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Overseers used cowhide whips and wooden clubs to enforce their rules, some more cruelly and arbitrarily than others. Whereas most did whip their slaves, some did so only for perceived necessity and without deriving pleasure or satisfaction from it; others did so with extreme and deliberately wanton cruelty, utterly without reason or "justification" even in the context of the time. Cruelty manifested itself I many other ways on plantations, such as by the forced overfeeding of any slave who was overheard to complain of being hungry for lack of sufficient food.
One fairly typical practice consisted of force feeding molasses or other heavy liquid foods to induce discomfort and vomiting in response to complaints of hunger, intended to convince the slave that being perpetually hungry was no worse than its alternative. On the other hand, amongst themselves, plantation owners were subject to shame for underfeeding their slaves; some of those…
Douglass, F (1995) Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Dover
Mercantilism Slavery Plantations
In order to understand what was taking place throughout history in the Chesapeake region, it is very important to be aware of what slavery was like there. The nature of slavery in the Chesapeake region was such that black people made up a very large segment of the population (Norton & Katzman, 2005). It all began in 1619 (Lewis, 1974). A Dutch vessel arrived in that year, and it carried 20 men from Africa. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia and the slave trade began there (Carr, 1991; Ciment, 2005). During the years following that "delivery" of slaves, more and more were brought to the Chesapeake region. In the 70 years between 1700 and 1770, for example, the population of slaves in that area went from 13,000 to more than 250,000 (Norton & Katzman, 2005). In 1775, the evolutionary War began. By that time, one-third of the population…
Carr, L.G. (1991). Robert Cole's world: Agriculture and society in early Maryland. North Carolina: Chapel Hill.
Ciment, J. (ed). (2005). Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: ME Sharpe Reference.
Lewis, R.L. (July, 1974). Slavery on Chesapeake iron plantations before the American Revolution. The Journal of Negro History. 59: 242-254.
Norton, M. & Katzman, D. (2005). A people and a nation, 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
ebellion to evolution
Slaves in Southern Plantations
In his 1979 book From ebellion to evolution, Genovese examines the change in the thrust of slave rebellions away from localized efforts focused on winning freedom to a movements couched in Marxist world view that were intended to overthrow slavery as a social system. Chapters 1 and 2 are reviewed below.
Slave evolts in Hemispheric Perspective
In this chapter, Eugene Genovese examines the slave revolts that occurred in the New World against a backdrop of modern world history. The great feat that Genovese accomplishes here is to connect the ideology of the slave revolts to that of the major revolutions that occurred in the late eighteenth century. He accomplishes this by grounding his comparison in an examination of conditions in the western hemisphere that fostered revolution and in his discussion of the history of slave guerrilla warfare.
Genovese offers a portrait of slavery…
Genovese, E.D. (1992). From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World [Walter Lynwood Fleming Lectures in Southern History]. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press.
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Plantation and Factory ules:
United States has always been the prime definition of change; however the years between 1800 and 1860 can be termed as the social revolution era for this country. Extensive evolution took place in the time period, which can be attributed to this change. Large population expansion was noted during these years, according to statistics it was 35% per decade, which to this date stands as the largest expansion rate of population in American history. This was also the time when U.S. started to experiment with technology, which complemented the continuous economic and societal transformations (Mooney, 1957). For the first time the concept of steam powered factories was being made common, also things like cargo boats and trains which were previously considered as only luxuries were now regularly being used for cargo and shipping purposes, making it easier to not only produce commodities but also move them…
Clement Eaton. 1966. A history Of The Old South (Macmillian)
Clement Eaton. 1962. The Civilization Of The Old South (Kentucky Press)
Chase C. Mooney. 1957. Slavery In Tennessee (Indiana University Press)
Altman, Andrew. 2006. The Persistent Fiction of Harm to Humanity. Ethics & International Affairs 20, no. 3: 367.
However, the population was not self-sustaining and therefore depended on a continual influx of new laborers (p. 2). The result was to dramatically alter the world's demographic features, and not only those of the Americas and Africa. The plantation complex was also an offshoot of feudalism; its structure resembled medieval feudal societies in which a land-owning master exerted authority over his subjects but who was at the same time subject to his own political master. Finally, Curtin shows how the creation of highly specialized goods transformed the global market system, encouraging or even forcing nations from all corners of the globe to participate in a massive network of trading. In the early days of the plantation complex, Europeans used silver mined in South America to purchase goods from India which were in turn used to purchase slaves in Africa; those slaves were imported as property to the plantations in the…
Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War" by Edward E. aptist. 1. What is the big historical question; Summarize the main points of the questions or theories the author is trying to address in his/her work. 2. Where does the work fit in the existing historiography. 3. What evidence does the author use to make the case? 4. riefly summarize the author's findings. 5. How well does he/she make the case? Is the result believable? Why or why not? 6. What (if anything) is wrong with the work? Are there major gaps or inconsistencies?
Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation
Frontier before the Civil War"
In "Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War," Edward E. aptist presents a historical account of the era of migration to Middle Florida during the early 1800's and its creation of the plantation boom. aptist attempts…
Baptist, Edward E. Creating an Old South: Middle Florida's Plantation Frontier before the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. 2002.
