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Photosynthesis & Solar Photovoltaic Technology
hat is photosynthesis and how does photosynthesis work? How is process of photosynthesis linked to photovoltaic technologies? How are they the same and how are they different? This paper will delve into those issues and provide answers to the questions.
Photosynthesis is the process in which green plants create their own food thanks to sunlight shining on them. Animals eat other organisms for their nutrient intake, but plants make their food thanks to the fact that they have chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the pigment that creates the green color in plants and it "…captures the Sun's energy and uses it to make sugars out of carbon dioxide from the air and water" (Ohio State University, 2008). The sugars are vital to the process because they provide fuel for the roots of the plant, the stems and leaves of the plant, and allow the plant to continue…
Green, Jenny. (2011). Photosynthesis or photovoltaics: Weighing the impact. ASU News
[Now]. Arizona State University. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from https://asunews.asu.edu/20110512_photosynthesis_photovolatics .
Luque, Antonio, and Hegedus, Steven. (2011). Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Mapel, J.K., and Baldo, M.A. (2007). "The Application of Photosynthetic Materials and Architectures to Solar Cells," in Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy
However, unlike chlorophyll, silicon cannot be used for energy-generation in its raw state, and must be processed by humans. Silicon is favored "because it remains a good conductor of electricity even after it has been heated. In order for silicon to be used for solar cells, it must be heavily heated to separate it from oxygen so that it can be further processed" (Stier 2009). Although solar energy is widely touted as a 'green' technology, the actual manufacture of silicon cells is relatively labor-intensive and results in the burning of a considerable amount of fossil fuels. In contrast, the photosynthesis that takes place in plants is truly 'green' (no pun intended). "Plants are able to create their 'solar panels' relatively inexpensively, so much so that in seasonal climates they regularly shed their leaves and rebuild them the following year using a clean, low-power energy source; out of locally-available and life-friendly…
Farabee, MJ. (2007). Photosynthesis. Maricopa University. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BiobookPS.html
The second law of thermodynamics. (2010). Flying Turtle. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.flyingturtle.org/energy/2nd_Law.html
Semiconductors: The science behind solar. (2011). Solar Cal Finder. Retrieved January 11, 2011
Materials and Methods
Procedure is found on pages 258 to 259 in Biology I: Molecular and Cells Laboratory Manual (Dalton, 2012).
"1" represents the first trial, with an average time-to-surface of 282.4 seconds at a distance of seven centimeters from the light source.
"2" represents the second trial, with an average time-to-surface of 422.9 seconds at a distance of four centimeters from the light source.
An autotroph is an organism that uses sunlight and/or other inorganic features of its environment to create/convert the energy it needs in order to survive, such as most plants including the spinach that was used in this experiment (Kent, 2000; Dalton, 2012). A heterotroph, on the other hand, is an organism that needs to consume other organisms in order to meet its internal energy needs; humans are one obvious example of autotrophs, as is almost every member (perhaps every member) of the animal…
Dalton, K. (2012). Biology I Molecular and Cells: Lecture Guide and Laboratory Manual 3rd Edition. Virginia Beach, VA: Academx Publishing Services, Inc.
Kent, M. (2000). Advanced Biology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Photosynthesis is a process in plants, algae, and some prokaryotes, that coverts solar insulation into chemical energy stored in glucose or other organic compounds. Photosynthesis occurs in slightly different ways in higher plants relative to photosynthetic bacteria. Photosynthesis is an important process because it harnesses the sun's energy into utilizable forms of energy on earth. Most biological organisms such as animals and fungi are unable to directly use light energy to power biological processes such as active transport, cell division and muscle movement. ATP is used to power these processes. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose and then the process of cellular respiration converts energy in glucose to energy in the form of ATP which is ultimately used to power biological processes. The energy produced by photosynthesis forms the foundation of virtually all terrestrial and aquatic food chains. As a result, photosynthesis is the…
Carter, J (2004). "Photosynthesis." SC Links, 2 Nov 2004. Retrieved from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
Photosynthesis is critical for the survival of all life on earth. The process of photosynthesis within plants consists of two processes, one which begins with energy from the sun in the form of visible light, and another which is light-independent and capture carbon dioxide for glucose production (Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008).
