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We have over 91 essays for "Photosynthesis"

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Light Quantity and the Rate

Words: 834 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51924827

The hypothesis here is that it is the quality of the light, not the quantity of the light that makes a difference, and having a lot more light will not necessarily make photosynthesis occur any faster.

Discussion

With an experiment like this there is always room for error. Measurements taken incorrectly is the biggest problem, because there are multiple steps to be taken each time the light source is moved, and it is very important to ensure that this is being addressed correctly. The quality of the plant and its health could also affect whether it produced photosynthesis rates that are appropriate and generalized for its species, as well. These are variables that can only be controlled to a certain degree and, as such, have to be accounted for.

Materials and Methods

In this experiment, the goal is to measure the rate of photosynthesis that Elodea shoots have when they…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Plants and the environment (2003). Ohio State University.  http://www.osu.edu/plants/enviroplants.htm 

The soil environment. (2004). http://organiclifesytles.tamu.edu/soilbasics/soilenvironment.html

Understanding the environment (1997). Wisconsin Fast Plants. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
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Managing Individuals

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45934730

photosynthesis chemosynthesis. Determine significant step regard harnessing energy process, explain? 1 page Choosing credible sources: As a business person politician, assume talking staff.

How do different cultures and age differences affect workplace relations?

Just like no workplaces project is alike, no project team is alike in terms of the background and values of the individuals that make up the team. All too often it is tempting to assume that our personal values are universal values. Something as simple as personal space can feel very intuitive, even though what is considered the 'correct' distance is actually culturally determined. In many societies, such as Mediterranean cultures, a very close distance between two conversing parties is normal. In other cultures, a respectful distance is demanded, particularly between superiors and subordinates. A Japanese-American manager might find his Italian-American employee to be excessively familiar and confrontational, simply because the man stands too close to him…… [Read More]

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Living Organisms Are All Around

Words: 990 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5362034

The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)

Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Biology-Online. (2005, May 15) "Chemical composition of the body." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www.biology-online.org/9/1_chemical_composition.htm.

Farabee, M.J. (2010a, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Introduction: The nature of science and biology." Retrieved December 1, 2011 from www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintro.html .

(2010b, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Chemistry II: Water and organic materials." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html .

Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee. (1995) "Photosynthesis." Encyclopedia of Applied Physics.(Vol. 13): 513-532. VCH Publishers, Inc.
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Geology 1 Discuss Which of the Interrelationships

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 89475724

Geology

(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.

The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.

A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Website:  http://eo.ucar.edu/asl/pdfs/ASLbrochureFINAL.pdf 

Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from:  http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf 

Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from:  http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html 

Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from:  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
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Plant Biology

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60446131

Plant Biology

Shoot architecture enhances photosynthesis largely by maximizing the ability of the plant to get sunlight. Obviously light is the crucial resource in photosynthesis, but different plants obtain the resource in different ways. For example, the basic arrangement of leaves on the plant stem (known as "phyllotaxy") is different for every species of plant -- however, in all of these cases the plant has evolved so that the emergence of leaves does not block the available light for leaves above or below. The evolutionary reason for this should be obvious: as leaves exist purely to facilitate photosynthesis, the production of leaves that underperform due to inadequate access to sunlight would be a waste of the plant's resources. We can also see the evolutionary imperative expressed in leaf size: in cold or dry environments without much access to liquid water, the leaf size is drastically shrunken in an attempt to…… [Read More]

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Evolution and Natural Selection Is the Addition

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75826292

evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.

Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…… [Read More]

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Lichens as Bio-indicators

Words: 1931 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92980500

1. Introduction

Lichens are commonly used as ecological signs or bio-indicators. If atmosphere is extremely contaminated with sulphur dioxide there could be no lichens existing, just eco-friendly algae might be identified. When the atmosphere is clear, shrubby, hairy as well as, leafy; lichens turn out to be plentiful. A small number of lichen varieties can put up with extremely high degrees of air pollution and therefore are generally seen on pavements, wall surfaces and also tree-bark in city locations. By far the most delicate lichens happen to be shrubby and leafy whilst the most resistant lichens are crusty in looks (Showman, 68; Nash and Gries, 1-29). A lichen area design might be noticed in big cities and towns or close to commercial buildings which matches the average degrees of sulphur dioxide encountered.

