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Plastic surgery is often described by proponents of its use as "medical enhancement" but it should be viewed more properly as whether or not it is medically necessary (Miller). The question should be asked whether or not such surgery is needed for the maintenance or restoration of health. The medical enhancement approach would point out that there is a segment of society that seek plastic surgery as a method of ending feelings of alienation and embarrassment caused by some physical feature but such argument still fails to rise to the level of medical necessity. The potential risks associated with plastic surgery simply do not justify the results and it is time that the medical profession re-examine its role and refashion its position on the use of plastic surgery for purposes beyond medical necessity (Darisi). The medical profession must determine for itself whether it is appropriate for it to provide services…
Berer, Marge. "Cosmetic Surgery, body image and sexuality." Reproductive Health Matters (2010): 4-10.
Darisi, Tanya. "Influences on Decision-Making for Undergoing Plastic Surgery: Mental Models and Quantitative Assessment." Plastic & Reconstructuve Surgery (2005): 907-916.
Haiken, Elizabeth. Venus Envy: A History of Cosmetic Surgery. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Harris, David L. "Cosmetic Surgery- where does it begin?" British Journal of Plastic Surgery (1982): 281-286.
Plastic surgery is among the most common issues where arguments and debates between the pros and cons in society exist. There are those who oppose the practice of plastic surgery while there are those who find its benefits to outweigh the risks and negative effects.
For those who reject the idea of plastic surgery, the risks and negative effects of the practice are the reasons that they hold on to. Similarly, they also hold on the philosophical argument, tied with religious beliefs, regarding the naturalness of the human body and how God has given us the natural characteristics and features of the human body that each of us have. On the other hand, for those who are in favor of plastic surgery finds either vanity or vital medical reasons due to health problems as the main reasons why they support plastic surgery.
Taking on a side, I am in favor…
Agarwal, Pawan. Perception of Plastic Surgery in the Society.
Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, India.
Harcourt, Diana, Rumsey, Nichola. 2001. Psychological Aspects of Breast Reconstruction: A Review of the Literature.
Integrative Literature Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Blackwell Science Ltd.
The term 'plastic' is derived from the Greek syllable 'plastikos' meaning 'mold' or 'give shape to'. Plastic surgery is a special branch of medicine that deals with curing or rectifying facial disfigurement, scarring or other anomalies in the physical features that are either congenital or accidental. Advancements in technology have broadened the scope of plastic surgery and today it is performed for a variety of cosmetic purposes like, face-lift, breast implantation, reduction, penile enlargement etc. The historic origin of plastic surgery is traced back to India (hundreds of years C), where a text has references to what can be called as modern day rhinoplasty. Then in Italy during the sixteenth century Gasparo Tagliocozzi specialized techniques to treat facial disfigurement. He is also credited with the publication (1597) of the first comprehensive account of skin transplantation method in his work "De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem," [Alysa R. herman]. ut…
Designed by Health Superstore, "Plastic Surgery History," Accessed on April 26th 2004, http://www.healthsuperstore.com/articles/skin-care/plastic_surgery_history.asp
Elizabeth Haiken, "The Making of the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery," Social Research, Spring 2000, Available online at, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2267/1_67/62402552/p1/article.jhtml
University of Iowa, " Plastic Surgery," Accessed on April 26th 2004, http://www.surgery.uiowa.edu/surgery/plastic/wips.html
AORN Journal, "Plastic surgery rates on the rise in older adult population," May 2002, Available online at, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FSL/5_75/86040268/p1/article.jhtml
A person with a deviated septum may benefit from a nose reshaping. omen whose breasts have become enlarged after pregnancy or nursing, patients who have been in car accidents and through other traumatic physical incidents can benefit psychologically and physically, if the memory of that trauma is erased from their body. If surgery can improve a patient's health as well as a patient's appearance, health insurance may cover all or part of the expense. Feeling healthier and feeling better also often means that a patient will eat better, exercise more, and treat their new physical body with greater care.
Also, whether you like it or not, your appearance can even affect your income. "Good-looking, slim, tall people tend to make more money than their plain-Jane counterparts, according to a study released this month by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, with researchers finding that beautiful people tend to earn…
Cosmetic Surgery: The Facts." The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons.
2007. [6 Apr 2007]
Korman, Jack. "Breast Reduction Surgery Questions & Answers." 2007. [6 Apr 2007]
All the above factors of social acceptability and media influence also play a role at this stage.
The increasing popularity of cosmetic procedures are also related to the general wealth of society today. Many more people are able to afford cosmetic surgery because of greater wealth, wiser investment and greater ease of obtaining loans (Williamson). Cosmetic surgery is therefore available to a much larger sector of society than just the rich and famous. Furthermore, because of the increased level of social acceptability, the decision to have a procedure is much easier. The almost instant gratification projected by those who undergo procedures such as liposuction furthermore drive this decision in favor of a strict diet and exercise regimen. Cosmetic surgery and non-surgical procedures are therefore much more accessible to a larger sector of society.
Medical advances have also resulted in more than a tendency to live longer. Many cosmetic procedures have…
BBC News Online. "Cosmetic surgery popularity surge." 24 January, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4195525.stm
Brown, Maeghan. "Plastic surgery popularity grows among Americans."
The Current Online, 24 January 2005. http://media.www.thecurrentonline.com/media/storage/paper304/news/2005/01/24/Features/Plastic.Surgery.Popularity.Grows.Among.Americans-839711.shtml
Dittmann, Melissa. "Plastic Surgery: beauty or beast?" Monitor on Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 8, 8 September 2005. http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/surgery.html
Within this framework, it is also imperative to call attention to that appearance is an significant form of divination, and according to research about fifty percent of South Koreans admit to trusting that one can interpret an individual's personality by merely observing their faces, and this is no small concern in a nation where the right look, both in terms of attire and facial qualities, can have an extremely substantial effect on one's achievement in life (Blum, 2005, p. 115). Choices to endure plastic surgery are thus motivated by the requirement to not only follow aesthetic standards, but also to restructure unfavourable facial features to something more favourable to behold. (Partridge, 1996, p. 31).
Whether or not one puts their trusts in appearance or not, what is obvious and irrefutable in the setting of modern South Korean society is that having the proper look has developed into a requirement for…
Author Unknown. (1987). Facial discrimination: Extending handicap law to employment discrimination on the basis of physical appearance. The Harvard Law Review Association, 100(8), 2035-2052.
