124+ documents containing “plastic surgery”.
Plastic surgery is often described by proponents of its use as "medical enhancement" but it should be viewed more properly as whether or not it is medically necessary (Miller). The question should be asked whether or not such surgery is needed for the maintenance or restoration of health. The medical enhancement approach would point out that there is a segment of society that seek plastic surgery as a method of ending feelings of alienation and embarrassment caused by some physical feature but such argument still fails to rise to the level of medical necessity. The potential risks associated with plastic surgery simply do not justify the results and it is time that the medical profession re-examine its role and refashion its position on the use of plastic surgery for purposes beyond medical necessity (Darisi). The medical profession must determine for itself whether it is appropriate for it to provide services….
Berer, Marge. "Cosmetic Surgery, body image and sexuality." Reproductive Health Matters (2010): 4-10.
Darisi, Tanya. "Influences on Decision-Making for Undergoing Plastic Surgery: Mental Models and Quantitative Assessment." Plastic & Reconstructuve Surgery (2005): 907-916.
Haiken, Elizabeth. Venus Envy: A History of Cosmetic Surgery. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Harris, David L. "Cosmetic Surgery- where does it begin?" British Journal of Plastic Surgery (1982): 281-286.
Plastic surgery is among the most common issues where arguments and debates between the pros and cons in society exist. There are those who oppose the practice of plastic surgery while there are those who find its benefits to outweigh the risks and negative effects.
For those who reject the idea of plastic surgery, the risks and negative effects of the practice are the reasons that they hold on to. Similarly, they also hold on the philosophical argument, tied with religious beliefs, regarding the naturalness of the human body and how God has given us the natural characteristics and features of the human body that each of us have. On the other hand, for those who are in favor of plastic surgery finds either vanity or vital medical reasons due to health problems as the main reasons why they support plastic surgery.
Taking on a side, I am in favor of plastic….
Agarwal, Pawan. Perception of Plastic Surgery in the Society.
Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, India.
Harcourt, Diana, Rumsey, Nichola. 2001. Psychological Aspects of Breast Reconstruction: A Review of the Literature.
Integrative Literature Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Blackwell Science Ltd.
The term 'plastic' is derived from the Greek syllable 'plastikos' meaning 'mold' or 'give shape to'. Plastic surgery is a special branch of medicine that deals with curing or rectifying facial disfigurement, scarring or other anomalies in the physical features that are either congenital or accidental. Advancements in technology have broadened the scope of plastic surgery and today it is performed for a variety of cosmetic purposes like, face-lift, breast implantation, reduction, penile enlargement etc. The historic origin of plastic surgery is traced back to India (hundreds of years C), where a text has references to what can be called as modern day rhinoplasty. Then in Italy during the sixteenth century Gasparo Tagliocozzi specialized techniques to treat facial disfigurement. He is also credited with the publication (1597) of the first comprehensive account of skin transplantation method in his work "De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem," [Alysa R. herman]. ut plastic….
Designed by Health Superstore, "Plastic Surgery History," Accessed on April 26th 2004, http://www.healthsuperstore.com/articles/skin-care/plastic_surgery_history.asp
Elizabeth Haiken, "The Making of the Modern Face: Cosmetic Surgery," Social Research, Spring 2000, Available online at, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2267/1_67/62402552/p1/article.jhtml
University of Iowa, " Plastic Surgery," Accessed on April 26th 2004, http://www.surgery.uiowa.edu/surgery/plastic/wips.html
AORN Journal, "Plastic surgery rates on the rise in older adult population," May 2002, Available online at, http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FSL/5_75/86040268/p1/article.jhtml
A person with a deviated septum may benefit from a nose reshaping. omen whose breasts have become enlarged after pregnancy or nursing, patients who have been in car accidents and through other traumatic physical incidents can benefit psychologically and physically, if the memory of that trauma is erased from their body. If surgery can improve a patient's health as well as a patient's appearance, health insurance may cover all or part of the expense. Feeling healthier and feeling better also often means that a patient will eat better, exercise more, and treat their new physical body with greater care.
Also, whether you like it or not, your appearance can even affect your income. "Good-looking, slim, tall people tend to make more money than their plain-Jane counterparts, according to a study released this month by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, with researchers finding that beautiful people tend to earn….
All the above factors of social acceptability and media influence also play a role at this stage.
