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Physical Fitness Essays (Examples)

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Short Distance Running Biomechanics
Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76805268
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Short Distance Running

Sports biomechanics is one of the most important components in the field of sports since it provides insights regarding human movement using an injury reduction and performance enhancement perspective. Consequently, coaches and physicians utilize information regarding sports biomechanics to understand the athletes’ correct and incorrect technique. Most of the existing research on sports biomechanics generate insights regarding the basic kinetic and kinematic attributes of specific athletic movement. Short distance running or sprinting is always associated with power and speed since it entails quick acceleration followed a maintenance of velocity. While existing biomechanics research provides insights regarding basic kinetic and kinematic attributes, the inter-individual differences across various levels of performance remains largely unknown. This study focuses on examining the biomechanics variations in the starting ability of short distance runners.
Importance of the Study
The evaluation of the biomechanics differences in the starting ability of short distance runners is…

Coh et al. (2017, March 12). Biomechanical Differences in the Sprint Start Between Faster and Slower High-Level Sprinters. Journal of Human Kinetics, 59, 29-38.
Majumdar, A.S. & Robergs, R.A. (2011). The Science of Speed: Determinants of Performance in the 100m Sprint. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6(3), 479-493.
Murphy, A.J., Lockie, R.G. & Coutts, A.J. (2003). Kinematic Determinants of Early Acceleration in Field Sport Athletes. Journal of Sports & Medicine, 2, 144-150.
Peterson, J., Sorensen, H. & Nielsen, R.O. (2015). Cumulative Loads Increase at the Knee Joint With Slow-Speed Running Compared to Faster Running: A Biomechanical Study. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 45(4), 316-322.
Weyand et al. (2000, November 1). Faster Top Running Speeds are Achieved with Greater Ground Forces not More Rapid Leg Movements. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(5). Retrieved from

Physical Program for Firefighters
Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22714066
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Physical Program for Virginia Fire Fighters

The Need for a Physical Fitness Program for Virginia Fire Departments

Fire fighters hold a special place within American society. They help keep our urban and rural landscapes safe from blazes of all kinds. Yet, even in a much more rigid bureaucratic environment, many firefighters within certain departments like here in Virginia failed to meet the physical standard that would provide the utmost level of safety. Although the physical requirements for entering the fire department are strenuous, the state of Virginia lacks a mandatory physical fitness program for its fire fighters that would ensure a continuous level of physical fitness and thus the highest level of performance in the most dangerous situations.

Significance of the Problem: Lack of Available Physical Fitness Programs

To think of an unfit fire fighter is an extremely dangerous problem. Currently, there is only an entry physical exam test (Virginia…


Biddle, Daniel A. & Bell, Stacy L. (2011). Using work-sample physical ability tests to maintain fitness standards of incumbent fire fighters. Fire and Police Selection, Inc. Web.

Calcagno, Guido. (2012). Physical fitness in the fire service. Fire Engineering. Web. 

NIOSH. (2009). Death in the line of duty: Fire fighter trainee suffers sudden cardiac death during maze training in Virginia. Faculty Assessment and Control Evaluation Investigation Report F2009-02. Web. 

Sherek, Becky. (2009). The four components of firefighter fitness. Firehouse. Web.

Physical Exertion Related to Walking
Words: 1986 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32278312
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Sample Worksheet for Field Data Collection

15-degree hill

Time (Min/Sec)

Level sidewalk

Time (Min/Sec)

Walk No. 1

Walk No. 2

Walk No. 3

The researcher performs these walks on six consecutive days at the same time each day (this approach is to ensure that the walker is "fresh" and in comparable physical condition for each walk; in the event of inclement weather such as rain, snow or other elements that would impede the experiment, the walk should be postponed to another day with similar weather as the other walks).

Attacks by stray dogs, interference by bystanders or other pedestrians or acts of God will invalidate any given walk which would then have to be repeated to ensure the reliability of the results.

It is the hypothesis of this experiment that a researcher will require more time to complete 500 steps walking uphill than walking on a similar surface that is…

Physical Privacy in Many Sports
Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546174
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In his preparation for a career in sports, an unethical coach or teammate may present the boy with steroids to enhance his physical performance, with the claim that Rodriguez advocates the use of such substances.

Furthermore, Rodriguez's apparent lack of remorse and his adherence to the claim that he was "young and stupid" creates a poor image for both the sport, its stars, and its followers. It furthermore indicates that being young precludes a person from making wise choices, and that only a maturity in years could bring the wisdom necessary to say no to performance-enhancing drugs.

This also has an effect upon parenting, and the ability of parents to influence children for their best benefit. tars such as Rodriguez indirectly promote drugs by means of their behavior. Jeopardizing good parenting in this way also influences the stability of the family and hence of society as a whole. It is…


Inman, Cam. (2009, Feb 17). Candid Cam: A*Rod, steroids and "My Cousin Vinny."  de=1&sid=21&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1236294835 & clientId=29440

Schneider, Angela J. (2007) Doping in Sport: Global Ethical Issues. Routledge.