Blum, V. (2005). Becoming the other woman: The psychic drama of cosmetic surgery. A
Journal of Women Studies, 26(2), 104-131.
Cullen, L.T. (2002), "Changing Faces," Time, Aug 5, pp.16-19.
of plastic surgery can result in irreversible damage to the normal body
structure, which has occurred in those addicted to surgery for cosmetic
purposes. Important risks cited by researchers in this area include the
fact that in the United States it is legal for any doctor, regardless of
specialty, to perform cosmetic surgery, but not plastic surgery. Plastic
surgery is recognized by certifiable associations as the surgery to repair
defects of form or function, which includes cosmetic surgery and
reconstructive surgery; whereas, cosmetic surgery refers to surgery that is
designed to improve appearance.
The problem with this is that in other countries, many doctors that
are not qualified as surgeons also perform cosmetic procedures. This
increases the risk of plastic surgery, when a non-board surgeon is
performing the surgery. Critics of plastic surgery also not that the
danger lies not in the actual surgery, but in the administration…
American Society of Plastic Surgeons. (2006). The History of Plastic
Surgery, ASPS and
PSEF. Retrieved November 20, 2006 from
Ciaschini, M. (2005). The History of Plastic Surgery. Retrieved November
Johnson, D. & Whitworth, I. (2002). Recent Developments in Plastic Surgery.
For some consumers, a price that seems "too good to be true" may warn them away from the product or service. It cheapens the product, and makes consumers worry that they are not getting the same quality article they might if they paid a higher price. Many professionals have the same problem with bundling professional services such as plastic surgery with things like vacations. The article states, "Some plastic surgeons are skeptical of consulting with patients for such important surgery from a distance. 'Sometimes clients come here and having paid for traveling and holiday, a doctor might feel obliged to go through with the operation even if the person is not suited,' says Tom Ford of the Association for Plastic and econstructive Surgeons in Southern Africa" (Article). This could be dangerous or even deadly, and so, the practice could end up being far more costly than just dollars and cents.…
Article on Plastic Surgery and South African Travel.
Anderson, K. (1997, February). Getting the message straight: Changes in telecommunications laws have opened up the telephone service marketplace. Black enterprise, 27, 205+.
Glanz, W. (2000, January 13). Merger boosts case legend. The Washington times, p. 9.
Sherwood, M.K. (1994). Difficulties in the measurement of service outputs. Monthly labor review, 117(3), 11+.
Plastic Surgery in America
hen people hear the term "plastic surgery," they almost immediately think of the negative connotations of that phrase. hile it is certainly true that many Americans have had elective plastic surgery, there are far more types of medical procedures that fall under this category than the stereotypical nose jobs or breast enhancements. There are pros and cons to the debate about plastic surgery and its importance in this society. Most of the arguments against plastic surgery focus on the cosmetic aspects of this field and thus overlook some of the real world positive applications. Plastic surgery is overused in this country in terms of people who have unnecessary operations in order to alter their physical appearance to create some perceived ideal or to better match what the media portrays as beautiful. It is definitely true that this branch of plastic surgeries has had negative side effects…
Bordo, Susan. "The Empire of Images in our World of Bodies." 2010. Web. Dec. 2011.
"Cleft Lip and Palate Repair." ADAM. 2011. Web. Dec. 2011.
Plastic Surgery in Our Society
Plastic beauty -- curse or bliss?
There is much controversy regarding physical appearance in the contemporary society, as while the masses promote the belief that it one's thinking is more important than the way that he or she looks like, most people invest large amounts of money in their looks. The world has practically been bombarded by the effects of a cosmetic surgery culture during the recent years. Plastic surgery is in most cases a direct attack on society's honor, as it encourages discrimination based on appearance. Even though it only seems natural to employ a criticizing attitude when faced with the concept, it is actually difficult to determine whether or not plastic surgery is good -- the present day the social order functions in accordance with different values and people have come to achieve positive results as a consequence of artificially improving their outer…
Bayer, Kathryn, "Cosmetic Surgery and Cosmetics: Redefining the Appearance of Age,"Generations 29.3 (2005)
Blum, Virginia, "Becoming the Other Woman: The Psychic Drama of Cosmetic Surgery," Frontiers - A Journal of Women's Studies 26.2 (2005)
Blum, Virginia L., Flesh Wounds: The Culture of Cosmetic Surgery (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003)
Chapkis, Wendy, Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance (Boston: South End Press, 1986)
Cosmetic surgeries still focused on reconstructive procedures, such as repairing cleft palates, skin grafts mastectomies and reconstructed noses and ears .
Psychological Aspect of Cosmetic Surgery
Cosmetic surgery is a risky business, and there are many psychological unsatisfactories that come with cosmetic surgery .Psychosocial issues permeate the field of cosmetic surgery ( Grossbart, & Sarwer, 138 ). Factors identified are being young, suffering from depression or anxiety, and having a personality disorder. According to Pruzinsky, & Edgerton, ( 223) has stated the nature and degree of surgical change is an important predictor outcome more extensive procedures are more likely to result in serious body image disturbance than " restorative" procedures. The extent of changes in sensation following the procedure (face lift, loss of nipple sensation after breast augmentation) may also influence psychological outcomes, with greater degrees of sensory disturbance making adjustment to the procedure more difficult ( Grossbart & Sarwer,…
The Ethics of Plastic Surgery Funding Based on the eason for Surgery and Other Factors: A Literature-Based Briefing
Since the beginnings of recorded history at least, and indeed even earlier from what archaeologists have been able to ascertain, human beings have been obsessed with their own bodies. This is evident in the earliest works of art and in some of the earliest texts, and can also be seen in certain early practices of ancient civilizations that had identified specific features and/or proportions as more aesthetically pleasing than others and worked to achieve greater compliance with these standards of beauty through artificial means. These means were not limited to make-up, haircuts, and clothing, either, though all of these were employed by many ancient civilizations as a means of enhancing aesthetic beauty for both males and females, but in fact more permanent modifications were also made to the body.
Achauer, B., Eriksson, E., Coleman, J., Russell, R. & Guyuron, B. (2000> Plastic Surgery: Indications, Operations, and Outcomes. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.
