Plastic Surgery Essays (Examples)

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Preventing Infections During Surgery

Words: 1057 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95237427

Surgery Infections

When it comes to medical issues that can arise, one of the nastier things that can arise is an infection. Whether it be regular staph, MRSA or others, infections are things that can hurt, kill, maim or at least prolong suffering and recovery. One source of infections that becomes an issue entirely too often would be those that occur because of and during surgery. While it is normal for great pains to be taken to sanitize both the people and instruments involved in a surgery, it is entirely too common for people to come down with infections during the course of surgery. As such, it can and should be the focus of a fully described clinical practice guideline. While accidents and bad things do happen in surgery, infections should be one of those things that should never happen, at least not due to improper practice on the part of the medical professionals involved.


The scope of the clinical practice guide in question here is fairly broad but still fairly focused. In short, any and all surgeries would be at issue where. This would include something as usually benign as a tonsillectomy or as rushed and hurried as…… [Read More]


Lopez, J., Prifogle, E., Nyame, T. T., Milton, J., & May, J. J. (2014). The impact of conflicts of interest in plastic surgery: an analysis of acellular dermal matrix, implant-based breast reconstruction. Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery, 133(6), 1328-1334.


Rhee, C., Huang, S. S., Berrios-Torres, S. I., Kaganov, R., Bruce, C., Lankiewicz, J., & ...

Yokoe, D. S. (2015). Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Following Ambulatory
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Cosmetic Surgery Analysis the Cosmetic

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96665911

The patients have traces of "Body Dysmorphic Disorder repeatedly change or examine the offending body part to the point that the obsession interferes with other aspects of their life, several studies show that seven to twelve percent of plastic surgery patients have some form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and the majority of Body Dysmorphic Disorder patients who have cosmetic surgery do not experience improvement in their Body Dysmorphic Disorder symptoms, often asking for multiple procedures on the same or other body features" (Castle, 2002).… [Read More]


Honigman, R., Phillips, K., & Castle, D.J. (2004). A review of psychosocial outcomes for patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Vol. 113(4). Pp. 1229-1237.

Rankin, M., Borah, G., Perry, a., & Wey, P. (1998). Quality-of-life outcomes after cosmetic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Vol. 102(6). Pp. 2139-2145.

Thompson & L. Smolak (2001). Body image, eating disorders and obesity in youth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pp. 674-721.

Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altabe, M.N, & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (2004). Extracting beauty: Theory, assessment and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Pp. 231-245.
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Office-Based Surgery Practices

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56269636

Office-Based Surgery Practices

Impact of Human Resources on Office-Based Surgery Practices

Office-based surgery is defined within the legislation as that in which any surgical or invasive procedure is performed outside of a hospital or diagnostic and treatment centre, in which moderate to deep sedation or general anaesthesia is used (Patel et al., 2008). The use of office-based surgery is currently increasing, due to the recognized benefits with which it is associated, for example shorter waiting times, greater convenience and lower costs (Dalton et al., 2006). The role of human resources in office-based surgery is an important concern as it may have a significant impact in many areas of the practice, including critical aspects such as patient and staff safety. This essay examines the impact of human resources on office-based surgery, including accreditation issues, the impact on patient and staff safety, and employee and labor relations.

Accreditation Issues

Amid concerns for patient safety which arose, related to the use of office-based surgical procedures, legislators have sought to introduce various measures to better regulate this practice and improve safety. Under recently passed legislation, all office-based surgery practices must now maintain a full accredited status with one of the nationally recognized accrediting agencies.…… [Read More]

references, satisfaction, and resource use in office evacuation of early pregnancy failure. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 108(1): 103-110.

Galati, M. (2006). Practice management issues in office-based anesthesiology. Seminars in Anesthesia, Perioperative Medicine and Pain, 25(1): 32-39.

Hancox, J.G., Venkat, A.P., Coldiron, B., Feldman, S.R. & Williford, P.M. (2004). The safety of office-based surgery: Review of recent literature from several disciplines. Archives of Dermatology, 140(11): 1379-1382.

Harley, DH & Collins, D.R. (2008). Patient satisfaction after blepharoplasty performed as office surgery using oral medication with the patient under local anesthesia. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 32(1): 77-81.

Horton, J.B., Reece, E.M., Broughton, G., Janis, J.E., Thornton J.F. & Rohrich, R.J. (2006). Patient safety in the office-based setting. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 117(4): 61e-80e.
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Cosmetic Surgery Pros and Cons

Words: 2068 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4995133

Even in-office procedures like Botox and collagen injections can cause allergic reactions or injection-site infections in some people. When a person undergoes surgery that involves anesthesia and cutting, the risks become even greater. Not only is there a risk of a fatal reaction to anesthesia or other drugs used during the procedure, a surgeon may make a mistake and cut the wrong place, or the person just may not have the constitution to undergo surgery. There are tales every year of people who went in for cosmetic surgery and did not come out again. The question of whether the potential for looking somewhat more like your ideal of beauty is worth the potential physical risk of cosmetic surgery is something that every individual who considers cosmetic surgery has to answer for him or her self.

Cosmetic surgery can also become addictive for some. There are people who are so obsessed with changing their appearance, of erasing every little perceived imperfection and whipping their body into submission to their will, that they simply can not avoid going to the cosmetic surgeon again and again. It has been presumed by many that singer Michael Jackson is addicted to cosmetic surgery, and one…… [Read More]


Blum, Virginia. Flesh Wounds: The Culture of Cosmetic Surgery. University of California Press, Berkley. 2003.