President Kennedy's Contribution to Physical
Words: 2615 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93760837
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RULES: locks should not be thrown across the line. Scores are recorded to the nearest tenth of a second.


OJECTIVE: To measure heart and lung endurance by fastest time to cover a one-mile distance. TESTING: On a safe, one-mile distance, students begin running on the count "Ready? Go!" Walking may be interpersed with running. However, the students should be encouraged to cover the distance in as short a time as possible. RULES: efore administering this test, students' health status should be reviewed. Students should be given ample instruction on pacing themselves and should be allowed to practice running this distance against time. Sufficient time should be allowed for warming up and cooling down before and after the test. Times are recorded in minutes and seconds.


OJECTIVE: To measure upper body strength and endurance by maximum number of pull-ups completed. TESTING: Student hangs from a horizontal…


"Fitness: the president's challenge. (children's fitness test for President's Challenge Award)." The Saturday Evening Post. 1990. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from HighBeam Research: 

Gatterman, Meridel I. "Health Promotion and Wellness Through Mental Fitness." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from HighBeam Research: 

Krucoff, C. "Has Fitness Fizzled?;While Many Work Out; Most Prefer the Couch." The Washington Post. Washington Post Newsweek Interactive Co. 1990. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from HighBeam Research: 

Lyons, B. (2010). "Commentary: Physical fitness -- is it a national security issue?" Retrieved April 27, 2010 from

Senior Fitness
Words: 3628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28047071
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Senio Fitness

Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?

Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.

When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…

references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.

29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.

1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.

2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.

3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.

Healthcare and Fitness Research
Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48205230
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Statistics and Research Method for Business Decisions
Potential of Fitness Industry

Fitness industries today are increasingly receiving clients from all sorts of demographics and ages. Human fitness is turning out to be an asset that people are taking every effort to ensure it is preserved and protected at all times. The fitness standards are essential because they are multifaceted but appear to converge towards the need for a long healthy life characterized by productivity and reduced vulnerabilities. Fitness is a concern for almost every individual in the world today and the reasons are diverse and varied depending on one's goals and aspirations. Every individual in the world, across all ages, aspires to be healthy for some reasons. For instance, every individual seeks to be healthy so that they can engage freely in almost everything that requires a healthy body system (Jacobsen, 2011). Human health is a concern for attacks from…

Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health
Words: 3536 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30574410
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Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).

A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…


8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from 

Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from 

Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.

Senior Fitness
Words: 2521 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66413783
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* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…

American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at 
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: 

Integrating Children With Autism Into a Physical
Words: 2281 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 89275296
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Integrating Children with Autism into a Physical Activity and ecreation Setting

The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of behavior of children who were severely handicapped and autistic as they were integrated into a physical education and exercise program (Schleien, et al., 1987). The desire was to determine whether the social and behavioral skills of these children were improved after they had been exposed to an exercise and physical education program, or whether there was no difference seen. The way that the handicapped children were treated by the other children in the program - who were not handicapped - was also examined, in an effort to draw conclusions about how individuals treat those who are different and whether those differences cause children to shun others or accept them. Only two handicapped children were used for the study, and they were eight and eleven years old (Schleien, et…


Schleien, S., Krotee, M., Mustonen, T., Kelterborn, B., & Schermer, A. (1987). The effect of integrating children with autism into a physical activity and recreation setting. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 21(4): 52-62.

Promoting Physical Activity and Active Communities
Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72154094
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Promoting Physical Activity and Active Communities

In recent years, obesity has become a major global problem that is associated with a wide range of adverse physical and psychosocial healthcare outcomes. In developed nations such as Australia, childhood and adolescent obesity has assumed near-epidemic levels as a result of poor nutritional habits and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, but other socioeconomic factors have been shown to play a role in the prevalence of obesity as well. Therefore, identifying current trends and best practices represents a timely and valuable enterprise, the significance of which is discussed further below.

Significance of the Health Issue in Australia

Because the healthcare needs of populations change over time, formulating effective health promotion interventions is a challenging endeavor, but such interventions are needed to help contribute to a framework in which a wide range of individuals, groups and sectors of society can receive the social support services they…


Broom, D. (2008). 'Gender In/and/of Health Inequalities.' Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 11-13.

Coveney, J. (2008). "The Government of Girth.' Health Sociology Review, vol. 17, no. 2, pp.


'Developing a new framework for promoting health and well-being in Victoria: A discussion paper.' (2007, August).

Articles That Are Related to Physical Activity After Transplant
Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 28121296
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Quality of Life Measures

Quality of life is measured using a variety of surveys. The most common of these surveys is the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), which measures several categories of physical functioning, as well as containing a Mental Health Component (MCS). Another commonly used quality of life measure is the Dutch AND-36. Masala, etl al (2012) used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study as well as the SF-36. The van Ginneken et al. (2010) study employed the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP-68), Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in addition to the AND-36.