2. Purpose

The resistant lichens are helpful bioindicators for atmosphere air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide contamination, given that…… [Read More]

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Fate of Carbon in a

Words: 4902 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 48440011



The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).

Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)

Area

NPP

Tot. NPP1

% of Total

% of Total

106 km2

gC m-2 y-1

X106mTC y-1

System

Global

Marine System:

Open Ocean

46

15,355…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.

Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.

Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.

Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
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Organic Evolution Please Discuss the

Words: 4338 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43722112



Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).

esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.

Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
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Conservation of Energy Conserving Energy

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114007



It is not only purely mechanical transfers of energy that follow this law of the conservation of energy, but all biological organisms must abide by this universal law as well. Take, for instance, the process of photosynthesis, which is considered the primary provider energy to almost all of life on Earth. Very simply put, "photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar" (Carter 1996). The process itself is actually quite complex, but basically several different pigments in plants (most essentially chlorophyll) absorb different wavelengths of light, which excites their electrons and causes chemical reactions to take place within specific molecules in the plant. These reactions ultimately result in the recombination of atoms into sugars, whose bonds can be broken to release energy when the plant needs it.

Plants are then eaten by other organisms, and te energy stored…… [Read More]

References

Carter, J. (1996). "Photosynthesis." Accessed 25 May 2009. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/photosyn.htm

Kyrk, J. (2008). "Krebs cycle." Accessed 25 May 2009.  http://www.johnkyrk.com/krebs.html 

Nave, C. (2005). "Hyperphysics: Heat and thermodynamics." Accessed 25 May 2009.  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/hframe.html
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Sun Makes Plants Stronger The

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1084314

This physiological process allows plants to make their own food. Being able to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis, plants, unlike animals, no longer need to feed on other organisms in order to exist and survive. And since sunlight is required for this essential physiological process to occur, sunlight therefore makes the plants stronger.

Through the physiological process of photosynthesis, plants are able to release oxygen, the presence of which guarantees that existence of life on earth will continue. According to Hackel, the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere was released over 3,500 million years ago through plant photosynthesis and "without plants, there would be no oxygen in the earth's atmosphere." (22) The sun not only makes plants stronger, it also helps ensure that life on this planet continues.

Sunlight is also required by some plants in order to germinate. The sun helps the seeds of plants to…… [Read More]

Reference:

Hackel, Hans. "Why Plants Need Sunlight." Courier. February 2004. 13 July 2009 <  http://www.agrocourier.com/bayer/cropscience/cscms.nsf/id/Plasun_Agro/$file/plants_sunlight.pdf >.
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Cells Are Known as the Basic Units

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76924792

Cells are known as the basic units of life. One thing that plant cells and solar cells have in common is that they are very important to humans and living things on earth. One main difference between plant cells and solar cells is how each harnesses solar energy. Plants harness solar energy to use photosynthesis. Solar cells harness solar energy to convert it to electricity.

One of the main duties of photosynthesis is changing solar energy into chemical energy. Anything that can be digested and all fossil fuels are products of photosynthesis. Many organisms are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis. Organisms carry out this task by converting CO2 or carbon dioxide to organic material. The outcome of this chemical reaction is electrons that are converted to protons and oxygen. The remaining energy from this chemical reaction is then absorbed by carotenoids and chlorophylls.

Solar cells are composed of many semiconducting…… [Read More]

References

" Farabee, M.J. (2001). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved on January 26, 2010 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookEner1.html

STOEGER, WILLIAM R. "Thermodynamics, Second Law of." Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com:  http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404200511.html 

J. Whitmarsh and Govindjee (1995), "Photosynthesis" by published in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (Vol. 13, pp. 513-532) by VCH Publishers, Inc.

 http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/cmp/online/el10c/gibbs/Diodes.htm
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Hydrogen Fuel in the Later

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43643905

According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).