Crampton, Suzanne M. Developing and Packaging the Total Corporate Image. SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 60. 1995.

Davis, Deborah and Vernon, Michael L. Sculpting the Body Beautiful: Attachment Style, Neuroticism, and Use of Cosmetic Surgeries. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. 2002.

Davis, Sally Ogle. Knifestyles of the Rich and Famous. Sunday Mirror, London. September 22, 1996.
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History of Surgery

Words: 6608 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18946792

History of Surgery had been started from the prehistoric time with its appropriate technique and tools applicable during the age. There was no sophisticated care of hygiene and anatomic knowledge in the early days; the basic research was started using trial and error on every case and it had set a very strong basic which still makes sense and counts into modern practice.

The following summary of history of surgery is compiled from various sources based on the timeline set in dr. Schell's lecture: The History of Surgery.

The Ancient Medicine (Prehistoric Time)

People had strong magic beliefs and connection to multiple gods during the prehistoric time, so that any cases of illness were also believed as the punishments from angry gods for community's or one's moral failure. Some common cases recorded were respiratory and digestive problems, infections, and gynecologic disorders. Life expectancy low, then 28-35 years was a successful range of survival. Cancer and degenerative diseases were not relevant at that time.

The early surgery practice in Europe was trepanation, drilling a hole in the head. Evidences found skulls with holes from the Neolithic European ages, about 7000 years ago. Since supernatural beliefs was very strong, the cranial drilling…… [Read More]


13.3 Trephination, An Ancient Surgery. March24, 2002.

Anaesthesia History. The Surgery Door Pain Centre by Neurofen. March26, 2002.

Anesthesia: A Brief History. Feb 13, 2001. Simon Fraser Health Region. March26, 2002.

Bune, Matt and Gregor, Pam. Ancient Egyptian Surgery ed. Majno, Guido. The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1982. pp. 86-121. March26, 2002.
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Cosmetic Surgery

Words: 2016 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62805725

Cosmetic Surgery Is Good

Many people think that cosmetic surgery is not good because it is not necessary, and that people should simply accept the way that God (or Nature) made them. However, merely because something is not natural and not necessary does not make it bad. In most temperate climates clothing is not actually necessary, but people still choose to wear it. Televisions are not natural or necessary, but people still enjoy them. Cosmetic surgery is indeed good because it allows for personal empowerment and/or comfort, it allows an individual to define or redefine their social indentity, and it is an expression of the right of the individual to self-determination.

Cosmetic surgery is a very old practice, and understanding its history might help to understand the practice.. People have used various methods of body modificationg surgery since the stone age. " This medical specialty is ancient, dating back to 800 B.C., when hieroglyphics describe crude skin grafts. ... A long time ago... Jewish slaves had clefts in their ears. And some of the first plastic-surgery operations were to remove those signs of stigma." (Slater) Even today, many "primitive" tribes use many different forms of cosmetic modification. For example, they…… [Read More]


Douglas, Carol Anne; Verma, Priya; Goktepe, Katherine; Nixon, Laura; & Harris, Jen Chapin. "United States: men coerce women into vaginal cosmetic surgery" Off Our Backs, Jan/Feb 2005.

Elliot, Carl. "Putting your best face forward: our love affair with cosmetic surgery is about more than liposuction and good looks. The scalpel promises the ultimate validation: a chance for the world to see us as we see ourselves" Psychology Today, May-June, 2004

Selekman, Janice. "A New Era of Body Decoration: What Are Kids Doing to their Bodies?" Alabama Nurse, Sep-Nov 2003.

Simons, Janet. "Teens captivated with immediate transformation plastic surgery." Chicago Sun-Times, June, 2004.
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Genital Surgery When Asked About

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38799679

Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A Reuters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.… [Read More]


Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at,8599,1859937,00.html

Freistag, A. Interview data.

Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at 

Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at
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Controversial Business Practice

Words: 5379 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67842655

Plastic Surgery

Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice

According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.


In a country, and dare say a world where image is everything, it's not uncommon for adults, and particularly those in the public eye, to elect cosmetic surgery to meet the expectations of a demanding society that perpetuates the importance of physical image (Ali & Lam, 2008). But what about teenagers? Each year thousands of teenagers…… [Read More]


Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.

American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank. Accessed 25 July, 2011.

Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
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Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Orthognathic Surgery

Words: 1100 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10733282

Orthognathic Surgery is a procedure used for patients that have jaws that do not meet properly, which often coincides with teeth that do not seem to fit correctly with their jaws. This procedure is often used in conjunction with orthodontics, which straighten the teeth in preparation for the jaw surgery. People who require orthognathic surgery often have incorrectly positioned jaws, or an improper bite. Often the upper and lower jaws grow at different rates, which can lead to problems that affect speech, chewing, long-term oral health, as well as appearance. Also, jaw alignment can also be influenced by injury to the jaw and birth defects. Orthognathic surgery basically repositions the jaw (Center for Oral and Facial Surgery of Chattanooga, 2000). This type of surgery is also used for patients that require jaw repositioning in order to allow for the reconstruction of the dentition using implants (Jones, 2002).

More specifically, orthognathic surgery involves the "surgical manipulation of the elements of the facial skeleton to restore proper anatomic and functional relationship in patients with dentofacial skeletal anomalies (Patel, 2001). The historical roots of orthognathic surgery date back to 1846, and the ability to effectively reposition the mandible preceded the ability to reposition…… [Read More]


Center for Oral and Facial Surgery of Chattanooga. Orthognathic Surgery (2000):

Jones, R. "Orthognathic surgery and implants." Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons 16 (2002): 105-.