Plimoth Plantation," by William radford, and "The Life of William radford," by Cotton Mather. Specifically, it will compare the two writings, discussing what similarities are noted about the writers' styles and how the culture and history of the time, place, and person(s) are portrayed. Cotton Mather and William radford lived in different decades, and yet their writings are eerily similar in content and cultural beliefs. Mather and radford were both absolutely convinced of their "rightness," and their writing illustrates this vividly. Colonial Americans were devout, pious, righteous - they came to America because of their religious beliefs, and finally able to express them, they expressed them boldly and with great fervor.
WILLIAM RADFORD AND COLONIAL AMERICA
oth intensely religious and devout men, the writings of William radford and Cotton Mather both embody this devoutness, even while they show quite an un-Christian attitude about anyone who does not believe in exactly…
Bradford, William. Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation." Boston: Wright & Potter, 1901.
Mather, Cotton. "Galeacius Secundus: The Life of William Bradford, Esq., Governor of Plymouth Colony." New Bulgarian University. 24 May 2003. http://www.nbu.bg/amb/american/1/mather/bradford.htm (19 July 2003).
" Hence, the history of the rock has been distorted, Bush continues; the rock has been used to raise the public consciousness about great American ideas, "social movements, and political and religious trends; Plymouth Rock has been made to serve them all." Plymouth Rock seems "less a monument to the Pilgrims' First Landing than to America's relentless pursuit of a usable past..." Bush quotes again from Sahlins. Then the author adds, "e all want a piece of the Rock."
No matter that Plymouth Rock has perhaps been used at various times as a symbol of America's past; what is important is not the rock (or the fact that it has been chipped away), but rather what is vitally important is Bradford's remarkable historical journal, and the Mayflower Compact itself. America, the symbol known throughout the world for freedom of expression and religious choice, is indeed embodied permanently in those documents.…
Bradford, William. "From of Plymouth Plantation." The Norton Anthology of American
Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 156-197.
Bush, Sargent. "America's Origin Myth: Remembering Plymouth Rock." American
Literary History 12.4 (2000): 745-756.
However, Charlie is clever, despite the fact that he has not had the educational and social privileges enjoyed by the Colonel (as is indicated in his rough speech patterns in the story, which are very different from the Colonel's formal English and French). The 'Indian' as the author refers to him, begins to understand the worthlessness of the plantation and why the Colonel is so eager to buy, and then swap their two abodes. But before the two men can argue out their differences, the house falls into the cruel, muddy Mississippi, taking all of the Colonel's family with it into the water. The Colonel, bereft of his beloved daughters, dies of grief at the end of the story, and is eventually reunited with the girls and an image of his beloved home in paradise.
Cable, George ashington. (1874). Belles Demoiselles Plantation. Scribner and Sons.
Cornell University Library.…
Cable, George Washington. (1874). Belles Demoiselles Plantation. Scribner and Sons.
Cornell University Library. Retrieved February 16, 2009 at http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABP7664-0007&byte=204088333
Woman / Plantation Mistress / Fires of Jubilee
The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. By Stephen B. Oates. (New York:
HarperPerennial, 1990). 208 pages.
Stephen B. Oates was a professor African-American and U.S. history at the University of Massachusetts for most of his academic career. His most notable works chronicle the antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction eras of American history. He is particularly well-known for his biographies of the period including his works on Lincoln. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion chronicles the life and rebellion of Nat Turner, the famous American slave rebel. Oates offers his historical work as a companion to as well as a rebuttal of some of the existing literature on Turner, including the famous novel by William Styron. Although an academic, Oates writes in an engaging and popular manner that has made many of his historical works of literature best sellers…
This book is important because so much of black history centers on the experience of being a slave, rather than the experience of living together with others slaves and the development of culture and tradition. This book shows how black American culture really originated, and that the lives of slaves were incredibly hard, but enriching in their own right. The author's exhaustive research gives the reader a real glimpse into the everyday life of slaves, and indicates that they had a rich culture, appreciated their families, hoped desperately for freedom, and lived desperately hard lives. Even though their lives were difficult, they held on to hope and faith, which gave them the courage to continue. His research brings the slaves to life and makes the reader appreciate just how strong they had to be to survive.
This is a very interesting and adsorbing book. eading a slave's autobiography is one…
Blassingame, John W. (1977). The slave community: Plantation life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Declining Significance of Race by William Julius Wilson: Questions
What is the major theme of the reading?
Southern society was profoundly unequal not just in terms of race but also because of the sharp divisions of its social classes: Southern plantation owners made up a tiny minority of the population yet owned the majority of slaves. While slavery has existed since the beginning of time, Southern slavery took on a unique character. Laws classified slave and slave-owners by race. The economic, political, and legal apparatus of the South was orchestrated to ensure that slaveholders retained their dominant status. Property requirements barred poor whites as well as blacks from voting. The lack of economic mobility created a vicious cycle which affirmed plantation owners' dominance: because the economy was slave and land-based, there were few opportunities for others to find ways of making a living and to generate power for themselves. The…
Slave Community. In the development of southern architecture slaves constructed both slave quarters as well as larger plantation homes. Choose 3 examples of these types of structures and discuss why they were used, they overall design (using terminology) and also the origins of the design ideas and why these design elements were incorporated into the buildings.