Plants are green because they absorb the red and blue wavelengths of visible light, thereby reflecting the color green (University of Idaho, 2008). In the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation occurs when light pigments are absorbed by plant chloroplasts and converted into ATP and NADPH in the thylakoid membranes (University of Idaho, 2008; Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008). The light-independent phase, also known as the carbon fixation reactions, uses the ADP and NADPH to produce glucose from fixed and reduced carbon dioxide and the enzyme uBisCo (University of Idaho, 2008; Audesirk, Audesirk, & Byers, 2008). Water is…
Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Byers, B. (2008). Biology: Life on earth with physiology 8E. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
Cohn, D. (2008). Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration; Powerpoint presentation. St. Louis, MO, USA.
Gregory, M. (2010). Cellular Respiration. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from SUNY biology: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/cellular%20respiration/cellular.htm
IUPUI Dept of Biology. (2004, 02-16). Cellular Respiration. Retrieved 02-20, 2011, from biology.iupui.edu: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/n100/2k4ch7respirationnotes.html
Why There Would Be No People Without Plants.
Plants play a crucial part in the life circle of animals and human beings and their importance in life cannot be undermined, they contribute to the global food chain as the primary source of food and are the reason that life exists. The lives of all the living organisms and human beings are dependent on plants, hence an explanation as to why plants are placed at the bottom of the food chain. Apart from the plants, no living creature can derive or make its own food, it is only the plants which are self sufficient and can manufacture their own food for survival (Anne, 2007).
Plants through the process called photosynthesis take in water, carbon dioxide and light to produce sugar which is in form of glucose and release a lot of oxygen into the air. Photosynthesis takes place in the…
Anne StClair, 2007. Helium. The importance of plant life in the global food chain. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.helium.com/items/255011-the-importance-of-plant-life-in-the-global-food-chain
Ecochem, 1998. Phosynthesis, Respiration and transpiration. Retrieved April 19, 2012 from http://www.ecochem.com/resource_transpiration.html
Global change, 2012. A Premier on Photosynthesis and the Functioning of cells. Retrieved April
9, 2012 from http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/energyflow/psn_primer.html
Discussion of Graph:
The graph tracks the different heights. Blue light shows better results than red or yellow light. Blue is part of the white light spectrum, so it is understandable that the results would be similar. hite light had to be used as a control factor
Soybean development under blue light was similar in several respects to that of shaded plants. It was consistent with an important role in the regulation of growth. Therefore, soybeans from blue light conditions partitioned relatively more growth to leaves than red and blue only. The results confirm the general hypothesis. Experimental design was a key factor in the success of the scientific inquiry due to control and uniformity. The investigation can be replicated due to the ease of acquisition of the experimental materials and the uniformity of conditions. The replication of an experiment is an evaluation of validity because…
Briggs, W.R., & Christie, J.M. (2002). Phototropins 1 and 2: versatile plant.
Trends in Plant Science, 7(5), 204-210.
Britz, S.J., & Sager, J.C. (1990). Photomorphogenesis and photoassimilation in soybean and sorghum grown under broad spectrum or blue-deficient light sources. Plant Physiology, 94, 448-454.
Erickson, R.O., & Silk, W.K. (1980, May). The kinematics of plant growth.
Photosynthesis is the process by the help of which plants make their own food by capturing the solar energy. Solar cell as compared to the plants coverts the sunlight into electric energy in order to be used by the human beings. This paper aims to highlight the differences and similarities between a plant cell and a solar cell in addition to the application of laws of thermodynamics to each system.
Laws of Thermodynamics
In the case of photosynthesis and the solar cells, three laws of thermodynamics are applicable. According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy, or mass cannot be created nor they can be destroyed (ana, 2008, p. 67). The first law of thermodynamics is fulfilled by the plant cells as no new energy or mass is being created but solar energy is being converted into chemical energy or electric energy in the case of solar cells. Second law…
Nelson, J. (2003). The physics of solar cells, Volume 2 of Series on Properties of Semiconductor Materials. Imperial College Press.