Motegi, E., Hatch, J., Rugh, J., Yamaguchi, H. "Health-related quality of life and psychosocial function 5 years after orthognathic surgery." American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 124.2 (2003): 138-43.
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Beauty Is as Old as

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65060971

S. government has promoted breast implants, at the taxpayers' expense: According to the Army, between 2000 and 2003 its doctors performed 496 breast enlargements (women must pay for the silicon implants) (Schaler 29).

Health safety does not seem to have an impact on those desiring cosmetic surgery, nor does the comments of authority figures. In 1958 Pope Pins XII warned that operations for mere "vanity" or to enhance the "power of seduction, thus leading others more easily into sin," or "to hide a criminal from justice" were not in keeping with the church's teachings (Feldman 66). Some Christian and Jewish clergy agreed. However, not even the clergy could fight the studies saying that people with better looks had a greater chance for success (Feldman 66).

Last month, the FDA reneged on its earlier findings about breast augmentation; after a 14-year ban, it decided that silicone implants do not pose any serious health risks, but warned that breast implants will not last a lifetime: Within four years, about 20 to 25% of women who receive the implants for augmentation can expect to have additional surgeries due to hardening of the breasts, shifting of the implants, sagging, and less commonly, ruptures (Kotz).…… [Read More]

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Facial Reanimation in Facial Paralysis

Words: 5975 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58497275

The brain while expanding pushes the skull outward in the same perpendicular to the closed structure. This will be marked by the occurrence of 'papilledema' 'pseudoproptosis' as also 'optic atrophy.' (39) This results in the orbital socket being smaller and the eyes getting 'protoposed'. The intercranial pressure is bound to be high. The symptoms in such cases will be optic atrophy, head ache and papilledema. Or in the case of 'Crouzon's disease' where occurs a marked hooked nose and a frontal lobe which makes the disease also called the parrot head disease. Surgery in both these types of situations become mandatory as the result of the cranial pressure could result in death. (39)

Regarding the facial surgery discussions always centre on perfecting features and cosmetic changes. The debate must rather be on the goals of the surgery and the overall benefits that can accrue to the patient in terms of anatomical benefits. (7) in cases of adults and children different considerations of etiologies exist. For planned intervention and rehabilitation etiology is important. It is crucial that the etiology of the patient and associated problems be determined including the severity of the paralysis. In some cases etiology is apparent as in…… [Read More]


1. Buncke HJ. Facial Paralysis - Reanimation. California Pacific Medical Center. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL: 

2. Sataloff J, ThayerSataloff R. Occupational Hearing Loss. CRC Press. 2006.

Kim JYS, Bienstock a, Ketch L. Facial Nerve Paralysis, Dynamic Reconstruction. [online]. 2007 [cited 2008 Feb 16]. Available from: URL:
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Women's Body Image

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78372893

Female Body

Women around the world and throughout time have modified their bodies, willingly or under coercion, in order to achieve a culturally desirable aesthetic. With her body as central to her role, status, and identity, females manipulate their bodies or their bodies are manipulated for them. In some cases, the body modification is an overt sign of patriarchy, because it enables greater control over the woman's life. This is especially true with Chinese foot binding, which was outlawed in 1911. With her feet bound, the woman could not walk properly and was therefore literally bound to be docile and subservient to the husband (Crossley). In other cases, gender and aesthetic norms are what dictates the body modification practice. Usually the body modification in these cases also feeds into a patriarchal culture in which the female's value on the marriage market is ascertained by her appearance. Modern forms of body modification like plastic surgeries provide the illusion of female empowerment, but surgeries perpetuate the same social functions of the subordination of women via control over their bodies. These practices present the female body as signifying the worth or status of the individual. Moreover, females do not have control over the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ASAPS. Statistics, surveys, and trends. 2014. Retrieved online:

Crossley, Lucy. "The last living Chinese women with bound feet more than 100 years after the centuries-old symbol of beauty and status was banned." The Mail. 8 June 2014. Retrieved online:

Gluckman, Ron. "Stretching One's Neck." Retrieved online:

Harding, Andrew. "Burmese women in Thai 'human zoo'"BBC News. Retrieved online:
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Diversity Critique Regarding Michael Jackson Being Called Names Such as Wacko Jacko

Words: 1608 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63145158

Diversity Critique of Michael Jackson

Jay Leno opened his Tonight Show monolog the other night by saying that the Santa Barbara Sheriff's office has a warrant out for this man and the camera showed a picture of Michael Jackson. The picture showed Jackson as we know him today -- long straight black hair, pale complexion and the famous Michael Jackson nose. Jay Leno then added, "Or this man." The camera panned onto another picture of Jackson where he had a completely different complexion and hair style - and a different nose. "Or this man," and a third photo was shown which portrayed Jackson completely different than the first two pictures. "Or this man," and a forth picture was shown. I have to admit, I laughed... Jay Leno stopped at four pictures but I knew he could have taken the joke even further.

This is a diversity critique about Michael Jackson. Michael Jackson had established himself as one of the most successful musical artists of all time. He has been labeled as the King of Pop. For many years Michael Jackson fell under the media's main radar even though some felt he continued to be a superstar who at any time…… [Read More]

Works Cited Ed. Unknown. 21 Nov. 03 .

Britt, Donna. "Shielding Kids Should Come Before Reprisal." Washington Post [Washington, DC] 21 Nov. 03, Metro.