Castle, D., Molton, M., Hoffman, K., Preston, N. & Phillips, K. (2004). Correlates of dysmorphic concern in people seeking cosmetic enhancement. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 38(6), pp. 439-44.
Davis, K. (20030. Dubious Equalities and Embodied Differences: Cultural Studies on Cosmetic Surgery. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Krizek, T. (2002). Ethics and philosophy lecture: surgery...Is it an impairing profession? Journal of the American College of Surgeons 194(3):352-66.
While it used to be primarily the face, the breasts and more visible parts of the body that people chose to have cosmetic surgery on, today they are taking things a step further. According to Davis (2002) one of the most popular "new sex surgeries" is the "designer vagina." These surgeries are supposed to improve the aesthetics of the vagina as well as make them 'tighter'.
Clearly, people are becoming bolder and surgeries are becoming more invasive. For many people, the effect these surgeries have on their relationships with their bodies is improved self-esteem and confidence. But for many others, it becomes just one part of an endless and futile attempt to attain perfection.
Davis, S.W. (2002, March 22) Loose lips sink ships, Feminist Studies
oyster, F. (2005, July 28) Hee hee: Michael Jackson and the transgendered erotics of…
Davis, S.W. (2002, March 22) Loose lips sink ships, Feminist Studies
Royster, F. (2005, July 28) Hee hee: Michael Jackson and the transgendered erotics of voice, National Sexuality Resource Center
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A euters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BUKINA FASO: Genital Surgery…
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1187811902&archive=&template
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…
Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank.
www.surgery.org/download/2003-stats.pdf:10. Accessed 25 July, 2011.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
S. government has promoted breast implants, at the taxpayers' expense: According to the Army, between 2000 and 2003 its doctors performed 496 breast enlargements (women must pay for the silicon implants) (Schaler 29).
Health safety does not seem to have an impact on those desiring cosmetic surgery, nor does the comments of authority figures. In 1958 Pope Pins XII warned that operations for mere "vanity" or to enhance the "power of seduction, thus leading others more easily into sin," or "to hide a criminal from justice" were not in keeping with the church's teachings (Feldman 66). Some Christian and Jewish clergy agreed. However, not even the clergy could fight the studies saying that people with better looks had a greater chance for success (Feldman 66).
Last month, the FDA reneged on its earlier findings about breast augmentation; after a 14-year ban, it decided that silicone implants do not pose any…
The brain while expanding pushes the skull outward in the same perpendicular to the closed structure. This will be marked by the occurrence of 'papilledema' 'pseudoproptosis' as also 'optic atrophy.' (39) This results in the orbital socket being smaller and the eyes getting 'protoposed'. The intercranial pressure is bound to be high. The symptoms in such cases will be optic atrophy, head ache and papilledema. Or in the case of 'Crouzon's disease' where occurs a marked hooked nose and a frontal lobe which makes the disease also called the parrot head disease. Surgery in both these types of situations become mandatory as the result of the cranial pressure could result in death. (39)
egarding the facial surgery discussions always centre on perfecting features and cosmetic changes. The debate must rather be on the goals of the surgery and the overall benefits that can accrue to the patient in terms of…
1. Buncke HJ. Facial Paralysis - Reanimation. California Pacific Medical Center. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL:
2. Sataloff J, ThayerSataloff R. Occupational Hearing Loss. CRC Press. 2006.
Kim JYS, Bienstock a, Ketch L. Facial Nerve Paralysis, Dynamic Reconstruction. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL:
In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.
The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.
The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…
Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.
Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.
Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .
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Yes, technology generates problems, and it is shrewd and apt to point out that for every net gain to certain members of society via technology there is a net loss. The hand weavers of the 18th century were put out of business by 19th century factories that could manufacture clothing cheaply, computers have probably collectively caused the art of calligraphy to die, and made even professional writers overly reliant on spell check and less willing to rewrite their work from scratch. However, would any of the authors included in the collection summarized in the essay really wish to go back to a world without antibiotics? Technology has enabled people whose vision would be a blur to see with 20/20 perfection, and made travel financially accessible to millions who would have been relegated to the narrow point-of-view of their homes. hile it is easy to find detriments to these benefits…
Vaidhyanathan, Siva. Rewiring the "Nation": The Place of Technology in American
Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2007.
As the module suggests, "Each wound that is encountered and considered for repair must be addressed independently," ("Wound considerations"). This is true whether the injury is an acute one, or whether there is a procedure involved. Generally, however, suturing can take place in an outpatient care clinic regardless of whether there was an acute injury or not. It depends a lot on the nature of the injury, and the nature of the procedure, though. Generalizing about situations like injuries and procedures is unnecessary, unproductive, and potentially dangerous. Each would certainly requires an evaluation of the situational and patient variables. The age and overall health condition of the patient, and the age of the wound are all taken into consideration when there has been an acute injury; the type of the wound also needs to be taken into consideration when there was an injury. Acute injury patients might not be…
Khan, M., Bann, S., Darzi, A. & Butler, P. (2003). Use of suturing as a measure of technical competence. Annals of Plastic Surgery 50(3):304-309.
Queen's University School of Medicine Module
Ratner, D., Nelson, B.R. & Johnson, T.M. (1994). Basic suture materials and suturing techniques. Seminars in Dermatology 13(1): 20-26.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
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Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
In a nutshell, the most common training program for plastic surgeons takes up about seven years following medical school and can be done throughout individual studying and medical exams as well as throughout attending medical conventions and symposiums.
Human Resource Guide to the Internet, 1998-2001, Job Analysis: Overview, http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G000.htm, last accessed on February 22, 2007
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Robert acal, 2007, a Quick Guide to Employee Orientation - Help for Managers &…
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Being against popular culture is particularly difficult, considering the temptations that society provides people with and the fact that one risks being excluded from a community if he or she does not act in accordance with the convictions respected by the group's members (Aoyagi, 151).
