Placebo Essays (Examples)

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Naltrexone the Efficacy of Naltrexone

Words: 2582 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17590678



Croop et al. (1997).

The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.

The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.

Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.

Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…… [Read More]

References

Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.

Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.

Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.

Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
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Gingko Biloba

Words: 2356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30442773

Ginko Biloba

Gingko Biloba -- Part I

What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?

According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]

References:

Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973

Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
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Psychological Element in Drug Use and Dependence

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98018774

Psychological Element in Drug Use and Dependence

Placebo, the Latin term for "I will please," refers to the psychological positive response that a patient exhibits to a non-specific treatment. It is a purely psychological element, which arises out of the patient's trust in the physician, or the belief in the positive medicinal effects of the drug. Researcher Henry eecher's famous study in 1955 showed that more than 30% of patients respond positively to a placebo. Since then, numerous studies that were focused on the effects of placebo have reported mixed results. The brain imaging study conducted by Leuchter, in 2002, revealed distinct patterns of cerebral blood flow as a response to placebo among depressed subjects. Similarly Evans (2004) reported that placebo effect was quite marked in medical conditions that involved acute phase response. (inflammtion, acute sensitivity, etc.). [Wikipedia] Since placebo trials report significant positive response (at least in one third…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Wikipedia, " Placebo effect," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placebo_effect

2) University of Colorado, "Psychoactive Drugs and Addiction,"

Accessed on 14th Oct 2005, psych.colorado.edu/~campeaus/2012/StudyguideExam4.PDF

3) University of Waterloo, "Biological and Psychological Models of Drug Use," Accessed on 14th Oct 2005,
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Ethical Scenarios Abigail Was Hired

Words: 1063 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48348197

The placebo drink smells and tastes like alcohol. Everyone (regardless of condition) believes that they are getting alcohol. He then videotapes each person's communication behavior in a group setting with 10 other people (who are also randomly assigned to the placebo or alcohol condition). Participants sign an informed consent form saying that they are getting alcohol and that they will be participating in a group setting to get to know other people who are also drinking alcohol. They are not told that some of them will think they get alcohol when they are really sober.

There are no ethical issues or problems presented by this case either. Deception was necessary to conduct research in this cases but the type of deception involved in serving placebos instead of alcohol would not present any risk of emotional or other harm to participants. Since the nature of the deception would not cause emotional…… [Read More]

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Authoritative in Answering My Question Not Only

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98845378

authoritative in answering my question not only since it originates from a reliable source, but also because it itself is obviously professional and of high quality.

There are numerous markers that indicate this. Firstly the title is concise and to the point stating the question followed by method of inquiry. The Abstract summarizes the article succinctly explaining objective (to investigate whether Paracetamol increases duration of fever and is safe when used with children); Design (a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial) the methodology; esults (with statistical abbreviations); and Conclusion (Paracetamol is effective on all counts).

Professionalism is further shown by a brief introduction that covers the purpose of the research and culminates in the hypothesis: (i) that use of Paracetamol prolongs fever clearance time, and that (ii) rate of decline in temperature with Paracetamol administration imitates that of placebo.

The subjects and method is thoroughly described in a way that…… [Read More]

References

Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. USA: Sage

Gheri, M et al. (2005). When fever, paracetamol? Theory and practice in a paediatric outpatient clinic, Pharm. World Sci, 27, 254-257

Gupta, H. et al. (2007) Role of paracetamol in treatment of childhood fever: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, Indian Pediatrics, 44, 903-1002

Sullivan, J. & Ferrar, H. (2011). Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children. Pediatrics, 127, 2010-3852
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Population and Was Primarily Aimed

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20910016



6)

Again, all groups were by the end of the study essentially the same in that they had each served as controls, placebo recipients, and recipients of either one or two interventional medicines. The same periods of medication and testing were utilized for all participants in all groups of the study throughout the period during which the research took place.

7)

According to the researchers, the completion of a crossover study such as this by forty-five participants is equivalent to 80% power at 5% statistical significance that the results could be extrapolated to the wider population. Though a higher level of certainty could be desired, this study's findings are still worthwhile.

8)

The results are presented as average rates of the effects of the varying interventions (or lacks thereof) among the participants during the different phases of the trial. The differences between these averages were compared as different levels of…… [Read More]

References

Wald, D.; Law, M.; Mills, S.; Bestwick, J.; Morris, J. And Wald, N. (2008). "A 16-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial to Quantify the Combined Effect of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and a f3-Blocker on Blood Pressure Reduction." Clinical therapeutics 30(11), pp. 2030-9.
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Aromatherapy Has Been a Controversial

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5672098

Secondly, they will complete a digit span test associated with the 'Anxiety-triad'. Each group will then receive a different treatment, with one group receiving the 'ylang-ylang' a frequently used aromatherapy, the second group receiving another pleasant smell without the supposed effects of 'ylang-ylang' and the control group which will receive no therapy at all, instead they will be given a placebo. The third group will be informed that the room they are entering is fragranced with aromatherapuetic smells.

The proposal is designed to confirm the effects of aromatherapy. Because the study will be conducted using a double-blind methodology the effects, or non-effects, will be either substantiated or not. The benefits of the study will be to conclude whether further use of a specific aromatherapy in regard to lowering stress and anxiety is conducive to continued usage.

Works Cited

Diamond, B., (2004) Complementary and Alternative Medicines in the Treatment of Dementia:…… [Read More]

Rho, K., Han, S., Kim, K., Lee, M., (2006) Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Anxiety and Self-Esteem in Korean Elderly Woman: A Pilot Study, International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 116, No. 12, pp 1447-1455

Shelly, T. et al. (2007) Aromatherapy on a Large Scale: Exposing Entire Adult Holding Rooms to Ginger Root oil Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit fly in Field Cage Trials, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol 123, No. 2, pp 193-201, Blackwell Publishing

Williams, T.I., (2006) Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children With Autism: A Pilot Study, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3, No 3, Oxford University Press, pp 373-377
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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Controlled Experiments Are Those in Which Groups

Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98199912

Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons -- what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008).

