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Physiological and Biological Effects of
Words: 1302 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12337112
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Alcoholic effects are more pronounced in adolescents and prenatal alcohol intake may create serious cognitive problems for the unborn child.

Other effects of Alcohol upon the Body.

It is noted that Alcoholics generally suffer from malnutrition since the changes in metabolism brought about by alcohol consumption, prevent proper digestion and absorption of food. Thus alcoholics are often found deficient in proteins and vitamins, particularly vitamin A, accounting to susceptibility for liver disease and other serious alcohol-related disorders in the body. Alcohol breakdown in the liver generates toxins such as acetaldehyde and some highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that can cause serious damages to the liver. These toxins interfere with the metabolism of lipids resulting in the damage of liver cells. Moreover Alcohol interferes with the formation and activity of lysosomes that contain specific enzymes which break down proteins and thus may contribute to protein accumulation in the liver, which can…

Reference:

Kathryn Magruder-Habib, A. Mark Durand and Keith A. Frey, April 1991, Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in primary healthcare settings, Journal of family practice.

Nutrition Health Review, Winter 2003.

Dean F. Wong, Atul Maini, Olivier G. Rousset, James Robert Brasic, Spring 2003 Positron emission tomography: a tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain, Alcohol Research and Health.

Charles S. Leiber, Fall 2003, Relationship between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease, Alcohol Research and Health.

Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight Review and
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22152395
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Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures

This article by Grant Bonin explores some of the physiological problems faced by astronauts during extended periods of space travel. Bonin notes that early stages of exploration under hostile conditions have primarily been dominated by technological concerns, with matters regarding the health and well-being of explores themselves limited to issues of basic survivability. This phenomenon can be traced back to early maritime exploration. Early focus on manned spaceflight followed the pattern. Space exploration over the past half century has focused mainly on the development of propulsion systems capable of lifting humans beyond the boundaries of Earth's gravity. Physiological concerns have generally been dealt with on a per issue basis rather than a preventative basis.

Bonin contends that learning to combat the physiological issues of exploration has been a largely iterative process throughout history. However, an iterative methodology and slow evolution are…

Works Cited

Bonin, Grant. "Physiological Issues in Human Spaceflight: Review and Proposed Countermeasures." Carleton University, Ottawa, ON. 6 December 2005. Web. 9 September 2012. <  http://www.4frontierscorp.com/dev/assets/00%20-%20MAAE%204906%20-%20Biomechanics%20Final%20Project.pdf >

Wickman, Leslie A. "Human Performance Considerations for a Mars Mission." Center for Research in Science, Azuza Pacific University. (2006). Web. 9 September 2012.

Physiological and Societal Effects of
Words: 2676 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70315961
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Toward an Effective olution

In principle, the most effective solution to the tremendous problem of cigarette smoking in the U.. would simply be to impose legislation banning the manufacture, sale, or consumption of cigarettes altogether. In fact, it is impossible to justify any logical distinction between the current illegal status of marijuana (at the federal level and in almost all of the individual states) and the fact that a slightly different cultivated vegetation that is empirically linked to almost half a million preventable premature deaths annually is still perfectly legal to market at great financial profits. However, from a practical perspective, the U.. already had experience during the Prohibition era of the 1920s with the difficulties of trying to ban alcohol. In addition to widespread violation by otherwise law-abiding citizens, that ban created such a tremendous opportunity for profit associated with the black market production and distribution of alcohol that…

Sources Cited

Anderson, S., Ling, P., and Pollay, R. "Taking Ad-vantage of Consumers: Advertising

Light Cigarettes: Reassuring and Distracting Concerned Smokers"

Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 8 (2006): 1973-1985.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Health

Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Effect
Words: 1957 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64449890
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08% or higher. Blood Alcohol content is the concentrated amount of alcohol in the blood, and this number can be assessed via chemical and Breathalyzer tests. Though this limit was previously as high as.10% in some states, even the lowered limit is not adequate to prevent alcohol related vehicle accidents. In fact, law enforcement officials classify an accident as alcohol related if a driver's blood alcohol content was.01%, or two drinks, or higher. Though some groups praise the.08% law as one of the biggest steps in drunk driving prevention, other groups believe a no tolerance policy should be adopted for operating under the influence of alcohol, similar to the policy that is already in effect for minors.

The physiological effects of alcohol do not begin at.08%. In fact, they begin at much lower blood alcohol content levels. According to Brown University, moodiness increases at.02-.03%; fatigue, delayed reaction time, and errors…

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatrics. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects."

Pediatrics. 91.5(1993): 1004-1006.

Fetal Alcohol Information." Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. 2006. Centers for Disease Control. 6 May 2008.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm .

Proposition 65." Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. n.d. California

Negative Effects of Media on
Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14530354
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As we are exposed to more and more sex and violence, these things begin to mean less to us, and indiscriminate and uncaring behavior appears to be one of the major results of this. In order to change the situation without impinging on this country's basic freedoms, media producers will need to shoulder the responsibility and provide content that is more conducive to a happy, well-adjusted, and more neighborly society.

BIBLIOGRAPY

Freedman, Jonathon L. Media violence and its effect on aggression: assessing the scientific evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. 1-272.

otrla, Bowie. "Sex and Violence: Is Exposure to Media Content Harmful to Children?." Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children 5.2 (Summer/Fall2007 2007): 50-52. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .

Yount, William R. "Transcendence and Aging: The Secular Insights of Erikson and…

Kotrla, Bowie. "Sex and Violence: Is Exposure to Media Content Harmful to Children?." Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association for Library Service to Children 5.2 (Summer/Fall2007 2007): 50-52. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .

Yount, William R. "Transcendence and Aging: The Secular Insights of Erikson and Maslow." Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging 21.1/2 (Jan. 2009): 73-87. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .

Millner, Denene. "Messages in the Music." Essence 36.6 (Oct. 2005): 240-242. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 5 July 2009 .

Bipolar Outline Effects of Social
Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16801599
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Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors

Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones

SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).

Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories

It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition

EIGH: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).

30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"

NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)

40 outpatients with pediatric BD…

TEN: Long-term effects of emotion on cognition (Moore, et al., 2002).

While researchers have investigated and determined that mood and emotion help determine and modulate human cognition, there is a need to examine how performance on certain tasks changes over time

Events with lots of emotion are more memorable; hence, if mood has an effect on long-term memory, it also may well have an impact on the ability to learn long-term

Effects of Exercise on Pregnancy
Words: 3153 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13794457
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Pregnancy

There are many positive effects of exercise during pregnancy. It can decrease the time it takes to get back into shape after giving birth. It may also decrease the amount of time spent in the hospital. In addition, it can increase Apgar scores and birth weight, as well as decrease discomfort during pregnancy. Women who exercise during pregnancy also find that they have less difficulty and length of labor. Research shows that exercise has many benefits for pregnant women.

However, as both exercise and pregnancy exert stresses on the body, the cumulative effects must be taken into consideration when analyzing the relationship between exercise and pregnancy. In general, research about this topic is sparse, and animal studies have presented conflicting findings. Chronic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are the most obvious reasons to discourage persons at risk from intense rehabilitative exercising while pregnant. In addition, small…

Bibliography

Araujo, David. (April, 1997). Expecting Questions About Exercise and Pregnancy? The Physician and Sports Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 67-69.

Kramer MS. (February 12, 2002). Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software.

Smith, James. (1998). Exercise During Pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

South-Paul, J. Rajagopo, K. Tenholder, M. (1988). Exercise and Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol: 71:175-179.

Effects of Music on Memory
Words: 2435 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66265009
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Music on Emotions and Behavior

Music and education

Psychological implications

The effect of music on word recall

Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.

The mechanism involved

The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…

Works cited

Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006

Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997

Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997

Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002

Effects of Massage on Depression in Newly Widowed Elderly Females
Words: 1789 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77031574
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Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows

The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.

Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…

Bibliography for Chapters One and Two

Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson

Tran, 2003

Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).

Janice Strubbe

Effects of Diet on the Metabolism in Mice
Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 74313855
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Diet on the Metabolism in Mice

Metabolism is enzyme-controlled reactions that allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. In addition, metabolism implies all chemical reactions occurring in living organisms, such as digestion and transportation of substances between cells. Metabolism is classified into two; catabolism which is the breakdown of organic matter and anabolism which entails using energy to build cell components such as proteins and nucleic acids (Michie & Lowe, 2006). Metabolism is dependent on enzymes since enzymes catalyze metabolic reactions and allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment. In addition, the metabolism of an organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous. Moreover, metabolic rate influences how much food an organism will require, and also affects how it is able to obtain that food (oach, 2002). Just like humans,…

References

Michie, K & Lowe, J (2006). Dynamic Filaments of the Bacterial Cytoskeleton. Annual Biochemical Review, 75: 467-492.

Roach, P (2002). Glycogen and its Metabolism. Current Molecular Medicine 2(2): 101-120.

Almind, K & Kahn, CR (2002). Genetic Determinants of Energy Expenditure and Insulin

Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. Diabetes 53: 3274-3285.