Consumerism has been taken to a whole new level in Japan, as 2006 reports have shown that in spite of the fact that the country's population is not even half that of the U.S., it managed to consume "41% of the entire world's luxury goods" (Japan is the world's most concentrated source of revenue for luxury brands). hereas people in the Occident consider Japan to be a country represented by the natural beauty and health of its people many Japanese resort to cosmetics and facial surgery in order to change their looks. This situation is both ironic and alarming at the same time, given that…
Aoyagi, Hiroshi. "Pop Idols and Gender Contestation"
Beech, Hannah. "Eurasian Invasion." Retrieved February 26, 2011, from the Time Website: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,106427,00.html
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red - Edits are made in blue
The Price of Beauty
Plastic surgery, which is popularly known as cosmetic surgery, is not only a costly affair but also has proven to have many dreadful side effects like bruising, nerve damage and other infections. It is not worth the money, time, danger and psychological outcomes. This surgery is very different from a regular operation, because unlike regular procedure, this one is requested by the patient. Despite all the potential side effects and many unsuccessful surgeries, the numbers in these procedures are only increasing. [Introduce this quote] "The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery estimates that nearly 10,000,000 plastic surgery procedures were performed in the United States in 2009, a 147% increase from when these figures were first tracked in 1997." Have we come to the point where our life is worth less than our beauty? How far are we willing to…
Securing Internet commerce is most likely the biggest challenge that software development companies have yet faced. The security problems affecting Internet commerce involve credit card transactions, which raise concerns involving privacy issues, integrity, and authenticity. For example, there is a considerable, and justifiable, fear that confidential information, such as credit cards and personal details, could be intercepted during transmission over the Internet when submitting an order form on the Web. Through this advance in technology, people stand the risk of becoming victim to internet fraud of their personal information.
A third manner in which technology has the potential to be both beneficial to society and detrimental at the same time is through plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is generally separated between two genres; reconstructive surgery corrects or masks birth defects and the destructive effects of trauma, surgery or disease, and cosmetic or aesthetic surgery changes features that the patient finds unflattering.…
Johnson, D. & Whitworth, I. (2002). Recent Developments in Plastic Surgery. BMJ, 325(7359): 319.
South Centre Org. (2004). A Developed Agenda for Intellectual Property Negotiations in 2004 and Beyond. Retrieved February 21, 2007 at http://www.southcentre.org/tadp_webpage/research_papers/ipr_project/ipreg_devtoagendamar04.doc.
Stiglitz, Joseph. (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Strategic Alternatives Addresses an External issue? Draws on a competitive advantage or fixes a competitive disadvantage? Fits with Mission, Values? Moves the organization toward the vision? Achieves one or more goals? Partner with a travel company to offer vacations that include dental surgery, plastic surgery, and vascular surgery.
Supports the strategy of increasing global reach of the company and strengthening the ability to recruit physicians in key specialties.
Draws on a competitive advantage of specialist expertise and high performance of ashid and markets this strength to bring in more German and British clients
Supports the pursuit of international standards as defined within the Strategic Plan.
Yes; also increases the stature of the facility and enhances the ability to recruit world-class physicians.
Invest heavily in medical research in cardiology and vascular research
This investment is focused on making ashid Hospital a center of excellence in cardiology and vascular surgery, attracting the…
Boston Consulting Group (2006) - Definition of Growth/Share Matrix from Boston Consulting Group; Accessed from the Internet on December 2,2006:
Porter (1990) - The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.)
Porter (1985)- The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. N.Y.: Free Press, 1985. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.)
Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that…
But not all decisions are so clear-cut. What about a teenager who wants breast reduction surgery? The argument of 'autonomy' is more complicated, even if the teen's parents are allowing her to go through with the surgery because she is young and may change her mind in the future and might not be aware of the fact that her body may 'catch up' with her current stage of development. The teen and the teen's parents may not be able to view the future with clear eyes because of an excessive focus on the present. In terms of doing good (beneficence), the argument in favor of the surgery are the possible physical and psychological benefits. But weight loss might serve the same purposes with less risk and greater benefits. The risk of the surgery, the availability of other options and the potential benefits: all of which must be weighed against one another.
Patients' perceptions of their own interests may not be the same as the physicians, as indicated by persons who religiously object to various medical procedures (McCormick 1998:8). Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that the psychological benefits of his practice outweigh any possible harm the surgery might impose. Another physician might object to the practice of plastic surgery entirely, given the risks of all surgical procedures, unless there is a dire medical need. The question of whether the procedure is the least intrusive one possible also arises: losing weight might (or might not) accomplish the same objective. But some patients find weight loss extremely challenging and do not consider this a feasible option to change their body shape, even though technically it exists. The same argument is also made in favor of weight loss surgery -- yes, it is better for patients to lose weight instead of risking the potentially life-threatening surgery, but if it were so easy, the target patients would have lost weight already. Furthermore, weight loss is not always successful in achieving breast reduction and if the teen has already tried other methods this might be seen as an argument in favor of the surgery.
" (Barry, 36) He continues to suggest that women shouldn't care what they look like either. He says that women may say they are obsessed with looks because men want them to be, but argues that (a) women shouldn't be idiots just because men are, and (b) that men don't recognize women's beauty efforts anyway. "Many men would no notice if a woman had upward of four hands." (Barry, 36)
McLaughlin does not deny that the gender stereotypes are precisely as Barry reports them to be, though she recognizes as stereotypical what he claims as truth. She says that it had always before been that "what mattered in life was how women looked and what men did." (McLaughlin, 31) This is talking about the same thing Barry is when he says that men would find some way to bolster self-esteem other than appearance. However, McLaughlin continues to point out, that…
The red and swollen appearance could be an on-site reaction to the administered medication. A change of type of antibiotic medication may be necessary.
Question 5: Simon begins to complain of chest tightness he is beginning to get distressed what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken.
An asthma attack partially brought on by the psychological stress of the surgery and being in the hospital, combined with the physical trauma is likely. Simon, physician permitting, should be allowed with assistance to treat his asthma in the usual fashion, after screening for potentially more serious conditions that can manifest in chest tightness, such as a cardiac condition.
Question 6: You notice that Simon has become disoriented and is complaining of a headache what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken?
Signs and symptoms of a concussion, the result of head trauma, are not always immediately…
Fractures of the tibia and fibula." (2008). Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery. Retrieved 23 May 2008 at http://www.practicalplasticsurgery.org/docs/Practical_21.pdf
Pornification of Women in Western Media
The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media
Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. egardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back…
8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.
2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.
American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].
Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
Debra Gimlin's book "Body ork" is an in-depth exploration of American women's relationships with their bodies. She argues that women do not engage in body work (activities like exercise and plastic surgery) in order to conform to a paternalistic, and unrealistic view of beauty that is perpetrated by the popular media. Instead, Gimlin gives the empowering argument that women engage in body work in order to nurture a relationship between the body and self-identity.
