Physical Anthropology Essays (Examples)

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Anthropology Origins of Inequality Human

Words: 1886 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38092335

One can run up against the barriers of entrenched social class, or perhaps lack certain required distinctions or certifications that readily confer status. hile few modern nations claim to possess hereditary classes, most do possess groups of individuals who control vast amounts of family wealth, and the power that goes with it. Many other individuals, by virtue of the social status of their families possess at least the resources to obtain college degrees, or open businesses of their own - all things that will improve their social status. Others lack these things and seem, despite socio-political theories to the contrary, to be condemned to a life as low status individuals. As in the past, inequality exists today, even in a supposedly equal society.

orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98676781

Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal ealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109779547

Maisels, Charles…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98676781

Angle, John. "The Surplus Theory of Social Stratification and the Size Distribution of Personal Wealth." Social Forces 65.2 (1986): 293-326.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109779547

Maisels, Charles Keith. Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India, and China. London: Routledge, 2001.
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Anthropology the Process of Enculturation

Words: 1470 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78444077

I try not to pry into what I see as the private business of others. Privacy, I believe is something that is strongly valued in America -- in other societies, older societies, what one did was of interest to the community, even if it took place behind closed doors. However, despite or even because of the privacy and freedom given to me, I try to uphold my high moral standards, even when I do not feel that there is someone like a priest or a policeman 'watching' over my shoulder.

However, I do think that given that we live in an age where life is growing even more private, maybe too private, as so many people spend the little leisure time they have surfing the net, pretending to be anonymous individuals in the virtual and disembodied space of the Internet. It is easy to profess one set of morals at…… [Read More]

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Neanderthal Anthropology

Words: 1064 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19231851

Neanderthal man

he debate on Neanderthal man's place in human evolution has continued unabated since the discovery of the first Neanderthal fossil in 1856. One camp believes Neanderthal man is a human ancestor and should be classified as a subspecies of modern man -- homo sapien neandertalis. he opposing view argues that Neanderthal man is a distinct species - homo neandertalis - a species entirely separate from modern humans. his paper argues that Neanderthal man is indeed related to modern humans by looking at key elements of the Neanderthal physiology, behavior and cultural life.

DNA evidence

Recent findings on the mitochondrial DNA taken from the right humerus of a Neanderthal skeleton failed to show significant similarities with the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans. According to the study, one sequence of Neanderthal DNA shows significant variances from the same sequence in moderns. From this, researchers concluded that Neanderthals diverged about 600,000…… [Read More]

Trinkaus and Shipman, p 356.

Trinkaus and Shipman, p 255

Kate Wong, "Paleolithic Pit Stop," Scientific American, < Scientific American http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?colID=1&articleID=000F0825-AC71-1C72-9EB7809EC588F2D7,13 November 2002.
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Anthropology Its Holism or Its

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33730642



What does racism means if race has no biological basis?

Race may have no biological basis, but anthropology does not study biology alone -- race is also a cultural construction. An African-American man might have the physical DNA of European, Caucasian individuals within his genetic code, but because he is subject to the racial classification and potential discrimination within America, because America holds race to be an extant category, this does not mean that race lacks significance as a subject of cultural study. Race may be a constructed fiction, but racism, or the hatred that the cultural fiction of race has spawned, is real.

It is important to remember the lack of true 'races' in the world, however, when analyzing potential associations between groups. For example, even though they may be considered different 'races' by society, groups of marginalized persons subject to the culturally constructed notion of racism may wish…… [Read More]

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Anthropology Lessons Anthropology Is Actually

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14072990

The new division of these apartments that was thought to be a main feature of modern housing was not a solution to the problem of privacy. Most of the families only got a small bedroom with a small living space. Males and females often had to share the same rooms and in fact there was no room for children and guests (Bounrdieu, 1960).

This definitely shows the need for negotiating for modern space and daily life within el-Masaakin.in an analysis by an anthropologists he came to the conclusion that modern housing would not be sufficient for the production of modern articles and dispositions. However there are objective conditions which structure individual's appropriation of modern apartments. He maintained a clear distinction between the less and more privileged sections of the working class. Adopting modern housing is bound by cultural transformation where the segments of those who earn low incomes can not…… [Read More]

References

Brades, S. (1997).Society for comparative studies in society and history. Sugar, colonialism and death: on the origins of the Mexico's Day of the dead.vol.39.pp270-299

Bounrdieu, P.(1960).Relocation and Daily use of Modern space.
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Anthropology and Race Concept it

Words: 434 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99515058



It would be easy to assume, then, that biologists are making a mistake by rejecting the race concept because that rejection would force them to also ignore such biological variation. However, this assumption would be false. Most intelligent anthropologists are not rejecting the idea of biological variation or a geographical/genetic component to that variation. On the contrary, they reject the idea of "race" specifically because it is not flexible enough to accurately model the full range of biological variation and therefore lumps all geographic/genetic variable populations together based on a small subset of their traits.

The race concept would lump together, for example, both the small and slightly darker Mediterranean body build with the robust, blond Nordic body build as both "White" while assuming that all the wide variety of genetic, facial, and morphological differences in Africa rendered a single "Black" race. The critical anthropologists would have to reject such…… [Read More]

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Anthropology and the Subject of Religion and Animism

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32012889

Votive deposition, religion and the Anglo-Saxon furnished burial ritual." In this article, Crawford examines burial practices for what they tell us about early religious belief's systems. View the following video by the anthropologist Nick Herriman; he describes the logic underneath belief systems. He does this with a few different societies. Explain what Nick Herriman examples provides to Crawford's article which is focused on burial evidence. Overall, connect the two sources to explain the ways that anthropologists are interested in uncovering clues about a group's belief system.

Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpgAtylzMQE

According to Crawford (2004), gravesites are often seen as physical reflections of abstract spiritual belief systems. In her analysis she "questions the distinction between grave sites and other sacred places" and "whether deposits should only ever be interpreted as reflections of social structure."[footnoteRef:1] The focus of anthropologists upon burial grounds and surrounding rituals, as noted in the video narrated by anthropologist…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Crawford, Sally. "Votive Deposition, Religion and the Anglo-Saxon Furnished Burial Ritual."

World Archaeology, 36, no.1 (2004), 87-102.

Hornborg, Alf. "Animism, Fetishism, and Objectivism as Strategies for Knowing (or not Knowing)

the World." Ethnos, 71, no. 1 (2006): 21-32.
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Sociology and Anthropology Because Sociology and Anthropology

Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1536502

Sociology and Anthropology

Because sociology and anthropology are both social sciences, one might assume that the same research methods would be utilized in the different fields. However, while some of the same approaches can be used in both fields, it is important to realize that the differences in the fields make different approaches possible for each discipline. Sociology specifically examines social life, social change, and the social factors that contribute to individual behavior. Sociologists use surveys, interviews, experiments, observation, and secondary analysis (Sociology.com, 2013). Cultural anthropology examines human culture. Anthropologists employ the following research methods: participant observation, cross-cultural comparison, survey research, interviews, archival research, media analysis, and historical analysis (Donahue-Lynch, 2000). Clearly, the disciplines are related; however, they are not the same. As a result, some approaches that are appropriate for one discipline would not be appropriate for the other discipline. This paper will investigate the different research methods used…… [Read More]

References

American Anthropological Association. (2014). What is anthropology? Retrieved January 29,

2014 from American Anthropological Association website: http://www.aaanet.org/about/whatisanthropology.cfm

Donahue-Lynch. (2000). Methods of research in cultural anthropology. Retrieved January 29,

2014 from Quinebaug Valley Community College website: http://www.qvctc.comment.edu/brian/methods.html
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Cultural Anthropology Otherwise Known as the Socio-Cultural

Words: 1245 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57777976

Cultural anthropology otherwise known as the socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology is basically the study of culture and is mainly founded on ethnography. Ethnography is based on the methodology of collection of primary data and is purely a product of research where inductive method is used as well as a heavy reliance on the participant observers.

It is considered as the holistic and scientific study of humanity and majorly the branch that focuses on the study of human cultures, myths, practices, beliefs, values, economies, cognitive organizations and even technologies in the contemporary environment.

The significance of the participatory research is to help the individual place the rules of moral conduct, the cognitive structures and the social life patterns in their own socio-cultural context hence becoming very relevant and meaningful despite how 'strange' or 'bizarre' it might look to the persons from other cultures. The concept of cultural relativism goes against…… [Read More]

References

International Society for Quality in Health Care, (2011). Culture and quality: an anthropological perspective. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from  http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/5/345.full 

Stephen T. Bogg, (2011). Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwa Children. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1958.60.1.02a00060/pdf

University of Alabama, (2009). Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies. Retrieved September

14, 2011 from  http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Symbolic%20and%20Interpretive%20Anthropologies
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Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2216076

Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Gender and Sex in Anthropology

Anthropology 203

A Case Study in Comparative Ethnology: Balinese vs. The Lahu

Defining Sex and Gender

The definition of sex is generally treated as a category by both biologists and cultural anthropologists, a category with mainly two choices: male or female (orthman 597-598). From a biologist's perspective sex is the exchange of genetic material and the requisite biological functions required for successful procreation activities. For example, sperm and ovum are supplied by males and females, respectively, and women are the only ones capable of gestation and lactation. Primates, including humans, are generally required to make significant investments in child-rearing activities, so parental investment, in addition to mating investment, is thought to be required of both sexes (McIntyre and Edwards 84). The form that parental investment takes can in turn be heavily influenced by social norms, and accordingly sex helps to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cunningham, Clark E. "Indonesia." Countries and their Cultures, Volume 2. Eds. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 1034-1056. Print.

Du, Shanshan. "Husband and Wife do it together": Sex/gender allocation of labor among the Qhawqhat lahu of Lancang, Southwest China." American Anthropologist 102.3 (200) [HIDDEN] Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

McIntyre, Matthew H. And Edwards, Carolyn P. "The Early Development of Gender Differences." Annual Review in Anthropology 38 (2009): 83-97. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.

Parker, Lynette. "Engendering School Children in Bali." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3.3 (1997): 497-516. Web of Science. Web. 6 Sept. 2011.
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Urban Anthropology

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44170667

Urban Anthropology

Our urban metropolises are no longer the vibrant or essential centers they used to be. The mass migration of the wealthy into the suburbs has left our cities with reduced tax bases and less stability and in turn the cities have rapidly begun decaying. Our cities today are decadent and dangerous. Cites are the remnants of the industrial age and that time is gone. Breaking down or getting a flat tire in the wrong block will get an unfortunate traveler an introduction into the horrors of street crime and the illegal narcotics industry. Our cities are just not nice places any more. "Residents air their complaints in community meetings (of block dubs, police beats, the Local School Council, church groups, the Chamber of Commerce). Gangs and gang bangers top the list of their concerns." (Pattillo) This report will attempt to present an anthropological answer to the culture of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pattillo, Mary E. "Sweet Mothers And Gang Bangers: Managing Crime In A Black Middle-Class Neighborhood" Social Forces 01 Mar. 1998.

Ryan, James E. "Schools, Race, And Money" Yale Law Journal November (1999):.

Zenner, Walter P., and George Gmelch. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City. 4th ed. n.p. Waveland P, 2001.