Effect of an Acidic Fluid on Enzymatic Activity
Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 17603372
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Acid Denaturation of Catalase

The enzyme catalase is an integral component of endogenous antioxidant defenses in both plants (Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and animals (Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002). These defenses are required to keep reactive oxygen species (OS) in check, otherwise accumulation would result in harm to cells and tissue. OS species include the superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (HO), singlet oxygen, ozone, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, OS species can accumulate and threaten cellular and tissue health. For example, hypoxia causes H2O2 to accumulate in the roots and leaves of some plants (reviewed by Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and in mammalian cells, over 100 genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced (reviewed by Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002).

Some enzymes are able to withstand extreme conditions, in terms of pH and temperatures. Although catalase activity has been studied extensively…

References

Blokhina, Olga, Virolainen, Eija, and Fagerstedt, Kurt V. (2003). Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: A review. Annals of Botany, 91, 179-194.

Goldblith, Samuel A. And Proctor, Bernard E. (1950). Photometric determination of catalase activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 187(2), 705-709.

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo and Zeneno-Savin, Tania. (2002). Animal response to drastic changes in oxygen availability and physiological oxidative stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 133, 537-556.

Macherey-Nagel. (2011). Quantofix Peroxide 1000: Quick and easy determination of peroxide. MN-Net.com. Retrieved 5 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.mn-net.com/tabid/10332/default.aspx .

Effect of Advertising
Words: 2540 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91721239
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery

The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.

This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…

Bibliography

"The Alcoholic Beverage Industry's Commitment to Responsible Drinking." Black

Enterprise. March 1994, 24.8, 79+. Available: Questia; http:/ / www.questia.com (May 13, 2005).

Bates, Clive, and Pauline Doyle. "Tobacco Explained: Advertising." Action on Smoking and Health. Available: Internet;  http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld4.html  (March 19, 2005).

Biocca, Frank A., and Philips N. Myers, Jr. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108 -- 130. Available: Questia;  http://www.questia.com  (March 19, 2005).

Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33963352
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Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.

Pressure on Performance the Effects of Time
Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 25137965
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Pressure on Performance

The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.

Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…

References

Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.

Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,

33, 240-244.

Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.

Stress Effects Memory in Adults
Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14283461
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The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.

The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.

Implication of the esults

If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…

References

Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.

Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null

Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.

Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.

Solutions for the Harmful Effects of High Population Density
Words: 1673 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97285840
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Psychology -- the Effects of Population Density and Noise

Population density affects territoriality, privacy, personal space and noise levels. These four psychological elements involve perception and high population density affects all of them in ways that are physiologically and psychologically harmful to humans. Through decades of experience and study, experts have learned to use perception to reduce the harmful effects of high population density. The introduction of nature and the use of design to create the perception of ample space can dramatically reduce the harmful effects of high population density on territoriality, privacy and personal space. In addition, the uses of noise masking and noise-absorbing materials have reduced the harmful effects of noise. Just as perception can increase harm, perception can also decrease harm.

ody

a. Population Density

"Population density" is the number of people residing in an area divided by the size of that area (National Geographic Society). Population…

Bibliography

Lebednik, Christine. "Types of Noise-Absorbing Materials." n.d. www.ehow.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

Merriam-Webster, Inc. "Proxemics." 2014. www.merriam-webster.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

National Geographic Society. "A Look at the Population Density of the United States." 2008.  http://education.nationalgeographic.com  Web site. Web. 6 Hykt 2014.

ProAudioSupport. "What is auditory masking?" 2014. www.proaudiosupport.com Web site. Web. 6 July 2014.

Auditory Stimulation Its Effect on
Words: 3151 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49875794
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Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had on academic task performance of children with ADHD. This was executed by studying both children with ADHD and normal students during the performance of arithmetic tasks during three different auditory stimulus conditions: high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech) and no stimulation (silence). The findings indicated that the normal subjects performed similarly under all three conditions, while the ADHD subjects performance was significantly better under the music condition that the silence or speech conditions. This information could prove to be valuable for teachers in the classroom environment. The presence of music in the classroom during tasks such as arithmetic might facilitate the performance of students with ADHD. Since normal students performed equally well under all auditory conditions, the presence of music would…

Reference

Abikoff, H., Courtney, M.E., Szeibel P.J., Koplewicz, H.S. (1996). The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(3), 238-46.

Baumgaertal, A. (1999). Alternative and controversial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(5), 977-92.

Gray, L.C., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M. (2002). Continuum of impulsiveness caused by auditory masking. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 66(3), 265-72.

Jackson, N.A. (2003). A survey of music therapy methods and their role in the treatment of early elementary school children with ADHD. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(4), 302-23.