In "Body ork," Gimlin examines a series of mini-ethnographies in her attempt to understand the complex relationships that American women have with their bodies and their self-identities. She examines four main sites, in collecting research for her book. Gimlin conducted in-depth research and extensive interviews at each location. Gimlin explores a beauty salon, an aerobics class, a plastic surgery clinic, and the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), a political and social organization designed to…
Gimlin, Debra L. Body Work: Beauty and Self-Image in American Culture. University of California Press, 2002.
Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth. Vintage Books, Toronto, 1991.
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…
Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown
Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20
2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels
McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
Vanilla Sky -- It's All in His Head
From first moment to last, the movie Vanilla Sky, produced by Paramount Pictures and written and directed by Cameron Crowe, offers a confusing physical landscape based on a confusing mental landscape. The viewer is never certain if he is viewing a dream or a waking reality or a warped psychological construct that might be a combination of waking and dreaming or conscious and unconscious realities.
The film opens with a voice saying "Abre los ojos." Abre Los Ojos is the name of the 1997 Spanish film of which Vanilla Sky is a remake. The voice which speaks these words, recorded on David Aames, played by Tom Cruise, alarm clock, is that of Sophia, played by Penelope Cruz. Thus, the movie begins with the hero awakening from sleep, possibly a dream, into what seems to be reality. But is it? The first voice,…
De Lisi, Haj. "Vanilla Sky. http://tsw.org.uk/engine/story.scm/100323(accessed 11-24-02)
Ebert, Roger. "Vanilla Sky." Chicago Sun Times 14 December 2001 http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/2001/12/121402.html (accessed 11-24-02)
Hampton, Howard. "Clear Vanilla Skies: 'Cryotainment' and the Modern Science of Transcendence." Film Comment. March/April 2002: 52-53
Holden, Stephen. "Plastic Surgery Takes A Science Fiction Twist." New York Times 14 December 2001 sec E, part 1, 28, col 1.
Disorders of the Veins and Arteries
Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) pathophysiology is either the obstruction or reflux of venous blood flow (Gujja, Wiley, & Krishnan, 2014). The perforating veins valve normally functions by preventing the reflux of blood from the deep veins into the superficial veins. CVI occurs when there is venous hypertension that is caused by incompetent valves. Venous blood will escape from its normal antegrade flow path and it refluxes backward into the veins of an already congested leg. After prolonged standing, the individual's veins will be completely filled and the venous valves will be flat open. This results in a high hydrostatic venous pressure due to the unbroken column of fluid that is extending from the head to the foot. The failed valves will cause the column of standing blood in the vein to remain high even during…
Effective management of medical materials in this environment is critical to ensuring that patients do not suffer from toxic exposure (Owens, 2003). Perioperative nurses can incorporate the various Operating oom procedures to minimize the risk of patient harm. A discussion regarding the literature detailing medical waste and perioperative nursing is not complete without a discussion involving the clinical impact of medical waste.
In Volko's 2002 article "Contact with Hospital Syringes containing bodily fluids; Implications for Medical Waste management regulation," detailed the results of a study wherein the use of syringes was examined in their conjunction with medical waste. The objective of the study was to determine the amount and body fluids of these syringes (Volko, 2002). Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center or a period not exceeding seven (7) days. Syringe use was categorized into four different components. These components included: (1) Contained Blood at the time…
"Nurses can make a difference: Environmentally responsive health care," the Nightingale Institute for Health and the Environment, http://www.nihe.org (accessed 6 January 2011).
Melamed, a (2003). "Environmental Accountability in Perioperative Settings" AORN, 77(6), 1157-1168
Owens, PJ (2005) "Challenges of International Disaster Relief" Disaster Management and Response, Spring 2005
Anderson, LG (1992). "Medical Waste Management: Implications for Plastic Surgery Offices and Surgicenters" Plastic Surgical Nursing, 12(1): 7-12
After he has faced so many struggles and foes, and fighting for his life against the "bad guys" while trying to hide the whole things from cops who might not appreciate him taking matters into his own hands, it is hard to say if Stranahan is really struggling against individuals or against society as a whole.
Despite the fact that the book ceaselessly mocks all sorts of prominent, respectable professions (doctors, tv anchors, lawyers, cops, actors, and wood-chipper-operators) it nonetheless escapes being didactic about its point. It could theoretically be controversial that this book suggests that many doctors and lawyers are corrupt, or seems to justify taking the law into one's own hands. However, the situation is treated with so much humor, and with such disparagement for the "bad guys," that one doubts anyone is actually offended. If there was going to be any controversy about the book, it would…
While these measures are effective in certain ways, this line of thinking is very dangerous for the American public because it influences the general health risks imposed by obesity. More and more, America is become a drug reliant nation because of the growing number of problems associated with obesity.
Technology has many links to the current problem of obesity. On a macroeconomic level it can be seen that technology influences our socio-economic status which permits us to eat more and workout less because we do not have labor intensive jobs nor do we have financial problems. On a sociological level, social interactions are no longer dependent upon the concepts traditionally associated with obesity and therefore individuals no longer have to worry about their appearance nearly as much as they use to. Furthermore, these changes in social interactivity means that physical exercise is now an entirely leisure based activity rather than…
Rand CSW. Obesity: Definition, diagnostic criteria, and associated health problems. in:
Alexander-Mott L, Lumsden DB. Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Piervosa, and Obesity. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1994:221-41.
Schwartz H. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies, and Fat. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.
Aging is an inevitable process, but responses to the aging process vary from generation to generation, culture to culture, and person to person. Factors like gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic class have an impact on attitudes toward aging. Beliefs and attitudes toward aging and towards older people also vary. The status of elder adults in the family, community, and society also varies. It is important to understand the evolution of age-based social roles and attitudes towards aging because all people encounter seniors, care for seniors, and most likely become old too. Because the Baby Boomer generation is reaching senior age status, issues related to gerontology are becoming especially salient for the health care professional.
Unfortunately, there are several disturbing trends in how old people and aging are viewed. The status of elders is generally low, leading to problems in senior physical and mental health. Treatment of seniors varies widely, with some…
"Chapter One: The Field of Social Gerontology."