Urban Life
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American Anthropology

Words: 2827 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66567355

American Anthropology

Jaguars and Were-Jaguars:

Conceptions and Misconceptions in Olmec Culture

There is not a question that jaguars were important to Mesoamerican religion and culture. The Olmecs were no exception to this rule. However, it seems that previous interpretations of Olmec art and architecture have erroneously placed more emphasis on the jaguar than is actually due. While a significant part of Mesoamerican culture, the jaguar did not play quite the all-encompassing role that many archaeologists have attributed to it. Specifically, the so-called "were-jaguar" motif might be representative of something other than a jaguar, or at least, contain elements of other animals in addition to the feline. Among others, it has been suggested that the "were-jaguar" babies were, instead, crocodilians, toads, deformed human children, snakes, or iguanas. This essay will look at the most convincing of these arguments, in particular, the possibility of the "were-jaguar" actually representing congenitally deformed babies, were-crocodilians,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES CITED

Bernal, Ignacio

1969 Olmec Society. In The Olmec World, pp.86-106. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Coe, Michael

2002 Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs. Thames and Hudson, New York.
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High-Speed Internet and Society Cultural Anthropology Concerns

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85238017

High-Speed Internet and Society

Cultural Anthropology concerns itself with the intricacies of cultural development amongst the human species. One innovation that has impacted the way a society or population develops culturally is the Internet. As the Internet becomes more ubiquitous, prices for Internet subscription drops thereby increasing the number of people who can afford Internet services. Additionally, market pressures amongst cable and Internet companies have brought about trials to improve the quality (i.e. The speed of Internet connectivity) of the Internet. The purpose of this essay is to examine the potential effects inexpensive high-speed Internet service may have on society.

"Fiber for Communities" is a Google initiative that seeks to install fiber optic lines that will bring gigabit-per-second Internet speed to 500,000 people in Kansas City by 2012. Gigibit-per-second Internet speed is blazing fast, consider the realities it brings as described in the AP article, Google Picks Kansas City, "The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Google Picks Kansas." Times Free Press. Tennessee, Chattanooga. 31 Mar. 2011.

Web. 7 May 2011.
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Cultural Anthropology

Words: 1124 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95870926

Race is one of the most bedeviling of anthropological characteristics. The concept, with the barest tips of its roots in biological realities and the rest of the plant firmly grafted to cultural and sociological constructs, is one of the first concepts that anthropologists dealt with vigorously in terms of the history of the profession. Ideas about race both helped establish anthropology as a discipline in its own right (distinct from history, political economy, philosophy, comparative religion and ethics) and kept it from being entirely assimilated into the post-colonial mindset. Like the poor for the rest of humanity, the idea of race - for both good and ill - seems always to be with the anthropologist.

Thus it is hardly surprising that Roger Lancaster should become fascinated with the concept of race during his fieldwork in Nicaragua. For the milieu in which he is working provides a fascinating swirl of ideas…… [Read More]

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Urban Anthropology

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10899288

Religion and Urban Landscape

Social Assimilation and Identity in Gods of the City by Robert Orsi

Religion as a social institution is considered one of the most influential agents in the society. As an institution, religion plays a vital role in altering or changing the way people behave and think. This is especially true in the case of immigrants and other people of different nationalism and race in the United States. Contemporary American society is a 'melting pot' for people who came from all kinds of societies and cultures. As the number of immigrants increased, cultures are brought and assimilated within the American society, where 'hybridization' of societies occurs.

Religion, indeed, is one aspect of culture that directly influences individual and collective thinking and behavior. For individuals trying to cope with a different kind of society, religion serves as 'relief' and social companion for the lone individual. Through religious activities,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Orsi, R. (1999). Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape. IN: Indiana University Press.
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Sociology and Anthropology in Tourism

Words: 2357 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68540323

symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.

Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism

Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, F. (1998) 'Tourism: Blight or Blessing?' Butterworth Heinemann: UK, HB, ISBN 075063989X.

Borocz, J. (1996), 'Leisure migration: A Sociological Study on Tourism', Pergamon Press: UK, ISBN 0080425607 HB

Butler, R. And Hinch, T. (eds) (1996) 'Tourism and Indigenous Peoples', ITBP: UK, HB, ISBN 1861522096

Butler, R., Hall, R. And Jenkins, M. (eds) (1998) 'Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas', Wiley: UK, HB, ISBN 0471976806
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Cultural Anthropology Cree and Intuit Cultures

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97074810

Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Conditions in the Arctic North

The first human occupation of the Americas occurred in erengia during the last glaciation of the region. Later, it was more widely accepted that the primary center of population expansion was in Alaska, subsequently spreading into the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. The physical environment of the populated regions influenced the developing cultures of each group, affected by access to resources, barriers to trade routes, and weather and land conditions. As a result of environmental impact, religion, technological adaptations, economy and food source acquirement varied among the cultural populations, and is still seen in ethnic societies of the Arctic region today, evidence of the cultural sustainability of such adapted groups.

To define "culture," it is the combination of values, practices, and relationships of a population, with a number of factors influencing its development. Considering environment as a key point to cultural development…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Chris. "Beyond the 'Invented Indian': Acknowledging Original Conservation."

Terralingua. 1997. Partnerships for Linguistic and Biological Diversity. 4 Mar. 2004. http://cougar.ucdavis.edu/nas/terralin/paper006.html

Freimund, Wayne et al. "Principles of Koyukon Worldview." Native American Perspectives on Wilderness Preservation & Management. 1997. Wilderness.net. Chapter 12, 225-235. 4 Mar. 2004. http://www.wilderness.net/wmdep/crookston/Readings/nelson1.pdf

Greider, Brett. "Religion and Region." Religious Studies Web Resources. 20 Jan. 2003.
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nursing home anthropology of aging

Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45153596

Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes

Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.

The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…… [Read More]

References

Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.

Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.

Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/sites/default/files/assets/documents/kenneth-gergen/The_New_Aging.pdf

Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/culturalaging.pdf
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Repatriation and Its Consequences There

Words: 2643 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63993670

I do not even know where most of my ancestors are buried. I do not even know where most of them lived, or what land they considered to be at the heart of their lives. I do not know how most of them conceived of the soul or of what happened when they buried their dead. And yet I would be troubled by knowing that researchers could dig up their bones. I would not necessarily forbid it (if I had the power), but I would be troubled. And I think that I would be close to infuriated if researchers claimed that they were pursuing such disinterring for my benefit. So must many native peoples feel.