Intermittent Hypoxia, Erythropoiesis, Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Effects on Behavior (including Endurance in Athletics

A test of fourteen senior male national squad rowers was conducted by Telford and co-workers (1994) in order to ascertain whole blood viscosity at higher 100 s-1 (BVH) shear rate and low 0.1 s-1 (BVL), red blood cell mean cell volume, white and red blood cell count, blood parameters of haemoglobin concentration. In order to evaluate the performance of rower, rowing ergometer was used for the 2500 m continuous effort. The results of rowers included Hb 15.5 g.dL-1, Hct 45.5%, BVL 64.1 cP, BVH 4.2 cP, and a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 24.6. BVH demonstrated by the rowers was significantly (p

Wu H, Kanatous SB, Thurmond FA, Gallardo T, Isotani E, BasselDuby R, Williams RS. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by CaMK. Science 296: 349 -- 352, 2002.

Wu Z, Puigserver P, Andersson U, Zhang C, Adelmant G, Mootha V, Troy A, Cinti S, Lowell B, Scarpulla RC, Spiegelman BM. Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration through the thermogenic coactivator PGC-1. Cell 98: 115 -- 124, 1999.

Zhang, Y., Hu, Y., Zhou, F., Kong, Z. (2005). Effects of 'living high, training low' on the immune function of red blood cells and on endurance performance in soccer players. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness: Vol 3, No 2.

Psychologic Effect on People in
Words: 3632 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8814890
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This revision, they note, was "partly in recognition of research demonstrating that traumatic events were in fact not uncommon. DSM-IV defines the traumatic stressor as when a person 'experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others" (Vasterling and Brewin 6).

The diagnostic criteria established by the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) for PTSD state that an individual must have:

itnessed, experienced, or otherwise been confronted with an event that involved actual or possible death, grave injury, or threat to physical integrity; and,

The individual's response to such a traumatic event must include severe helplessness, fear or horror (cited in Clancy 2004).

According to Clancy (2004), a number of professions such as law enforcement, firefighters and combat veterans tend to experience a…

Works Cited

Baum, Andrew, Tracey a. Revenson and Jerome E. Singer. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.

Breton, J.J., Valla, J.P. And J. Lambert. (1993). "Industrial disaster and mental health of children and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 32: 438-445 in Richman and Fraser at 134.

Browne, Ivor. (1990). "Psychological Trauma, or Unexperienced Experience." Re-vision 12(4): 25.

Clancy, Kris. (2004, March). "Reducing Trauma's Toll: Managers in Fields Such as Security Must Be Aware of Trauma-Related Stress and Find Ways to Assist Employees in Dealing with it." Security Management 48(3): 30-31.

Childhood Abuse Effects of Childhood
Words: 2006 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53809514
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Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.

Conclusion

The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…

References

Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.

Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.

Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.

Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.

Gender Effect on Job Satisfaction and Leadership
Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59881950
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Leaders have important roles at different ranks in organizations. A manager's leadership style has an effect on the work and attitudes of employees. Leaders ought to lead their subordinates in a manner that makes them happy to carry out their responsibilities. The thesis statement for the purpose is given as follows. "Any organization should aim to acquire and retain the best talent and effective leadership ensures that good employees are kept happy and satisfied at their positions." (Shagufta Parvenn & Adeel Tariq, 2012).

Gender Stereotyping

Gender and sex are often viewed as interchangeable terms. This is not correct as there are nuances to the meaning of each word. The World Health Organization's definition of gender encompasses the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors that the society appropriates to men and women. Sex, on the other hand, is physiological and biological characteristics defining men and women. Sex is denoted by 'Female or…

How Incentives Effect the Performance of Managers
Words: 1749 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27787564
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Incentives and Performance

Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…

REFERENCES

Heil, G., et al., (2000). Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. New York: John Wiley.

Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Kopelman, R., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Martin, A. (2009). Motivation and Engagement in the Workplace. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 41 (1): 223-43.

Tissue Maturation Body System Effects
Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059
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e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…

References

Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from  http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm 

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot

Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry
Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60683277
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Poultry

Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,

Music on Brain and Emotions the Effect
Words: 1346 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5252637
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Music on Brain and Emotions

The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions

The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…

References

Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.

Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]

Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x

Videogames and Their Effect on Children
Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 864785
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Video Games and Their Effect on Children

Video Games were first introduced in the 1970s and rapidly caught on as a major leisure activity especially among children within a decade. Children these days spend more time watching TV or playing video games than any other activity save sleeping. Since video games are a relatively recent phenomenon research about its effects on children cannot be considered conclusive. However, most studies so far indicate that video games can have both positive and negative effects on children depending on the time spent in the activity and the type of video games played.

The Positive Effects

Most early researches in the effect of video games on children indicated that they had an overall positive effect on children.