Rana, F. (2008). The cell's design: how chemistry reveals the Creator's artistry. Baker Books.
Excited electrons are captured by primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem II electron transport chain. This system also splits molecules of water into 1/2 O2, 2H+ and 2 electrons. This process is termed noncyclic because the electrons that pass through here do not return to the original photosystem. Photolysis, an ultraviolet light-mediated nonenzymatic reaction, generates H+ ions replacing those lost in the photosystems. This is explained through the chemiosmosis theory which states that as electrons are transported to the electron transport chain some energy is released which are used to pump protons across the thyalakoid membrane from the stroma of the chloroplast. This produces a proton gradient or what is called, proton motive force. This same force is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi.
What are the roles of NADH and NADPH in cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
NADH, together with FADH2 is produced from three processes, namely: glycolysis,…
A.L. Lehninger, et. al., Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed. Worth Publishers, NY, 1993.
R.K. Murray, et. al., Harper's Biochemistry, 24th ed. Appleton & Lange, 1993. http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/photosyn/fg4.html
Cellular espiration and Function
Every living organism needs energy to survive since all cells require energy in order to perform the necessary biochemical reactions that sustain homeostasis within an organism. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis can be described as processes through which living organisms gain and utilize energy. However, photosynthesis is the process through which plant cell obtain and utilize energy from the sun and make it available to all living things. During this process, plants capture energy from the sun and transform it into chemical energy. Moreover, photosynthesis entails combining carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars like glucose through the use of energy from the sun (Editorial Board, 2012, p.51). In contrast, cellular respiration is the process through which cells are allowed to tap into the energy stored during photosynthesis. This process entails chemical reactions that break down glucose before converting it into a huge amount of ATP. The…
Editorial Board. (2012). Biology (1st ed.). Schaumburg, IL: Words of Wisdom, LLC.
"How are Respiration and Photosynthesis Related?" (n.d.). UCSB Science Line. Retrieved from UC Santa Barbara -- University of California website: http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/index.html
Cellular respiration is the process whereby living cells gain energy through the oxidation of organic substances, which maybe, carbohydrates, proteins or fats. The preferred source of nutrient for most cells in the body is glucose. (ussell, 2004)
The first step in cellular respiration is glycolysis. The end product in this stage of respiration for cells with mitochondria and an adequate supply of oxygen is Pyruvate. This is a series of ten reactions that yields two NADH and two ATP molecules. Oxygen is required here to re-oxidize the NADH formed during the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate. This is called aerobic respiration. Alternatively, in cells with decreased or absent oxygen molecules, glucose is converted to pyruvate, which is reduced to form NADH to form lactate. This is called anaerobic glycolysis since there is no net formation of NADH. Anaerobic respiration occurs in oxygen deprived cells and in red blood cells because…
Farabee, M.J. (2010, May 18). Photosynthesis. Retrieved from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookps.html
Russell, B. (2004, Feburary 18). Cellular respiration. Retrieved from http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch7respirationnotes.html
The hypothesis here is that it is the quality of the light, not the quantity of the light that makes a difference, and having a lot more light will not necessarily make photosynthesis occur any faster.
With an experiment like this there is always room for error. Measurements taken incorrectly is the biggest problem, because there are multiple steps to be taken each time the light source is moved, and it is very important to ensure that this is being addressed correctly. The quality of the plant and its health could also affect whether it produced photosynthesis rates that are appropriate and generalized for its species, as well. These are variables that can only be controlled to a certain degree and, as such, have to be accounted for.
Materials and Methods
In this experiment, the goal is to measure the rate of photosynthesis that Elodea shoots have when they…
Plants and the environment (2003). Ohio State University. http://www.osu.edu/plants/enviroplants.htm
The soil environment. (2004). http://organiclifesytles.tamu.edu/soilbasics/soilenvironment.html
Understanding the environment (1997). Wisconsin Fast Plants. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
photosynthesis chemosynthesis. Determine significant step regard harnessing energy process, explain? 1 page Choosing credible sources: As a business person politician, assume talking staff.