How Does One Define Affiliation?

Key to the legal strength of NAGPA as well as the broader implications that is has for the practice of the different sub-disciplines of anthropology, including archaeology, is the concept…… [Read More]

References

American Association of Physical Anthropologists. (2000). Statement by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists on the Secretary of the Interior's Letter of 21 September 2000 Regarding Cultural Affiliation of Kennewick Man.  http://www.physanth.org .

Ousley, S., Billeck, W. & Hollinger, R. (2005). Federal Repatriation Legislation and the Role of Physical Anthropology in Repatriation. Yearbook of physical anthropology 48: 2-32.

Ubelaker, D. & Grant, L. (1989). Human Skeletal Remains: Preservation or Reburial? Yearbook of physical anthropology 32: 249-287.

Weaver, J. (2002, Fall). Review essay. Project Muse.
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Theories Presented by Elman Service and Timothy

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57021293

theories presented by Elman Service and Timothy Earle on the evolution of chiefdoms.

There were many different things that Franz Boas did to help improve the field of anthropology at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A number of the advancements he made were in the field of physical anthropology. Even more advancements pertained to improvements in this science as a whole which helped it to become much more rigorous and, on the whole, trustworthy. Many of these improvements that Boas made in this field helped to repudiate the notions of Western superiority that had previously occupied a central role in anthropology.

In terms of his contributions to physical anthropology, Boas effectively challenged and disproved the idea of scientific racism. By examining the skeletons of a number of different people of varying socio-economic backgrounds, the anthropologist was able to disprove the notion that…… [Read More]

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Humans as a Diverse Species

Words: 3179 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99987217

It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)

Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…… [Read More]

References

Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;

Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.

Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
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Ape Speech Research Has Been

Words: 5500 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66875718



Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:

The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.

Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.

Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.

Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html.
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Assemblage Stone Tools From the

Words: 2944 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96222913



Dibble also suggested "scraper types might represent stages of core reduction sequence, with intensity of utilization as a major causal factor." In 1990, Rolland and Dibble agreed "that Middle Paleolithic assemblage variability is continuous in nature" and "that raw material variability and intensity of occupation are the principal factors underlying Middle Paleolithic assemblage variability." Dibble asked whether Bordes' typology reflected arbitrary temporal slices in a continuum of variability in 1991, and also the factors underlying this variability. hat Rolland and Dibble argued about was whether "most of the significantly represented Middle Paleolithic tool types represent stages in the reduction of tools due to resharpening and rejuvenation...." (After an edge is dull, the tool may be retouched on that edge, or another edge may be sharpened, producing a different type of tool. Dibble contended that intensity of utilization is a causal factor of variation, from raw material quantity, accessibility and quality…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aiello, L.C. And Dean, C. (1990). An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. London: Academic Press, 268-74.

Bordaz, J. (1970). Tools of the Old and New Stone Age. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press.

Bordes, F. (1968). Mousterian cultures in France. Science, 134 (September 22): 802-10.

Dibble, Harold L., (1984). Interpreting typological Variation of Middle Paleolithic Scrapers: Function, Style or Sequence of Reduction? Journal of Field Archaeology, 11:431-436.
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Humor Studies Comparative Review on

Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2468717

Each author subsisted to two (2) different kinds of perspectives, which make up the second and third critical elements of the comparative analysis component of this paper.

Berger analyzed humor based on social and political perspectives. Usage of these perspectives was most useful in discussing the two typologies of humor he thoroughly discussed in the book: satire and folly. Satire as a type of humor drew upon important concept that makes up its core: "militant irony" (158-9). Folly, meanwhile, was best characterized through the concepts "absurd" and "reality in a looking glass" (176).

Satire gives humor a political aspect to it, as illustrated in the term "military irony," which Berger defined as "a term derived from war, it is an attitude of attack that is part of a campaign against someone or something." Interestingly, the author qualified that satire need not have the 'brutality' that comes with military irony; however,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, P. (1997). Redeeming Laughter: the Comic Dimension of Human Experience. Walter de Gruyter.

Critchley, S. (2002). On Humour. Routledge.
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Macroevolution Humans Are One of

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2346697

The most arrangement of these hominids is as shown in the table above (antala, 2007, p.17).

Conclusion

Humans have undergone a series of evolution from the most primitive hominids to the modern man. The development in the structure of the hominids was gradual; with almost half being upright and the rest being bent creatures. Evolution is expected to continue and man is expected to evolve into a different creature depending on the use and disuse of his limbs.

Macroevolution gives finer details about the origin of humans and tries to bring out substantive information from carbon dating that indicate that for real man is a product of a continuous evolution and thus is thus not the final product of evolution. However, the theory of evolution has faced a lot of criticism especially from the Theologians whose views about the origin of humans are contrary to those of macroevolution. The theory…… [Read More]

References

Barsh, G. (2003). What controls variation in human skin colour? Journal on Biological

Principles. 11(7), 19-22.

Fleagle, J. (1998). Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Second Edition. New York: Academic

Press.
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Evolutionary Process

Words: 2409 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94862067

In males, the canine teeth tend to be longer, and sharper. Additionally, there appears to be greater variation in size and shape of male canines, in comparison to the relatively stable size and shape of the female canine. Often, the size differences between male and female teeth are seen more in the height of the crown of the tooth than in the length or width of the lower portions of the tooth (Plavcan, 29).

Further dimorphism can be seen in the anterior surface of the canine teeth. Researchers note that, in males, there is a groove that runs the length of the tooth, whereas in females, this groove in generally absent. Additionally, even in cases where the female tooth does have this groove, it is much less pronounced than that of the male primate (Plavcan, 29).

The mandibular premolar also appears to show signs of dimorphism. In males, this tooth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bramblet, Claud. "Evolution of Primates." Primate and Human Evolution. 2004. Department of Anthropology, University of Texas. 19 April 2005. http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~bramblet/ant301/thirteen.html#anchor261261.