The increasing popularity of cosmetic procedures are also related to the general wealth of society today. Many more people are able to afford cosmetic surgery because of greater wealth, wiser investment and greater ease of obtaining loans (Williamson). Cosmetic surgery is therefore available to a much larger sector of society than just the rich and famous. Furthermore, because of the increased level of social acceptability, the decision to have a procedure is much easier. The almost instant gratification projected by those who undergo procedures such as liposuction furthermore drive this decision in favor of a strict diet and exercise regimen. Cosmetic surgery and non-surgical procedures are therefore much more accessible to a larger sector of society.
Medical advances have also resulted in more than a tendency to live longer. Many cosmetic procedures have become….
BBC News Online. "Cosmetic surgery popularity surge." 24 January, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4195525.stm
Brown, Maeghan. "Plastic surgery popularity grows among Americans."
The Current Online, 24 January 2005. http://media.www.thecurrentonline.com/media/storage/paper304/news/2005/01/24/Features/Plastic.Surgery.Popularity.Grows.Among.Americans-839711.shtml
Dittmann, Melissa. "Plastic Surgery: beauty or beast?" Monitor on Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 8, 8 September 2005. http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep05/surgery.html
Within this framework, it is also imperative to call attention to that appearance is an significant form of divination, and according to research about fifty percent of South Koreans admit to trusting that one can interpret an individual's personality by merely observing their faces, and this is no small concern in a nation where the right look, both in terms of attire and facial qualities, can have an extremely substantial effect on one's achievement in life (Blum, 2005, p. 115). Choices to endure plastic surgery are thus motivated by the requirement to not only follow aesthetic standards, but also to restructure unfavourable facial features to something more favourable to behold. (Partridge, 1996, p. 31).
Whether or not one puts their trusts in appearance or not, what is obvious and irrefutable in the setting of modern South Korean society is that having the proper look has developed into a requirement for….
Author Unknown. (1987). Facial discrimination: Extending handicap law to employment discrimination on the basis of physical appearance. The Harvard Law Review Association, 100(8), 2035-2052.
Blum, V. (2005). Becoming the other woman: The psychic drama of cosmetic surgery. A
Journal of Women Studies, 26(2), 104-131.
Cullen, L.T. (2002), "Changing Faces," Time, Aug 5, pp.16-19.
of plastic surgery can result in irreversible damage to the normal body
structure, which has occurred in those addicted to surgery for cosmetic
purposes. Important risks cited by researchers in this area include the
fact that in the United States it is legal for any doctor, regardless of
specialty, to perform cosmetic surgery, but not plastic surgery. Plastic
surgery is recognized by certifiable associations as the surgery to repair
defects of form or function, which includes cosmetic surgery and
reconstructive surgery; whereas, cosmetic surgery refers to surgery that is
designed to improve appearance.
The problem with this is that in other countries, many doctors that
are not qualified as surgeons also perform cosmetic procedures. This
increases the risk of plastic surgery, when a non-board surgeon is
performing the surgery. Critics of plastic surgery also not that the
danger lies not in the actual surgery, but in the administration of the
anesthetic. An incorrect does of anesthetic can be fatal for those that
For some consumers, a price that seems "too good to be true" may warn them away from the product or service. It cheapens the product, and makes consumers worry that they are not getting the same quality article they might if they paid a higher price. Many professionals have the same problem with bundling professional services such as plastic surgery with things like vacations. The article states, "Some plastic surgeons are skeptical of consulting with patients for such important surgery from a distance. 'Sometimes clients come here and having paid for traveling and holiday, a doctor might feel obliged to go through with the operation even if the person is not suited,' says Tom Ford of the Association for Plastic and econstructive Surgeons in Southern Africa" (Article). This could be dangerous or even deadly, and so, the practice could end up being far more costly than just dollars and….
Article on Plastic Surgery and South African Travel.
Anderson, K. (1997, February). Getting the message straight: Changes in telecommunications laws have opened up the telephone service marketplace. Black enterprise, 27, 205+.
Glanz, W. (2000, January 13). Merger boosts case legend. The Washington times, p. 9.
Sherwood, M.K. (1994). Difficulties in the measurement of service outputs. Monthly labor review, 117(3), 11+.
Plastic Surgery in America
hen people hear the term "plastic surgery," they almost immediately think of the negative connotations of that phrase. hile it is certainly true that many Americans have had elective plastic surgery, there are far more types of medical procedures that fall under this category than the stereotypical nose jobs or breast enhancements. There are pros and cons to the debate about plastic surgery and its importance in this society. Most of the arguments against plastic surgery focus on the cosmetic aspects of this field and thus overlook some of the real world positive applications. Plastic surgery is overused in this country in terms of people who have unnecessary operations in order to alter their physical appearance to create some perceived ideal or to better match what the media portrays as beautiful. It is definitely true that this branch of plastic surgeries has had negative side effects in….