Physical Activities Measures

Physical activity is measured with a number of self-assessment and objective tools including peak oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry, walking distance in a timed exercise, "isokinetic muscle strength of knee extensors, body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness," and…


Krasnoff, J.B., et al. (2006). A randomized trial of exercise and dietary counseling after liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2006(6): 1896-1905.

Masala, D. et al. (2012). Quality of life and physical activity in liver transplantation patients. Transplant Proceedings 44(2012): 1346-1350.

Roi, G.S. et al. (2014). Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 46, 2345-2349.

Rongies, W., et al. (2011). Physical activity long-term after liver transplantation yields better quality of life. Ann Transplant 16(3): 126-131.

Fitness and Health Insurance Reform
Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34317604
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Q1. Personal Fitness Trackers
Even when personal fitness trackers present the same information, they can visually display the information in different ways. Regardless, the theory behind such trackers, and the ability to see how many steps, calories burned, and activity in relation to the activity engaged in the past, is that people are more motivated when they have concrete evidence of their improvement. What cannot be measured cannot be consciously changed. However, according to a study in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, in a randomized control study (the gold standard of academic research), using a fitness tracker had no effect on any measure of health or fitness (Finkelstein, et al, 2016). The fitness tracker used in this particular study was a clip-on tracker without a significant graphical interface. It is possible that the results may have been different, had the tracker been more pleasing in its presentation.
But even a…

Fitness Related Concepts Chest and Shoulders
Words: 805 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47177093
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Upper Body Strength

Exercise is vital to maintenance of good physical health. Upper body strength is of particular importance because it aids in allowing us to breathe properly and maintain healthy lungs. Exercises, such as, breathing control work by relaxing the upper chest and shoulders is a prime example of this. This exercise allows the individual to use "the diaphragm more efficiently by consciously allowing the abdomen (tummy) to move out as you breathe in, rather than allowing it to be sucked inwards." ("Exercise and the Lungs")

The purpose of the chest muscles is to move the arm and shoulder diagonally over the front of the body. The purpose of shoulder muscles is to allow the upper arm to be raised in the front and upward positions. Exercising of the shoulders and chest can improve the body's range of motion and posture. Additionally exercising the shoulders and chest can reduce…

Works Cited

Because this paper contains directions to exercises that may cause injury if done improperly most of it has been directly quoted or contains paraphrases from the following web pages which may be accessed by getting on the internet and clicking on the links that follow.

Arnold Press.

Dumbbell Flyes.

Front Dumbbell Raise.

Physical Education in Maricopa
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66589863
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Community Health Education Project
The Healthy People 2020 topic selected for this community health education project is Physical Education. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2018), the goal of Physical Education for Healthy People 2020 is to “improve health, fitness, and quality of life through daily physical activity.” The windshield survey of the population in Maricopa County in Phoenix, Arizona, reveals that very few people in the community are outdoors exercising—few people are seen talking walks, riding bikes, playing sports on playgrounds or on courts, and many people are seen who appear to suffer from obesity. This indicates that there is a need to educate the community on the importance of physical activity.
The objective this project aims to achieve is: “PA-1—Reduce the proportion of adults who engage in no leisure-time physical activity” (Healthy People 2020, 2018). This issue is a priority for the community of…

Importance of Physical Activities
Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2504147
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Physical Changes

In the past few months my current exercises has changed my physical life dramatically. I have already realized that movement is a medicine when used appropriately and I have managed to significantly develop my ability to listen to the needs of my body and get involved in the type of practice that will be most beneficial to my life. Different physical changes have taken place in my life in my endeavor to live a healthy life.

My body composition has changed significantly mainly since I started taking my exercises. Following my exercise mechanisms, there has been reduction in the percentage of body fat as well as through the increase of lean muscle mass in my different parts of my body, (Kahn, E.B., amsey, 2002). Also changing my eating habit has facilitated change in my body composition. I have reduced consuming junky foods which may increase fats in by…


Kahn, E.B., Ramsey, L.T., Brownson, R.C. et al. (May 2002). "The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review." Am J. Prev Med 22 (4 Suppl):

Bally Total Fitness Is a
Words: 1822 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 8763138
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The NFC eb site is out of date (offering February deals in April) and when a user clicks on "FAQS" a box comes up, "Coming soon!" The NFC doesn't say how many facilities it has, and seems to be hyping its invitation: "…Come in today, you won't regret it!" The NFC claims its facilities "surpass our competitors" -- but how?

Conclusion / Recommendations for Bally. If Bally was really interested in a new marketing strategy, they would use the latest obesity data from CDC and other reliable sources to their benefit. They could guarantee that if you follow our nutritional and exercise program you'll lose weight. There are reality TV shows on weight loss and Bally could certainly get into that genre as well. The company needs to provide some sort of meaningful pledge to lure Americans into their stores -- and that meaningful pledge should take into account things…

Works Cited

24-Hour Fitness. "About Us." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from .

Bally. "The Leader in Fitness / Our Fitness Approach / Frequently Asked Questions / Bally

Financing -- Today's Best Fitness Opportunity." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from .