A double blind experiment is one in which some of the participants are prevented from knowing certain information about the study that might lead to bias (conscious or subconscious) thus skewing the results. Blinding can also be imposed on researchers, subjects, funders, or any combination in which one wishes to protect the data integrity. In the use of new drugs, blinded experiments are necessary because a patient might feel better if they think they are receiving a powerful new medicine -- the placebo effect. It is impossible, however, to double…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Double Blind Experiment. (2008). Experiment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:

http://www.experiment-resources.com/double-blind-experiment.html

Scientific Control Group. (2008). Experment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:

http://www.experiment-resources.com/scientific-control-group.html
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Treatments for Rosacea

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36655106

Treatments for Rosacea

Rosacea is a medical condition characterized by reddening of the skin. The face primarily will turn red in hue. Sores may appear on the skin as well. The face may also swell to some degree. It is an unfortunate condition where patients not only have to deal with the illness itself, but also with psychological ramifications from feeling unattractive due to the skin pigments or lesions. Although there is currently no cure for Rosacea, scientists have researched various treatments to help patients suffering from the condition.

In the article, "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light," researchers Papageorgiou et. al consider how ultra violet and pulsed light might positively treat skin conditions like Rosacea. During this particular experiment, the researchers tested 34 patients who were given treatments every three weeks for a total of twelve weeks. More than 70% of patients experienced at least a 50% reduction…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, DH, Li, K.K., & Suh, DH "Pimecrolimus 1% Cream for the Treatment of Steroid-

Induced Rosacea: an 8-week Split-Face Clinical Trial." British Journal of Dermatology. (158:5). 2008. 1069-76. Print.

Papageorgiou, P.P., Clayton, W.W., Norwood, S.S., Chopra, S.S., & Rustin, M.M. "Treatment of Rosacea with Intense Pulsed Light: Significant Improvement and Long-Lasting Results." British Journal of Dermatology. (159:3). 2008. 628-32. Print.

Sharquie, K.E., Najim, R.A., & Al-Salman, H.N. "Oral Zinc Sulfate in the Treatment of Rosacea: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study." International Journal of Dermatology. (45:7). 2006. 857-61. Print.
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Pharmaceutical Drugs Have Become the

Words: 2648 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45513389

Michelson explains that buspirone could manipulate certain serotonin receptors in an attempt to ameliorate the overload of serotonin, and that amantadine was thought to increase dopamine activity. As such, either might theoretically help with SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. However, when the double-blind test was performed, it found that the success of treatment was roughly the same regardless of whether these pills were taken or a placebo was used. One significant difference was that those on admantadine had greater energy levels than they study-mates, which did not seem to directly affect sexual functioning. Michelson and his colleagues speculated that the reason for such marked improvement in all categories was the extensive journaling and attention paid to the sexual activity.

Ashton and Rosen report on "Bupropion as an antidote for serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction"

Unlike the Michelson study, Ashton and Rosen's work on using bupropion to ameliorate the sexual dysfunctions associated with…… [Read More]

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Bi-Polar Bipolar Disorder Is a

Words: 2854 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82804387

The first group will receive a placebo. The second group will receive a spiritual chakra treatment designed to correct electrochemical imbalances within the body. The third group will receive medication to treat psychosis. The specific medication does not matter and therefore will not be specified. The dose will be the same for each patient and therefore will be monitored to determine whether dosage is sufficient.

Therefore, the measurements will track each participant and determine which treatment is most effective given the parameters of the study. The placebo group is expected to see no difference, other than perhaps unrelated psychological improvement which will be tracked and recorded as standard error or standard margin of the error estimate. The second group will undergo a physical treatment of chakra adjustment to maximize the flow of energy throughout the body and remedy the physiological response. The treatment will be administered once per day over…… [Read More]

References

Hall, J., Whalley, H.C., Marwick, K., McKirdy, J., Sussmann, J., Romaniuk, L., (2010). Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 761-761-70. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991000

Kinsella, Caroline and Kinsella, Connor Introducing Mental Health: A Practical Guide (London: Jessica Kingsley, (2006)

Kutscher M., Attwood M.L., Wolff R.R. Kids in the Syndrome Mix of ADHD, LD, Asperger's, Tourette's, Bipolar, and More!: The one stop guide for parents, teachers, and other professionals. Philadelphia Kingsley Publishing (2005)

Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J.M., . . . . (2005). Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74(5), 295-295-302. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/235461846?accountid=13044
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Celexa Citalopram Hydrobromide Celexa Belongs to a

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2180960

Celexa

Citalopram hydrobromide (Celexa) belongs to a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It works by raising the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that aids in maintaining mental balance. Citalopram comes as a tablet and a liquid solution to take by mouth. It is typically taken once a day with or without food and should be taken at around the same time every day (Medications and Drugs, 2012). Citalopram is also sometimes used to treat eating disorders, alcoholism, panic disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and social phobia (Citalopram, 2011).

Nausea, dry mouth, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, weakness, tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness, increased sweating, blurred vision, or yawning may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, one should tell their doctor promptly. This medication may rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome. The risk increases when this medication is used with certain…… [Read More]

References

Celexa. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.frx.com/pi/celexa_pi.pdf

Celexa (citalopram hydrobromide). (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.crazymeds.us/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Meds.Celexa 

Celexa Oral. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/drugs/drug-8603-Celexa+Oral.aspx?drugid=8603&drugname=Celexa+Oral

Citalopram. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001041/
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Paxil Boon or Bane History

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62478297

Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).

ibliography

Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company

GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html

Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.

Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group
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Performance Measurements There Are Several

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14914243

Problems for the key stakeholders -- the mothers and their infants -- should be avoided at all costs in her evaluation. She needs to focus on reducing errors and she should also focus on developing positive outcomes, as these demonstrate a greater degree of respect for the stakeholders (instanley & Stuart-Smith, 1996).

The study should be observational in nature. The clinic may have, or could gather, data from past participants to begin Marjorie's evaluation process. This would allow her to make improvements immediately to the programs. Even if only partial data could be gathered, it may be sufficient for Marjorie to develop stronger hypotheses to test. She currently has little more than hunches to test, so gathering data from past courses would be a good starting point, since many of the participants will have retained their contact information.