The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for

Sustainable Living." Cited in:

 http://books.google.com/books?id=DuSYMMOIQ2UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Powering+Our+Future:+an+Energy+Sourcebook+for%09Sustainable+Living.&source=bl&ots=rf__m6Oclr&sig=hwVCb13h8uzMsozk8ne2hI1vLoQ&hl=en&ei=vY0YTJzeCoqOMray5NgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 

Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
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Biology Qs the Primary Source

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 82910581

Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).

6)

Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.

7)

The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]

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Diffusion of Innovation Diffusion Research

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67275597

Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.

Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics

Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses

Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.

UL: http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/berlinwallfall.rev.html

Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe

Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.

Retrieved from:  http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title 

Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.

Retrieved from:  http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
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PCR Analysis of Gapdh Genes of Parsley

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 13977066

PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley

PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley

The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.

As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.

Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.

Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.

Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.
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Precambrian the Period of Geologic

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6766244

This is indirect evidence of photosynthetic organisms." (Armstrong Chapter 2, pp. 6). Thus, photosynthetic organisms have been evidenced to have existed well into the Precambrian.

Another source of data concerning life in the Precambrian comes from ancient stromatolites. Today, stromatolites can still be found in a handful of locations, and build upon each other by catching tiny particles of sediment. "Ancient stromatolites, dated to 3.5 gya, are constructed identically. Stromatolites, as unique geological structures formed by the actions of living organisms, are indirect evidence of ancient microbial communities dominated presumably by green photosynthetic organisms." (Armstrong Chapter 2, pp. 7). Together, these three portions of scientific information have generated a rough picture of life in the Precambrian.

Still more recent lines of reasoning continue to reveal information about life from this geologic period. The fossils, carbon dating, and stromatolite evidence only account for an aspect of Precambrian life. Some scientists are…… [Read More]

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Cellular Respiration

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16093328

Cellular espiration

Give the overall general reaction for cellular respiration. State what eukaryotic cell organelle is involved.

Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In general, sugar is burned off, or oxidized, into CO2 and H2O. The overall formula is C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP (heat). Mitochondria are the eukaryotic cell organelle involved in this process. It is considered the power center of the cell.

Define homoeothermic and endothermic.

Simply stated, homoeothermic refers to a warm-blooded animal. Homoeothermic animals are capable of regulating their own body temperatures internally and independent of their surroundings. Endotherms are similar in that they are also capable of maintaining a sufficient internal core body temperature, regardless of external conditions. Most (not all) homoeothermic animals are also endotherms and use metabolic heat production to keep warm.

What effect did lowering the…… [Read More]

Reference

"Molecular Biology." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition (2011): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
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Entropy in Our Lives

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33185338

Entropy

Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.

The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)

Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.

Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Nuvox.net. Available:

http://members.nuvox.net/~on.jwclymer/arr.html. July 1, 2004.

EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
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Environmental Review the Carbon in

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 59271345



10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.

11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed

12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.

Chapter 13

5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]

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Global Warming Is Probably One

Words: 1847 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 273816

Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.

We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.

K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.

Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.

K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…… [Read More]

Richard J. Pierce Jr. Energy Independence and Global Warming Environmental Law. Volume: 37. Issue: 3. 2007. 595+.

J. Lubchenko, "Entering the Century of the Environment: A New Social Contract for Science," Science 279 (1998): 491-497.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assesment Report (Geneva, Switzerland: World Meterological Organization, 1995); P. Martens, "How will Climate Change Affect Human Health?" American Scientist 87 (1999): 534-541.
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Leaf Water Repellency as an

Words: 482 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64083014

The researchers collected samples of different species of leaves and measured their repellency by comparing the contact angles of water droplets of a uniform size deposited on their surfaces by the use of pipettes under laboratory conditions.

Experimental Results:

Contrary to the experimental expectations, the results of the experiment did not support the initial hypothesis: some of the leaves collected from the drier environments exhibited greater water repellency than some of the leaves collected from the wettest environments. After analyzing the data, the researchers proposed an alternate evolutionary purpose for the mechanism behind water repellency of different leaves.