The plantation architecture in the South developed over centuries, reflected not only the evolution of the slave communities, but also their interaction with the owners, their cultural background and their integration in the economic structure of the South. Many of the phases in this development, including creolization, brought forth new elements in architecture, as well as in the anthropological and cultural evolution of these communities. The aim of this paper is to discuss Southern architecture with distinct examples from plantation houses and slave communities, with an additional perspective on creaolization and its impact.
1. Plantation Architecture in Alabama. 2011. Encyclopedia of Alabama. On the Internet at http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1671 . Last retrieved on February 14, 2012
2. Buisseret, David. 2000. Creolization in the Americas. Texas A&M University Press
3. Edwards, Jay; Kariouk, Nicolas. 2004. A Creole lexicon. LSU Press.
4. Vlach, John Michael. 1993. Back of the big house. UNC Press Books
House of Bondage: The Transformation of the Plantation Household
In the book, Thavolia Glymph gives us an inspection of the power influences that are linked among white and black southern women that are in the interior of the traditional plantation household in the 18th century epoch, Civil ar. Also, immediately the aftermath of the Civil ar in the American South that is certainly exploiting chiefly slave accounts / dialogues and the documents and the memoires of white women that were concubines.
Thavolia Glymph, in Out of the House of Bondage, gives us a convincing look inside what life was like inside the southern plantation houses in pre-Civil ar south. In the book, the author showed us how life in the antebellum days had basically turned into what was considered a political showground, where subjected black women and white women contested against the implications of labor and independence during slavery and…
Campbell, J. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York City: Bollingen, 1949.
The colonist's primary objective, as mentioned before, was to make money, and also try and drive out Spanish colonies. None of the colonists concentrated on survival and focused on their search for prosperity. Because of all the time spent on looking for gold or the route to China, and their lack of skills, the colonists were not prepared for the harsh upcoming winter. The results were devastating. During the winter of 1609-1610 almost ninety percent of the colony was wiped out, and only 50 out of the 500 colonists survived.
The government of the colony consisted of a governor and 12 council members, all whom were appointed. The government, named the Virginia Council, had no decision making power at all. Everything was sent over to England, settled there, and then sent back. This system was outrageously inefficient and often took several years for anything to be resolved. This absurd and…
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
South - Mary Chesnut & Fredrick Douglass
Prior to making a comparison between Mary Chesnut and Frederick Douglass, in order to present material which sheds light on the relationship between white southern women and slaves, it would seem appropriate to look closely at each of these two noteworthy characters from American history.
Mary Boykin Chesnut
Mary Boykin Chesnut was born in 1823, into the aristocracy of South Carolina, had all the privileges of wealth and power - including the benefit of an education at an exclusive boarding school in Charleston - and married into another very prominent family in South Carolina. She lived on a plantation with numerous black slaves, which was fairly typical for wealthy people during that period. What was not typical of wealthy people during those times was the fact that her circle of friends was political and social heavyweights - after all, her husband was a…
Adams, Phoebe-Lou. "The private Mary Chesnut." The Atlantic 255 (1985): 125.
Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman's World in the Old South.
New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
DeCredico, Mary A. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Confederate Woman's Life.
The RTP is able to process 5,000 tons of rubber per year, whereas its competitor can only process 4,000 tons. Furthermore, compared to his competitors, Chai has the advantage of Thailand's experience and good reputation in regard to rubber production. This comparative advantage could aid Chai boost his product to other foreign countries, as well as Thailand.
Given that the small and middle size plantations could be persuaded into accepting a higher price, but the larger plantations would not pay a cent above $10,000, the RTP's price should remain unchanged. However, the company ought to consider investing more money into sales, so to increase the number of sold RTP, and also in research and development, in order to further improve the quality of the RTP and its life cycle. Also, separate funds should be allocated to the R&D department as to allow them to continue their research for technologies applicable…
Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007, QuickMBA.com, http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml , last accessed on September 28, 2007
Rubbertech, Marketing Parts 1 to 3
Porter's Five Forces: A Model for Industry Analysis, 2007, QuickMBA.com
Rubbertech, Marketing, Marketing Part 2
The book, 'Aren't I a Woman?' explores the challenges that women faced in the antebellum America. The author has focused to address the challenges of sexuality and racism that affected many women of this age. The author, Deborah Gray is a Professor at Scott University, who has focused her study in examining the issues of justice and social inequality in society. She is interested in this study as she attempts to explain the challenges of sexuality and racism that has affected the women from minority races in the United States. Her focus is to lead the readers of her work to begin understanding the challenges that women have faced from the antebellum America to the current day. Through a better understanding of these issues, better remedies may be developed to help the affected women in the society. Indeed, without an in-depth understanding of the issues of sexuality, and racism,…
White, Deborah, 1985, Aren't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:
W.W. Norton and Company. Print
This is a 3 page paper that compares life in the Southern Colonies of the Chesapeake Bay and those in the "deep south" with that of the Colonies of New England and the Middle Colonies. There are 3 references used.
The Early American Colonist faced different challenges and led a different lifestyle depending on where in the country they lived. These variances ranged from schooling, to terrain, to the crops they planted and the climate they endured.