Ciochon, Russell L., and John G. Fleagle. "Part I Primate Origins." Primate Evolution and Human Origins. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1987: 1.

Eaton, Boyd, and Eaton, Stanley. Evolution, Diet and Health. 2004. Center for Advanced Spatial Technology. 19 April 2005. http:/www.cast.uark.edu/local/icaes/conferences/wburg/posters/sboydeaton/eaton.htm.

Fleagle, John, and Kay, Richard. "Platyrrhines, Catarrhines, and the Fossil Record." In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. Ed. Kinzey, Warren G. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1997, 3-21.
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Josef Mengele the Angel of

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80801089

Undoubtedly, this association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety, but the ubiquitous image of Mengele at the ramp in so many survivors' accounts has also to do with the fact that Mengele often appeared "off-duty" in the selection area whenever trainloads of new prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, searching for twins."

Mengele's fascination with twins, and especially with experimentation on twins in order to find a way in which he could potentially double the size of the German race, led him to experiment on everything from eyesight, to pain tolerance, to tuberculosis. From witness accounts, Mengele would even inject the children with diseases, which often provoked vomiting and diarrhea, or would subject them to cuts while strapped to a table.

Because of his firsthand experimentation and selection of many prisoners, Mengele is responsible for countless numbers of deaths. Furthermore, due to his orders, others were either tortured, maimed, or killed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Evans, Nick. "Nazi Angel of Death Josef Mengele 'created Twin Town in Brazil'" the Telegraph UK. 21 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Holocaust History." Josef Mengele. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Holocaust History." Nazi Medical Experiments. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .

"Josef Mengele (German Physician)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
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Primitive War

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21996056

Anthropology

Marvin Harris on the Cultural Materialist explanation for warfare ("Primitive War" in Cows, Pigs, Wars, & Witches)

American anthropologist Marvin Harris discusses the cultural materialist perspective of anthropology in explaining the occurrence of warfare among primitive societies in "Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches." In his exploration and study of different cultures in the world such as India, Brazil, Venezuela, among others, he emphasizes the role the structure and mode of production plays in the prevalence of warfare and the dominance of males within these societies (that is, the development of a patriarchal society).

Cultural materialism stems from Karl Marx's study of the political economies of industrial societies. Marvin Harris, following this Marxian tradition, intends to explain cultures in the world as dependent on their respective histories and economies. Cultural materialism posits that social activity is largely derived from structures within society (of which the terms "infrastructure," "structure," and "superstructure"…… [Read More]

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Chimpanzees Have Culture The Culture of Chimpanzees

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69184746

Chimpanzees Have Culture?

The Culture of Chimpanzees

The term "culture" has many different definitions, but for purposes of this discussion it should be defined loosely as the values, goals, beliefs, and attitudes that are shared by and characterize a group, organization, or institution. For some time, anthropologists have been studying chimpanzees in order to determine whether they have culture as it relates to that definition. Field-studies on diet, hunting, and chimp tool-use have contributed to this issue and to the attempted resolution of it (McGrew, 1998). Noted anthropologist Jane Goodall has long stated that chimpanzees have behaviors which they have learned from others, and which have been passed down to them, therefore they have a culture (Goodall, 1986). Despite Goodall's opinions, not all anthropologists agree with what she believes and how she defines and understands culture. Anthropological primatologists are divided in their opinions of whether non-human primates like chimpanzees have…… [Read More]

References

Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

McGrew, W.C. 1998 Culture in nonhuman primates? Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 301 -- 328
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Social Sciences Background- for Centuries

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67274474

It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm

Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography

Words: 1503 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17373381

On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience.

To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University. Online at .

Turnbull, C. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. Thomson Learning.
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Magolda Peter Nov Dec 2003 Saying Good-Bye an

Words: 1540 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71007216

Magolda, Pete. (Nov/Dec 2003) "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual." Jounal of College Student Development. Pp.1-6. Retived fom Find Aticles database of jounal aticles on 26 Oct 2005 at http://www.findaticles.com/p/aticles/mi_qa3752/is_200311/ai_n9313968/pg

Conveying Citizenship though Commencement Ritual via a Desciptive Anthopology

Anthopologists can use desciptive, longitudinal, compaative, and multiscale eseach when studying human societies aound the wold -- and also deploy these same methods quite close to home, even in the scholastic envionment that suounds them -- and suounds thei students. The 2003 aticle by Pete Magolda, entitled "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual," attempts to conduct a desciptive anthopology of a specific gaduation commencement that will become pat the autho's lage study of exit ituals in highe education. The gaduation event descibed in the aticle is a singula one, howeve. It occued in "May 2001 at a medium-size public, 4-yea esidential campus in the Midwest,…… [Read More]

references of good citizenship and advice. (Magdola, 2003, p.3) The president's speech is analyzed on a rhetorical scaffold of advice, humor, and finally a call to improve the future. The high physical place of the president, his authority in giving diplomas, the uniform costumes of the once-diverse graduates have both a nostalgic and in a way a chilling aspect -- once, the individuality of this particular group of students dominated the college, now they have been shorn of their identity. They wear the same clothes and head off into an uncertain future in America, but have the comfort of their common university participation to shield them from the common demands of adulthood. The article, although one could argue with specific generalizations made from a limited study, provides an important window into one's own cultural, civic participation in a future ritual.
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How Are Culture and Personality Related

Words: 3855 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81313720

person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.

How are Culture and Personality Related?

hat is Culture?

hat is Personality?

Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?

How is Culture and Personality Related?

Conclusion

orks Cited

Introduction

Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.

LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.

Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
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Business A What Are the

Words: 3747 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50912007

Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)

As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory a; Sawitzky, Angelina C. (February, 2006) "Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Practice" Psychological Services. Vol. 3, no. 1, pp: 61-72.