Marjorie could also begin her evaluation based on the experiences of other…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Huston, P. (2001). The ethics of placebo-controlled trials -- a middle ground. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 345 (12) 915-919.

Winstanley, D. & Stuart-Smith, K. (1996). Policing performance: The ethics of performance management. Personnel Review. Vol. 25 (6) 66-84.
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Modafinil Improves Recovery After General Anesthesia

Words: 1717 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48873466

Modafinil on the rate of recovery after general anesthesia before the work of Larijani et al. (2004) are rare. However, after the publication of their article, a series of articles on Modafinil followed. Galvin et at., (2010) carried out a study to prove that modafinil can effectively reduce the level of patient-reported tiredness that is experienced after sedation or analgesia. Their article however was an improvement on the work of Larijani since it also investigated the proposition that in the process of reducing the level of tiredness, the drug has no improvement on the psychomotor skills of the patient.Their article was written against a backdrop of information that suggest that the early recovery of patients who have been sedated as well as after anesthesia in the ambulatory practice. The aim of their study was to conclusively assess if modafinil employed for the treatment of narcolepsy significantly improves the recovery from…… [Read More]

References

Doyle.,A and Wilkinson.,D (2008)Day case general anaesthesia in a patient with narcolepsy.Anaesthesia, 2008, 63, pages 880 -- 882

Galvin E, Boesjes H, Hol J, Ubben JF, Klein J, Verbrugge SJ (2010).Modafinil reduces patient-reported tiredness after sedation/analgesia but does not improve patient psychomotor skills. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010 Feb;54(2):154-61.

Kumar, R (2008)Approved and Investigational Uses of Modafinil: An Evidence-Based

Review. Drugs 2008; 68 (13): 1803-1839
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Geoffrey Chaucer's Tales of Marriage

Words: 5086 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9885717

The ible, he argued, cites the creation of Eve for Adam as proof that a wife is man's support, as well as many other examples of humble and devoted wives.

The knight told his brother that he desired a young wife, who was no older than thirty, for she would be more pliable. Placebo cautioned that it takes great courage for an older man to marry a young woman (Classic Notes, 2004). He warned him that a young woman who married an older man may have ulterior motives, which the man would never know until he was married. Despite the fact Placebo has a wonderful wife, he understands what faults she has and advises January to be aware of who he marries.

The brothers argue about the merits of marriage, with Placebo predicting that January would not please his wife for more than three years, but Placebo eventually agrees to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kittredge, George. (2000). Chaucer's Discussion of Marriage. Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/chaucerhtml/marriage.html.

Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Wife of Bath's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/canterbury/.

Classic Notes. (2004). Canterbury Tales. The Merchant's Tale. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/canterbury/.

Chaucer. (Edited by Kinnes, T). (Autumn, 2004). Chaucer -- the Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://oaks.nvg.org/chs.html .
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St John's Wort Depression in

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96325619

("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)

Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)

Another study, described in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp

Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical

Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
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Does Vitamin D Supplementation Improve Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32651185

Diabetes and Vitamin D Studies

Evaluation Table

Clearly Focused Issue

Appropriate Method to Answer the Research Question

Acceptable Recruitment Methods

Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls

Minimization of Bias

Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design

Are the Results Believable

Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)

Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence

Witham et al., 2010

This is a follow-up study. The issue is whether patients with a vitamin D level of higher than 250 HD will gain a benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

A positive result is defined by reaching a level of 75 nmol or above. This is considered the level for optimum health.

Patients for the study were selected from general practice and diabetes specialty offices based on a positive type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis in accordance with the requirement set forth by the World Health Organization.

The group was divided into three…… [Read More]

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Benefits of Rasagiline for Parkinson S Patients

Words: 2918 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96968000

PAKINSON'S & ASAGILINE

One of the drugs that has emerged as promising and at least somewhat effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is known as asagiline. This report will explore the neurobiological and psychological implications of the drug as it relates to Parkinson's and in general. The depth and breadth of some of the studies will be discussed as well as how that evidence was found, a general discussion of asagiline and its current/future status as a Parkinson's treatment and how all of the above should be taken with a grain of salt given the limitations that exist. There are some great opportunities for future research when it comes to Parkinson's in general and asagiline in particular.

Introduction

Parkinson's is a very debilitating and difficult disorder to deal with and treat. Even with the prominence of several major celebrities (e.g. Muhammad Ali, Michael J. Fox, etc.) and increase public…… [Read More]

References

Badinter, F., Amit, T., Bar-Am, O., Youdim, M. B., & Weinreb, O. (2015). Beneficial behavioral, neurochemical and molecular effects of 1-(R)-aminoindan in aged mice. Neuropharmacology, 99264-272. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.05.041

Giladi, N., Tal, J., Azulay, T., Rascol, O., Brooks, D., Melamed, E., & ... Tolosa, E. (2009). Validation of the freezing of gait questionnaire in patients with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 24(5), 655-661 7p. doi:10.1002/mds.21745

Hanagasi, H., Gurvit, H., Unsalan, P., Horozoglu, H., Tuncer, N., Feyzioglu, A., & Emre, M. (2011). The effects of rasagiline on cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients without dementia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Movement Disorders, 26(10), 1851-1858 8p. doi:10.1002/mds.23738

Naoi, M., Maruyama, W., & Inaba-Hasegawa, K. (2013). Revelation in the neuroprotective functions of rasagiline and selegiline: the induction of distinct genes by different mechanisms. Expert Review Of Neurotherapeutics, 13(6), 671-684. doi:10.1586/ern.13.60
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Professional Client Development and Analysis

Words: 1319 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37122759



Nurse Skeptical's etort

Nurse Skeptical's response to the above interpretation of the scenario is likely to be quite defensive, and a defense of her actions and decisions would not be entirely without grounds. If there was indeed a psychological problem that Mrs. testy was experiencing, it would render her incapable of autonomy at least in the very limited regard of her requests for pain medication. The very essence of a psychologically-induced feeling of pain is that the patient cannot differentiate between a psychological and a physiological symptom, and thus cannot accurately report the pain to their medical professional. Furtehrmore, should the placebo that Nurse Skeptical plans on administering prove equally successful in "treating" the "pain," her actions would seem entirely justified.