FLACCUS, GILLIAN. "Bitter Rivalry Between DA, Michael Jackson Reflected In Latest Case." AP Worldstream 21 Nov. 2003.

Marino, Nick. "POP NOTES: HIP-HOP'S RISE, MICHAEL'S DEMISE How Rap Hastened Michael Jackson's Decline, Long Before Latest Scandal." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution [Atlanta] 21 Nov. 03, Home, Features.
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Technology -- Blessing or Curse

Words: 474 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35198703


Yes, technology generates problems, and it is shrewd and apt to point out that for every net gain to certain members of society via technology there is a net loss. The hand weavers of the 18th century were put out of business by 19th century factories that could manufacture clothing cheaply, computers have probably collectively caused the art of calligraphy to die, and made even professional writers overly reliant on spell check and less willing to rewrite their work from scratch. However, would any of the authors included in the collection summarized in the essay really wish to go back to a world without antibiotics? Technology has enabled people whose vision would be a blur to see with 20/20 perfection, and made travel financially accessible to millions who would have been relegated to the narrow point-of-view of their homes. While it is easy to find detriments to these benefits (exploitations of local economics through tourism, the dangers of unfettered exploration in the New World, etc.) few really long for the good old days before pasteurization, and the fear of scientific knowledge, as seen in the debates over Darwinism and stem cell research are probably more dangerous than the risks…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. Rewiring the "Nation": The Place of Technology in American

Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2007.
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Suturing as the Module Suggests Each Wound

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50467323


As the module suggests, "Each wound that is encountered and considered for repair must be addressed independently," ("Wound considerations"). This is true whether the injury is an acute one, or whether there is a procedure involved. Generally, however, suturing can take place in an outpatient care clinic regardless of whether there was an acute injury or not. It depends a lot on the nature of the injury, and the nature of the procedure, though. Generalizing about situations like injuries and procedures is unnecessary, unproductive, and potentially dangerous. Each would certainly requires an evaluation of the situational and patient variables. The age and overall health condition of the patient, and the age of the wound are all taken into consideration when there has been an acute injury; the type of the wound also needs to be taken into consideration when there was an injury. Acute injury patients might not be regular patients at the care center facility, and would not need any specialized attention other than appropriate suturing as the wound requires.

With suturing necessary after minor surgical or medical procedures, the primary care physician or health care team is more likely to be aware of the variables that would…… [Read More]


Khan, M., Bann, S., Darzi, A. & Butler, P. (2003). Use of suturing as a measure of technical competence. Annals of Plastic Surgery 50(3):304-309.

Queen's University School of Medicine Module

Ratner, D., Nelson, B.R. & Johnson, T.M. (1994). Basic suture materials and suturing techniques. Seminars in Dermatology 13(1): 20-26.
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Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

Words: 4631 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37148611

" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)

There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives of their products. " relating to the reduction in rates of chronic illnesses and reduction in the risk of the drugs are misrepresented to physicians who then use the distorted data to persuade patients to accept drug regimens. Drug companies will strenuously attempt to sell their drug to its public,…… [Read More]


Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.

Retrieved March 8, 2007, at

Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at

Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at
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Human Resource Management and Job

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76030601

In a nutshell, the most common training program for plastic surgeons takes up about seven years following medical school and can be done throughout individual studying and medical exams as well as throughout attending medical conventions and symposiums.… [Read More]


Human Resource Guide to the Internet, 1998-2001, Job Analysis: Overview,, last accessed on February 22, 2007

The official web site of the Institute for Plastic Surgery of the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 2004, Resident responsibilities when assigned to the plastic surgery service,, last accessed on February 22, 2007

Lance Gray, Judy McGregor, Human Resource Development and Older Workers, 2003, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 41, No. 3,,last accessed on February 22, 2007

Susan M. Heathfield, January 2007, Orientation vs. Integration, About: Human Resources,, last accessed on February 22, 2007
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Socio Cultural Perspective on Rising Suicide Rate for South Koreans

Words: 2901 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49955776

Rising Suicide Rates for South Korea |

Public Health Issues

A Socio-cultural Perspective on Rising Suicide Rate for South Koreans

Suicide is an overarching social concern that affects all age groups. In recent years, there has been growing concern regarding the increasing rates of suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The Korea National Statistical Office reported that suicide numbers for ages 10 -- 29 years in South Korea (1,255) comprised 22.2% of the total number of suicides (5,663) for the year 2002, thus representing a higher percentage of total suicide victims, compared with those in other age groups (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). In addition, suicide was the 10th leading cause of death in the adult population in 1992 and the seventh leading cause of death in 2002, but was the fourth leading cause of death in 2005 in the Korean population. More importantly, suicide was one of the three most prevalent causes of death in teenagers and was the first leading cause of death in 2005 for South Koreans in their twenties. In response to these concerns, there has been a growing research interest in the risk factors and predictors of young peoples' suicidal behaviors. An increasing number of…… [Read More]


Ashton, J. (1980) The Epidemic of Suicide by Fire. New Society 54(1): 58-60.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). YRBSS: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Youth Online: Comprehensive Results. Retrieved Nov. 26, 2010 from

Cho, Young-rae (2003) A Single Spark The Biography of Chun Tae-il. Trans. Soon-ok Chun. Seoul: Dolbegae Publishers.