The Farming Communities
Farming was essential to all of the regions. Large-scale farming was better for the South. The climate there was warmer and the soil was richer. Tobacco and rice were grown on large plantations to be exported to Britain. Each plantation was like a small village. The owners of the plantations were the "mayor, judge, sheriff, preacher, doctor, lawyer and storekeeper (unknown, 1996)." There was a blacksmith, cobbler, tanner and…
Author unknown (01-01-1996). American Colonies. Young Students Learning Library
United States Information Service (01-01-1991). United States of America. Chapter 1A. The Colonial Period. Countries of the World
Wood, Gordon S. (06-12-2000). Give Me Diversity or Give Me Death. The New Republic
Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…
S. The lives of the slaves were sharply divided from the whites on the plantation. The slaves lived away from the main house in the slave quarters, and only the house slaves were allowed in the main house. The slaves not only worked in the fields, they had to grow their own gardens for food, and they usually only got Sunday off. During planting and harvest, they worked long hours, from sunrise to sunset, and they faced harsh retribution if they attempted to complain. They were the most harshly treated of any of these groups of slaves, and they suffered the most, too.
During the four centuries of the Atlantic slave trade, an estimated eleven million Africans were transported to North and South America" (Notes), and as noted, millions of them died along the way, so it is really not known how many left Africa never to return. Slaves in…
Plymouth Plantation, illiam Bradford's account of his thirty years at Plymouth, is one of the most important pieces of seventeenth century literature. Despite the journal's creative blend of fact and fiction that have many calling Bradford's journal "historical fiction," it has provided much of our information surrounding the early years at Plymouth colony.
illiam Bradford was not only a member of the Plymouth colony, but was also its leader who played a large role in the development of the community. Before the establishment of the colony, illiam Bradford who was born in Austerfield, England in 1590, spent most of his life in Holland as a member of the Scrooby Separatist Congregation.
Bradford was a member of the infamous Mayflower vessel, and began his leadership position in Plymouth Colony when the Colony's first governor, John Carver, died. Bradford served for thirty-one of a possible thirty-six one year terms as governor.
William Bradford wrote "Of Plymouth Plantation" for a variety of reasons. It was important that he wrote the journal so that he could ensure that both he and the people he represented would be credited with settling the new world. For this reason, it was also important that he detail the rituals and customs of the first group of settlers at Plymouth Rock. Because his people were the "first," other people in the future may want to replicate the ways of the early people. Yet, "Of Plymouth Plantation" is a historical document that has its share of bias. Since William Bradford wanted more people to come to the New World, it would be in his best interest to leave some negative information out of the journal. Also, William Bradford would not have written anything negative about his leadership capabilities because he had a reputation to uphold.
Despite its possible inaccuracies, "Of Plymouth Plantation" is the best source of information that we have about the early Plymouth colony. Even if it is not an exact representation of their early lives, its shows something almost equally important: how the first settlers would want to be represented to their predecessors.
Bradford's "Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/bradford.html
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
8 million of the 2.5 million enslaved Africans employed in American agriculture working on cotton plantations (Dodson). The economic structure of each plantation was part of a larger national and even international political economy. For example, the cotton plantation economy is frequently regarded as a significant part of Southern economy. Nevertheless, cotton was not only the economic foundation of antebellum South, but also that of the United States, a country that was competing for economic leadership in the global political economy. The profitability of slave economy led to its perpetuation. Indeed, history has shown that an economically profitable situation can often be unfair unjust or immoral, and can only be ended by drastic political measures. In the case of the South, it was the abolition of slavery. The Dred Scott case originated in the state courts of Missouri in 1846 as a slave's attempt to gain his independence from his…
Conrad, Alfred H.; Meyer, John R. (1958). The Economics of Slavery in the Ante Bellum South. The Journal of Political Economy, 66(2), 95-130.
Dodson, Howard (2003). How Slavery Helped Build a World Economy. In Jubilee: The Emergence of African-American Culture. New York: National Geographic Books.
Ehrlich, Walter (1968). Was the Dred Scott Case Valid? The Journal of American History, 55(2), 256-265.
I like to lead the other slaves in singing Negro Spirituals. One of my favorites was "Wade in the Water," because the melody allowed voices to reach out to Jesus Christ and God through music. I am religious because I believe there is a heaven and a hell and that Christ really did come to earth to save humanity from sins. Slavery is a sin, an awful sin and someday the South will pay for their sins. I don't know how, but they will, because I have faith in what God wants people to do.
My family has been separated since we were brought to America on a horrible ship. I was sold to a large plantation owner and I don't know where my sisters went. My mother and father are both dead; my mother was raped and killed back in Africa when she tried to resist being captured. I…
Film -- "12 Years a Slave"
Years a Slave is the true account of Solomon Northrup's life. A free African-American living in Saratoga Springs, New York, with his wife and two children, Solomon was kidnapped and sold into slavery as an escaped slave named Platt. Though Solomon tried to gain his freedom, he was thwarted and cruelly treated by members of America's slavery system. He also saw horrible cruelty inflicted on other African-American slaves and their various adjustments to it. Through the efforts of Solomon and abolitionists, he was finally freed and was compelled to write of his experience and become an abolitionist. The movie is often disturbing but its truthfulness about an actual person's experiences makes it worthwhile.
Mr. Solomon Northrup's Life
In 1841, Solomon Northrup is a free African-American living in Saratoga Springs, New York with his wife, Anne Hampton, and his two children, Alonzo and…
Historians discuss major themes dealing vast variety materials events encounter studying history.Three themes
Colonial Life Factors
Race, class and gender were highly important factors during colonial life in the country that would become the United States of America. In many ways, the very founding of this country was all about these three separate themes that became increasingly difficult to distinguish from one another once colonial life truly began in earnest. For instance, one can sufficiently argue that class was one of the primary reasons that colonists first came to America -- for the purposes of religious freedom (since religion can be considered a type of class) as well as for economic prosperity. Many colonists initially came to the country as indentured servants who were looking to find a better monetary existence for themselves.