This defense overlooks several key factors necessary to the proper provision of medical care, however. First and foremost, there is at least some possibility that the pain Mrs. Testy…… [Read More]

References

Andre, J. (1994). "My client, my enemy." Professional Ethics 3(3/4), pp. 27-46.
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Kennedy Case Hurd Cruz and

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41804744

This hard line stance coming from these medical professionals reflects the fact that these drugs have yet to be fully tested as agents for reducing transfusion related reactions, and therefore, according to the authors of the editorial, should not be used until being further evaluated.

The Geiger and Howard article (2007) takes an entirely different stance on the issue. They feel that the pretransfusion use of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine has some basis in biology, if not in clinical studies. This comes from the fact that these drugs reduce fever and the propensity for allergic reactions in patients when taken for other ailments, and that these characteristics alone serve to justify their use as a prophylaxis for similar conditions related to transfusions (Geiger and Howard, 2007). The authors believe that the toxicity of these drugs however can be a negative aspect when administered to patients who are particularly ill, and who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ezidiegwu, Christian N., Lauenstein, Karla J., Rosales, Larazo G., Kelly, Karen C., and Henry, John Bernard. (2004). "Febrile Nonhemolytic Transfusion Reactions Management by Premedication and Cost Implications in Adult Patients." Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicines. Vol. 128. Pp. 991-995.

Geiger, Terrence L. And Howard, Scott C. (2007). "Acetaminophen and Diphenhydramine

Premedication for Allergic and Febrile Non-hemolytic Transfusion Reactions: Good Prophylaxis or Bad Practice?" Transfusion. Vol. 21, No. 1. pp. 1-12.

LeAnne D. Kennedy, L. Douglas Case, David D. Hurd, Julia M. Cruz, and Gregory J. Pomper.
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Rcsi Institute of Leadership Ponv

Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64786589

PONV was not seen at 24 hours significantly lower rates of PONV at four and eight hours were found in the septoplasty group in which pharyngeal packing was not used

Habib, et al. (2010)

prospective, double-blind, randomized study

104 Patients undergoing craniotomy

Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant 40 mg (or matching placebo) 1 to 3 hours before induction of anesthesia or ondansetron 4 mg IV (or placebo) within 30 minutes of the end of surgery.

comparison

Data were collected at regular intervals by blinded personnel for 48 hours after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's ranked sum test and ?(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

n/a

n/a

n/a

cumulative incidence of vomiting at 48 hours was 16% in the aprepitant group and 38% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.0149). The incidence of vomiting was also decreased in the aprepitant group at 2 hours…… [Read More]

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Effectiveness of Psychiatry

Words: 2878 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6381178

Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Treatment

The effectiveness of psychiatry and psychotherapy has made the word treatment become a buzz word among those in the health care industry. Clinical researchers study outcome to determine treatment effectiveness. Health care payers and Behavioral Managed Care Organizations (BMCOs) are interested in outcome research in order to establish an accountable basis for making decisions about resource allocation. (Wiens, 1994, p. 46) And not only that, the general public has become more educated about treatment options and they want to see evidence that treatment is working and is appropriate for their individual circumstances. In addition, large companies want to see evidence that treatments for psychiatric and substance abuse problems work. In short, there are a lot of people interested in knowing which therapy works and why.

esearch over the past forty years has established that psychotherapy works; indeed "it seems that psychotherapy is one of the best…… [Read More]

References

1. American Psychiatric Association (1995). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with severe depression, 152 (supplement), 1-59.

2. Barlow, DH (1996). Health care policy, psychotherapy, research and the future of psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 51, 1050-1058.

3. Henggeler, S.W., Schoenwald, S.K., & Pickrel, S.G. (1995). Multi-systemic therapy: Bridging the gap between university and community-based treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 709-717.

4. Inglehart, J.F. (1996). Health policy report: Managed care and mental health. New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 131-135.
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Bach Flower Dr Edward Bach and the

Words: 2226 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38012005

Bach Flower

Dr. Edward Bach and the Bach Flower emedy System: Background

Edward Bach devised and compounded a system of plant-based homeopathic-style tinctures for emotional and psychological healing. The Bach flower system was the first of its kind and remains the most thorough set of homeopathic remedies for mental and emotional distress. Falling within the umbrella of complementary medicine, Bach flower remedies can and often should be a part of the professional healer's arsenal of interventions. The 38 different remedies have been used in a number of different health care settings, from nursing and midwifery to psychiatric care (Mantle, 1997). "There is no scientific evidence that any Bach flower remedy produces a medicinal effect, and there is some evidence that the method does not work," ("Bach Flower emedies," 2013). esearch on the Bach flower remedies has been disappointing. One study tested the impact of Bach flower remedies on pre-test anxiety…… [Read More]

References

The Bach Centre (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bachcentre.com/centre/remedies.htm

Bach, E. & Wheeler, E.J. (1997). The Bach Flower Remedies. Essex: The Bach Flower Centre.

Bach, E. (1936). The Twelve Healers and Other Remedies. London: C.W. Daniel.

"Bach Flower Remedies," (2013). Sahara Surgery Center. Retrieved online: http://saharasurgery.com/your-health/?/37428/
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Sensorimotor Disorder

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75381045

Sensorimotor Disorder

estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]

References

Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
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Ethical Case Study Regarding Randomised Medical Trials in a Developing Country

Words: 1290 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36304730

Global Healthcare Ethics and the andomised HIV Trial

Healthcare professional face a range of ethical issues in the pursuance of their vocation. In the context of HIV research and the conducting of research among vulnerable population, such as poor expectant mothers in developing countries, the compete of global health ethics should provide a foundation for the assessment of ethical practices, both in planning, undertaking, and reviewing the work (WHO, 2014; Stapleton et al., 2013). Global health ethics is an interdisciplinary field, which covers not only health research, but also issues such as the provision of healthcare, and development of health policy, with the aim of understanding the moral values which should be implemented at a global level, undertaken utilising a predominantly geographic approach to macro level health issues (Stapleton et al., 2013). In this context, global health ethics is primarily concerned with issues such as pandemics, the effects of natural…… [Read More]

References

Kass. N.E., (2000), An Ethics Framework for Public Health, American Journal of public health, 91, 1776-1782

Pinto, A D; Upshur,, (2009), Global health Ethics for Students, Developing World Bioethics, 9(1), 1-10

Stapleton, G; Schroder-Back, P; Laaser, U; Meershoek, A; Popa, D, (2013), Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics, Global Health Action, 7, 235-69

World Health Organization, (WHO), (2014), Global Health Ethics, retrieved 19th December 2015 from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/164576/1/9789240694033_eng.pdf
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Neurotransmission OCD and the Psychotropic

Words: 2322 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76916718



Discussion

Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.

Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.

…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.

Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
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HIV and AIDS

Words: 6090 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28504650



The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.

In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]

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Parkinson's Disease

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4012884

Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…… [Read More]

References

Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2

Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002

Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974

Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
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Role of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94718984

ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?

The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.

Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline

The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.

Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.

Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.

Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
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Cognitive Effects of Risperidone in Children With Autism and Irritable Behavior

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69775772

Autistic Children

Children with autism and irritable behavior are an incredibly vulnerable population. The right medications are crucial because the children are the ones who suffer any social or emotional problems based on their conditions. That is why Aman et al. (2008) explored the use of risperidone in children with autism and other forms of irritable behavior. The study aimed to better understand risperidone's cognitive impact on children with severe behavior disturbances to test its efficiency as a potential solution to some of the children's behavioral issues.

isperidone is an antipsychotic that is often administered to this vulnerable population; yet there is surprisingly little discourse on the cognitive impact it may have during treatment of behavioral disorders. The study conducted by Aman et al. (2008) aimed to test whether or not risperidone had a cognitive impact in the short-term during administering of treatment to children. During this age range, cognitive…… [Read More]

References

Aman, Michael, Hollway, Jill, McDougle, Christopher, Scahill, Lawrence, Tierny, Elaine, McCracken, James, Arnold, Eugene, Vitello, Benedetto, Ritz, Louise, Gavaletz, Allison, Cronin, Pegeen, Sweizy, Naomi, Wheeler, Courtney, Koening, Kathleen, Ghuman, Jaswinder, & Posey, David L. (2008). Cognitive effects of risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 18(3), 227-236.
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Double Blind Trial This Is a Study

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84803966

double blind trial. This is a study where neither the researchers or the participants know what they will receive. First and foremost, it removes any potential for bias, as there are no preconceived notions from the participants or those studying the reactions of the trial. Such studies often also "follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedictation, and other design issues," (Muller, 2011). Essentially they have greater room to better replicate real world scenarios. They are also much more able to be generalized than studies with more restrictions. However, there are also some downsides to double blind trials. For example, there is a much greater variance that the research will have to deal with. This is "caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues" that can lead to "wrong conclusions," (Muller, 2011). When there are issues it is…… [Read More]

References

Constanta, R. (2008). An integrative approach to quality of life management. Sapient 1(1), 12-16.

Muller, Hans-Jurgen. (2011). Effectiveness studies: Advantages and disadvantages. Dialogues on Clinical Neuroscience, 13(1), 199-207.

Lewis, John A. (2002). Study designs, duration, and choice of comparators including the use of placebo. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 4(4), 463-469.
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Immune Boosting Therapies for RA Patients

Words: 2111 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23041738

Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis

THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS

Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Annotated Bibliography

Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.

Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…… [Read More]

Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843

Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580

Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
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Medical Cannabis Research Study in

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57552341

10). In this particular study, the effects of smoked cannabis as compared wit the results of patients who received and smoked placebos was significant, and showed a 34% reduction in daily pain amongst those patients receiving the cannabis, versus 17% amongst those patients receiving the placebo.

The outcome of the studies conducted would suggest that medical use of marijuana for pain is recommended. The study concluded that there is an absence of pain relieving analgesics available to patients in the classifications studied. The findings as they relate to the efficacy of cannabis for the treatment of spasticity in MS indicate that medicinal marijuana for that purpose is an avenue of treatment for this very difficult to manage condition and the pain associated with the disease (p. 16).

The future of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic approach to difficult to manage conditions like Parkinson's Disease, MS, and other conditions that have…… [Read More]

Reference List

Grant, I., Atkinson, J.H., Mattison, A., and Coates, T. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California Presenting the Findings of Pursuant to SB847 Which Created the CMCR and Provided State Funding. University California, San Diego, Health Sciences, CMCR, February 11, 2010.
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Female Gender Disparities in Cardiovascular

Words: 2805 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36678633

Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).

This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly

Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health

Issues 17: 120 -- 130.

DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
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Selenium The Unsung Cancer-Preventing Wonder

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18440065

According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."

The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.

 http://www.naturalnews.com/016446.html 

"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.

http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/selenium.asp
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Herbs as Treatment Treating Depression

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754448



Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).

Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).

Other Natural Herbs

SAM-e…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php

Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.

Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Safety and Concentration

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28980052

Vitamin D Supplementation

Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.

An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.

In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163

Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient

Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
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Positive Effects of Taking Vitamins

Words: 2458 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12787912

For instance, British researchers of late administered natural Vitamin E supplements at the rate of 40-800 IU daily to men and women who had suffered a heart attack. Following an average of eighteen months, people who got Vitamin E were seen to have 77% less heart attacks compared to those given a dummy tablet. An additional example can be taken of Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD of Victoria, Canada who has been treating terminal cases of cancer with a severe potency vitamin/mineral regimen. He began performing this several years back to treat their depression and tension associated with the diagnosis of cancer. He observed that 30% of the patients in early states who were long-term users of vitamin supplements have survived ten-year more than comparable patients who were given solely conventional treatment which is a stupendous success. Hence the message drives home that vitamins can reverse cases of very serious diseases.…… [Read More]

References

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Cheraskin, E. The Health of the Naturopath: Vitamin Supplementation and Psychologic State.  http://www.doctoryourself.com/cheraskin_naturopath.html 

Dharmananda, Subhuti. Do herbs, Vitamins and antioxidants adversely affect cancer therapies.  http://www.itmonline.org/arts/antioxidants.htm 

Icheku, Vincent. Degenerative Diseases of Ageing: Causes and Prevention. De-Ichekus (UK)
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Nursing Aspects of Working in

Words: 2123 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10378247

"

One form of self-mutilation can be thought of as culturally accepted, even in the United States. Tattoos, body piercings and earlobe earring holes are all fairly accepted in some if not all social milieux in the U.S. While these behaviors may be viewed by some as pointless self-mutilation, they have a long and multi-varied history in this and many other cultures. The focus of this article is on generally-accepted mutilation, which causes harm to the body and does not meet cultural norms. In its worst form, self-mutilation can include cutting off a limb or self-castration; it is thus a serious problem with a subset of those in the SI cohort. As with many forms of OCD, self-mutilation generally begins in late childhood and the early teen years.