Crosby, K., Joong-Oh R., and Holland, J. (1991). "Suicide by Fire: A Contemporary Method of Political Protest." International Journal of Sodal Psychiatry, 23(1): 60-69.
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Fashion-Color Contact Lens Beauty for

Words: 2792 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2489150

Being against popular culture is particularly difficult, considering the temptations that society provides people with and the fact that one risks being excluded from a community if he or she does not act in accordance with the convictions respected by the group's members (Aoyagi, 151).

Consumerism has been taken to a whole new level in Japan, as 2006 reports have shown that in spite of the fact that the country's population is not even half that of the U.S., it managed to consume "41% of the entire world's luxury goods" (Japan is the world's most concentrated source of revenue for luxury brands). Whereas people in the Occident consider Japan to be a country represented by the natural beauty and health of its people many Japanese resort to cosmetics and facial surgery in order to change their looks. This situation is both ironic and alarming at the same time, given that people virtually ignore conventionalism in favor of practicing harmful activities that they believe will assist them in better integrating a consumerist society. Individuals no longer care about their health or about traditionalism because they are willing to do anything they can with the purpose of achieving what they believe is…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Aoyagi, Hiroshi. "Pop Idols and Gender Contestation"

Beech, Hannah. "Eurasian Invasion." Retrieved February 26, 2011, from the Time Website:,9171,106427,00.html

Frazier, Christopher. "Dynamic Beauty: Cultural Influences and Changing Perceptions." Retrieved February 26, 2011, from the University of Hawaii Website:

Mostow, Joshua S. "Museum as Hometown: What is "Japanese Beauty?"
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Female Genital Mutilation Fgm in Ethiopia as Women's Rights

Words: 4982 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67367107

Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia: A Human Rights Issue

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common phenomenon in Ethiopia, which has the highest rate of FGM among African countries, despite international and national efforts to eliminate the phenomenon. Why FGM persists despite these efforts to end the practice is an issue that puzzles scholars and activists, particularly because efforts to end FGM have seen some success outside of Ethiopia. Does the practice persist because it is not seen as damaging by people in the culture, which would make it an issue of cultural relativism? Some people suggest that the practice is one that is acceptable within the culture, and that the reaction against it is an example of foreign cultural ideals attempting to change Ethiopians' indigenous culture. On the other hand, one must ask: does the practice persist because of a disregard for women's rights, with FGM being simply another way to perpetuate male superiority in Ethiopia? While people can make salient arguments that FGM is simply an aspect of Ethiopian culture and that opposition to the practice is a hallmark of cultural intolerance, a real examination of the practice reveals that its goal is to preserve female sexual purity,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia:

University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. Print.

Althaus, F. "Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights?" International

Family Planning Perspectives 23.3 (1997): 130-133. Print.
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Red - Edits Are Made in Blue

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78846095

red - Edits are made in blue

The Price of Beauty

Plastic surgery, which is popularly known as cosmetic surgery, is not only a costly affair but also has proven to have many dreadful side effects like bruising, nerve damage and other infections. It is not worth the money, time, danger and psychological outcomes. This surgery is very different from a regular operation, because unlike regular procedure, this one is requested by the patient. Despite all the potential side effects and many unsuccessful surgeries, the numbers in these procedures are only increasing. [Introduce this quote] "The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery estimates that nearly 10,000,000 plastic surgery procedures were performed in the United States in 2009, a 147% increase from when these figures were first tracked in 1997." Have we come to the point where our life is worth less than our beauty? How far are we willing to go for the perfection or someone's approval of ourselves? [Your introductory paragraph needs more focus. See outline at the end of the essay for ideas]

Plastic surgery can result in psychological disorders in those who were dissatisfied with the results. [The first line of each paragraph is called the topic…… [Read More]

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Paradox of Technology the 21st

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38719031

Securing Internet commerce is most likely the biggest challenge that software development companies have yet faced. The security problems affecting Internet commerce involve credit card transactions, which raise concerns involving privacy issues, integrity, and authenticity. For example, there is a considerable, and justifiable, fear that confidential information, such as credit cards and personal details, could be intercepted during transmission over the Internet when submitting an order form on the Web. Through this advance in technology, people stand the risk of becoming victim to internet fraud of their personal information.

A third manner in which technology has the potential to be both beneficial to society and detrimental at the same time is through plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is generally separated between two genres; reconstructive surgery corrects or masks birth defects and the destructive effects of trauma, surgery or disease, and cosmetic or aesthetic surgery changes features that the patient finds unflattering. Sufficient amounts of plastic surgery can result in irreversible damage to the normal body structure, which has occurred in those addicted to surgery for cosmetic purposes. Thus, although plastic surgery is beneficial to those such as burn or accident victims, it can be potentially devastating to those that later become…… [Read More]


Johnson, D. & Whitworth, I. (2002). Recent Developments in Plastic Surgery. BMJ, 325(7359): 319.

South Centre Org. (2004). A Developed Agenda for Intellectual Property Negotiations in 2004 and Beyond. Retrieved February 21, 2007 at

Stiglitz, Joseph. (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
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Strategic Management and Planning Strategic

Words: 1992 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53841878

Strategic Alternatives Addresses an External issue? Draws on a competitive advantage or fixes a competitive disadvantage? Fits with Mission, Values? Moves the organization toward the vision? Achieves one or more goals? Partner with a travel company to offer vacations that include dental surgery, plastic surgery, and vascular surgery.

Supports the strategy of increasing global reach of the company and strengthening the ability to recruit physicians in key specialties.

Draws on a competitive advantage of specialist expertise and high performance of Rashid and markets this strength to bring in more German and British clients

Supports the pursuit of international standards as defined within the Strategic Plan.