Centers for Disease Control. "Obesity and Overweight." Retrieved April 12, 2010, from .

Health and Fitness Survey Hour Fitness a
Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74445949
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Health and Fitness Survey

Hour Fitness, a global leader in fitness, is committed to making fitness accessible and affordable to people of all fitness levels. The company is the largest privately owned fitness chain in the world, with clubs in the United States, Europe and Asia. In the United States, 24-Hour Fitness and its Q. Sports Clubs division are the industry leaders in fitness. In Asia clubs operate as California Fitness. In Europe clubs operate as S.A.T.S. Sports Clubs. In Norway, Sweden and Denmark, clubs operates as Form and Fitness.

Convenient locations, the latest equipment, affordable prices, knowledgeable staff and outstanding service, as well as facilities that are open up to 24 hours a day, seven days a week, are all factors that have contributed to the company's tremendous growth and success.

For this project, Steve Gordon, Personal Training Director of 24-Hour Fitness, Northern California Division, was interviewed on November…

Stakeholder Analysis XX Fitness Located in Atlanta
Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33377020
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Stakeholder Analysis

XX Fitness located in Atlanta, GA is a customer-centric based "high end" athletic training facility with emphasis on serious fitness enthusiasts. As with any business XX Fitness depends on creating value for their stakeholders through design and implementation of services for their customers. For XX Fitness these services flow from employee human capital, specifically professional trainers with emphasis on providing individual and tailored client training sessions. Success for XX Fitness will depend on aligning the company's operations and activities with their three major stakeholders: owners-management, customers, and employees.

Stakeholders and the Niche

A stakeholder is defined as "a person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies" (Business N.D.). In conducting a stakeholder analysis, the objective is "to identify everyone with a concern or interest who needs to be…


Business (N.D.). Stakeholders. Business Retrieved February 27, 2012 from 

McNamara, C. (2008). Basics for Developing Mission, Vision, and Values Statements.

Free Management Library. Retrieved February 27, 2012 from.

Personal Fitness Grade Course This Was the
Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62950966
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Personal Fitness

Grade Course

This was the fifth time I was examining myself in the mirror today. I guess people were right when they teased me and continuously passed comments. A closer look helped me notice my protruding stomach, the double chin and the heavy thighs. I was lonely in fact the reason of this feeling was my body. Devastated, I stood besides the window for some cool breeze to freshen me up but alas! All I saw were restaurants and luxuries. Munching cookies, chips, sodas, burgers and sitting all day were amongst my top priorities. I switched on the television and the show was all about obesity and the damage it does to the health. For a moment it looked like an old story which people hear from the day they are born. It never mattered to me until a day when everything affected me. This was probably because…

How Hong Kong Responds to Fitness Clubs
Words: 7625 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32408791
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Fitness Industry in Hong Kong

Hong Kong is a densely populated, coastal city in Asia, where both Eastern and Western cultures meet. In this city-state of 7 million persons, the potential for the fitness industry (fitness clubs) to find consumer demand is evident in the government's recent emphasis on health and fitness as well as the entertainment industry's usage of body image to convey an impulse among consumers to mimic what they see. At the same time, Hong Kong has a distinctly Asian desire for fitness workouts that are more dance-oriented than in the West. Choreography is a big draw for Hong Kong fitness club users and the more complex the choreography, the more likely the draw. Still, fitness clubs also appeal to older consumers who want to belong to a club and who seek to achieve some activity in their lives, as there is limited open space in Hong…

Assessment of Fitness Levels
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 49910718
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Physical activity is an important part of childhood. It offers children a way to stay healthy and learn long-term good habits that they can take into adulthood. However, some children are not exercising or staying active as long as they should. Therefore, it is important to assess their fitness level to act accordingly. Children aged 6 through 12 for example, are just starting to grow and have not yet undergone significant hormonal changes. Therefore, fitness levels should be measured accordingly.

The first thing to measure is their stamina/endurance. Kids at this age need daily activity, roughly one hour od moderate and vigorous exercise. Although some days can be taken off, a good way to measure a child's fitness level is to see if they can handle one hour of vigorous exercise. A game of soccer or touch football would be a great way to incorporate a fun means of assessment.…

Works Cited

Bradbury, Kathryn E., et al. "Association between physical activity and body fat percentage, with adjustment for BMI: a large cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank." BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 3, 2017, p. e011843.

Bushman, Barbara A. Complete Guide to Fitness & Health. Human Kinetics, 2011.

Changes During Running Course Physical
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 96398916
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I attribute that to the increase in various hormones and endorphins that are triggered by the exercise. Since the beginning of the running course, I have noticed more definition in my calves and that my waistline seems to have decreased slightly.

Aerobic and Cardiovascular Changes:

Initially, my endurance was limited by my aerobic capacity because I would get winded comparatively soon into my runs and I had to walk until my breathing allowed me to increase my pace again. I noticed that this improved very quickly and I attribute that to the fact that regular aerobic exercise increases aerobic fitness and endurance. Likewise, my resting pulse rate has decreased from approximately 62 beats per minute to approximately 56 and that my pulse rate also returns to normal faster than it did in the beginning. I attribute this to the fact that regular exercise also improves cardiovascular efficiency and circulation.