The authors argue that moderate- to severe SI requires a combination of therapies. Since much of the etiology is based in family…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Franklin, M.F. (2003). The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study: Rationale, Design, and Methods. Journal of Child and Adolescent Pharmacology, 39-51.

Geller, D.B. (2003). Which SSRI? A Meta-Analysis of Pharmacotherapy Trials in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Am J. Psychiatry, n.p.

March, J. (2004). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Children and Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. JAMA, n.p.

Nelson, T.R. (2007). A Narrative Approach to Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 67-80.
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Abnormal Psyche

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8843987

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: WHAT DO CLINICAL RESEARCHERS DO?

In the past, our most knowledgeable people have gotten some things very wrong. Aristotle called the brain "an organ of minor importance," and in 1984, genetic researches announced that mammals could not be cloned. Clearly we have things left to learn about humans. This is what makes research so important. The example given in the book of the lobotomy is very important: experts believed it worked when it did not, but before this was recognized, surgeons damaged many thousands of people even more, making their situation worse instead of better. This chapter describes many research approaches.

A case study focuses on one individual. The researcher describes the person's history, family, how the person's problems evolved and developed, and usually, the treatment and how well that treatment worked. This was an approach Sigmund Freud used at least sometimes. He did not know the child…… [Read More]

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Chen Ho Lam Ho & Woo 2003

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42548199

Chen, Ho, Lam, Ho, & Woo, 2003)

The article used for this research is a free full-text manuscript that may be found on PubMed.

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary intake of soy isoflavones on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Subjects were aged 48 to 62 years and within 10 years of natural menopause. Exclusion criteria for this study included any diseases or medications, including use of exogenous estrogens, corticosteroids, thiazine, or any medication known to effect bone mass. This trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study that examined two doses of isoflavones (40 mg and 80 mg daily) and placebo on bone mass maintenance in early postmenopausal women. The alternate hypothesis of this study was that dietary isoflavone supplementation would prevent bone mineral loss in early postmenopausal women.

Subjects in the three intervention arms of the study had similar demographic characteristics. Annualized…… [Read More]

Reference

Chen, Y.M., Ho, S.C., Lam, S.S., Ho, S.S., & Woo, J.L. (2003). Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(10), 4740-4747.
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Semi-Structured Interviews in This Study The Subjects

Words: 1173 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11433033

semi-structured interviews in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The treatment and control groups were as follows: (A) Family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) plus a placebo (B) Administration of Fluoxetine; (C) Family therapy plus Social Skills Training (SST) (Control Group). All subjects were assessed and treated for substance abuse problems regardless of group assignment. A total of 9 subjects were included in the study. All treatment took place in clinical settings and was configured to be individual rather than group treatment.

Quantitative data was obtained from the closed-end items of the semi-structured interviews. That is, some parts of the interview were structured like a survey with responses indicated by marking answers on a 5-point Likert scale. The choices in the Likert scale were as follows: Strongly Agree = 5; Agree = 4; Neutral or Not Sure = 3; Disagree…… [Read More]

References

Lane, D.M. (2006) Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics. HyperStat Online Statistics Retrieved

Retrieved  http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/ 

Some Basic Statistical Procedures. (2011). Radford University Retrieved http://www.radford.edu/~biol-web/stats.html

Appendix 1 -- Calculating Standard Error Bars
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Alzheimer Disease

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19606698

Clinical Trial NCT01504854

The number of Americans with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias will grow as the U.S. population age 65 and older continues to increase. It is projected more than 3 million people aged 85 and older are likely to have Alzheimer's, when the first wave of baby boomers reach age 85 in the year 2031 (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). By 2025, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer's disease is estimated to reach 7.1 million -- a 40% increase from the 5 million who are age 65 and older currently affected (Alzheimer's Association, 2015). Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia and is projected to be one of the most prevalent illnesses with our older adult population in the future. Alzheimer's disease remains 100% fatal and there is no cure for the disease; however, there are medications that are believed to be able to…… [Read More]

References

Alzheimer's Association. (2015). www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_facts_and_figures.asp.

ClinicalTrials.gov. (2015). Resveratrol for Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials identifier NCT01504854. Retrieved on March 14, 2015 from https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01504854?term=memory&type=Intr&state1=NA%3AUS%3APA&Phase=1&rank=20.
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Analyzing a Health Related Article

Words: 1775 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74494039

oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b

Overview of current therapy

The treatment setting for chronic hepatitis C has gone through an upheaval, above all in genotype 1. However, the exception is the continuity of interferon-based therapy and its related tolerability problems, insufficient reaction rates and several baseline factors that influence reaction to therapy (Gutierrez et al., 2015). The main concern undertaken in the current research study is that it attempts to obtain a new treatment combination that seems to be tolerable and necessitate a shorter time for therapy (Hunyady et al., 2014). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has given rise to treatment courses of therapy made up of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Despite the fact that the new courses of therapy are compelling and extremely useful, the full medical influence of HCV drug resistance, its inferences for retreatment, and the impending role of…… [Read More]

References

Gutierrez, J. A., Lawitz, E. J., & Poordad, F. (2015). Interferon free, direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Journal of viral hepatitis, 22(11), 861-870.

Hunyady, B., Gervain, J., Horvath, G., Makara, M., Par, A., Szalay, F., ... & Tornai, I. (2014). Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of hepatitis C-virus related liver disease. Hungarian national consensus guideline. Orvosi hetilap,155(Supplement 2), 3-24.