Introduction to Computers

Video games were a friendly way to introduce children to the use of computers and improved their hand-eye co-ordination. Some older studies also indicated…

References

Cesarone, Bernard. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest. 1994-01-00. [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from  http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed365477.html 

Clements, David. "Video violence too close to the real thing." Sterling News Service [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/med/home/artvidgm.htm

Mitchell, Edna. "Video Games Visit Harvard Yard." September 1983. Antic Vol. 2, # 6.

Available Online] December 6, 2002.  http://www.atarimagazines.com/v2n6/videogames.html

Homeostasis Its Effect on the Critically Ill
Words: 2965 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53247923
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Homeostasis Defined
Homeostasis, according to Nirmalan and Nirmalan (2017), is the propensity for living organisms to maintain relative stability in the internal environment. Homeostasis is made possible through the cooperation of several regulatory mechanisms and separate sub-systems which make up the normal physiology of a living organism (Nirmalan & Nirmalan, 2017). During critical illnesses internal or external stress can make an attempt at interfering with the self-regulation systems beyond what is considered as normal range in physiology. According to Palaparthi and Med (2017), the word homeostasis is derived from two Greek words i.e. ‘homeo’ (stands for similar) and ‘stasis’ (standing for stable). Homeostasis is the balance, equilibrium and the stability of the body or of the cell (Palaparthi & Med, 2017). Living organisms exhibit this character. The process of maintaining stability in the internal environment necessitates occasional internal adjustments as the environmental conditions continue to change outside and inside the…

Custodial Grandparents the Effect of
Words: 3208 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6778312
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Depression, according to the researchers, is one of the most often felt affects of raising grandchildren. Fuller-Thompson and Minkler (2000) suggest that this psychological problem may stem from a variety of stressors involved in parenting their grandchildren, such as financial strains and a renewed requirement of helping others when they thought they would have "more time to themselves" (pg. 110). Faced with non-caregiving peers, custodial grandparents may regret the freedom, leisure, and financial stability that they may never have as a result of their parenting situations. Further, Fuller-Thompson and Minkler (2000) also note that adverse physical affects have been closely linked with custodial grandparenting, such as the "exacerbation of pre-existing chronic conditions, comorbidy, declines in self-assessed health, and limitations in one or more activities of daily living" (pg. 111). African-Americans are especially at risk because African-American women, on the whole, tend to suffer from more adverse health effects than their…

References

Armbruster, P. & Lichtman, J. (1999). Are School-Based Mental Health Services

Effective? Evidence from 36 Inner City Schools. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(6), 493-504.

Darling, N. et al. (2008). Within-family conflict behaviors as predictors of conflict in adolescent romantic relations. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 671-690.

Fuller, Thompson, E. & Minkler, M. (2000). African-American Grandparents Raising

Salcedo C S 2010 The Effects of Songs
Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 47227820
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Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. etrieved: http://search.proquest.com/docview/506757936?accountid=10901

One of the goals of teaching any foreign language is making the words seem fluid, easy, and natural to the new speaker as his or her own native dialect. However, this can be a challenging task for teachers of ESL, particularly given the multitasking they are forced to perform on a daily basis in the classroom and the additional academic demands under which they operate. Teaching English to a non-native speaker, and then attempting to aid the student to function in a biology or a math class, whether the alternative subject is in simplified English or even the student's first language, can sometimes seem like an insurmountable task. However, the 2010 article "The effects of songs in the…

Reference

Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. Retrieved:

 http://search.proquest.com/docview/506757936?accountid=10901

Workplace Stress

Work-related stress is a prevalent concern that affects both workplace performance and the overall health of workers. Workplace stress is a major source of complaint for the millions of workers experiencing the physical, emotional, and mental strain associated with job demands. Understanding the sources of job related stress involves the examination of the work environment and the individual's response to job tasks. Some regard work stress as a product of the work environment alone, while others believe it is strictly caused by internal factors specific to the worker (Furnham, 2012). Environmental sources of stress range from management's use of authority and excessive workloads, to inadequate resources needed to perform the job successfully (Walonick, 1993). Internal sources such as fear of inadequacy and guilt are considered by some to be independent of the work environment. Work stress is responsible for a range of symptoms, from gastrointestinal disorders to lack…

References

Furnham, A. (2012). The psychology of behaviour at work. (2nd ed., pp. 354-380). New York,

NY: Routledge Press Inc.

Walonick, D. (1993). Causes and cures of stress in organizations. Retrieved from  http://www.statpac.org/walonick/organizational-stress.htm

Patho-Physiological Condition of Schizophrenia Searching
Words: 2888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41269278
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Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."

The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).