This principle can be demonstrated most effectively by examining literature from and pertaining to Bacon's Rebellion. Essentially,…
Therefore, the slave woman became emotionally isolated from her husband. This emotional isolation, when combined with the physical isolation that inevitably happened when slaves were sold, led to slave women having a greater affection and affinity for their children than for the men that fathered them (especially when such men included slave masters and slave traders). The result, White explains, is that slave women came to seek and accept the society of one another, and developed a hierarchy as such in which there was an informal set of rankings and prioritization. The Mammy character was generally at the forefront of this hierarchy, which was essentially a coping mechanism to deal with all of the perverted occurrences that chattel slavery in the U.S. inflicted upon all involved, (including slave owners).
White reinforces her contention that this institution was inordinately worse for slave women than for their male counterparts. The final mythological…
White, D.G. (1985). Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves In The Plantation South. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
racialized slavery change in the early-19th century south? How and/or why were non-Slave holders invested in slavery? On what grounds did antebellum southerners defend slavery?
Slavery was not always a racialized category in the Americas. Many Americans emigrated to the U.S. As indentured servants: these were whites who worked without pay in exchange for learning a trade or their passage overseas. However, gradually, the plantation economy of the south fostered a system in which African-Americans toiled in bondage. It was simply more economically sustainable to employ slaves to harvest cash crops like tobacco and cotton, particularly after the invention of the cotton gin. 'hiteness' became associated with privilege and power, and even poorer whites in the south were above African-American slaves in terms of their social status. Slavery was thus always an ideological as well as an economic and political issue.
Of course, the economics of slavery cannot be overlooked.…
Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: to 1877. (3d Ed.) . Cengage, 2011.
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
difficulty, wealthy white American settlers created and dominated a stable plantation society in which slaves, Indians, and poorer whites accepted the justice of their subordination.
There is sound evidence that slavery had spread through America long before 1776. Like a vile cancer, slavery spread throughout with the early settlers. As they arrived from Europe, white settlers began to push inward. As they moved into vast uncharted territories, they brought along their concept and belief in slavery.
When the American Revolution initiated with the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, slavery was well rooted. Many leaders of the Revolution regarded the elimination of slavery as impossible. The American slaveholders had effectively protected their beloved institution.
Laws were enacted that reinforced slavery as an institution. Legal language included, "That all servants imported and brought in this country, by sea or land, who where not Christians in their native county...shall be…
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
Analysis of William Bradford's and Samuel de Champlain's Narratives of the life of native American-Indians in the Americas in the 17th century
Early accounts of native life in North America were well-documented with through the experiences of navigators representing European countries, particularly Spain, England, and Portugal in the 17th century. This period was identified as the "Age of Discovery," for new civilizations were found, which provided opportunities for these voyagers to take advantage of a new-found territory to make use of its natural resources and expand its political territory and powers in the process.
Famous works of early narratives of discoveries of new land territories in the North American region were from William Bradford and Samuel de Champlain, voyagers who had been sent by England and France, respectively, to explore the prospects of a new politico-economic territory in the geographic area now known as North America. Narrated in…
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.
It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…
The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.
The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).
4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.
"hat does that have to do with your daddy?"
"Heh, one of them even had cow dung on his left shoe. Did you know my dad enterted one of them great plantations and rubbed dung all over one of their rugs?"
"No Sarty, you ain't tell me anything like that."
"That's cause the day he died I never looked back. I decided that my momma, my aunt, my brothers, my dad, they were all part of the past and I was headed towards the future."
"eren't you scared of being on your own? You were only ten."
"ell, the owner of the plantation, De Spain, felt bad for killin my dad for startin the fire, and decided to pay for me to go stay at one of his servant's quarters. It was there I spent the next couple years learnin to read and write and became obsessed wth trains."…
Byres, TJ. Sharecropping and Sharecroppers. London: F. Cass, 1983. Print.
Comprone, Joseph. "Literature and the Writing Process: A Pedagogical Reading of William Faulkner's "Barn Burning." Jstor.org. College Literature, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.
Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." Lake-Sumter Community College | Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.
Priddy, Anna, and Harold Bloom. Bloom's How to Write About William Faulkner. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010. Print.
Queen Isabella initially challenged the basis of Columbus' right to enslave the subjects entrusted to her by the Pope.
4. How did Spain explain the purpose of the Encomienda system?
According to their view, the Indians were to be rightfully Christianized by Spanish forces. Since they resisted their efforts, the Encomienda suggested that enslavement was a tool necessitated to overcome the Indians' reluctance to work and their "laziness." Their enslavement into forced labor was a means of imposing order on them and of disciplining them as part of the duty of the Spanish to motivate the Indians to convert to Christianity.
5. How did the Spanish colonists and the King respond to Montesinos' critique of their treatment of the Indians? Why did the King have this reaction?