Students Attending a Ncoes Course Should Not
Words: 2593 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58471030
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tudents attending a NCOE course should not have to take an APFT or weigh-In upon arrival -- these are unit level tasks that need to be completed before reporting

NCOE and physical fitness/weight control testing responsibilities

Unit level leaders have an inherent responsibility to maintain and manage oldiers physical fitness and weight control standards; therefore, we must hold these leaders accountable for the execution of these tasks.

The purpose of the NCO as established throughout its history from the very beginning was focus on leadership roles. As the history of the NCEO, the educational component of the NCO shows, academic instruction was a requirement of the program -- the NCEO was indeed established with that in mind, and it has been only recently that hands-n components have been added in order to bring the NCEO into line with the 21st century and as response to the 2001 terrorist scare.


Sources Combat Leadership

Department of the Army. (2007). 2007 U.S. Army Posture Statement. Washington, DC.

Elder, D.K. (2009). Educating Noncommissioned Officers: A chronological study on the development of educational programs for U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officers. Fort Wampler, RL & Blanckenbllekeer, P. (2008) Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES): Considerations for Testing-out and Awarding Equivalent Credit United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Citizens in the United States
Words: 2671 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64071472
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This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.

ell-being of Muscles and Bones:

As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…

Works Cited:

Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.

Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .

Cohen, Bradley. "How Does Playing Sports Affect Your Health?" LIVESTRONG.COM - The Limitless Potential of You. Demand Media, Inc., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .

Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.

Newsletter Dear Parents Why Is
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13906256
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In terms of grading, students will not be evaluated on their ability to score goals, but how hard they try and their attendance. Student fitness levels will be assessed at the end of every semester. This assessment will involve a short run, sit-ups, push ups, a long jump, and chin ups. The results will not be to penalize the students, but to highlight what athletic skills the children need to work on in the future.

Some parents have expressed concern that children do not have enough time in the day to learn, let alone to run and play. It is our school's philosophy that a run or a rousing game of basketball helps children think better, once the children return to the classroom. Other parents have expressed concern about their children's weight, but it is not the school's place to specifically prescribe a weight-loss program for a young child, rather…

Works Cited

Pangrazi, Robert. (2005). Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Students.

14th Ed. New York: Pearson.

Employment Law Before the Amusement
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93024916
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If this employee's testing policy is to be implemented, the company especially their HR Department must be strict with their rules. If the applicant fails in one of the requirements one should not accept the applicant. The amusement also needs to hire one Lifeguard Professional Trainer from all applicants. This trainer will be hired only during peak season to orient and to have further training for everybody who has passed the initial interview. The trainer will also be one of the evaluators of each applicant. The qualifications that a trainer must have are the following: 1. He must be a CPR Professional Rescuer; 2. He must be a First Aid Certified; 3 He is currently employed and has trained in a well-known amusement complex; 4. He must have a minimum of 10 years experience as a lifeguard; 5.He must be 30-40 years old.

All new employees who undergo training and…

Aaker 1991 P13 it Is
Words: 8932 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 29760340
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It is argued that teacher are exposed to role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, social isolation and lack of self-fulfillment resulting from the special position in the schools bureaucratic system. Coupled with this is the general tendency for the teaching profession to be the least rewarded in the hierarchy of jobs.

The physical education teacher and burnout intersect at two different but related points. Firstly the notion that the teacher's reward is in heaven as some writers argue positions the teaching job as sacrificial for which adequate compensation is not given. The situation among physical education teacher has been exhausted in a lot of research because of specific peculiarities. Parsons (1968) has already discovered that the physical education teacher and the teaching profession's professionalism are highly questionable under the functional theory. Parsons who is the originator of this theory has been one of the forthright analysts of teachers and…


Akers RL. (1985) Adolescent marijuana use: A test of three theories of deviant behavior. Deviant Behavior, 6(4):323-346

Akers RL. (1989) Social learning theory and alcohol behavior among the elderly. Sociological Quarterly, 30(4):625-638

Akers RL. (1996) A longitudinal test of social learning theory: Adolescent smoking. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2):317-343

Akers RL, Krohn MD, Lanza-Kaduce Lonn, and Rodosevich M. (1979) Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44:636-655.

Military Readiness the Issue of
Words: 10587 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93817147
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In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.

On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."

Overall it is…


Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.

Body Mass Index.

Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; 

Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.

Curriculum Across the Nation
Words: 2494 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79834268
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role of physical education in the public school system has been under pressure from a number of fronts. In the contracting budgetary environment, the amount of dollars dedicated to non-core curriculum studies have experiences forced cut backs. When academic achievement levels are suffering across the board, many school systems make the mistake of cutting phys ed budgets in order to bolster focus on core academic areas. However, school systems that make this choice are often starving the goose that can help lay the golden egg. Studies and experiential evidence demonstrate that academic achievement is tied to both proper educational methods in the classroom, and a curriculum which focuses on developing the entire student, including his or her body through physical education.