How do different cultures and age differences affect workplace relations?
Just like no workplaces project is alike, no project team is alike in terms of the background and values of the individuals that make up the team. All too often it is tempting to assume that our personal values are universal values. Something as simple as personal space can feel very intuitive, even though what is considered the 'correct' distance is actually culturally determined. In many societies, such as Mediterranean cultures, a very close distance between two conversing parties is normal. In other cultures, a respectful distance is demanded, particularly between superiors and subordinates. A Japanese-American manager might find his Italian-American employee to be excessively familiar and confrontational, simply because the man stands too close to him…
The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)
Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…
Biology-Online. (2005, May 15) "Chemical composition of the body." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www.biology-online.org/9/1_chemical_composition.htm.
Farabee, M.J. (2010a, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Introduction: The nature of science and biology." Retrieved December 1, 2011 from www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintro.html .
(2010b, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Chemistry II: Water and organic materials." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html .
Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee. (1995) "Photosynthesis." Encyclopedia of Applied Physics.(Vol. 13): 513-532. VCH Publishers, Inc.
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…
Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf
Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html
Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
Shoot architecture enhances photosynthesis largely by maximizing the ability of the plant to get sunlight. Obviously light is the crucial resource in photosynthesis, but different plants obtain the resource in different ways. For example, the basic arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (known as "phyllotaxy") is different for every species of plant -- however, in all of these cases the plant has evolved so that the emergence of leaves does not block the available light for leaves above or below. The evolutionary reason for this should be obvious: as leaves exist purely to facilitate photosynthesis, the production of leaves that underperform due to inadequate access to sunlight would be a waste of the plant's resources. We can also see the evolutionary imperative expressed in leaf size: in cold or dry environments without much access to liquid water, the leaf size is drastically shrunken in an attempt to…
evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.
Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…
Lichens are commonly used as ecological signs or bio-indicators. If atmosphere is extremely contaminated with sulphur dioxide there could be no lichens existing, just eco-friendly algae might be identified. When the atmosphere is clear, shrubby, hairy as well as, leafy; lichens turn out to be plentiful. A small number of lichen varieties can put up with extremely high degrees of air pollution and therefore are generally seen on pavements, wall surfaces and also tree-bark in city locations. By far the most delicate lichens happen to be shrubby and leafy whilst the most resistant lichens are crusty in looks (Showman, 68; Nash and Gries, 1-29). A lichen area design might be noticed in big cities and towns or close to commercial buildings which matches the average degrees of sulphur dioxide encountered.
The resistant lichens are helpful bioindicators for atmosphere air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide contamination, given that…
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…
Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.
Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as well. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis, which is considered the primary provider energy to almost all of life on Earth. Very simply put, "photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar" (Carter 1996). The process itself is actually quite complex, but basically several different pigments in plants (most essentially chlorophyll) absorb different wavelengths of light, which excites their electrons and causes chemical reactions to take place within specific molecules in the plant. These reactions ultimately result in the recombination of atoms into sugars, whose bonds can be broken to release energy when the plant needs it.
Plants are then eaten by other organisms, and te energy stored…
Carter, J. (1996). "Photosynthesis." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm
Kyrk, J. (2008). "Krebs cycle." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html
Nave, C. (2005). "Hyperphysics: Heat and thermodynamics." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
This physiological process allows plants to make their own food. Being able to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis, plants, unlike animals, no longer need to feed on other organisms in order to exist and survive. And since sunlight is required for this essential physiological process to occur, sunlight therefore makes the plants stronger.
Through the physiological process of photosynthesis, plants are able to release oxygen, the presence of which guarantees that existence of life on earth will continue. According to Hackel, the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere was released over 3,500 million years ago through plant photosynthesis and "without plants, there would be no oxygen in the earth's atmosphere." (22) The sun not only makes plants stronger, it also helps ensure that life on this planet continues.
Sunlight is also required by some plants in order to germinate. The sun helps the seeds of plants to…
Hackel, Hans. "Why Plants Need Sunlight." Courier. February 2004. 13 July 2009 < http://www.agrocourier.com/bayer/cropscience/cscms.nsf/id/Plasun_Agro/$file/plants_sunlight.pdf >.
Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.
One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.
Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…
" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html
STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html
J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.
According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).
The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for
Sustainable Living." Cited in:
Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…
1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.
Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title
Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.
Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley
PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley
The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 126.96.36.199) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.
As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…
Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.
Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.
Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.
Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.
This is indirect evidence of photosynthetic organisms." (Armstrong Chapter 2, pp. 6). Thus, photosynthetic organisms have been evidenced to have existed well into the Precambrian.
Another source of data concerning life in the Precambrian comes from ancient stromatolites. Today, stromatolites can still be found in a handful of locations, and build upon each other by catching tiny particles of sediment. "Ancient stromatolites, dated to 3.5 gya, are constructed identically. Stromatolites, as unique geological structures formed by the actions of living organisms, are indirect evidence of ancient microbial communities dominated presumably by green photosynthetic organisms." (Armstrong Chapter 2, pp. 7). Together, these three portions of scientific information have generated a rough picture of life in the Precambrian.
Still more recent lines of reasoning continue to reveal information about life from this geologic period. The fossils, carbon dating, and stromatolite evidence only account for an aspect of Precambrian life. Some scientists are…
Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.
Define homoeothermic and endothermic.
Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.
What effect did lowering the…
"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.
The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)
Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…
Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.
Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Nuvox.net. Available:
http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/arr.html. July 1, 2004.
EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…
Richard J. Pierce Jr. Energy Independence and Global Warming Environmental Law. Volume: 37. Issue: 3. 2007. 595+.
J. Lubchenko, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279 (1998): 491-497.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assesment Report (Geneva, Switzerland: World Meterological Organization, 1995); P. Martens, "How will Climate Change Affect Human Health?" American Scientist 87 (1999): 534-541.
The researchers collected samples of different species of leaves and measured their repellency by comparing the contact angles of water droplets of a uniform size deposited on their surfaces by the use of pipettes under laboratory conditions.
Contrary to the experimental expectations, the results of the experiment did not support the initial hypothesis: some of the leaves collected from the drier environments exhibited greater water repellency than some of the leaves collected from the wettest environments. After analyzing the data, the researchers proposed an alternate evolutionary purpose for the mechanism behind water repellency of different leaves.
Experimental Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Inquiry:
Specifically, instead of evolving the mechanism of increasing water droplet beading to increase photosynthetic efficiency, the researchers proposed that the purpose of this adaptation may actually relate to the increased need for water in particularly dry environments. According to this hypothesis, the purpose of high…
New Vocabulary Terms to review: ethanol, corn stover, hydrolysis, cellulose, hemicellulose, carbohydrates, polysaccharide, starch, saccharide, glucose, enzyme, salivary amylase, cellulose, colorimeter, cuvette, concentration, absorbance, wavelength, nanometer, fermentation, renewable resource, non-renewable resource
National Standards Met:
Science Content Standards: 8-12
CONTENT STANAR A: Science as Inquiry As a result of activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, 2) Understandings about scientific inquiry
CONTENT STANAR B: Physical Science As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop an understanding of: 1) Structure of atoms, 2) Structures and of properties in matter, 3) Chemical reactions
CONTENT STANAR C: Life Science- 1) understanding of the cell
CONTENT STANAR E: Science and Technology -As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities of technological design, 2) Understandings about science and technology
CONTENT STANAR F: Science in Personal and…
Design for Degradation - Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention - Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances (The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, 2010).