Yes; also increases the stature of the facility and enhances the ability to recruit world-class physicians.

Invest heavily in medical research in cardiology and vascular research

This investment is focused on making Rashid Hospital a center of excellence in cardiology and vascular surgery, attracting the world's best surgeons to research and practice in Dubai at Rashid Hospital.

Draws on an emerging competitive advantage in vascular surgery.

Yes, in fact it perfectly aligns one of the key strategic plan objectives of the hospital.

Yes, it is consistent with the mission, vision, and values of the hospital.…… [Read More]


Boston Consulting Group (2006) - Definition of Growth/Share Matrix from Boston Consulting Group; Accessed from the Internet on December 2,2006:

Porter (1990) - The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.)

Porter (1985)- The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. N.Y.: Free Press, 1985. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998.)
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Weighing Medical Ethical Principles

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20495379

Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.

A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that the psychological benefits of his practice outweigh any possible harm the surgery might impose. Another physician might object to the practice of plastic surgery entirely, given the risks of all surgical procedures, unless there is a dire medical need. The question of whether the procedure is the least intrusive one…… [Read More]

But not all decisions are so clear-cut. What about a teenager who wants breast reduction surgery? The argument of 'autonomy' is more complicated, even if the teen's parents are allowing her to go through with the surgery because she is young and may change her mind in the future and might not be aware of the fact that her body may 'catch up' with her current stage of development. The teen and the teen's parents may not be able to view the future with clear eyes because of an excessive focus on the present. In terms of doing good (beneficence), the argument in favor of the surgery are the possible physical and psychological benefits. But weight loss might serve the same purposes with less risk and greater benefits. The risk of the surgery, the availability of other options and the potential benefits: all of which must be weighed against one another.

Patients' perceptions of their own interests may not be the same as the physicians, as indicated by persons who religiously object to various medical procedures (McCormick 1998:8). Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.

A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that the psychological benefits of his practice outweigh any possible harm the surgery might impose. Another physician might object to the practice of plastic surgery entirely, given the risks of all surgical procedures, unless there is a dire medical need. The question of whether the procedure is the least intrusive one possible also arises: losing weight might (or might not) accomplish the same objective. But some patients find weight loss extremely challenging and do not consider this a feasible option to change their body shape, even though technically it exists. The same argument is also made in favor of weight loss surgery -- yes, it is better for patients to lose weight instead of risking the potentially life-threatening surgery, but if it were so easy, the target patients would have lost weight already. Furthermore, weight loss is not always successful in achieving breast reduction and if the teen has already tried other methods this might be seen as an argument in favor of the surgery.
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Gender Identity Beauty and the

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3393487

" (Barry, 36) He continues to suggest that women shouldn't care what they look like either. He says that women may say they are obsessed with looks because men want them to be, but argues that (a) women shouldn't be idiots just because men are, and (b) that men don't recognize women's beauty efforts anyway. "Many men would no notice if a woman had upward of four hands." (Barry, 36)

McLaughlin does not deny that the gender stereotypes are precisely as Barry reports them to be, though she recognizes as stereotypical what he claims as truth. She says that it had always before been that "what mattered in life was how women looked and what men did." (McLaughlin, 31) This is talking about the same thing Barry is when he says that men would find some way to bolster self-esteem other than appearance. However, McLaughlin continues to point out, that this is changing: "how men look is also beginning to carry more weight." (McLaughlin, 31) She quotes a number of sources to explain how men are having plastic surgery to get rid of love handles, pretty up their face, tighten their body, and enlarge their penises. She also speaks of…… [Read More]

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Manage Care Simon A Case

Words: 958 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97429468

The red and swollen appearance could be an on-site reaction to the administered medication. A change of type of antibiotic medication may be necessary.

Question 5: Simon begins to complain of chest tightness he is beginning to get distressed what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken.

An asthma attack partially brought on by the psychological stress of the surgery and being in the hospital, combined with the physical trauma is likely. Simon, physician permitting, should be allowed with assistance to treat his asthma in the usual fashion, after screening for potentially more serious conditions that can manifest in chest tightness, such as a cardiac condition.

Question 6: You notice that Simon has become disoriented and is complaining of a headache what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken?

Signs and symptoms of a concussion, the result of head trauma, are not always immediately apparent. While rest, which Simon should be receiving in ample amounts, is the best treatment for a concussion, he should be formally evaluated for the condition, to see if he also feels nausea or has ringing in his ears, for example, to see if he has such a trauma, or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fractures of the tibia and fibula." (2008). Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery. Retrieved 23 May 2008 at
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Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media

Words: 3434 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69173169

Pornification of Women in Western Media

The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media

Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. Regardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back then that women were looked as objects to be honored, respected and actually taken care of. As humans have evolved over the course of two hundred years, we have made technological inventions and advanced in the name of education and media. Keeping all the revolutions before us, now we live…… [Read More]


8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.

2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.

American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].

Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
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Debra Gimlin's Book Body Work Is an

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96519404

Debra Gimlin's book "Body Work" is an in-depth exploration of American women's relationships with their bodies. She argues that women do not engage in body work (activities like exercise and plastic surgery) in order to conform to a paternalistic, and unrealistic view of beauty that is perpetrated by the popular media. Instead, Gimlin gives the empowering argument that women engage in body work in order to nurture a relationship between the body and self-identity.

In "Body Work," Gimlin examines a series of mini-ethnographies in her attempt to understand the complex relationships that American women have with their bodies and their self-identities. She examines four main sites, in collecting research for her book. Gimlin conducted in-depth research and extensive interviews at each location. Gimlin explores a beauty salon, an aerobics class, a plastic surgery clinic, and the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), a political and social organization designed to empower overweight women.