Experimental Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Inquiry:

Specifically, instead of evolving the mechanism of increasing water droplet beading to increase photosynthetic efficiency, the researchers proposed that the purpose of this adaptation may actually relate to the increased need for water in particularly dry environments. According to this hypothesis, the purpose of high…… [Read More]

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Green Chemistry Lesson Plan Grade

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 8833663



New Vocabulary Terms to review: ethanol, corn stover, hydrolysis, cellulose, hemicellulose, carbohydrates, polysaccharide, starch, saccharide, glucose, enzyme, salivary amylase, cellulose, colorimeter, cuvette, concentration, absorbance, wavelength, nanometer, fermentation, renewable resource, non-renewable resource

National Standards Met:

Science Content Standards: 8-12

CONTENT STANAR A: Science as Inquiry As a result of activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, 2) Understandings about scientific inquiry

CONTENT STANAR B: Physical Science As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop an understanding of: 1) Structure of atoms, 2) Structures and of properties in matter, 3) Chemical reactions

CONTENT STANAR C: Life Science- 1) understanding of the cell

CONTENT STANAR E: Science and Technology -As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities of technological design, 2) Understandings about science and technology

CONTENT STANAR F: Science in Personal and…… [Read More]

Design for Degradation - Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.

Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention - Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances (The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, 2010).

Teacher Prep: This module focuses on the production of sugar (glucose and maltose) from cornstarch. The lesson is inquiry based, and is well set for inclusion into the curriculum for chemistry, biology (ecology), or basic physical science. The first lesson from this module relates glucose production from cornstarch to ethanol fuel production from corn stover. Another lesson uses a calculator-based colorimeter interface from the Vernier Company to quantify the hydrolysis of starch to sugar by salivary amylase. In this lesson saliva is added to a starch solution containing a couple of drops of iodine. Light initially doesn't pass through this solution. If the absorption decreases after the addition of the saliva, this means more light is passing through and the starch is being hydrolyzed (broken down into maltose and glucose). The third lesson again uses colorimetry but
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Liquid Would Be the Easiest

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86233387



The following study suggests that whilst macro and micronutrients are conducive to plant growth it is water that has the greatest impact on, and is the most crucial regulator of plant growth and, when regulated, can lead to the highest growth spurt. The author of this study, therefore, wished to test the effects of a pellet, one of whose elements originated from a microorganism, powder that sourced from a microorganism, and water. The hypothesis was that whilst each would contribute to plant growth, the greatest amount of growth would emerge from the water and that even thoguh all plants in each of the other 2 studies initially received the same amount of water in their feeding / growth process, addition of water to the experimental study of the Brassica rapa would -- due to water's enhanced absorption capacities -- evidence enhanced plant growth.. Formulating these hypotheses in a scientific manner:…… [Read More]

Reference

Environmental factors effecting growth: Water and humidity extension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/env_factors.html

Higa, T. & Wididana, GN. (1991) The concept and theories of effective microorganisms. Proceedings of the first international conference http://www.infrc.or.jp/english/KNF_Data_Base_Web/PDF%20KNF%20Conf%20Data/C1-5-015.pdf

Kloeeper, JW & Schroth, MN (1981) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology, 71, 642-644.

Millhouse, DE & Munneke, DR (1979) Increased growth of Nicotinana glyutinosa as partially related to accumulation of ammonium-nitrogen… Phytopathology, 69, 793-797
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Solar Flares What Causes Solar Storms Why

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 21146803

Solar Flares

What causes solar storms? Why should people nearly a hundred million miles away on Earth care so much about them? Massive explosions of electrified plasma from the sun are identified as Solar Storms but often they just cause a beautiful light show in the farthest points of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The reason why human beings need to understand and care about solar storms is that they have the potential to cause devastating effects on the planet Earth. Those effects include problems that may affect daily life such as knocking out satellites, blacking out power grids, and completely altering the atmosphere and climate. Scientists have gathered plenty of information over the years to explain Solar storms and have even built a system to protect the Earth's energy. However, the earth is still vulnerable to solar activity, much of which remains a mystery to science. Scientists are also…… [Read More]

References

Chivers, Tom (2010). Solar storm hitting Earth causes spectacular aurora displays. The Telegraph. Retrieved online:  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/7926176/Solar-storm-hitting-Earth-causes-spectacular-aurora-displays.html 