Teacher Prep: This module focuses on the production of sugar (glucose and maltose) from cornstarch. The lesson is inquiry based, and is well set for inclusion into the curriculum for chemistry, biology (ecology), or basic physical science. The first lesson from this module relates glucose production from cornstarch to ethanol fuel production from corn stover. Another lesson uses a calculator-based colorimeter interface from the Vernier Company to quantify the hydrolysis of starch to sugar by salivary amylase. In this lesson saliva is added to a starch solution containing a couple of drops of iodine. Light initially doesn't pass through this solution. If the absorption decreases after the addition of the saliva, this means more light is passing through and the starch is being hydrolyzed (broken down into maltose and glucose). The third lesson again uses colorimetry but
The following study suggests that whilst macro and micronutrients are conducive to plant growth it is water that has the greatest impact on, and is the most crucial regulator of plant growth and, when regulated, can lead to the highest growth spurt. The author of this study, therefore, wished to test the effects of a pellet, one of whose elements originated from a microorganism, powder that sourced from a microorganism, and water. The hypothesis was that whilst each would contribute to plant growth, the greatest amount of growth would emerge from the water and that even thoguh all plants in each of the other 2 studies initially received the same amount of water in their feeding / growth process, addition of water to the experimental study of the Brassica rapa would -- due to water's enhanced absorption capacities -- evidence enhanced plant growth.. Formulating these hypotheses in a scientific manner:…
Environmental factors effecting growth: Water and humidity extension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/env_factors.html
Higa, T. & Wididana, GN. (1991) The concept and theories of effective microorganisms. Proceedings of the first international conference http://www.infrc.or.jp/english/KNF_Data_Base_Web/PDF%20KNF%20Conf%20Data/C1-5-015.pdf
Kloeeper, JW & Schroth, MN (1981) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology, 71, 642-644.
Millhouse, DE & Munneke, DR (1979) Increased growth of Nicotinana glyutinosa as partially related to accumulation of ammonium-nitrogen… Phytopathology, 69, 793-797
What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…
Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html
Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ
O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html
Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).
Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton
Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton
It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…
Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.
Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…
Borgonie, G., Garcia-Moyano, a., Litthauer, D., Bester, a., van Heerden, E., Moller, C., Erasmus, M., & Onstott, T.C. (2011).Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa. Nature, 474(June). 79-88. Doi: 10.1038/nature09974
Ericsson, Magnus. (2008). Seabed deposits generate a new wave of interest in offshore mineral recovery. Offshore Mining (September).
Edmonds, H.N., Michael, P.J., Baker, E.T., Connelly, D.P., Snow, J.E., Langmuir, C.H., Dick, H.J.B., Muhe, R., German, C.R., & Graham, D.W. (2003). Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctice Ocean. Nature, 421(16).
Lemonick, Michael D. & Dorfman, Andrea. (2002). Microbes at the extremes may tell us how life began. Time Europe, 160(6), 34-38. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=7091367&site=ehost-live
Eternal Circle of Time
Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…
Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/
Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA. http://www.yowusa.com/index.html
Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
Wind energy itself is a completely renewable source. In fact, it actually relies on solar power as its own source; "The sun's energy in interaction with the Earth's surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source," (Sustainable Table 2010). Modern implication and practice have proven that generating power through wind energy can be a reliable and clean source of providing practical uses of power. esidential and commercials cities have been provided with much power coming from the windy plains of America's greatest desserts. It is a growing strategy for alternative energy solutions, and "Today, wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity," (West 2010). More and more facilities of seemingly endless white wind turbines are being built across the country. Such facilities will provide great sources for energy within the future development of the nation.…
Alternate Energy Sources. (2010). Alternate Energy Sources for a Flourishing Future. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/index.html .
Organizing America. (2010). New energy for America. Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.barackobama.com/issues/newenergy/index.php
Sustainable Table. (2010). Fossil fuel and energy use. The Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/energy/
West, Larry. (2010). Top 7 renewable energy sources. Environmental Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm
Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself (or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself) need not, and should not, endorse the system (as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations). In other words, the theory simultaneously:
(1) attempts to take into account the participant's perspective; and (2) manages to choose among possible participants' perspectives without having to make moral judgments; while
(3) keeping sufficient distance from the participants' perspective to allow…
Austin, John, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (H L.A. Hart ed., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1955).
Austin, Regina, "Sapphire Bound! (Minority Feminist Scholarship)" (1989) Wisconsin Law Review 539.
Baird, Douglas; Gertner, Robert and Picker, Randal, Game Theory and the Law (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Baker, Gordon, "Defeasibility and Meaning" in Law, Morality, and Society (P M.S. Hacker and J. Raz eds., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), pp. 26-57.
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…
Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved
April 17, 2010 from http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial
Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…
And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.