The best evidence for Gimlin's assertions comes from her interviews with individual women. The women are candid, powerful and honest in their assessments of their bodies, and in revealing their reasons for attempting to change their bodies, or come to terms with their bodies' "imperfections." Ultimately, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gimlin, Debra L. Body Work: Beauty and Self-Image in American Culture. University of California Press, 2002.

Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth. Vintage Books, Toronto, 1991.
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Popular Science An Understand of

Words: 1491 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71268415

The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus, when presented with the information with which McKibben was presented, I may have been concerned, but would not have moved to the place of changing international agreements just yet.

Christine Cyr's Popular Science article "Flying High on Biofuels," discusses yet another area of science related to global warming. In this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at

Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20

2008, at

McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
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Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21470128

Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder in which an individual has an intense, overwhelming preoccupation with a perceived flaw in his or her appearance. A person with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has a highly distorted sense of his or her own appearance, and any part of his or her body can be a subject of that concern. Sometimes the perceived defect is completely imagined, and sometimes an actual "flaw" is the subject of a disproportionate level of obsessive concern. The root of the problem lies not with the person's actual appearance, but with the individual's self-image and self-esteem. BDD can be extremely debilitating to those who suffer from it, because the constant preoccupation with one's appearance can impair social function and make the most basic activities of daily life, including friendship, employment, and leisure time, particularly distressing. This essay will outline the symptoms, common behaviors, causes, and treatment of this disorder, as well as it's prevalence in society.

Body dysmorphic disorder was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1989 (Ahmed, et al., 2010). The current edition of the DSM gives three criteria for defining this disorder:

A. Preoccupation with an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahmed, I., Genen, L, & Cook, T. "Body dysmorphic disorder." Sep. 2010. Web.

Phillips, K.A. (2005). The broken mirror: understanding and treating body dysmorphic disorder. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

-. (2009). Understanding body dysmorphic disorder. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Massachusetts General Hospital. "Body dysmorphic disorder." Nov. 2010. Web. <>.
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Vanilla Sky -- IT's All in His

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34936015

Vanilla Sky -- It's All in His Head

From first moment to last, the movie Vanilla Sky, produced by Paramount Pictures and written and directed by Cameron Crowe, offers a confusing physical landscape based on a confusing mental landscape. The viewer is never certain if he is viewing a dream or a waking reality or a warped psychological construct that might be a combination of waking and dreaming or conscious and unconscious realities.

The film opens with a voice saying "Abre los ojos." Abre Los Ojos is the name of the 1997 Spanish film of which Vanilla Sky is a remake. The voice which speaks these words, recorded on David Aames, played by Tom Cruise, alarm clock, is that of Sophia, played by Penelope Cruz. Thus, the movie begins with the hero awakening from sleep, possibly a dream, into what seems to be reality. But is it? The first voice, saying open your eyes in Spanish and then in English, is not that of the woman who is in bed with Cruise. It is a woman, if we are expecting a linear plot, who Aames has not yet met. When the alarm speaks again, it does so with the voice…… [Read More]

Works Cited

De Lisi, Haj. "Vanilla Sky. 11-24-02)

Ebert, Roger. "Vanilla Sky." Chicago Sun Times 14 December 2001 (accessed 11-24-02)

Hampton, Howard. "Clear Vanilla Skies: 'Cryotainment' and the Modern Science of Transcendence." Film Comment. March/April 2002: 52-53

Holden, Stephen. "Plastic Surgery Takes A Science Fiction Twist." New York Times 14 December 2001 sec E, part 1, 28, col 1.
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Permanent Cosmetics as Long Ago

Words: 1261 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51362976

Indeed, Theresa's will not serve 'customers' as a tattoo shop or cosmetics counter would; it will develop clients who will be invited to return for additional enhancements. However, integral to the strategy will be turning away clients who have had all the procedures that seem to our medical advisor to be advisable. In short, Theresa's is not interested in tattooing a woman to look like a cat, but rather in enhancing a woman's appearance as a women, thus enabling her to live a more abundant and powerful human life. These concepts are the foundation for Theresa's strategy, which can be condensed to these concepts:

Creating the Theresa's brand name in aesthetic enhancement

Placing the company on a level comparable to or exceeding that of laser eye clinics, etc.

Taking seriously our responsibility to enhance our clients' lives and not to be party to questionable requests for aesthetically debatable procedures


Theresa's initial tactic will be forming the referral relationships with medical/surgical/dental practices that understand the value of aesthetic improvement such as Theresa's offers.

In addition, we will seek early clients whose influence in the community can add credibility to our programs.

Our advertising will AVOID Val-Pacs and other lower-level advertsing…… [Read More]


Adverse events associated with 'permanent makeup.' (2004) FDA Consumer 38(5), 4+. Retrieved May 2, 2005 from

Covino, D.C. (2001) Outside-in: Body, mind and self in the advertisement of aesthetic surgery. Journal of Popular Culture 35(3), 91+ Retrieved May 2, 2005 from

Neimark, J. (1994) Change of face change of fate. Psychology Today 27(3), 42+. Retrieved May 2, 2005 from
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Bioharzard Removal Within a Perioperative

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87952050

Effective management of medical materials in this environment is critical to ensuring that patients do not suffer from toxic exposure (Owens, 2003). Perioperative nurses can incorporate the various Operating Room procedures to minimize the risk of patient harm. A discussion regarding the literature detailing medical waste and perioperative nursing is not complete without a discussion involving the clinical impact of medical waste.