Kumada, H., Suzuki, Y., Ikeda, K., Toyota, J., Karino, Y., Chayama, K., ... & Izumi, N. (2014). Daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection. Hepatology, 59(6), 2083-2091.

Lontok, E., Harrington, P., Howe, A., Kieffer, T., Lennerstrand, J., Lenz, O., ... & Miller, V. (2015). Hepatitis C virus drug resistance -- associated substitutions: State of the art summary. Hepatology, 62(5), 1623-1632.
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Research on AIDS Control

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19167685

Statistical Evidence Used to Support Early Study Termination

Study population, comprising two clusters, namely AIDS patients and those suffering from AIDS-related complex, was a factor that supported early termination of the study. Statistical evidence employed was that AIDS patients who suffered from pneumonia many times were included in the study. On the other hand, patients who suffered multiple Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) episodes were excluded from the study. Thus, the research, comprising 27 participants who had spent 24 weeks in the study, 152 participants with16 weeks' participation and others had completed at least 8 weeks' of participation. At this point, 19 recipients of placebo and 1 recipient of 1 AZT (Azidothymidine) died during the study (Fischl et al., 1987).

Are you for or against the early termination and why?

The idea of early termination is not considered favorable, since the study proved valuable in treating the clinical condition, virus replication…… [Read More]

References

A Priority Research Agenda. (2010). Retrieved October 24, 2015, from https://www.iasociety.org/Web/WebContent/File/Consensus_Statement_Asking_the_Right_Question_March_2010.pdf

Brookmeyer, R. (2010, January 11). Measuring the HIV / AIDS Epidemic: Approaches and Challenges. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/26.full

Fischl, M. A., Richman, D. D., Grieco, M. H., Gottlieb, M. S., Volberding, P. A., Laskin, O. L., ... & King, D. (1987). The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 185 191.

Knox, R. (2010, November 4). The Lucky Genetic Variants That Protect Some People From HIV. Retrieved October 24, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/sections/healthshots/2010/11/04/131064382/the-lucky-genetic-variants-that-protect-some-peopleagainst-HIV
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Nursing Evidence-Based Practice the Article

Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87121113



The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.

The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality.

The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical

Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March

20, 2010, from Web site:

http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/5/1451
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Alzheimer's Treatment Alzheimer Disease Is

Words: 1104 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19392244

Therefore the cognitive performance wasn't improved significantly by the use of DHEA though in the 3 months period only a fleeting effect might have been observed (Wolkowitz et al., 2003, p.1073.)

Vitamin E

Vitamin is often prescribed by doctors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. A large study which was funded by the federal government showed that the reduced ability to do daily activities is delayed slightly by the intake of vitamin E The useful aspects of vitamin E can be attributed to its antioxidant nature which helps in the protection of nerve cells from chemical deterioration. The physician supervision is necessary when someone takes vitamin E as an Alzheimer treatment. There were high doses of vitamin E used in the federal study and vitamin E when used with other medications can interact negatively including the ones used for preventing the clotting of the blood (Khachaturian, 1992, P.73).

Neurotransmitters

The…… [Read More]

References

Wolkowitz, O., Kramer, J., Reus, V., Costa, M., Yaffe, K., Walton, P., et al. (2003). DHEA

treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology, 60(7): 1071-1076. Retrieved April 1, 2010, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12682308 

Khachaturian, Z. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: new treatment strategies. New York: Wiley

Interscience.
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Neurofibroma Genetic Traits and Impact

Words: 5537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52789543

However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.

Respiratory System

Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]

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Science Definitions Science Is a

Words: 2077 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17935881

In the last fifteen or so years the concerns about vaccinations, and particularly the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) have come to the forefront of societies debates from a limited connection to autism that is most likely associated to the correlation between onset of symptoms of autism and autism spectrum disorders and standard immunization practices. The fear created a general public that was afraid to allow their children to get the life saving MMR and in turn many parents have denied their children vaccinations at all. Parents' fears of some connection between the vaccination and/or its ingredient makeup cause or trigger autism and an accompanying serious bowel disease is related to a single, very limited research study conducted in the UK (n 12). There has been a substantial increase in incidents of autism over the last 20 or so years and the extreme social, physical, emotional, financial and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Matson Ronald R. PhD, Scientific Laws and Theories May 1, 2008  http://science.kennesaw.edu/~rmatson/Biol%203380/3380theory.html .

Purcell, Edward a. The Crisis of Democratic Theory: Scientific Naturalism & the Problem of Value. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1973.

Sawin, Enoch I. "The Scientific Method and Other Bases for Evaluation Procedures." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 62.4 (2005): 386.

Steuernagel, T. Increases in Identified Cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Policy Implications. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(3), 2005, 138.
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Healthy People Who Self-Select for

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7523299

As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).

From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.

he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…… [Read More]

The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population and in male smokers (Grade I recommendation) ("MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study," 2002 [I, good]; de Gaetano, 2001 [I, fair]; Virtamo et al., 1998 [I, fair]) (the role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer).

The most important outcome of the report will be greater recognition that it is time to concentrate on teaching nutrition, promoting regular physical activity, and strongly encouraging smoking cessation and particularly increasing outreach to women of racial and ethnic minorities. From there, although vitamin E is not a successful primary prevention strategy for women, one should not make the mistake of concluding that it will not turn out to be beneficial for men. There is the importance of recognizing biological differences between the sexes in cardiovascular research by providing valuable sex-specific data on primary prevention (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy Women)

Despite the fact the objective was proven false, the article did make good points about women's health. "A total of 999 cardiovascular events were reported during the trial. For the composite outcome, vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant 7% reduction in events. Vitamin E also had no significant effect on total rates of MI or stroke when each of these outcomes was examined individually. However, study subjects receiving vitamin E were 24% less likely to die from CVD, a significant difference attributable in large part to a reduction in sudden deaths and other CVD deaths besides MI and stroke.Vitamin E appeared to have a stronger effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death as the study progressed from years 6 to 10. Noncompliance did not appear to alter the study's main findings, nor did randomization to receive aspirin or placebo (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy). Even though the article proves that vitamin E does not help to some degree, it can be concluded that further evidence needs to be provided in order to prove further prevention.
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Evista® Raloxifene Hydrochloride the Evista®

Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87552851

Therapy was discontinued due to an adverse event in 11% of EVISTA®-treated women and 9% of placebo-treated women. Common adverse events related to EVISTA® therapy were hot flashes and leg cramps. Hot flashes were most commonly reported during the first 6 months of treatment and were not different from placebo thereafter.