For example, according to Maier (2001) 49 states no longer have a daily requirement for physical education. Illinois is a lone exception, and the school system is reaping the…


Bunting, C. (1989). The compatibility of physical education and outdoor education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 60(2), 35-39.

Chase, Matthew R. (2004, March 1) Nontraditional recreation activities a catalyst for quality physical education: these activities offer the most promising path to lifelong physical activity, and the barriers to implementation disappear in the face of careful planning. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance.

Maier, T. (2001, Aug 27) Schools Giving P.E. Short Shrift. Insight on the News, Vol. 17.

McCracken, B. (2001). It's not just gym anymore: Teaching secondary school students how to be active for life. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Philosophy of Sports but IT's
Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46917024
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Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…

Works Cited

Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.

Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, .

Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York

Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007.

Bun and Thigh Roller Www Bunthigh Com
Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19825791
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A study from the Institute of Preventative Medicine in Copenhagen found that so-called apple-shaped woman with excess fat around their waists were likely to be less healthy than a curvaceous, pear-shaped woman whose fatty deposits were concentrated in the buttocks and thigh areas ("When it Comes to Stored Fat, Shape Matters," 2005, Daily News Central). From an aesthetic standpoint, toning exercises and machines like the Bun and Thigh oller are not useful -- the only thing that shrinks one's body is weight loss, and burning more calories than consuming more calories -- for which cardiovascular activity is better suited. No one can choose where their fat stores accumulate if they consume more calories than they burn.

Of course, strength training and flexibility are also important aspects of a fitness regime. But here the Bun and Thigh oller falls short as well. While a person who uses weights can add weight…


The Bun and Thigh Roller." (2007). Official Website. Retrieved 22 May 2007 at 

Kolata, Gina. (2003).Ultimate fitness: The quest for the truth about exercise and health. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux.

Noakes, Tim. (2003). The lore of running. New York: Oxford University Press.

When it comes to stored fat, shape matters." (5 June, 2005). Daily News Central. Retrieved 22 May 2007 at

Increasing Sport Injuries
Words: 2348 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66618732
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Sports Injuries

Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.

The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.

Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…

Works Cited

AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.

Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.

Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school

Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.

Planning and Start-Up of a
Words: 3480 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58062034
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The primary competitor for the new indoor softball and baseball facility would be the Suffolk County Police Athletic League, which is a long established and traditional facility. They offer a wide variety of sports, including baseball, softball, football or basketball. This particular facility is mostly focused on receiving adult and skilled members, which will join the club's team and participate to competitions. In other words, they are only limitedly interested in attracting and training inexperienced members, but they look for those individuals who would add value to their already existent team. Another major competitor would be the South Bay Battlecats, but they only admit members between the ages of 9 and 22, basically closing the door to baseball and softball to all those older than 22.

Then, there are some educational institutions, such as the Dowling College or the Stony Brook University, which offer baseball and/or softball training to their…


Amusement, Gambling and Recreational Industries:2002, 2002 Economic Census, Industry Series, 2004, U.S. Census Bureau, Retrieved at  March 21, 2008

Business Plan for a Start-up Business, SCORE, Counsellors to America's Small Business, 2008, Retrieved at . On March 21, 2008

Official Website of South Bay Battlecats, 2008, Ast accessed on March 21, 2008

Official Website of the Brookhaven Town, 2006, http://www.brookhaven.orglast accessed on March 21, 2008

Program Design Project
Words: 3118 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59976246
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Sport: Basketball

More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…


Bangsbo, J. (2006). Training and testing of the elite athlete.Copenhagen Muscle Research

Centre, 4(1), 1-9.

Changela, P.K., & Bhatt, S. (2012). The correlational study of the vertical jump test and wingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobic power in high school basketball players. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 2-9.

Cissik, J. (2013, February 15). The point guard off-season workout plan. Retrieved from

Leadership Issues in Leadership -
Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48054450
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A parks recreational leader can encourage visitors through a brochure or other handout to talk with their doctors about their health and wellness. On the other hand, park recreational leaders can also talk with healthcare providers and team up. By doing this, recreational parks may provide some tests for visitors, like blood pressure checks or physical fitness and body mass index checks that offer visitors or those staying at the recreational facility an opportunity to find out whether they are in shape, and if not, what they can do about it.