Johnston, Colin. "Deep Time: Earth's History and Future." Retrieved online:  http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YypdcDGO_5wJ:www.armaghplanet.com/pdf/AstroTopics/Solar%2520System/Deeptime.pdf+earth+history+sun&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgPEamf05LM8LE4Gs9KC4_SQJcE1wqvom3EwYg3fT6H4MzHhcgTbPBBszBjrWA7LWXwW7neAE-uf3a85n06b81ogO6znQmrUK51bsIMGALP2uQHhYfBZoY6jIT-dnkVLhOM7EHV&sig=AHIEtbSkFAb9K1cTFm9tzvpnhlhV4ZznzQ 

O'Neill, Ian. (2010). Zombiesat Attack! Solar Storm Fries Satellite's Brain. Discovery News. Retrieved online:  http://news.discovery.com/space/zombiesat-attack-solar-storm-fries-satellites-brain.html 

Phillips, T. (2009). Severe space weather: social and economic impacts. NASA. Retrieved online:  http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2009/21jan_severespaceweather/
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Mortality and Loss Processes in

Words: 3007 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29018025

" Because of the ability to reproduce in large amounts in a small amount of time, phytoplankton are considered as the first link in the food chain of nearly all marine animals. Phytoplankton provide food for a large variety of organisms, including the microscopic animals (such as the zooplankton), bivalve molluscan shellfish (like mussels, oysters, scallops, and clams), and small fishes (such as anchovies and sardines). To continue the food chain, these group of animals then provide their own kind of food to other group animals like crabs, starfish, fish, marine birds, marine mammals, and humans (Karl, et al., 2001).

Figure 1. Sample food chain involving phytoplankton

Source: (www.planktonfyi.com/images/foodchain.jpg,2006).

Mortality Rate of Phytoplankton

It was recorded that from 1980's to the present, phytoplankton have been continuously increasing in frequency and distribution worldwide. The reason for such continuing increase in biomass is yet to be determined, but scientists have provided several…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez Cobelas, M., J.L. Velasco, a. Rubio, and C. Rojo. (1994). The time course of phytoplankton biomass and related limnological factors in shallow and deep lakes: a multivariate approach. Hydrobiologia 275/276:139-151.

Anya, M. (1996). Phytoplankton biodiversity.(Marine Biodiversity) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Biomass distribution of phytoplankton" (2006). [Available online] www.astro.temple.edu/~sanders1/balance.gif

Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. (1985). Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639.
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Hydrothermal Vents Life in the

Words: 2042 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15360583

These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…… [Read More]

References

Borgonie, G., Garcia-Moyano, a., Litthauer, D., Bester, a., van Heerden, E., Moller, C., Erasmus, M., & Onstott, T.C. (2011).Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa. Nature, 474(June). 79-88. Doi: 10.1038/nature09974

Ericsson, Magnus. (2008). Seabed deposits generate a new wave of interest in offshore mineral recovery. Offshore Mining (September).

Edmonds, H.N., Michael, P.J., Baker, E.T., Connelly, D.P., Snow, J.E., Langmuir, C.H., Dick, H.J.B., Muhe, R., German, C.R., & Graham, D.W. (2003). Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctice Ocean. Nature, 421(16).

Lemonick, Michael D. & Dorfman, Andrea. (2002). Microbes at the extremes may tell us how life began. Time Europe, 160(6), 34-38.  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=7091367&site=ehost-live
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Eternal Circle of Time Electrons Circle the

Words: 2850 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5213399

Eternal Circle of Time

Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/

Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA.  http://www.yowusa.com/index.html 

Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
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Generations Are Proving Unacceptable for

Words: 2032 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 52863244

Wind energy itself is a completely renewable source. In fact, it actually relies on solar power as its own source; "The sun's energy in interaction with the Earth's surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source," (Sustainable Table 2010). Modern implication and practice have proven that generating power through wind energy can be a reliable and clean source of providing practical uses of power. esidential and commercials cities have been provided with much power coming from the windy plains of America's greatest desserts. It is a growing strategy for alternative energy solutions, and "Today, wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity," (West 2010). More and more facilities of seemingly endless white wind turbines are being built across the country. Such facilities will provide great sources for energy within the future development of the nation.…… [Read More]

References

Alternate Energy Sources. (2010). Alternate Energy Sources for a Flourishing Future. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from  http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/index.html .