Rossmond Jack for the Position of a First Assistant Surgical Technologist
I write to you in regards to the above applicant, Rossmund Jack. I recommend that you consider him for an entry-level position as a first assistant surgical technologist. Jack has the training, qualifications, and skills needed to effectively and efficiently undertake the role. He also has a strong passion for the field.
Jack will shortly be completing his surgical technologist degree at Mandl School's College of Allied Health; one of the top institutions in New York as far as allied health training is concerned. He has a solid understanding of the practical facets of surgical room procedures, modern surgical equipment, instrument set-ups, sterilisation techniques, patient-care techniques, as well as emergency care during surgery. His knowledge spans across a wide range of surgical disciplines including general surgery, orthopaedic surgery, spinal surgery, cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgery.…
However, in the film directed by Tina Fey that depicts the cruelty of an exclusive group of "Mean Girls," ordinary things for which there is already descriptive language is rendered into slang so adults do not understand the full cruelty of what is being said. Some adults may know that Regina and company are 'mean' but not to the extent which they rule the school and use exclusion as a way of enforcing their own mini-regime of terror. One of the strengths of the teacher played by Fey, Ms. Norbury, is that she is 'hip' to the language used by the mean girls, like when she tells them to stop using slang like "sluts" and "skanks."
The exclusive nature of the language of adolescents is underlined by the fact that the main character, named Cady Heron, in "Mean Girls" has grown up in South Africa, so she is initially uninitiated…
Mean Girls." Directed by Tina Fey. 2004.
Therefore, Hexsel's study will not be included in this analysis for failure to meet the study protocol.
Another human study involved a case study of a single patient. This Brazilian study represented a case study and does not meet the protocol for inclusion in this analysis either (Rittes, 2001). As there have been no human studies in the United States to date, we must rely on studies published in other countries for our meta-analysis. A study conducted in Vienna by Karl Heinrich will be used as one of the studies to be analyzed. This was the only study that could be located involving an actual population of human subjects, as this type of research is prohibited in the U.S. At this time.
The sample population used by Heinrich consisted of 86 individuals who received a standardized series of treatments. This study suffered from significant flaws that make the results questionable.…
Atoba MA, Ayoola EA, Ogunseyinde O. Effects of essential phospholipid choline on the course of acute hepatitis-B infection. Trop Gastroenterol. 1985; 6:96-9.
Bechara FG, Sand M, Altmeyer P. et al. Intralesional lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine for the treatment of lipomas: pilot study. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1069-70. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=16924064 .
Hanin I, Ansell GB, eds. Lecithin. Technological, Biological and Therapeutic Aspects. New York and London: Plenum Press; 1987.
Doris Hexsel "
Body modification is also used as a form of entertainment, as in cases of suspension, where individuals pierce their bodies with fish hooks, wire or other objects and then hang or elevate their body much like a "circus" trick (Leo 1).
There are many side effects of body modification, often contingent on the amount of or intensity of body modification a person is involved with. For example, ear piercing might leave few side effects other than some scar tissue in the ear; the same is true of piercing in other locations. Any form of body modification involving piercing the skin or cutting into the body introduces the risk of infections (Bendle 193).
Modern plastic surgery may leave scarring, especially when invasive procedures including tummy tucks or breast augmentation are performed; despite this many people are advocates of body modification, which has in its own right created a culture…
Bendle, Mervyn. In the Flesh: The Cultural Politics of Body Modification. Journal of Sociology, 40.2: 2004, p. 193.
Kewitt, Kim. Mutilating the Body: Identity in Blood and Ink. Bowling Green, OH:
Bowling Green State University Popular Press: 1997.
Leo, Jessica D. Suspension: Going Beyond the Limits of Body Modification. Retrieved May 14, 2007: http://www.journalism.ryerson.ca/online/tor/umm/jdileo_feature.htm
Most of these products have not been scientifically tested. Yet consumers continue to waste their money on such products rather than go to the gym. hus, there is a fascinating sociological aspect of this crime story.
o conform to the prevailing social standards of beauty, women like the victims in this case are willing to go to extreme lengths. he story therefore raises difficult questions related to victims' roles in crime. Criminologists should still question what is essentially a controversial slant in cases like these: victims sometimes do play important roles in enabling crimes to take place. hankfully, the victims in this case survived but they are no doubt scarred emotionally and physically by the experience. We cannot blame the victims entirely, but must acknowledge the importance of personal responsibility in cases such as these. o use a possibly inappropriate analogy, a person who leaves their laptop alone in the…
To conform to the prevailing social standards of beauty, women like the victims in this case are willing to go to extreme lengths. The story therefore raises difficult questions related to victims' roles in crime. Criminologists should still question what is essentially a controversial slant in cases like these: victims sometimes do play important roles in enabling crimes to take place. Thankfully, the victims in this case survived but they are no doubt scarred emotionally and physically by the experience. We cannot blame the victims entirely, but must acknowledge the importance of personal responsibility in cases such as these. To use a possibly inappropriate analogy, a person who leaves their laptop alone in the school library can only blame herself or himself if the machine is stolen.
Another issue at play is that of medical malpractice. In this story, neither of the suspects appears to have been licensed physicians at any time. They were both posing as doctors to scam consumers into receiving butt implants. However, had the two suspects been licensed physicians, the story would have been appreciably different. The main difference would be the violation of professional codes of ethics. Doctors who knowingly scam their patients are committing a crime far more severe than scam artists pretending to be doctors. This is mainly because patients imbue doctors with their trust; doctors who are licensed to practice medicine are responsible for the health and well being of their patients. Scam artists are expected to commit crimes such as the one in question in this case.
Ovalle, D. (2011). "Second person in 'toxic tush' case posts $5,000 bond." November 24, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.miamiherald.com/2011/11/24/2517469/second-person-in-toxic-tush-case.html#ixzz1eriaMVIa
The last part of Le Brun's advice regarding the supervisor problem is also sound. Complaining about the offender to his boss behind his back without having concrete proof of the offense makes the complainer no better than the person he is complaining about. Steve will gain much more respect if he does as Le Brun says and tackles the problem by directly speaking to the person he believes has wronged him.