The Spanish colonists and the King responded that the Indians had a natural obligation and duty to accept their Christian teachings. In the…
Usually, a white female slave takes on supervisory roles in the field although most of them are employed in homes fulfilling domestic duties (Collins, 2004). However, these women were rather cruelly stigmatized by being labeled as "white trash" by black people (earson, 2004). During the Industrial revolution, women's work has migrated from domestic tasks to outside work. They were employed in factories because they are considered a source of cheap labor (Lewis, 2005).
Ayers, E. Slave to Sharecropper: Special Features. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/sharecrop/sf_economy.html. onMarch 1, 2009.
Collins, G. (2004). America's Women. 400 Years of Dolls, Drudges, Helpmates, and Heroines.
Australia: Harper Collins.
Lewis, J.J. (2005). Women and Work in Early America. Retrieved from: http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm. onMarch 1, 2009.
McCurry, S. (1995). Masters of Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the olitical Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. Retrieved from: http://personal.tcu.edu/~swoodworth/McCurry.htm. onMarch 1, 2009.
earson, K. (2004). White Trash.…
Pearson, K. (2004). White Trash. Retrieved from: http://kpearson.faculty.tcnj.edu/Dictionary/white_trash.htm. onMarch 1, 2009.
Zieger, R.H. (2003). The First Fruits of Freedom. Retrieved from: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/zieger/chapter1.18.htm . onMarch 1, 2009.
____. (n.d.). Slavery in America. Retrieved at http://www.simplcom.ca/lnq/mlk3/blackslavery.html. onMarch 1, 2009.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
student's position / answer question. It - (3-5) complete sentences, including thesis statement essay. The, , fourth paragraphs body paragraphs.
Slavery in the 1800-1860 time period
The slavery system was an active part of the U.S. during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, considering the large profits that the business brought to the nation. Slaves represented an essential element and as cotton production grew significantly in the South white people realized that they needed to be in possession of as many slaves as possible in order to earn large profits. hile some individuals believed that slavery was nearing its end, others believed that it would become even more cost-effective and struggled to improve their businesses using every methods that they possibly could. The south became the global center of cotton production by 1960 and this provided Southerners with the feeling that they had to protect their industry and that…
Ciment, James, "Atlas of African-American History," (Infobase Publishing, 01.01.2007)
Dattel, Eugene R. "Cotton in a Global Economy: Mississippi (1800-1860)," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Mississippi History Now Website: http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/articles/161/cotton-in-a-global-economy-Mississippi-1800-1860
Australian Corporate Directors
The four step process of understanding business law is very helpful in arriving at some important conclusions about the case of Coco Ltd. And its recent accident. The four step process suggests provides a manner in which this problem can be properly understood and the correct actions may be implemented to prevent further problems. This part of the essay will advise the directors of Coco Ltd. Of their current problems.
Identify the Legal Issue
Before delving into the legal issues of this case it is important to understand the behaviour of Mr. Hugo, a director here at Coco Ltd.. Hugo, in a recent purchase from his in laws' Brett and Sandra cocoa plantation a disastrous terrorist event took place. During the transportation of nearly boat load of cocoa, the ship was attacked and sunk by terrorist pirates disguised as American Navy Forces. The ship was sunk with…
Australian Securities and Investment Commission (2008). Information Sheet 42, Insolvency: a guide for directors. Australian Securities and Investment Commission December 2008. Retrieved from http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/pdflib.nsf/LookupByFileName/Insolvency_guide_for_direct ors.pdf/$file/Insolvency_guide_for_directors.pdf
The Commonwealth of Australia. Corporations Act 2001. Retrieved from http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Series/C2004A00818
The Council on Australian Governments (2012). Personal Liability for Corporate Fault: Guidelines for applying COAG principles. CAG 23 July 2012. Retrieved from http://www.coag.gov.au/node/434
Lucy, J. (2006). Directors' Responsibilities: The reality vs. The myths. American Institute of Company Directors, 17 Aug 2006. Retrieved from http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/pdflib.nsf/LookupByFileName/Directors_responsibilities_A ugust2006.pdf/$file/Directors_responsibilities_August2006.pdf
power is depicted in William Shakespeare's "King Lear," Book I of John Milton's "Paradise Lost" and Francis Bacon's "Of Plantations" and "The Idols" from his "Novum Organum."
Shakespeare's depiction of power in King Lear shows how cunning, ruthless people come to gain political power at the expense of those that show qualities that one would desire in a leader: nobility, honesty and integrity. Shakespeare's key focus is the transition of power from one king or leader to his progeny. In King Lear, the title role decides to abdicate the throne and divide his kingdom equally between his three daughters: Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. Whereas the first two flatter him, Cordelia is honest and is ultimately punished for it: she loses her inheritance. In another part of the story, two brothers fight for control of a dukedom.
Here Shakespeare illustrates a contradiction between well-meaning, honest people and manipulative, power-hungry people. One…
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a racial caste system from its three hundred years of slavery, and until very recent times, the white minority had almost all the political and economic power. Today, only about 5% of the population is white, 20% of mixed race background and the remaining 75% descended from African slaves. As with most of the Caribbean islands, the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations were devastated by disease in the fifty years after first contact with Europeans in 1492. Although there were…
Beckles, Hilary McD.. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Beckles, Hilary McD. "The Slave-Drivers' War: Bussa and the 1816 Barbados Slave Rebellion" in Howe, Glenford H. And Don D. Marshall (Eds) The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Kingston, Jamaica: canoe Press, 2001: 1-33.
Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York University Press, 1996.
Browne, David V.C. "The 1937 Disturbances and Barbadian Nationalism" in Howe and Marshall: 149-63.
The flooding of the artificial damn and the strategic burning of the petrol begins to lose effect because so many dead or dying ants begin to pile up in large clumps that their living counterparts are able to use them as bridges over the water. At that point, Leiningen realizes that the only way to save his plantation and the lives of his workers is to flood the entire plantation while they take refuge in the highest part of the property. To do so, Leiningen must get to a control valve mechanism that is hundreds of yards away from the remaining safe area of the plantation and already completely covered by the ants.
With the help of native workers, Leiningen puts together a makeshift safety suit that covers his entire body and they cover it with ointments believed to repel the ants and petrol. Leiningen takes off on foot toward…
However, animals or human intervention are often needed to achieve seed dispersal over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005). Hurricanes are also responsible for transport of seeds over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005).
Grasslands were found to consist of a mosaic pattern where dense clusters of a single plant form. This suggests that seed rain around the plant is the primary seed dispersal process at work in these areas (Czarnecka, 2005). Wind may help to spread species to new patches, but the primary seed dispersal mechanism would be likely to be seeds falling to the ground. Compared to brush lands, the dominant species were within the Carex family. The dominant species in the brush lands was Origanum vulgare. Seed dispersal by anemochore dominated in the grasslands, with nearly 43% of the plants using this methods exclusively. Among brush land plants, dispersal by plants that depended on animals for dispersal, either by eating the…
Au, N., Corlett, R., & Hau, B. (2006). Seed rain into upland plant communities in Hong Kong, China. Plant Ecology. 186 (1), 13-22.
Czarnecka, J. (2005). Seed dispersal effectiveness in three adjacent plant communities xerothermic grassland, brushwood, and woodland. Ann. Bot Fennici. 42: 161-171.
Elsa, W., Lee, B. Hau, C., & Corlett, R. (2005). Natural regeneration in exotic tree plantations in Hong Kong, China.
Forest Ecology and Management. 212 (1-3), 358-366.
Education: Inclusion Discipline
The purpose of this work is to research Inclusion Discipline. Recently there has been a push throughout the nation for the placement of Special Education students in the regular classroom environments. This work will examine that which an administrator must do in making provisions of ensuring the students not only receive quality education but also to reflect that the IEPs methods utilized are promoting quality behavior in the regular classroom.
Inclusive education has faced many challenges in the classroom that is so diverse in terms of student's needs and accommodations. The Individuals with Disabilities Act was passed with the intent of protecting and integrating disabled individuals. To complicate matters the passing of the "No Child Left ehind Act" by the present administration brought with it what has the feel of a "conflict of interest" in view of the pre-existing IDEA legislation. Through the evaluation of IEP's,…
Watson, Harry (1999) Southern Cultures 'Gone with the Wind' critique 19993.[Online]http://www.highbeam .com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo=Round9B%3AP%4ADO C%3AP.
Susman, Tina (2001) "Brilliant Parody or Blatant Ripoff? Newsday 2001 April 17.
Goss, Fred (2001) "The Wind Done Gone" (2001 Sep 9)
"Gone With the Wind" (1998) Memphis Flyer
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
Slavery in the Cotton Kingdom
During the American evolution and the civil war, the North and the South experienced development of different socio-political and cultural environmental conditions. The North became an industrial and manufacturing powerhouse as a result of rise of movements like abolitionism and women's right while the South became a cotton kingdom whose labor was sourced from slavery (Spark notes, 2011).
The distinct feature of cotton kingdom is that her activities were empowered by slave labor. The cotton kingdom thus means a cotton producing region of the United States until the period of civil war.
The reason why slavery spread into the cotton kingdom after revolution is because the tobacco income plummeted as white setters from Virginia and Carolinas forcing the original Native Americans inhabitants farther and farther west where they established plantations. The wide spread use of the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793,…
Cliff notes, (2011). Slave Society and Culture. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Slave-Society-and-Culture.topicArticleId-25073,articleId-25051.html
Eric Foner,(2008). The Master and the Mistress. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://kathmanduk2.wordpress.com/2008/10/08/thomas-jefferson-and-sally-hemings-the-master-and-the-enslaved-black-woman/
John Wiley, (2011). Slavery, the Economy, and Society. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Slavery-the-Economy-and-Society.topicArticleId-25073,articleId-25050.html
Spark notes, (2011). The North and South Diverge. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/chapter9section3.rhtml
This means that modernization has no place in the lives of most Africans, primarily because they have learned to survive and live despite the inconveniences that forest life presents. From this realization, readers are shown how development is interpreted from the point-of-view of those who have remarkably survived early forms of living, such as the life of hunting-gathering that the forest people have known ever since they have become part of the Ituri forest.
Apart from their lifestyle, the BaMbuti's social organization is radically different from the one established under a capitalist economic system (which is the prevalent social structure for most developed and developing nations in the 20th century). In Turnbull's study of the tribe's social structure and organization, it became apparent that the tribe had no established social system, be it political or economic in nature. He claims that "...the BaMbuti were a single cultural unit...There was no…
Turnbull, C. (1961). The Forest People. NY: Simon and Schuster.