Park leaders can also organize events like marathon races or shorter races like a 3k race for children and adults with various small prizes or tokens like a ribbon for the leader. They can encourage visitors to fill out forms or surveys where they would have an opportunity to write down what types of physical fitness activities they would…


Allen, L. (2005 Mar) Becoming good sports: professionals need to exercise their power by helping community youth develop through parks and recreation. Parks & Recreation Online, Available: BNet Research Center, March: 

Parks & Recreation

New Way Forward Nearly a Decade at
Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61159286
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New Way Forward

Nearly a decade at war in Iraq and Afghanistan has put an unprecedented strain on the United States military, as enlistment has not kept pace with the needs of the armed forces. In response to this rapidly worsening crisis, the Army in recent years has relaxed enlistment standards in a number of areas. In particular, the Army has dramatically increased the number of enlistment waivers it grants for both felons and overweight individuals. While this has increased the number of new service-members enlisted and current service-members retained, it has also reduced the effectiveness and professionalism of the Army on both the individual and organizational level. In the future, the Army can and should sue alternatives methods to meet enlistment requirements so that it is not put in this kind of ethical and strategic dilemma again.

While the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan obviously put a toll on…


Alvarez, L. (2008, April 22). Army and marine corps grant more felony waivers. Retrieved from 

Associated Press. (2008, April 21). More felons allowed to enlist in army, marines. Retrieved from 

Bedno, S.A.,M.C.U.S.A., Lang, C.E.,M.C.U.S.A., Daniell, William E, M.D., M.P.H., Wiesen,

A.R.,M.C.U.S.A., Datu, B., & Niebuhr, D.W.,M.C.U.S.A. (2010). Association of weight at enlistment with enrollment in the army weight control program and subsequent attrition in the assessment of recruit motivation and strength study. Military Medicine, 175(3), 188-93.

Athletic Injuries
Words: 3570 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68475215
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athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.

When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…


Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.

Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.

Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.

Business Planning Canvas Basics
Words: 781 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69129621
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Business Model Canvas

Combative Fighting Systems

Martial arts school that teaches Jeet Kune Do concepts / Kali / Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

Opened July 1995

Westminster Ave, Westminster, Ca. 90630 (714) [HIDDEN]

Martial art instruction for children through adults.

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) training, coaching. Physical fitness

Business owner/operator

More info online Google Ken Gabrielson Brazillian Jiu-Jitsu.

"Dirty Dozen," Gracie Jiu-jitsu Black Belts. Combative Fighting Systems.

Fighters trained: John "Machine" Lober

Todd Medina El Tiburon


Key Activities:

Provide mixed martial arts training and coaching, including: Jeet Kune Do concepts / Kali / Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

Provide an avenue for children and adults to develop physical fitness

Key esources:

"Dirty Dozen," Gracie Jiu-jitsu Black Belts, and Combative Fighting Systems

Superbly trained staff: John "Machine" Lober, Todd Medina, El Tiburon (have I got this right

Facility in Westminster, California

Partner Network:

Chamber of Commerce, Westminster

Mixed Martial Arts Association (MMAFA)

International Mixed Martial Arts…


Osterwalder, A. And Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. New York, NY: Wiley.

The Business Model Canvas Retrieved 

Alexander Osterwalder: The Business Model Canvas. [Video.] Retreived 

How to create your Lean Canvas. LeanStack. Retrieved

Social Media and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
Words: 1810 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78519610
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Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain

The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…


Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.

Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.

Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London

Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19

Fibromyalgia More Than 50 of
Words: 5095 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36644521
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(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)

esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)

According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:

moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…


Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations

Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.

Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719

Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422

Effects of Exercise on Pregnancy
Words: 3153 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13794457
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There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.

However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…


Araujo, David. (April, 1997). Expecting Questions About Exercise and Pregnancy? The Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 67-69.

Kramer MS. (February 12, 2002). Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software.

Smith, James. (1998). Exercise During Pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

South-Paul, J. Rajagopo, K. Tenholder, M. (1988). Exercise and Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol: 71:175-179.

Fun With Frisbee Outline Not
Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72855755
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While experiencing the thrill of victory can definitely be fun it certainly isn't everything, and it's not the point of Frisbee.

Competition might be completely avoidable in a game of Ultimate Frisbee, yet there are several physical skills and athletic elements in the sport, including throwing and especially running or some other form of full body movement that are required to engage in play. Even with the involvement of these skills, however, it is very possible to enjoy playing Frisbee at a low level of physical ability or exertion. The game can be played at a walking pace for example, or even by individuals in wheelchairs or with other ability issues, and it is easy to make all manner of accommodations for other physical disabilities or desired levels of exertion or relaxation. The game of Ultimate Frisbee can be played at a very intense level, involving as much running as…

Program Cultivate Personal a 6-Month Period In
Words: 2185 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41117927
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program cultivate personal a 6-month period. In developing program draw reference relevant theory research. The include following sections Description well-being (definition outcomes) measurement well-being processes reflections.

Cultivating personal wellness

Description: My definition of wellness

Wellness is defined as a state of optimizing one's physical, mental, social, and civic health. With this in mind, I have decided upon the following plan to cultivate my own state of physical wellness.