3. Botox Treatments
While I would not quite use the same wording as Le Brun, I would give Steve more or less the same advice she did. Botox treatments would place the focus on the wrong issue: image rather than the quality of leadership. It is an unfortunate fact of our society that we tend to focus a large amount of attention on what a person looks like. At the same time, there is a stigma attached to obvious…
While this is the case, the affected patients require a multidisciplinary approach for treatment requiring significant medical, social support and psychological occupational. An increased awareness
What is missing is if such a triage is possible in an E situation. Finally, in a study published in the journal CME, the treatment of burn injury was examined with regard to pathophysiology, treatment options and burns that are treatable by the practice of plastic surgeon. This triage to plastic surgery is helpful, but it is needed for larger full size burns as well.
These articles are similar with regard to the triage aspect, but differ in the different settings. (Grunwald & Garner, 2008, 311e-312e).
Application to Clinical Practice and Conclusion
This information and literature review is useful to any clinical practice, E, or intensive care setting. It will also be useful to this author in the future as a benchmark as to how…
Grunwald, T.B., & Garner, W.L. (2008). Cme. PRS Journal, 121 (5), 311e-319e.
Malic, C.C., Karoo, R.O.S., Austin, O., & Phipps, a. (2007). Burns inflicted by self or by others -- an
11-year snapshot. Burns, 33, 92-97
Pham, T.N., et. al. (2009). Epidemiology and outcomes of older adults with burn injury: An analysis of the national burn repository. Journal of Burn Care Research, 30 (1), 30 -- 36.
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…
Adams, Carol J. 2004. The Pornography of Meat. Continuum. New York/Continuum.
Ames, Jonathan. 2011. "I Guest Directed a Porn Shoot." New York Press. 27 Nov. http://nypress.com/i-guest-directed-a-porn-shoot/
Belkin, Lisa. 2008. "The opt-out revolution." New York Times Magazine. 26, 42 -- 47, 58, 85 -- 86.
Brewer, Chad. 2005. "The Stereotypic Portrayal of Women in Slasher Films: Then vs. Now." Master Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
The documentary The Beauty Exchange displays the life of typical Czech women in the 21st century struggling with the image of beauty. Every person is shaped by the world around them and the basis for what a woman should look like has been instilled in society through magazines, TV, movies, advertisements, celebrities. The challenges that women are constantly facing are perfect skin, gorgeous hair, flawless make-up, good figure, fashionable style and these things have grown to be such an important part of today's society.
One would think that it was women who determined fashion trends, since they are the ones who spend so much money and effort looking good when each one comes out. Yet, this current documentary shows that is not exactly the truth. In fact, women do not play as large of a part as one may think in the process of creating and popularizing fashion…
Hnikova, Erika. (2004). The Beauty of Exchange.
Hospital Emergency Plan
According to a study, about 99% of hospitals have plans to cope with disaster, and 95% of them even had committees for that purpose. There were reports from 90% or more of the hospitals which showed that they were in collaboration with emergency treatment services (96%), emergency agencies for management (94%), agencies for law enforcement (95%), fire sectors (95%), along with health sectors (92%). 96% of the respondents sated that there were plans to cope with disaster throughout the hospital, and that they were accessible easily (Higgins et al., 2004, p. 328). Meridian Health has made it its responsibility to better the welfare and health of New Jersey residents. They do this by giving the best quality health services in the community, homes and hospitals, which put their focus on patients, and also by conducting clinical research and education for the enhancement of medicine (Meridian Health, 2016).…
GOI-UNDP. (2002-2008). Guidelines for Hospital Emergency Preparedness Planning. Government of India --United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 22 July 2016 from http://asdma.gov.in/pdf/publication/undp/guidelines_hospital_emergency.pdf
Higgins, W., Wainright III, C., Lu, N. & Carrico, R. (Oct. 2004). Assessing Hospital Preparedness Using an Instrument Based on the Mass Casualty Disaster Plan Checklist: Results of a State-wide Survey. Department of Public Health, 32(6), 327-332. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2004.03.006
Meridian Health. (2016). Meridian Health: New Jersey's Leader in Integrated Care.Retrieved 22 July 2016 from https://www.meridianhealth.com/about-meridian/index.aspx
Merrill, M. (Jun 2011). Top 5 Security Threats in Healthcare. Healthcare IT News.Retrieved 22 July 2016 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/top-5-security-threats-healthcare
But the film's aesthetic brings forth another Marxist tenant even more effectively, perhaps, than Marx ever could, that the technological capabilities and innovations born of the Industrial Revolution have polarized the haves and have-nots even more effectively. The leisured classes enjoy more leisure, while the workers toil on machines, the leisured classes enjoy more manufactured goods and services produced upon the property they own, enjoying the benefits of technology while those who work hardest profit least from technology. Industrialization and the technological revolution that enabled the factory system to exist made class divisions even more permanent and inexorable, even while the idea that 'anyone' could work hard and prosper through labor and achieve land ownership is a myth that sustained many workers, though only a few could accomplish this dream of becoming part of the non-laboring middle classes.
On an even more pervasive level, technology has created a divide between…
hat does this statement imply for both the patients and the doctors?
The idea of 'first, do no harm,' as stated in the Hippocratic Oath, is considered one of the oldest, perhaps the oldest principle of medicine. Doctors are supposed to be healers, not harmers of the human body. No ailing person should go to the doctor fearing that he or she will be taken advantage of, because of his or her vulnerable position as a patient. A patient should not fear that information will be withheld from him or herself, as part of an experiment, as was the case in the infamous Tuskegee Syphilis study in which patients with the condition were knowingly denied treatment. Patients will fear going to physicians if they are terrified they may leave sicker or more damaged then when they entered treatment.
Physicians may make mistakes, some treatments may be ineffective, and…
Gill, N.S. Hippocratic Oath. About.com. [October 26, 2011].
However, women are also objectified without any sort of sales involved, as well. The notion of perfection which is virtually unattainable and which most conceptions of female beauty in the United States revolves upon, and which is consistently seen in media outlets such as television and film, also serves to objectify women. In this respect, women receive messages from some of the most powerful media around that they should be tall, thin, have inordinately large breasts and other body parts -- the sum of which effectively "dehumanizes" them. This form of objectification is most dramatically demonstrated by America the Beautiful, in which Roberts talks to a group of plastic surgeons about the popularity of this cosmetic procedure which is used to reinforce a false beauty that is virtually impossible to have under completely natural circumstances.
Plastic surgery, or the self-mutilation of one's body, is just one of the many myriad…
Kilbourne, Jean. "Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt."
America the Beautiful. Dir. Darryl Roberts. 2007.