In Volko's 2002 article "Contact with Hospital Syringes containing bodily fluids; Implications for Medical Waste management regulation," detailed the results of a study wherein the use of syringes was examined in their conjunction with medical waste. The objective of the study was to determine the amount and body fluids of these syringes (Volko, 2002). Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center or a period not exceeding seven (7) days. Syringe use was categorized into four different components. These components included: (1) Contained Blood at the time of use; (2) Contained other bodily fluids; (3) Used exclusively for drug dilution and application and (4) Intramuscular; Subcutaneous and Intradermal IV's (Volko, 2002).

As a result of the study, approximately 17% contained blood during use; 4.8% had other bodily fluids within; 73% were used exclusively for drug dilution and…… [Read More]


"Nurses can make a difference: Environmentally responsive health care," the Nightingale Institute for Health and the Environment, (accessed 6 January 2011).

Melamed, a (2003). "Environmental Accountability in Perioperative Settings" AORN, 77(6), 1157-1168

Owens, PJ (2005) "Challenges of International Disaster Relief" Disaster Management and Response, Spring 2005

Anderson, LG (1992). "Medical Waste Management: Implications for Plastic Surgery Offices and Surgicenters" Plastic Surgical Nursing, 12(1): 7-12
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Realistic Fiction for a Modern

Words: 851 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63933729

After he has faced so many struggles and foes, and fighting for his life against the "bad guys" while trying to hide the whole things from cops who might not appreciate him taking matters into his own hands, it is hard to say if Stranahan is really struggling against individuals or against society as a whole.

Despite the fact that the book ceaselessly mocks all sorts of prominent, respectable professions (doctors, tv anchors, lawyers, cops, actors, and wood-chipper-operators) it nonetheless escapes being didactic about its point. It could theoretically be controversial that this book suggests that many doctors and lawyers are corrupt, or seems to justify taking the law into one's own hands. However, the situation is treated with so much humor, and with such disparagement for the "bad guys," that one doubts anyone is actually offended. If there was going to be any controversy about the book, it would probably only be if it were being show to children. There is a lot of graphic sex and violence in the book, and it probably shouldn't be taught to young children. As one might expect from such content, it is difficult to give an answer as to "What benefits can…… [Read More]

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Obesity Is That There Is

Words: 1816 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35952456

While these measures are effective in certain ways, this line of thinking is very dangerous for the American public because it influences the general health risks imposed by obesity. More and more, America is become a drug reliant nation because of the growing number of problems associated with obesity.

Technology has many links to the current problem of obesity. On a macroeconomic level it can be seen that technology influences our socio-economic status which permits us to eat more and workout less because we do not have labor intensive jobs nor do we have financial problems. On a sociological level, social interactions are no longer dependent upon the concepts traditionally associated with obesity and therefore individuals no longer have to worry about their appearance nearly as much as they use to. Furthermore, these changes in social interactivity means that physical exercise is now an entirely leisure based activity rather than part of daily life. Finally, technology has promoted a culture of individuals who rely on alternative methods to preserve their health. Medicine and surgery has eliminated both the physical problems associated with obesity as well as the social ones, therefore the deterrents to obesity have been lifted as well. The…… [Read More]

Rand CSW. Obesity: Definition, diagnostic criteria, and associated health problems. in:

Alexander-Mott L, Lumsden DB. Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Piervosa, and Obesity. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1994:221-41.

Schwartz H. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies, and Fat. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.
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Evolution of Roles and Societal Perspectives on Aging

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85478699

Aging is an inevitable process, but responses to the aging process vary from generation to generation, culture to culture, and person to person. Factors like gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic class have an impact on attitudes toward aging. Beliefs and attitudes toward aging and towards older people also vary. The status of elder adults in the family, community, and society also varies. It is important to understand the evolution of age-based social roles and attitudes towards aging because all people encounter seniors, care for seniors, and most likely become old too. Because the Baby Boomer generation is reaching senior age status, issues related to gerontology are becoming especially salient for the health care professional.

Unfortunately, there are several disturbing trends in how old people and aging are viewed. The status of elders is generally low, leading to problems in senior physical and mental health. Treatment of seniors varies widely, with some families more than willing to care for senior family members in their own homes. Other families deny time, resources, or care to their elder relatives. Impediments and barriers to providing care for senior family members include geographic distance and finances. Because it is more common in this generation for young…… [Read More]


"Chapter One: The Field of Social Gerontology."
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Slang as Used in the

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10966257

However, in the film directed by Tina Fey that depicts the cruelty of an exclusive group of "Mean Girls," ordinary things for which there is already descriptive language is rendered into slang so adults do not understand the full cruelty of what is being said. Some adults may know that Regina and company are 'mean' but not to the extent which they rule the school and use exclusion as a way of enforcing their own mini-regime of terror. One of the strengths of the teacher played by Fey, Ms. Norbury, is that she is 'hip' to the language used by the mean girls, like when she tells them to stop using slang like "sluts" and "skanks."

The exclusive nature of the language of adolescents is underlined by the fact that the main character, named Cady Heron, in "Mean Girls" has grown up in South Africa, so she is initially uninitiated to the social structure of a typical American high school and the language of adolescents. She may speak English fluently, but she is not fluent in the mannerisms and interplay that is expected of her as a teenage girl. She was homeschooled, so she does not even seem to understand…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mean Girls." Directed by Tina Fey. 2004.