The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).
While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.
One should however bear in mind that…
Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf
Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html
A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/
Atrazine. Retrieved from http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm
The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.
Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
began to introduce supernatural agents into his theories, such as the
archae of Paracelsus, which preside over bodily affairs and functions. He
believed that diseases were caused by the archae being affected, so cures
were attained by remedying and appeasing these supernatural forces.
Van Helmont was one of the first scientists or alchemists to begin to
understand and teach that the body is affected by chemicals and applied
chemical principles to physiological problems. One of the main things that
we may be grateful to van Helmont for is his development of the "scientific
method," in which experiments are carefully documented and observed.
Instead of using reason or thought to solve a chemical problem, one used
practical application and created an experiment which sometimes might yield
surprising results, results that were not available simply through the
Van Helmont sought support for his theories in the Bible and…
Edwards, Quinn. "Photosynthesis and Optimizing Algae Growth in a
Bioreactor". Introduction to Biophotonics. Logan, Utah: Utah State
University. 28 Apr 2006.
NNDB. Jan Baptist van Helmont. Soylent Communications. 2006.
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
Other things being equal, higher sap sugar content translates to lower costs of production and greater profits (World ook Encyclopedia 1992).
lack and sugar maples start their growth later in the spring than red or silver maple. As maples begin their growth, chemical changes take place in the sap which makes it inappropriate for syrup production. The term "buddy sap" is often employed to late season sap which produces syrup with a very disagreeable flavor and odor. ecause sugar and black maple resume growth later than red or silver maple, sap may be collected later in the spring.
Japanese maple, a. palmatum, is also a well-liked ornamental tree. It has about 80 strains varying from shrubs to trees. They rarely grow more than 6 meters high. Japanese maples have leaves that are deeply divided into five to nine narrow, toothed lobes. They have light leaves which are delicate shades of…
Acer Saccharum. http://www.wildwnc.org/trees/Acer_saccharum.html
Gabriel WJ. 1975. Phenotypic selection of sugar maples for superior sap volume production. In Proceedings, Twenty-first Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.91-96.
Godman RM. 1965. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United States H.A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271: Washington (DC). p 6-73
Gould NE. 1979. Reforestation and timber stand improvement report for Fiscal Year 1978 and 1979. WO-2490 Records and Report. USDA Forest Service: Washington (DC). p 57
Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.
Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…
All About Plate Tectonics. (2010). Enchanted Learning. Cited in:
Rocks and the Rock Cycle. (2011). Windows to the Universe. Cited in:
A water right is an action that was started by a prospective applicant and they had to follow the terms and conditions laid down by the SWCB including providing progressive reports. After a period of time, the SWCB granted water rights to a certain body and this is exactly what happened to Mono Lake as well (Mono Basin EI, 1993). It took a long battle to overturn this amendment and this law posed serious legal problems for the Mono Lake conservationists.
The actions taken by the Mono Lake Committee and other environmental bodies helped to save the Mono Lake. The ruling by the Water Board was expected to lower the salinity levels of the lake and improve the ecology of the area. The Mono Lake Committee strongly believed that the best way to restore the lake was to encourage natural processes that will automatically lead to improvements in…
Strong-Aufhauser, Lisa. (October 1995). The Mono Lake Water War. Earth. Vol 4(5). p50.
Sneider, Daniel. (8/1/1996). Mono Lake's resurrection is a model for watershed battles. Christian Science Monitor. Vol 88(173). p3.
Fimtire, peter. (12/2/2011). Non-profit saves Mono Lake from park closures list. San Francisco Chronicle. PA22.
Jones & Stokes Associates. (May 1993). Appendix R: Legal History of the Mono Lake Controversy. Mono Basin EIR. 549.
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.
The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.
All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…
Ricks, Delthia (2004) "U.S. Urban Air Polution: Ground-level Ozone Tied to Deaths"-
Newsday Report [Online] Retrieved from HighBeam Research ttp://www.highbeam.com library/doc3.asp?DO CID=1P1:102525028& num=4& ctrlInfo=Round9b%3APro d%3ASR %3AResult& ao=
Fundamental of Physical Geography (nd) Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Composition [Online] located at; http://www.physicalgeography.n et/fu ndamenta ls/7a.html
Mukhopadyay, R. (2004) Rubber World: Ozone Attack and Tire Sidewall Protection (Tech Service); 9/1/2004; Mukhopadhyay, R.