Al-Nakeeb, Basil. (18 August, 2003) "Political Stability and Iraq's Privatization Strategy"

Middle East Economic Survey. Vol. XLVI, no. 33, pp: 17-20

Culture and Non-Verbal Communication" (n.d.) Retrieved 4 February, 2007 at http://www.cba.uni.edu/buscomm/nonverbal/Culture.htm
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Airs Waters Places a Close Reading of

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19573576

Airs, Waters, Places

A close reading of "Airs, Waters, Places" by Hippocrates will show that it was the first instance of climatic (environmental determinism. Climatic Determinism is based on the idea that the climate, the natural resources, and the land itself determine the nature of the habitants (which includes the physical nature, the cognitive ability, the moral compass, ethnical-being, intellectual being, etc.). Climate determines the physical nature and then the intellectual being of individuals living on the land, which in turn forms the culture of the group. It has greatly contributed to the development of the "Greek vs. Barbarian Antithesis" and the development of racism. However, how would culture affect the argument? Would the culture itself also influence the characteristics of the people on the land? We will examine these questions as well as how absolute the cultural determinism is in Hippocrates and whether or not is permeable, that is…… [Read More]

References

Adams, Francis, ed. "Airs, Waters, Places." Wikisource.org. Wikisource.org, 17 Oct. 2010. Web. 30

Mar 2012. .

"Environmental determinism." Sccs.swarthmore.edu. Sccs.swarthmore.edu, 2010. Web. 30 Mar 2012. .
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Cultural Observation of Dress

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 383010

Cultural Observation of Dress

Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.

Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)

f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.

People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…… [Read More]

Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)

Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.

Miner's article is discussing the appearance
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Biological Science in Dr William

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20995207

Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
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Culture the Term Culture Originally Described Aspects

Words: 780 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81313078

Culture

The term "culture" originally described aspects of cultivation in agriculture but in the current sense has been used in anthropology to explain the aspects of human behavior that cannot be attributed to genetic influences (Gertz, 1973). Gertz (1973) defines culture as having two aspects: the capacity to act creatively and represent experience through civilization and the distinct differences as to how different groups of people represent their experience.

Culture is a potent force in the survival of people but is also a fragile entity. Culture can constantly change and can be easily lost because culture exists in the minds and thoughts of people. For this reason many anthropologists and sociologists further distinguish culture into material culture, the distinct physical artifacts a society creates and non-material culture which basically consist of all other aspects of culture (Newman, 2011).

The focus in material culture studies is to understand a particular culture…… [Read More]

References

Friedel, R. (1993). Some matters of substance. In Lubar, S. & Kingery, W.D. (eds.). History

from things: Essays on material culture (pp. 41 -- 50). Washington, DC: Smithsonian

Institution Press.

Gertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
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Historical Particularism and Cultural Ecology

Words: 1302 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61289804

Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology

Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:

The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago

Press, 1974.

Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm

Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003.  http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
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Anthropological Thought Durkheim E 1895

Words: 3689 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51982412

The Kula provides a different perspective on the purpose and function of economics. One could imagine our ancient ancestors beginning trade as a social event. When we lived in small bands, every band was self-sufficient and had to supply their own basic needs. I had never thought of economics as a purely social function until reading this article. It changed my perspective on the purpose of economics.

Article Summary #14

Radcliffe-rown, a. (1940. On Joking Relationships. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.

Joking and teasing is a cultural construct that has different rules among different cultures. The purpose of this article is to examine the purpose and function of joking relationships among African Tribes. The author discovered that joking relationships among in-laws helps to relieve tension and diffuse what could be volatile social relations. Joking is not random and has a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill
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HIV Prevention Cultural Change Typically Culture Is

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87385711

HIV Prevention

Cultural Change

Typically, culture is defined as a unique way of life that is both shared and developed by a group of people that is passed down from generation to generation and provides a framework that organizes society. While there are differing cultural formations, and these formations depend on a number of complex elements, there are also several similarities that allow a greater "macro" human culture, and various levels of understanding between cultures that share a number of characteristics that make us human. Among these are language, regional differences and adaptions to the environment, religious or spiritual beliefs, and political systems. Indeed, not all cultural groups share all elements of culture; and in larger cultural groups there are also smaller, micro-groups. Individuals may be part of more than one cultural group, and may also separate themselves based on either cultural similarities as well as cultural differences (Ferraro, 2008).…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ferraro, G. (2008). Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher

Education/Cenage.

Gudykunst, W.B., ed. (2003). Cross-cultural and Intercultural Communication.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Globalization Was Just Coming Into

Words: 3561 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33566947

g., Hofstede, five different cultural dimensions), and the other one is the Cultural Standards Model (e.g., lexander Thomas):

1. In a general sense, cultures and differences among cultures can be described and measured along cultural dimensions (Hall, 1990, 2000; Hofstede, 1980, 1993, 2001; House et al., 2004; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961; Rokeach, 1973; Schwartz, 1992 and Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997).

2. In a more detailed and more descriptive sense, the cultural standard method deals with differences in the kinds of perceiving, norms of sensing, thinking, judging, and acting that can cause critical incidents in cross-cultural encounters (Thomas, 1996; Fink & Meierewert,

2001).

Due to significant developments in this field and the available range of value dimension studies, it is better to understand the possible impact of similarities and differences among cultures. Dimensions, which are quantitatively measured, can be used in statistical models (regression analysis) as well as to help explain…… [Read More]

Also, in the justification section, you use the terms "physical" and "relational" proximity. These are not terms that are used in the proposal. Either define them above or use terms that are defined. Once again, you may want to explain how this benefit compares to what is derived from Hofstede's approach. There are numerous studies on why Hofstede's approach does not work. You could address some of these studies and demonstrate why your methodology would prove better.

As you see, I have also noted areas that need sources and moved paragraphs around as well as added some copy. Make sure that every statement of fact that you present is backed up with a source, unless it is your own thought.

Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001
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Models of Transcultural Care

Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51475473

Nursing Theories

Transcultural Care

For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.

Cultural Competence & Influence

Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…… [Read More]

References

Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x

Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.

Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.

SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from  http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
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Ishi in Two Worlds Kroeber

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25950844

Gradually, these diverse languages, culture, and customs began to become eradicated. Although she does not use the term, the anthropologist paints a picture of White usurpation of Indian territory a kind of cultural genocide, whether intentional or not. Clearly, Theodora Kroeber's aim in recording her dealings with Ishi is an attempt upon her part to undo this legacy of 'her' people.

Kroeber charts the course of the Ishi eradication through the eradication of the Ishi language. She notes that of the six main language groups of North American Indians, five of these were represented in the vast and expansive Western territory of what is now the state of California. According to her estimates, these five language groups divided themselves into over one hundred distinct spoken languages, an extraordinary diversity of languages on one continent, languages and cultures that are now lost to us.

One extraordinary testimony to Kroeber's achievement as…… [Read More]

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Globalisation Is the Process by

Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67095451

Immigration policy, distance and financial constraints reduce the flow of people. Religions are notoriously difficult to pass from culture to the next because of the deep level of personal involvement. Languages are passed to outsiders only when pragmatic, as in the case of lingua francas. As long as the barriers to passing important cultural artifacts between cultures remain, globalisation will remain in evidence mostly with what can be transferred easily -- money, goods, and sometimes information and entertainment, but only when the receiving side is willing, which is no guarantee.

Part B. Junction Hotel is going to have to deal with an international set of guests and is likely to have an international staff as well. It will be imperative for the managers of the hotel, therefore, to be able to deal with both of these. (French, et al., p.25) note that the global manager must be culturally sensitive. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions (2009). Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions [Internet] Available from http://www.geert-hofstede.com / [April 25, 2011]

Waters, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge. Powerpoint presentation in possession of the author.

French, et al., (no date) no title -- powerpoint presentation in possession of the author.
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Educating the Expatriate in Papua

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50310566



Like many traditional societies in Hofstede's typology, PNG is also called a 'feminine' society, in the emphasis it places upon relationships. The nation would be characterized very much as a 'high context' culture, one in which relational status is very important when conveying meaning. How information is conveyed is more important than the actual wording of the message. Nonverbal language is very important in high context cultures, and it can be very difficult for cultural outsiders to translate the dominant cultural script into their own terms. The culture is very change resistant in PNG, and this is exacerbated by logistical difficulties, such as the lack of highly qualified IT and business professionals to teach current undergraduates to pass on information about new ways of doing business.

Behaviors, ethnocentrism, self-reference criteria

However, while it has been called 'feminine' in terms of its valuation of relationships, an observer should know that for…… [Read More]

References

Cultural differences between Australia and Papua New Guinea. (2010). Convict Creations.

Retrieved November 8, 2010 at  http://www.convictcreations.com/culture/papuanewguinea.html 

Kelegai, Limbie & Michael Middleton. (2002). Information technology education in Papua New

Guinea: Cultural, economic and political influences. Journal of Information Technology
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Experimental Theater Trends in Globalism

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55643526



To uncover these commonalities, my thesis will focus on three of the most influential forms of alternative theatre: Grotowski's Poor Theatre, Joseph Chaikin's Open Theatre, and Richard Schechner's New Theatre. These three alternative approaches represent a dramatic departure from conventional theater, using techniques that have as their central goal the development of intimate interaction between the audience and the actors. The central technique for this is to remove barriers and social conventions / traditions that typify traditional productions.

To adequately establish the social role that alternative theatre uses in constructing a performance, I will use a comparative study of these three alternative forms of theatre.

Since Grotowski had the most significant influence on the development of nonconventional theatre, I will begin by examining the actor-audience relationship in three contexts: psycho-physical, psycho-analytic language and the physical arrangement methods used to stage performances with the Polish Lab Theatre.

These three elements will…… [Read More]

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Irish Dance Many of Us

Words: 1330 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496023

These two elements of culture that I have found to be apt in discussion with Irish dance is 1. culture -- people's belief system and; 2. culture- including the artifact which people produces such as art.

Dance and Beliefs

One component of culture is the belief system -- people's ideas and values and its effect on the way people lead their lives (Henslin 5). Let's look into religious values of the Irish society. As an example, we have seen that the Druids were already praising their gods through the form of dance. The way people express their religious values have evolved into a physical expression of reverence to the gods (i.e. By dancing). In this sense, dancing allows for new ways/methods by which a society is able to expresses their faith, i.e. praising and/or revering their gods through dancing.

We can also analyze Irish dance and society's values by what…… [Read More]

References

Clapper, Tara. "An Introduction to Irish Dance." 2007. Associated Content. 8 January 2010 .

King, Tony. "The History of Irish Dancing." 2009. Bella Online. The Voice of Women.

8 January 2010

Kingsland, Arthur. "Sets, Steps and Ceilis: Irish Dancing." University of Newcastle. 2008. Higher Education Research Hub. 8 January 2010
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Health Culture & Globalization Health Culture and

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47542333

Health, Culture & Globalization

Health, Culture and Globalization

Culture plays an integral role in the lives of societies and individuals all over the world. Across countries and societies, different kinds of culture exist and govern the daily lives of people. Defined technically, culture is the system of beliefs, norms, values, and traditions that a specific group of people perceives and considers as their worldview. Countries have different cultures, and within each culture exists sub-cultures, created because of the diversity/differences existing from even the same group of people with the same nationality, race, or ethnic membership.

Culture inadvertently affects every aspect of an individual's life. Its influence could be as mundane as deciding what to wear and eat for the day, or as critical and important not only to the individual but also to the society, such as deciding who to vote for depending on the candidate's similarities in beliefs and…… [Read More]

References

Eckersley, R. (2007). "Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture." The Medical Journal of Australia, (186)10 Suppl.