Organizing America. (2010). New energy for America. Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from  http://www.barackobama.com/issues/newenergy/index.php 

Sustainable Table. (2010). Fossil fuel and energy use. The Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/energy/

West, Larry. (2010). Top 7 renewable energy sources. Environmental Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from  http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm
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Harts Postscript Dworkin's Early Work

Words: 2808 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5994986

Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: he wants a legal theory which would be free from moral evaluations or moral commitments (unlike Finnis' approach), while remaining a descriptive theory of the practice rather than a participation in it (unlike Dworkin's approach). Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position (Hacker, 1977-page 31). He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself (or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself) need not, and should not, endorse the system (as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations). In other words, the theory simultaneously:

(1) attempts to take into account the participant's perspective; and (2) manages to choose among possible participants' perspectives without having to make moral judgments; while

(3) keeping sufficient distance from the participants' perspective to allow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Austin, John, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (H L.A. Hart ed., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1955).

Austin, Regina, "Sapphire Bound! (Minority Feminist Scholarship)" (1989) Wisconsin Law Review 539.

Baird, Douglas; Gertner, Robert and Picker, Randal, Game Theory and the Law (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).

Baker, Gordon, "Defeasibility and Meaning" in Law, Morality, and Society (P M.S. Hacker and J. Raz eds., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), pp. 26-57.
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Lithium Transition Metal Oxides as

Words: 7179 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 32701294

The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).

Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from  http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial 

BATTERIES.pdf

Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from  http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp
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English System of Measurement Is

Words: 1433 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87138003

(Source: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html).

Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.

Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.

Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.

Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.

Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…… [Read More]

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Atrazine Banned in Europe Atrazine

Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78388114

And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.

(Syngenta)

The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).

While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.

One should however bear in mind that…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from  http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf 

Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html

A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from  http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/ 

Atrazine. Retrieved from  http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm
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Renewable Chemical Feedstocks the Fossil

Words: 5669 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7695445

The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)

It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…… [Read More]

References

Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.

Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.

Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
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Large Mammal Extinction Ice Age

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64916309

However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.

The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…… [Read More]

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Jean Baptist Van Helmont Jean

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35839884

However, he
began to introduce supernatural agents into his theories, such as the
archae of Paracelsus, which preside over bodily affairs and functions. He
believed that diseases were caused by the archae being affected, so cures
were attained by remedying and appeasing these supernatural forces.
Van Helmont was one of the first scientists or alchemists to begin to
understand and teach that the body is affected by chemicals and applied
chemical principles to physiological problems. One of the main things that
we may be grateful to van Helmont for is his development of the "scientific
method," in which experiments are carefully documented and observed.
Instead of using reason or thought to solve a chemical problem, one used
practical application and created an experiment which sometimes might yield
surprising results, results that were not available simply through the
thought process.
Van Helmont sought support for his theories in the Bible and…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Edwards, Quinn. "Photosynthesis and Optimizing Algae Growth in a
Bioreactor". Introduction to Biophotonics. Logan, Utah: Utah State
University. 28 Apr 2006.
.
NNDB. Jan Baptist van Helmont. Soylent Communications. 2006.
.
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Global Warming & Decreased Crop

Words: 3634 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70045526



Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)

Source:

Smith (2006)

In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:

1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;

2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)

The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.

Change in yield (%)

Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)

There are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).

Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).

Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).

Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
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Maple Tree the Term Maple

Words: 3522 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 882671

Other things being equal, higher sap sugar content translates to lower costs of production and greater profits (World ook Encyclopedia 1992).

lack and sugar maples start their growth later in the spring than red or silver maple. As maples begin their growth, chemical changes take place in the sap which makes it inappropriate for syrup production. The term "buddy sap" is often employed to late season sap which produces syrup with a very disagreeable flavor and odor. ecause sugar and black maple resume growth later than red or silver maple, sap may be collected later in the spring.