The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…

References

 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109107379 

Csernansky, J.G. (Ed.). (2002). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker. Retrieved December 22, 2008, from Questia database:  

Computer Charting's Effect on Nursing
Words: 1392 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22430819
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(Andrews, 1985)

The study found that computer charting was well accepted by therapists. "Charge capture was reduced from a four-step manual process to a single-step computer documentation of the procedure. Computer charting was more complete and informative. Productivity increased 18%, although it remains unclear to what degree the computer was responsible." (Andrews, 1985)

In conclusion, the study determined that computer charting streamlined the process of documentation and allowed more beneficial use of clinical information. (Andrews, 1985)

In other words, the study fell in line with the later Cunningham study in that they both noted that computer involvement in various stages of health care provision via computer charting truly benefits the health care provider and the patient. In addition, it streamlines costs and eliminates costly errors.

College health systems benefit especially from computer charting, according to Carol Mulvihill, R.N.,C., CQ Editor and Director of Health Services, University of Pittsburgh at radford.…

Bibliography

Andrews, RD, et al. 1985. Computer charting: an evaluation of a respiratory care computer system. Respir Care. 1985 Aug;30(8):695-707.

Cunningham, S, et al. 1996. Comparison of nurse and computer charting of physiological variables in an intensive care unit. Int J. Clin Monit Comput. 1996 Nov;13(4):235-41.

Medinotes: 2005. Charting Plus. www.medinotes.com

Mulvihill, Carol. 1997. Advantages of computerized charting in college health. University of Pittsburgh: CQ.

Computer Games esearch

When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.

Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…

References Cited

Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.

Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.

Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34

Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.

Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse
Words: 1227 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65984339
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West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.

(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…

References

Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.

Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.

Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.

West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.

Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse
Words: 886 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55581396
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danger signals of drug abuse and how can they be used to identify possible abusers?

There can be various danger signals that may indicate the possibility of substance abuse in individuals. These signals will obviously appear in a variety of contexts and situations but the following are generally accepted as the most common indicators.

One of the most common signs is a radical change in behavior, especially in a formal or work situation where the individual, for example, shows a marked change in work quality or production. This can also be related to changes in personality and is even seen in outbreaks of temper or depression. The drug user also tends to shirk responsibilities.

The deterioration of personal grooming and general physical appearance may also be another danger signal. Intravenous drug users often wear long sleeved garments even in very warm weather to hide signs of their addiction. There may…

Bibliography

Combating Drug abuse. September 15, 2005. http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/combating.htm

Hsu J.H. The Hopkins HIV Report. September 15, 2005. http://www.hopkins-aids.edu/publications/report/july02_5.html

Dehydration Water Is More Important
Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 20921816
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" (Klotter, 2001) Additionally, salt functions as an extraction agent for excess acidity in the body which are in the form of "hydrogen ions, and oxidants from ATP production" from cells. (Klotter, 2001; paraphrased) Morris (2008) states that in order for the body to become adequately hydrated the individual should replace fluid lost by perspiration when exercising and should always drink water prior to consuming food. The ideal water intake for someone who exercises is stated to be as follows: "Drink 17 ounces of water 2 hours before the activity and weigh yourself right before you exercise. While you exercise, drink 6-10 oz. every 15-20 minutes." (Morris, 2008)

IV. SIGNS of DEHYDRATION

When the body is in a state of severe lack of water the body becomes dehydrated and this results in the "cell membranes become[ing] less permeable, hampering the flow of hormones and nutrients into the cell and preventing…

Bibliography

Body Effects (2008) Alcohol. Online available at  http://www.alcohol.org.nz/BodyEffect.aspx?PostingID=671 

Klotter, Jule (2001) Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. A review of a videotaped lecture of F. Batmanghelidj. Cure Pain & Prevent Cancer. 2001. Online available at  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_August/ai_78177228 

Morris, Whitney (2008) Effects of Dehydration on Performance. Triathelete Magazine Online available at  http://www.triathletemag.com/Departments/Training/2007/Effects_of_dehydration_on_performance.htm 

Weatherwax, Dawn (nd) NSCA's Performance Training Journal Vol. 4 No. 6. Online available at www.nsca-lift.org/perform.

Simulated Nature View on Cognitive
Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 49022707
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Research Method

The research adopted pre-test, quasi-experimental, within subject's model that demanded testing before and after introduction of photomurals. The research is based in Sonoma County Male Adult Detention Facility (MADF) in California.

12 officers participated in the pre and post-tests. 8 males and 4 females constituted this population. The subjects' ages ranged between 25 and 50 years with mean age falling at 33.4 years. The experienced years of the subjects varied from 10 to 152 months (mean experience 51.25 months).

