Judd, C. (Eds.) Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Wortman, P.M. (1983). Evaluation research -- A methodological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 34, 223 -- 260. doi:10.1146/

Early Childhood Reading Education
Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36866626
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common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.

There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.

Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…


Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.

Analyzing a Critique Reading Recovery
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The eading ecovery Program -- Analysis

The eading ecovery program is an intervention informed by research that seeks to expedite learning and lowering the writing and reading failure rates among learners that fall in the lower 20% within the first year. The approach is a brainchild of a psychologist and educator from New Zealand who came up with the findings in 1980. Dame Marie Clay observed from his research and his observation of good practice in the classroom to evolve eading ecovery. The program was already widely used in New Zealand by 1988. It also spread to Australia, the U.S.A. and lots of other European nations (NSW Government, 2016).

The program is designed to enable learners succeed within a supportive classroom environment. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (1999-2011) acknowledges this with little extra support. The initial years are critical for learners that are on the…


New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. (1999-2011). What is Reading Recovery? Retrieved May 23, 2016, from NSW Department of Education and Communities: 

NSW Government. (2016, May 16). What is Reading Recovery? Retrieved May 23, 2016, from NSW Government:

Student Reading and Writing
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Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…

Pitman Bullokar Two Champions and
Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54901669
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Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.

Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…

Works Cited

Baker, Alfred. The Life of Sir Isaac Pitman. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1919.

Bullokar, William. Three Pamphlets on Grammar. Accessed 26 March 2010.

Dons, Ute. Descriptive Adequacy of Early Modern English Grammars. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

Pitman, Sir Isaac. A History of Shorthand. London: Ben Pitman, 1890.

Improving Reading Skills Reading and
Words: 8772 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 33211921
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Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.

Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.

Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.

Lunch and a brief recess follows.

First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development

Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.

Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.

Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…

What do Tom and Mary have in common?

Describe Mary

Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.