Japanese maple, a. palmatum, is also a well-liked ornamental tree. It has about 80 strains varying from shrubs to trees. They rarely grow more than 6 meters high. Japanese maples have leaves that are deeply divided into five to nine narrow, toothed lobes. They have light leaves which are delicate shades of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Acer Saccharum.  http://www.wildwnc.org/trees/Acer_saccharum.html 

Gabriel WJ. 1975. Phenotypic selection of sugar maples for superior sap volume production. In Proceedings, Twenty-first Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p.91-96.

Godman RM. 1965. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United States H.A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271: Washington (DC). p 6-73

Gould NE. 1979. Reforestation and timber stand improvement report for Fiscal Year 1978 and 1979. WO-2490 Records and Report. USDA Forest Service: Washington (DC). p 57
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Rock Cycle Most Processes on

Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59431248

Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.

Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…… [Read More]

References

All About Plate Tectonics. (2010). Enchanted Learning. Cited in:

 http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth/Continents.shtml 

Rocks and the Rock Cycle. (2011). Windows to the Universe. Cited in:

 http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/rocks_intro.html
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Mono Lake California Mono Lake

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96354868

A water right is an action that was started by a prospective applicant and they had to follow the terms and conditions laid down by the SWCB including providing progressive reports. After a period of time, the SWCB granted water rights to a certain body and this is exactly what happened to Mono Lake as well (Mono Basin EI, 1993). It took a long battle to overturn this amendment and this law posed serious legal problems for the Mono Lake conservationists.

Actions taken

The actions taken by the Mono Lake Committee and other environmental bodies helped to save the Mono Lake. The ruling by the Water Board was expected to lower the salinity levels of the lake and improve the ecology of the area. The Mono Lake Committee strongly believed that the best way to restore the lake was to encourage natural processes that will automatically lead to improvements in…… [Read More]

References

Strong-Aufhauser, Lisa. (October 1995). The Mono Lake Water War. Earth. Vol 4(5). p50.

Sneider, Daniel. (8/1/1996). Mono Lake's resurrection is a model for watershed battles. Christian Science Monitor. Vol 88(173). p3.

Fimtire, peter. (12/2/2011). Non-profit saves Mono Lake from park closures list. San Francisco Chronicle. PA22.

Jones & Stokes Associates. (May 1993). Appendix R: Legal History of the Mono Lake Controversy. Mono Basin EIR. 549.
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American Planning in the Next

Words: 3215 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88334151

The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.

Climate Change: Precipitation

The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).

About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.

Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.

Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .

Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
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Selenium and Occupational or Industrial Health Concerns

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79625342

3). Selenide ions are being increasingly being used in photoelectrochemical cell applications (Lewis, 1995). Selenium compounds are also found in internal combustion exhaust, and have been positively associated with increased mortality rates in five of six American cities surveyed by (Topeka, Kansas was the exception; the other cities surveyed were Boston, St. Louis, Knoxville, Madison, and Steubenville) (Dockery, Laden and Schwartz, 2000). The combustion of coal combustion is responsible for between 62% (Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants- Selenium, 1976) and 85% (Eimutis, Quill & inaldi, 1978) of harmful selenium emissions in the United States.

Furthermore, in combination with oxygen, selenium forms selenium dioxide, SeO2; the reaction of this oxide with water results in selenious acid, H2SeO3. Selenium also forms a variety of compounds in which the selenium atom bonds to both an oxygen and a halogen atom resulting in compounds such as selenium (VI) oxychloride, SeO2Cl2, which is…… [Read More]

References

Bradshaw, T.K., Davis, P.R., Gwebu, N. et al. (2003). Science First: Contributions of a University-Industry Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program to Economic Development. Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 292.

Dunning, H.C. (1993). Confronting the Environmental Legacy of Irrigated Agriculture in the West: The Case of the Central Valley Project. Environmental Law, 23(3), 943-69.

Eimutis, E.C., Quill, R.P., & Rinaldi, G.M. (1978). Source assessment: noncriteria pollutant emissions. Research Triangle Park, NC: Monsanto Research Corp. For U.S.E.P.A. Industrial and Environmental Research Laboratory.