Archer's experience traveling down the size ladder from 6-0 as she tried on dresses in a boutique for her sister's wedding was only one of several experiences she noted as troubling for her at her natural size, which she notes ahs remained much the same all her life, yet she is also quick to point out that no one should advocate for attainment of the size zero as a key to happiness or that only skinny is beautiful. (Robertson 22) Archer responds as any person would when her very being is attacked and yet she also makes clear that she does not believe it's a good idea for people to believe that only her body type is beautiful or for the fashion or any industry to promote this idea. In addition to this, anecdotal description of the struggles of actually being a size zero naturally some retailers are beginning to…
Derbyshire, David. "Fashion Leaders Refuse to Ban Size Zero Models" the Telegraph (26 January 2007) Web. < http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1540595/Fashion-leaders-refuse-to-ban-size-zero-models.html > (18 November 2010)
Fietelburg, Rosemary. "Those Zeros Keep on Adding Up" Women's Wear Daily (10 October 2006) 10.
Grogan, Sarah. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children.
New York, NY: Routledge, 1999.
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
The client that I spoke with is an 84-year-old woman named Rose. She is Caucasian, 5'2" tall, with blonde hair, blue eyes, well-maintained skin, and hair, and she is dressed in clean, expensive classic attire. Rose looks approximately 10 years younger than her physical age, and there is enough smoothness to her skin to suggest that she may have undergone some type of plastic surgery or cosmetic procedure, however there is nothing overtly fake in her looks. She looks moderately wealthy, and one would automatically assume that she is a member of the upper-middle socio-economic class, though her home size and location actually suggest that she is firmly middle class. Her physical appearance and dress reveal other details about her. For example, she is overtly Christian, and consistently wears a gold cross necklace.
Rose was born in Peachtree Georgia, which is where she spent the majority of her childhood.…
Teen Girls and Media
Because of its pervasiveness, mass media such as magazines and television programs are increasingly in a position to influence the behavior and attitudes of teenage girls. In fact, television programs such as ER and sports-oriented teen magazines have been lauded for providing girls with positive role models.
Unfortunately, these programs and magazines remain the exception rather than the rule. Rather than promote healthy lifestyles or give positive role models, much of the media targeted to teens are both physically and psychologically harmful. This paper examines two of these main effects - the promotion of unhealthy habits and lifestyles and the growing tendency of these media to sexualize teens and turn them into consumers.
For noted feminist Germaine Greer, the popularity of television shows such as Baywatch represent a growing pandemic, where all women are expected to conform to an unrealistic body shape. Greer terms…
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs and Jacquelyn Jackson. "The Burka and the Bikini." Boston Globe, November 23, 2001: A31.
Downey, Maureen. "Media give narrow view of women, study finds." The Atlanta Constitution, April 30, 1997: D11+.
Gardner, Marilyn. "Children and body images." Christian Science Monitor. December 16, 1998: 17+.
Gerhart, Ann. "Nipped in the Bud." The Washington Post, June 23, 1999: C01.
Sexism and the Media
There are numerous examples of sexism in advertising: from Britney Spears’ advertisements for her perfume Curious, in which she strips down to her underwear for the camera, to Victoria’s Secret’s models like Chrissy Teigen undergoing both plastic surgery and photoshopping (because stripping down to her underwear doesn’t do enough to convey the right body image) for the company’s lingerie ads, women are routinely objectified for the “male gaze,” as Laura Mulvey put it (Turow, 2009, p. 195). While sexism can take many forms—such as the stereotype of women as homemakers ever ready to please their husbands that was promoted in mid-20th century advertisements—in advertising today, sexism is most readily displayed by way of objectification, as seen in Go Daddy ads, Victoria’s Secrtet ads, beer commercials, and so on, where women’s bodies are like commodities.
Feminism challenged the notion of this objectification of women for a time,…
Significantly, the authors promote an accepting and acknowledging attitude towards the negative aspects of aging, as well as an understanding that it does not have to be a solely negative experience. It provides practical principles for the ability to successfully cope with the negative processes by means of a positive focus and attitude.
What I like most about the book is its positive consideration of what it could mean to become older. At the same time, it also provides a balanced view. The authors do not claim to have found a fountain of eternal youth, nor do they attempt to whitewash the misery that age could bring. Instead, they acknowledge these realities while also providing very sound advice on what to do to be able to cope with such factors.
The book is written on a very intellectual level, approaching the topic by means of a theoretical framework before its…
It is imperative to persuade children to go outside and play and to educate them about exercise. They have to learn that there is such a thing as too much or too little. The best thing one can do for their kids is to take walks because it's beneficial to their health (the Media, 2007). Although a good argument can be made that it is not the media that leads women to get eating disorders and that it is instead society that perpetuates this, I think it could be said that one goes hand in hand with the other.
The manner that the main stream media portrays women in the images that they depict has a definite influence on the way that women feel and how they believe that they need to look like. There is a constant barrage of overly think women seen in advertisements that lead women to…
Coakley, Tedra. 2007, "Eating disorders no longer discriminate," viewed November 24, 2010,
< http://www.iccjournal.biz/eating_disorders_no_longer_discr.htm >
"Cultural Roles." 2007, viewed 24 November 2010, < http://www.something-
282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.
A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…
Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:
Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),
Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
In the latest episode, they were required to wear a traditional Dutch costume. One type of challenge required contestants to swim across a cold body of water on a windy afternoon and play golf the way the locals do it. Most contestants endured this in their fight to stay in the game. Another challenge required the contestants to eat salted herring with onions after performing a Dutch folk dance. And even though the thought of eating the salted herring was revolting to one contestant, he still did so as he wanted to still be in the game. They have to overcome their fears and to ignore their discomforts in order to stay in the show.
I guess this is partly why people like watching this show; it shows people who are willing to do almost everything in order to stay in the game. The personalities of the contestants also contribute…
"Getting Along in the U.S.: Some Customs and Culture Tips." The University of Arizona. Web. 8 November 2009. < http://www.cesl.arizona.edu/custom.html >
Godard, Ellis. "Reel Life: The Social Geometry of Reality Shows." Survivor Lessons: Essays on Communication and Reality Television. Ed. Matthew Smith and Andrew Wood. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers, 2003. 73-95. Print.
Stephens, Mitchell. History of Television. Web. 7 November 2009.