Roach, John. "Melting Arctic ogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News. Dec. 1, 2004
In this article, Roach interviews leading experts on global warming to look at new trends, focusing on an area in Siberia. He reports that although Earth as a whole is warming, the Arctic seems to be warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet, which may have significant effects on the planet as w whole. Places where warming has accelerated are called "hot spots." An area in West Siberia holds the largest peatlands in the world. Peatlands have specific attributes that may affect global warming.
Well-functioning peatlands may act as "carbon sinks." A carbon sink is an area of land where the vegetation uses excess carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere (Ramanujan, 2002). When peatlands function well, they have abundant vegetation to use carbon dioxide in the process…
Ramanujan, Krishna. 2002. "Rain Helps Carbon Sink." Earth Observatory, Sept. 4. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04.
Roach, John.2002. "Melting Arctic Bogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News, Dec. 1, 2004. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1201_041201_siberian_bogs.html >
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…
"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From
http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html Accessed on 21 June, 2005
"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From
Mom did not acknowledge the question.
She treaded softly into the next room with Nick at her heels.
A opened the front door to let some of the fresh air in the house
To air out the tension and ease the silence.
Behind me the pterodactyl and the Rex went at it while Nikki
Added high-pitched sound effects for punctuation.
The dusty waves of San Francisco Bay
Spread along the shores
Their fierce rumbles nothing next to the sound of a Harley Davidson
Careening down the highway
Then slowing down for the exit ramp
And after ten minutes, turning onto the quiet cul-de-sac
That gave our house a place to sit.
The dusty waves of San Francisco Bay
Spread along the shores
And the Harley out did them by far.
Dad peeled around the corner like a fifteen-year-old
But like every fifteen-year-old knows,
You better be smart or mother'll be…
Environmental Problems and Deforestation
One of the most serious environmental problems facing society today is global warming. This problem has been related to the important issue of the depletion of trees and natural forests throughout the world. Scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned at the affect that global warming is having on human health and the environment. This sense of alarm is being increased by the fact that predictions about extreme weather and climatic changes that were previously seen to be an indication of the effects of global warming, are now taking place. This has also caused scientists to predict more dire effects of global warming for the future. Global warming has been linked to shortages of food supplies and the increase in infectious diseases as well as changes in the various biological ecosystems of the world, which are already having profound effects on human life and health.…
D'EMILIO, FRANCES ( 2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.
Rainforests and Global Warming. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved May 22, 2005. http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04a.html
Revington J. The Causes of Tropical Deforestation. May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/32defore.html
Revington J. Stopping Tropical Deforestation May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/stopping-deforestation.htm
This sort of outlook fits well into Fodor's driving point regarding psychology: human behaviors can be understood as valid arguments relating intentional states of mind. In physics, when observable phenomena disagree with our understanding of the rules governing the physical world, it is not assumed that some other mystical force is at work -- merely that our observations or concepts concerning physics must somehow be mistaken in that specific situation. Furthermore, it is not assumed that we cannot know what caused the disparity between prediction and observation -- merely that it requires further inquiry. Similarly, Fodor does not assert that the workings of the mind cannot be understood because we may be unable to directly observe them, nor does he contend that something nonphysical is at work when disagreements occur. Fodor's physicalism approaches the mind from the perspective that the mind is a complex physical system, and that mental states…
Applebaum, Irene. "Philosophical Psychology." Abingdon, Sept. Vol. 11, Iss. 3, 1998. Page 317.
Block, Ned. "Semantics, Conceptual Role." New York University, 2005. Available: http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/ConceptualRoleSemantics.html.
Cain, M.J. Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002.
Chance, Tom. "Fodor's Intentional Realism, and the Representational theory of the Mind." Tom Chance, 2005. Available: http://www.tomchance.org.uk/research/philosophy/mind/fodor.