The increase in the productivity of the Atlantic market created a demand for tools that for use in production. The European farmers were obtaining the tools cheaply from these Afro-Asian areas
. Through the exchanges, it is true that the interactions were an avenue for the creation of an increase in trade opportunities in the Atlantic world.
Labor implications to the conflict
Sourcing for labor for the sugar industries was initially from the indigenous America but the increase in the demand for labor prompted the Europeans to source for labor in Africa. Africans, just like the Amerindians and other slaves were resistant to the forceful slavery. On this basis, quite a number of rebellions arose. Quite a number of the American and African natives who were resisting the forceful enslavement were killed; some of them ran away to places where they could not be found. The Spanish authorities were placing…
Coclanis, Peter A. 2005. The Atlantic Economy during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Organization Operation, Practice and Personnel. Columbia, S.C.: Univ. Of South Carolina Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1991. Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Klein. 2003. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge University press.
Klooster, Wim. 2010. Revolution in the Atlantic world: A Comparative History. NYU Press.
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
Racial Passing in the Oxheding Tale
This pape discusses efeences to the topic of acial passing in the novel Oxheding Tale by Chales Johnson. The discussion ties to answe the questions of why, how, and with what effects Chales Johnson mentions this theme in the novel.
The main chaacte in the novel is Andew. He had his mothe's hai. She was the wife of a plantation owne in South Caolina. His fathe was a slave who seved as his maste's butle. The conception of Andew was an "accident." On a night in which the maste and the butle, Geoge, had gotten dunk, the maste asked Geoge to switch beds with him, supposedly to avoid thei wives' ecimination fo thei dinking. Anna, the maste's wife, mistakenly thought that Geoge was he husband in the dakness of the bedoom and pusued intecouse. Geoge was a man who liked to finish his…
references to the theme of racial passing but in a context that brings in philosophical explorations about freedom, human nature, racism and good and evil. The novel ends in an optimistic note. The achievement of relative happiness, but a success nonetheless, by the main character in the midst of a world characterized by death, injustice and hopelessness for his people.
Johnson, Charles. The Oxherding Tale. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1982.
After the last shots of Civil ar were heard, and following the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, the South had been humiliated and devastated. The repercussions of war included loss of life, land, and livelihood. Patriarchy and racism remained entrenched, but the emancipation of slaves significantly transformed the social landscape of the South. Liberated slaves started from scratch without access to cultural or social capital, and many eventually migrated North. African-American culture was able to emerge, and in many cases, to flourish. Meanwhile, the white power structures in the South resigned themselves to ignorance, causing the South to remain the most backwards, uneducated, and poor region of the United States for over a century. Far from inspiring the South to transform its social, cultural, economic, and political institutions, the entrenched plantation society and Confederate identity took deep root there. Jim Crow symbolizes the extent to…
American Civil War Center (2014). Legacies of the Civil War. Retrieved online: http://www.tredegar.org/legacies-civil-war.aspx
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Lincoln, Abraham. "Emancipation Proclamation." 22 Sept, 1862. Retrieved online: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/emancipation.html
The problem with European slaves was mainly that they had recourse to legal action for the protection of their rights and redressing their grievances. Like the Native Americans, European slaves were also unfamiliar with the soils and cash crops of the New World. Furthermore, they tended to use their status as slaves only as a vehicle for traveling to the United States, after which they would claim their freedom on the grounds of their Christianity and their race (Gilbert and Reynolds 154).
On the other hand, the main disadvantage of using Africans as slaves was the expense and danger involved in capturing and transporting them from the continent (Gilbert and Reynolds 155). Their knowledge and familiarity with both the tropical environment and the soils of the area however favored them highly over their European and Native American counterparts. This, along with their skill in extracting ores from American soils, as…
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 8: Slavery and the Creation of the Atlantic World." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 9: West and West-Central Africa: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 10: North African and the Sudan: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 11: East Africa: 1500 -- 1850." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
African Women Slavery
What was life like for African female slaves?
When most people hear the word slavery they will often associate it with the harsh living conditions and the demoralizing atmosphere they were going through. While this is true, the reality is that many slaves endured even more suffering. For women, this became worse in comparison with men. Part of the reason for this, is because they were considered to be inferior to men.
This is troubling because, it meant that they would be exposed to a wide variety of abuses at the hands of their slave masters and other slaves. To fully understand what took place, we will look at the underlying levels of privation that were occurring. Once this happens, it will offer specific insights about the overall amounts of difficulties that they had to deal with.
The Typical Life for a Slave Woman
In America prior…
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Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
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Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
Slave labor and child trafficking are commonplace in cocoa industry in the Ivory Coast, and the makers of the documentary The Dark Side of Chocolate (2010) found them working as slaves everywhere on the cocoa plantations there. Even though the largest chocolate companies in the world, including Nestle, Archer Daniels and Cargill signed a protocol with the International Labor Organization (ILO) in 2001 that mandated the end of child labor and trafficking by 2008, this has not occurred. Nestle and these other giant multinational corporations denied any knowledge of these practices or any control over slave labor on these Ivory Coast plantations, but they did not wish t see the evidence in the film. Interpol knew about these practices because it has railed the plantations and rescued dozens of children from slavery, even though the government of the Ivory Coast and the cocoa exporters denied that child trafficking…
Mistrati, Miki and U. Roberto Romano Dirs. 2010. The Dark Side of Chocolate. 46 mins. Bastard Film and TV Productions.