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. Available at:  http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/ 

Huynen, M., P. Martens and H. Hilderink. (2005). "The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework." Globalization and Health, (1)14.
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Values and Ethics and Asylum Seekers

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90407070

Values and Ethics and Asylum Seekers

Ethical awareness is a necessary part of the professional practice of social workers and their ability to act ethically is an essential aspect of the quality of service offered to clients (Ethics pp). According to the International Federation of Social orkers, professional social workers are dedicated to service for the welfare of human beings, and to the use of scientific knowledge concerning human behavior (International pp). orkers are also expected to use resources for the enhancement of the quality of life and to achieve social justice (International pp).

According to the Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social orkers:

The social worker should act to prevent practices that are inhumane or discriminatory against any person or group of persons.

F.3. The social worker should not practice, condone, facilitate or collaborate with any form of discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bocker, Anita. (1999). Country of asylum by choice or by chance: asylum-seekers in Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. January 01. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

The Ethics of Social Work Principles and Standards. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:

http://www.asylumsupport.info/publications/ifsw/ethics.htm

International Federation of Social Workers. Retrieved October 27, 2005 from:
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European-Indian Contact New England Books

Words: 2359 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58614257

His analysis is therefore a direct investigation of the contact between the two cultural identities and their specific characteristics.

As opposed to this, Cronon uses an indirect argumentation to demonstrate the differences between the two cultures. He starts his discussion from a critique of Thoreau's view on the origins of the American civilization. Thoreau first advocated that the American land was a virgin territory when it was in the hands of the Indian-Americans. He thus contrasts at the same time the ecosystems and the economic policies of the Natives and the Colonists, focusing his argumentation of the external aspects of the two cultures rather than on the inner, spiritual cores of these cultures, like Axtell. His main thesis is that the Western colonizers brought with them the concept of "property" which is the main culprit for the subsequent radical changes in the ecosystems of the country: "English property systems encouraged…… [Read More]

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Regional Identity

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42806713

Regional Identity

Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Allentown." You Tube, 1982. Web. 28 Oct. 2012

"Where I Come From." You Tube, 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012

Fetterley, Judith. Writing Out of Place. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
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Adaptation Culture Scale and the Environmental Crisis

Words: 861 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75676459

Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.

The article deals with the important issue of how the scale of a cultures dictates how that culture will adapt to its environment, and the role that this adaptation plays in damaging the environment and depleting resources.

This interesting article begins with the following telling quote. "Nor are those cultures that we might consider higher in general evolutionary standing necessarily more perfectly adapted to their environments than lower. Many great civilizations have fallen in the last 2,000 years, even in the midst of material plenty, while the Eskimos tenaciously maintained themselves in an incomparably more difficult habitat. The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong."

This quote raises some of the most salient points that are brought out further in the article. First, it notes that the scale of the culture and the concentration of social power have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sahlins, M. & Service, E.R. Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
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Globalization in the Age of Globalization Cultural

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84260781

Globalization

In the age of globalization, cultural precincts are anticipated as having turned out as absorbent, imprecise, and undefined. The home culture comes in contact with the foreign culture as a result of globalization while it impacts culture of the home country leaving it to be not the native but the unstable, displaced, amalgamated, diverse, and adulterated (OCAA). Globalization is the instant of collective relocation, "multiculturalism, and cosmopolitanism" (Szeman, 2003) Once the culture of a nation was perceived by means of newspapers and work of fictions, but the present day has given the ever-present of novel structures of mass culture that has transfigured in to novel intercontinental systems of the thoughts. egarding culture, discussions about globalization are in consequence over and over again centered on border regions, and on the multifaceted dialogues that occur as these borders are investigated, anticipated again, and reemphasized in a world of rising, if not…… [Read More]

References

The Globalization Challenge: Australia's Role in a Rapidly Changing World," Oxfam Community Aid Abroad (OCAA).

Balibar, etienne, and Pierre Macherey (1981) On Literature as an Ideological Form: Some Marxist Propositions." In Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader, edited by Robert Young. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Bordo, Michael D. (2002) "Globalization in historical perspective: Our era is not as unique as we might think, and current trends are not irreversible," Business Economics, Jan, 2002, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1094/1_37/83793969/print.jhtml

Christie, Stuart (2002) Clear and present danger, The Guardian, November 9, 2002, Reviews on the Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate by Naomi Klein
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Globalization Often Has a Paradoxical

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70964938



Q2. From an American perspective, it is tempting to look out at the world and to assume that American culture now dominates and reigns over all, given the seeming ubiquity of American movies, television, and music. However, a cultural analysis of many regions of the world yields the finding that culture is far more regional and pluralistic in nature.

For example, in Mexico, soap operas known as telenovelas captivate almost the entire population. They often give voice to Mexican fantasies about transgressing economic borders. One such soap opera, Ugly Betty, has actually been appropriated by U.S. culture. Mexican culture has changed the U.S., as well as vice versa, despite the U.S.'s greater economic power in the region. And within India, Bollywood films are far more popular than Hollywood films because of the way they speak to unique Indian culture needs. Within this densely-populated and fantastically diverse nation, the fascination with…… [Read More]

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Diversity Management With Respect to

Words: 8378 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96424615

Today, it is not uncommon for managerial leadership to be drawn from one pool and placed in the other in order to facilitate greater intimacy between operational aspects separated by geography and culture. Though this strategy brings with it a number of notable benefits with regard to the coordination of global operations, it does also bear with it a number of challenges which fall upon the Human Resources department to address.

Employing an expatriate as a leader in an otherwise nationally homogenous organization, for one example, will tend to require a conscientious acknowledgement of cultural differences which are likely to enter into engagements -- both in terms of the awareness of personnel and the individual in question. This will be intended to invoke dual sensitivities to inherent differences that might impact interpersonal relations, communication and managerial philosophy. Therefore, the HR Department must be prepared to bridge any gaps which might…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization: Toward

an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. Un iversity of Illinois: College of Business. Online at .

Barna, Laray M. (1994). Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication.

Intercultural Communication: A Readers (7th Edition): Wadsworth Publishing.