Staff members were invited to help in the collection of data through training on the use of polar monitors, their application, and data recording techniques. In the process of data collection, subjects were required to rest quietly during briefing with monitors for about ten minutes. They attended their booking areas with monitors on. They recorded time and nature of unusual activities, scenes or situations during their shifts. Six weeks…

Psychoacoustics on the Music Production
Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12157431
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The human brain analyzes these patterns and learning occurs. The inner ear is a receptor that transmits messages to the brain about the location of sound and does so through the use of the following:

(1) pitch;

(2) loudness;

(3) timbre;

(4) spatial localization; and (5) Duration. (Lecture 2, p.4)

The shape of the inner ear in addition to any sounds that mask the tones being processed by the ear for instance in how white noise masks a 2 kHz tone. (Lecture 4, p.18) in addition, psychoacoustics measures the head and spatial localization or the head in relation to the surrounding in which the tones or sound is heard in relation to the position of the head. The cues for location of pure tones are reported as:

(1) Interaural time differences (it'd); and (2) Interaural level differences (ILD). (Lecture 10, p.2)

ILD result from sound bending around an object known…

References

Lecture Series (2013) Psychoacoustics.

Leeds, J. (2013) the Power of Sound. Retrieved from:  http://thepowerofsound.net/psychoacoustics-defined/ 

Taylor and Francis (2009) Acoustics and Psychoacoustics. U.S. 2009. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=qgsst2OQYJEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Drug Profile
Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26459243
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Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from:  http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf 

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.

Importing Materials From Foreign Manufacturers
Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94404440
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automotive materials imported from a foreign manufactures to the local market. It will also emphasize on the effects it caused to the economy of the United States. Finally, the study analyzed the effect of import of materials from foreign manufactures to the people of the United States.

It's more likely to find that, in every household in the United States, almost sixty five percent (65%) of the households for example utensils, clothes and even cars are not produced in the United States. They are manufactured somewhere in China, India, Mexico or Bangladesh, or the materials used to manufacture then were imported and assemble back here in the United States (Bill Canis, 2006). Since the year 2006, the automotive industries in the United Sates have witnessed a steady growth on import of materials from foreign manufactures. Industrial experts further expect that domestic vehicle manufactures will lose their market share to U.S.…

References

(2009). automobile industry, automobile industry, Encyclopedia Britannica,

 http://elibrary.bigchalk.com 

(2006). Businesses and Occupations, obtained from:

www.encyclopedia.com > ...

Environment on Memory Recall Light
Words: 2139 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 66626640
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The specific categories include the following:

1) color;

2) smell;

3) texture;

4) temperature; and 5) feelings.

FINDINGS of the STUDY

The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:

Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)

Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)

Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2

FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT

PARTICIPANT

SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT

PARTICIPANT

It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…

Bibliography

Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.

Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.

Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990

Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985

Thermo Therapy
Words: 3365 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52189201
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Thermo Therapy

Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.

For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…

References

Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6

Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99

Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21

Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.

Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for
Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652968
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S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…

References

Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available:  http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.

Humor and it Benefits
Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63945318
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Humor

People often ignore the importance of humor in their lives and this can lead to a series of problems as a result of them failing to use this concept as a tool to improve life in general. Sharing laughter is likely to improve social relations as individuals feel happy and the level of intimacy increases. In addition to this, laughter also causes healthy physical changes in the body, as humor and laughter improve the condition of a person's immune system, reduce the level of pain, and are probable to reduce one's chances to become stressed. To a certain degree, one could consider humor to be a type of medicine that is effective, cheap, and particularly easy to use.

Even with the fact that it was not until modern technology was actually able to prove that humor can have a positive effect on people's well-being, humanity has long suspected this…

Bibliography:

Hockenson, Jan. "The Idea of Comedy: History, Theory, Critique." (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1 Jan 2006)

McGhee, Paul Edward. "Humor: The Lighter Path to Resilience and Health." (AuthorHouse, 20 Jan 2010)

Dehydration Water Is Essential to
Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72979956
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In many ways, this is also responsible for and compounded by the bad eating habits and obesity so prevalent in today's Western societies.

Electrolytes work in conjunction with the water levels in the body, and is responsible for conducting electricity within the body. This is essential for the normal functioning of cells and organs. odium and potassium are both positive ions, or cations, within the body, while chloride is a negatively charged anion. odium and Chloride are found in fluids outside of cells, while potassium is found inside of cells. odium is responsible for water regulation in the body, as well as electrical signals to and from the brain. Too much or too little sodium can be fatal. Excess is discarded through urine. Inside cells, potassium regulates the heartbeat and function of muscles. A lack or excess of this electrolyte can also be fatal, as it can lead to heart…

Sources

Klotter, Jule. (2001, Aug). Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Article database: FindArticles.com.