DUG INTEACTIONS

Cholestyramine causes a 60% reduction in the absorption and enterohepatic cycling of raloxifene after a single dose. Thus, co-administration of cholestyramine with EVISTA® is not recommended.

COMPAATIVE EFFICACY

Overall, raloxifene exerts similar positive on bone mineral density and bone turnover as other SEMS and estrogen therapy. However, the reduction in fracture risk is improved with SEMs vs. estrogen (Nakamura 632).

COST ANALYSIS

Overall, administration of calcium and vitamin D is more effective and economical than any approved drug for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The annual cost of calcium and vitamin D treatment is $22 compared to $255 for estrogen,…… [Read More]

References

Barrett-Connor, E., et al. "Risk-Benefit Profile for Raloxifene: 4-Year Data from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (More) Randomized Trial." J. Bone Miner Res 19.8 (2004): 1270-5.

Borgstrom, F., et al. "Cost Effectiveness of Raloxifene in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Sweden: An Economic Evaluation Based on the More Study." Pharmacoeconomics 22.17 (2004): 1153-65.

Bryant, H.U. "Mechanism of Action and Preclinical Profile of Raloxifene, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation." Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2.1 (2001): 129-38.

Cranney, a., et al. "Meta-Analyses of Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Iv. Meta-Analysis of Raloxifene for the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis." Endocr Rev 23.4 (2002): 524-8.
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Medicinal Marijuana the Advantages and

Words: 4258 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55458729



De Jong, Prentiss, McFarland, Machekano & Israelski (2005) note in one study that medicinal marijuana use may be particularly useful in patients suffering from HIV with moderate to severe nausea. There study points out that adherence to antiretroviral therapy (AT) is an essential and critical component for successful treatment of HIV infections. Further a recent study conducted by the researchers suggest that smoking marijuana improves adherence to AT, and thus leads to more successful treatment of HIV infections in patients (De Jong, et. a, 44).

The relationship that existed in this study was confirmed using a multivariate analyses controlling "for the interactions between nausea and marijuana use" in which "other illicit drug use remained a factor related to nonadherence" (De Jong, et. al, 44). This study confirms the notion that medicinal cannabis may be beneficial where other therapies or drugs have not. However to demonstrate further benefits or a more…… [Read More]

References

Berman, J.S., Symonds, C. & Birch, R. (2004). "Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: Results of a randomized controlled trial." Pain. 112(3): 299-306

Burstein, S.H., Karst, M., Schneider, U. & Zurier, R.B. (2004). "Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a high." Life Sci, 75(12): 1513-22

Carter, G.T., Weydt, P., Kyashna, T.M. & Abrams, D.I. (2004 - May). "Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing." Idrugs, 7(5): 464-70.

Christenson, V. (2004). "Courts protect ninth circuit doctors who recommend medical marijuana use." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32(1): 174
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Psychologists to Study Behaviors Are Unique in

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80738049

psychologists to study behaviors, are unique in that the studies use small groups of individuals, rather than large samples. Through the use of an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event, this method can lead to a deep understanding of why a certain event occurred. Further, the researcher can examine what possible issues he or she may need to examine extensively in future, larger studies (Miles, et al. 1984).

For example, a researcher could use case study examinations to determine possible reasons for increased anger behavior in elderly women recently admitted to hospitals. The process would begin with a careful selection of a small group of individuals who fit the above criteria. Generally, there small groups would include ten or less subjects (Miles, et al., 1984).

The researcher would then fully review the patients' histories. This would include conversations with hospital staff, interviews with family, written history from…… [Read More]

References

Glass, G.V. (1976). Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 5(10), pp 3-8.

Light, R.J. & Pillemer, D.B. (1984). Summing Up: The Science of Review in Research. London: Harvard University Press.

Miles, M. & Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Staunton, N. (2003). Thesis defense: a meta-analysis of adventure therapy program outcomes. Retrieved July 14, 2005 from Wilderdom. Website:  http://www.wilderdom.com/adventuretherapy/Staunton2003ATMeta-analysis_files/frame.htm#slide0001.htm .
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Interview Question Preparation View Has

Words: 2402 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79751314

At the same time, it also needs to be mentioned that one has to take a decision based on the consideration that whether the person has any individual choice of his/her own in the matter. One of the main reasons for developing such an attitude may be because of depression in the minds of the patient. This matter needs to be raised and decided by the doctor and medicines prescribed accordingly to the need. These medicines have to be given by force, to the patient, if necessary, if he is unwilling to take them. At the same time, one may also understand that when medicines are being forced down a patient's throat, the effects and situation of the mind of the patient makes the medicine to be less effective, unless otherwise it is a medicine which has enough direct physical action. All the developmental effects are being slowed down by…… [Read More]

References

Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L; Goode, Patricia S; Michael, Hardin, J; McDowell, B. Joan;

Dombrowski, Marianne; Candib, Dorothy. (16 December, 1998) "Behavioral vs. Drug Treatment for Urge Urinary Incontinence in Older Women" JAMA. Vol: 280; No: 23. Retrieved at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/280/23/1995?ijkey=a2a0bc880a62c67942c75cc0e54e42e29540ce3c&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 18 September, 2005

Curry, M. A; Perrin, N; Wall, E. (1998) "Effects of abuse on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and adolescent women" Obstetrics & Gynecology. Vol: 92; pp: 530-534. Retrieved at http://www.greenjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/92/4/530?ijkey=d09f32f9fa411fa987cece30aea39728bd3107d3&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 20 September, 2005

Ernst, Edzard; Rand, Julia I; Stevinson, Clare. (1998) "Complementary Therapies for Depression" Arch Gen Psychiatry. Vol: 55; pp: 1026-1032. Retrieved at http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/55/11/1026?ijkey=4aefcb2b211b2daf78065877dca0b571d0e42275&keytype2=tf_ipsecshaAccessed 20 September, 2005