Grabowski, J. & Vandenbos, G.R. (Eds.). (1992). Psychopharmacology: Basic Mechanisms and Applied Interventions. Washington, DC: APA Books.
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Ozone a Little Is Good

Words: 2319 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36495591

Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.

The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.

All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Ricks, Delthia (2004) "U.S. Urban Air Polution: Ground-level Ozone Tied to Deaths"-

Newsday Report [Online] Retrieved from HighBeam Research ttp://www.highbeam.com library/doc3.asp?DO CID=1P1:102525028& num=4& ctrlInfo=Round9b%3APro d%3ASR %3AResult& ao=

Fundamental of Physical Geography (nd) Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Composition [Online] located at; http://www.physicalgeography.n et/fu ndamenta ls/7a.html

Mukhopadyay, R. (2004) Rubber World: Ozone Attack and Tire Sidewall Protection (Tech Service); 9/1/2004; Mukhopadhyay, R.
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Arctic Warming

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63308027

Siberian Peatlands

Roach, John. "Melting Arctic ogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News. Dec. 1, 2004

In this article, Roach interviews leading experts on global warming to look at new trends, focusing on an area in Siberia. He reports that although Earth as a whole is warming, the Arctic seems to be warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet, which may have significant effects on the planet as w whole. Places where warming has accelerated are called "hot spots." An area in West Siberia holds the largest peatlands in the world. Peatlands have specific attributes that may affect global warming.

Well-functioning peatlands may act as "carbon sinks." A carbon sink is an area of land where the vegetation uses excess carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere (Ramanujan, 2002). When peatlands function well, they have abundant vegetation to use carbon dioxide in the process…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ramanujan, Krishna. 2002. "Rain Helps Carbon Sink." Earth Observatory, Sept. 4. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04.

Roach, John.2002. "Melting Arctic Bogs May Hasten Warming, Study Says." National Geographic News, Dec. 1, 2004. Accessed via the Internet 12/2/04.  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1201_041201_siberian_bogs.html >
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance.  http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/ 

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
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Taxa What Is Cnidaria What Is it

Words: 2243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91414879

Taxa

What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…… [Read More]

References

"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From

 http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html  Accessed on 21 June, 2005

"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From

http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/a/j/aja192/biodiversity_files/Page365.htm
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Dusty Waves of San Francisco

Words: 1501 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63740913



Mom did not acknowledge the question.

She treaded softly into the next room with Nick at her heels.

A opened the front door to let some of the fresh air in the house

To air out the tension and ease the silence.

Behind me the pterodactyl and the Rex went at it while Nikki

Added high-pitched sound effects for punctuation.

The dusty waves of San Francisco Bay

Spread along the shores

Their fierce rumbles nothing next to the sound of a Harley Davidson

Careening down the highway

Then slowing down for the exit ramp

And after ten minutes, turning onto the quiet cul-de-sac

That gave our house a place to sit.

The dusty waves of San Francisco Bay

Spread along the shores

And the Harley out did them by far.

Dad peeled around the corner like a fifteen-year-old

But like every fifteen-year-old knows,

You better be smart or mother'll be…… [Read More]

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Destroying Forests and Cutting Trees

Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44470015

Environmental Problems and Deforestation

One of the most serious environmental problems facing society today is global warming. This problem has been related to the important issue of the depletion of trees and natural forests throughout the world. Scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned at the affect that global warming is having on human health and the environment. This sense of alarm is being increased by the fact that predictions about extreme weather and climatic changes that were previously seen to be an indication of the effects of global warming, are now taking place. This has also caused scientists to predict more dire effects of global warming for the future. Global warming has been linked to shortages of food supplies and the increase in infectious diseases as well as changes in the various biological ecosystems of the world, which are already having profound effects on human life and health.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

D'EMILIO, FRANCES ( 2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.

Rainforests and Global Warming. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved May 22, 2005.  http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04a.html 

Revington J. The Causes of Tropical Deforestation. May 21, 2005.  http://www.ru.org/32defore.html 

Revington J. Stopping Tropical Deforestation May 21, 2005.  http://www.ru.org/stopping-deforestation.htm