REACT. (2007). Functions of Water in the Human Body. http://www.resultsproject.net/water_functions.html

Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2007). Dehydration: How to Recognize and Prevent its Effects. Medicinenet.com.  http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/article.htm 

Stoppler, Melissa Conrad (2006). Electrolytes. Medicinenet.com.  http://www.medicinenet.com/electrolytes/article.htm

Drug Influence on Body and What the Body Does to the Drug
Words: 1301 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2539530
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Drug Action

Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…

Autism Spectrum Disorders Wang K
Words: 1243 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81179913
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Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.

Introduction

This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.

The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…

Relationship of School Facilities Conditions
Words: 5393 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46028571
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Some of those are as follows:

1) Affect the environment;

2) Either save or expend energy;

3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.

4) Affect student learning;

5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)

Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:

Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;

Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;

Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;

Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…

Bibliography

American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at  http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/ 

Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf

Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at  http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html 

Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.

Evista® Raloxifene Hydrochloride the Evista®
Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87552851
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Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 11% of EVISTA®-treated women and 9% of placebo-treated women. Common adverse events related to EVISTA® therapy were hot flashes and leg cramps. Hot flashes were most commonly reported during the first 6 months of treatment and were not different from placebo thereafter.

DUG INTEACTIONS

Cholestyramine causes a 60% reduction in the absorption and enterohepatic cycling of raloxifene after a single dose. Thus, co-administration of cholestyramine with EVISTA® is not recommended.

COMPAATIVE EFFICACY

Overall, raloxifene exerts similar positive on bone mineral density and bone turnover as other SEMS and estrogen therapy. However, the reduction in fracture risk is improved with SEMs vs. estrogen (Nakamura 632).

COST ANALYSIS

Overall, administration of calcium and vitamin D is more effective and economical than any approved drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The annual cost of calcium and vitamin D treatment is $22 compared to $255 for estrogen,…

References

Barrett-Connor, E., et al. "Risk-Benefit Profile for Raloxifene: 4-Year Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (More) Randomized Trial." J. Bone Miner Res 19.8 (2004): 1270-5.

Borgstrom, F., et al. "Cost Effectiveness of Raloxifene in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Sweden: An Economic Evaluation Based on the More Study." Pharmacoeconomics 22.17 (2004): 1153-65.

Bryant, H.U. "Mechanism of Action and Preclinical Profile of Raloxifene, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2.1 (2001): 129-38.

Cranney, a., et al. "Meta-Analyses of Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Iv. Meta-Analysis of Raloxifene for the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis." Endocr Rev 23.4 (2002): 524-8.

Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami Dade County FL
Words: 4630 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84746661
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Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL

Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.

Health effects can include,…

References

Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119

Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National

Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from  http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports 

Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005

Environmental Psychology
Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76019211
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psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.

Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…

References

Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site:  http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools_Noise.htm .

Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.

Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Volpe.dot.gov Web site:  http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/docs/2000/dts-34-03_2.pdf .

Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications
Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2190458
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Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.

Hypnosis

In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…

bibliography. (2010).  http://science.jrank.org  / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.

Wbgt Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce the
Words: 3222 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84881586
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WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce

The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…

Reference List

1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,

Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.

2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.

3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.

Aviation Risks Pilot Hypoxia the
Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79901827
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Histotoxic Hypoxia refers to hypoxia specifically caused by toxins in the blood that interfere with the ability of hemoglobin to absorb oxygen even in the presence of sufficient quantities and at normal atmospheric pressure (Jepperson, 2007; USDOT,

2003). In that regard, alcohol is the most likely toxin to affect pilots, but other poisonous substances like cyanide and certain narcotics and other medications (including some sold over-the-counter) can also cause histotoxic hypoxia. Finally, Stagnant Hypoxia refers to insufficient oxygen absorption caused by underlying circulatory problems that reduce blood flow, and therefore, the efficient transport of oxygen, even where the quality of air, atmospheric conditions, and oxygen absorption by hemoglobin are normal (Jepperson,

2007; USDOT, 2003).

Signs and Symptoms of Altitude-Induced Hypoxia:

One of the most dangerous aspects of all forms of hypoxia is that its onset is not noticed by the pilot. Another danger is that while hypoxia severely reduces physical…

References

Jepperson. (2007). Guided Flight Discovery: Private Pilot Englewood, CO: Jepperson.

Jepperson. (2006). Guided Flight Discovery: Instrument Commercial Englewood, CO:

Jepperson.

Reinhart, R.O. (2008). Basic Flight Physiology New York: McGraw-Hill.

Understanding Psychology
Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98502726
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Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse

The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.

Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…

References

Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.

Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941

Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.