Physical and mental wellness: Measurement of well-being and well-being processes

Exercise must be the core of every physical wellness prescription. It is important to maintain a healthy weight and regular exercise can significantly impact longevity. According to the American Heart Association, "Intensive exercise prevented shortening of telomeres, a protective effect against aging of the cardiovascular system, according to research reported in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association" (The anti-aging benefits of exercise, 2009, LA Times). egular physical activity increases high-density lipoprotein…


7 benefits of physical activity. 2011. The Mayo Clinic. Viewed 8 April 2011 at: 

The anti-aging benefits of exercise. 2009. Los Angeles Times. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:,0,1725925.story

Mental Retardation With Autism
Words: 4103 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76295287
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Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation with Autism

An Examination of the Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Considerations Involved in the Provision of Physical Education Activities to Students with Mental Retardation ith and ithout Autism

To excuse students from physical education is the safe way out, but it does not meet their needs since it becomes costly to them in the long run. The inference here is not to say that physical educators advocate placing children in a program of physical education which will aggravate an injury, cause frustration, or to make him do things which are beyond their ability. -- Nancy Allison Close, Donald K. Matthews, 1973

This paper provides an overview of what physical education (PE) teachers should consider when developing activities and lesson plans for students with the cognitive and physical constraints associated with…

Works Cited

Ammerman, Robert T. And Michel Hersen. Advanced Abnormal Child Psychology. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

Bauman, Joanne. (2004). Benefits and Barriers to Fitness for Children with Disabilities. The National Center on Physical Activity and Disability. Available: http://www.ncpad.


Exercise as a Child and the Effects it Has on Adult Life
Words: 3056 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21597759
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patterns of physical activity and exercise indicates that there has been an overall trend of decreasing physical activity levels and increasing levels of inactivity among adolescents and adults (Gordon-Larsen, McMurray, & Popkin, 1999; Van Der Horst, Paw, Twisk, & Van Mechelen, 2007). Inactivity and poor diet are responsible a large number of deaths annually and could soon become one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. esearch continues to reaffirm that there is a dose response relationship between physical activity and all causes of mortality. There is typically a risk reduction of around 30% for those attaining the recommended levels of at least moderately intense physical activity on most days of the week compared with those who are relatively inactive (Lee & Skerrett, 2001). egular physical exercise has long been associated with decreased risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (Powell, Thompson, Caspersen, & Kenderick, 1987), obesity and diabetes (Knowler,…


American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Public Education. (2001). Media violence. Pediatrics, 108, 1222 -- 1226.

Dennison, B.A., Straus, J.H., Mellits, E.D., & Charney, M.D. (1988). Childhood physical fitness tests: Predictor of adult physical activity levels? Pediatrics, 82 (3), 324-330.

Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L.S., Nelson, M.C., & Popkin, B.M. (2004). Five-year obesity incidence in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 569 -- 575.

Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R.G., & Popkin, B.M. (1999). Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of Pediatrics, 135, 301 -- 306.

Educational Intervention on the Balance
Words: 9613 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34346457
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Literature eview

1. The dilemma of Obesity

Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).

To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…


Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.

Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.

Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.

Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.

Stretching Dynamic vs Static Stretching
Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81751303
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Static stretching could be used as part of a warm-up for training (Campbell 2007). Static stretching is thought to more directly enhance the athlete's flexibility in the long run, but it is less useful in acting as an aid towards immediate performance or increasing the body temperature of the athlete.

The age and fitness goals of the athlete will also determine what method of stretching should be selected or emphasized. "Adults ages 21 to 45 with tight hamstrings also get the best results from static stretching with 30-second stretch-hold positions. Researchers report that static stretching is two times more effective than dynamic range of motion (DROM) for this group of non-competitive athletes" (Campbell 2007). The slower pace of static stretching may help the athletes focus on their problem areas before engaging in exertion, and it is less important that these athletes quickly engage in an athletic bout, as they are…

Works Cited

Campbell, Phil. "The Truth About Stretching." Readysetgofitness. 2007 

Stretching and Flexibility." ExRx. Last updated 16 Apr 2007. 17 Apr 2007.

Prevention of Obesity
Words: 3241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94190461
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Obesity in Los Angeles County

The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…


About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from 

Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: 

Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved

from:  / obesity / economic_consequences.htm

Cardiac Exercise and Cardiac Respiratory Health Heart Health
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Exercise and Cardiac/Respiratory Health

Heart health is positively correlated with exercise and, according to the research, physical activity can be a good way to diagnosis, detect or treat emerging heart conditions in individuals. Connections are also made in general research between exercise and both aerobic and anaerobic gains for individuals. Indeed, as the discussion hereafter will show, exercise is among the most consistently effective and proven methods of preventing heart disease and such causal conditions as obesity or hypertension. Research points to a host of indicators that suggest exercise should in some form be a regular part of every individuals lifestyle. Chief among these indicators is the evidence demonstrating that exercise and physical activity are directly related to cardiovascular and respiratory health.

e find that there are a wide array of methods to diminishing the risk of heart disease, which can be associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a poor…

Works Cited:

Blair, S.N. & Church. (2004). The Fitness, Obesity, and Health Equation: Is Physical

Activity the Common Denominator? The Journal of the American Medical Association,

292(10), 1232-1234.

Brannagan, M. (2010). The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiac Cycle. Live