Plastic Surgery in Our Society
Plastic beauty -- curse or bliss?
There is much controversy regarding physical appearance in the contemporary society, as while the masses promote the belief that it one's thinking is more important than the way that he or she looks like, most people invest large amounts of money in their looks. The world has practically been bombarded by the effects of a cosmetic surgery culture during the recent years. Plastic surgery is in most cases a direct attack on society's honor, as it encourages discrimination based on appearance. Even though it only seems natural to employ a criticizing attitude when faced with the concept, it is actually difficult to determine whether or not plastic surgery is good -- the present day the social order functions in accordance with different values and people have come to achieve positive results as a consequence of artificially improving their outer shell.
Bayer, Kathryn, "Cosmetic Surgery and Cosmetics: Redefining the Appearance of Age,"Generations 29.3 (2005)
Blum, Virginia, "Becoming the Other Woman: The Psychic Drama of Cosmetic Surgery," Frontiers - A Journal of Women's Studies 26.2 (2005)
Blum, Virginia L., Flesh Wounds: The Culture of Cosmetic Surgery (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003)
Chapkis, Wendy, Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance (Boston: South End Press, 1986)
Cosmetic surgeries still focused on reconstructive procedures, such as repairing cleft palates, skin grafts mastectomies and reconstructed noses and ears .
Psychological Aspect of Cosmetic Surgery
Cosmetic surgery is a risky business, and there are many psychological unsatisfactories that come with cosmetic surgery .Psychosocial issues permeate the field of cosmetic surgery ( Grossbart, & Sarwer, 138 ). Factors identified are being young, suffering from depression or anxiety, and having a personality disorder. According to Pruzinsky, & Edgerton, ( 223) has stated the nature and degree of surgical change is an important predictor outcome more extensive procedures are more likely to result in serious body image disturbance than " restorative" procedures. The extent of changes in sensation following the procedure (face lift, loss of nipple sensation after breast augmentation) may also influence psychological outcomes, with greater degrees of sensory disturbance making adjustment to the procedure more difficult ( Grossbart & Sarwer, 172).
The Ethics of Plastic Surgery Funding Based on the eason for Surgery and Other Factors: A Literature-Based Briefing
Since the beginnings of recorded history at least, and indeed even earlier from what archaeologists have been able to ascertain, human beings have been obsessed with their own bodies. This is evident in the earliest works of art and in some of the earliest texts, and can also be seen in certain early practices of ancient civilizations that had identified specific features and/or proportions as more aesthetically pleasing than others and worked to achieve greater compliance with these standards of beauty through artificial means. These means were not limited to make-up, haircuts, and clothing, either, though all of these were employed by many ancient civilizations as a means of enhancing aesthetic beauty for both males and females, but in fact more permanent modifications were also made to the body.
In the modern era,….
Achauer, B., Eriksson, E., Coleman, J., Russell, R. & Guyuron, B. (2000> Plastic Surgery: Indications, Operations, and Outcomes. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.
Castle, D., Molton, M., Hoffman, K., Preston, N. & Phillips, K. (2004). Correlates of dysmorphic concern in people seeking cosmetic enhancement. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 38(6), pp. 439-44.
Davis, K. (20030. Dubious Equalities and Embodied Differences: Cultural Studies on Cosmetic Surgery. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Krizek, T. (2002). Ethics and philosophy lecture: surgery...Is it an impairing profession? Journal of the American College of Surgeons 194(3):352-66.
While it used to be primarily the face, the breasts and more visible parts of the body that people chose to have cosmetic surgery on, today they are taking things a step further. According to Davis (2002) one of the most popular "new sex surgeries" is the "designer vagina." These surgeries are supposed to improve the aesthetics of the vagina as well as make them 'tighter'.
Clearly, people are becoming bolder and surgeries are becoming more invasive. For many people, the effect these surgeries have on their relationships with their bodies is improved self-esteem and confidence. But for many others, it becomes just one part of an endless and futile attempt to attain perfection.
Davis, S.W. (2002, March 22) Loose lips sink ships, Feminist Studies
oyster, F. (2005, July 28) Hee hee: Michael Jackson and the transgendered erotics of….
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A euters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BUKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The….
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1187811902&archive=&template
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say a world where image….
Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank.
www.surgery.org/download/2003-stats.pdf:10. Accessed 25 July, 2011.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Health - Nursing
Plastic surgery is often described by proponents of its use as "medical enhancement" but it should be viewed more properly as whether or not it is medically necessary (Miller).…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Plastic surgery is among the most common issues where arguments and debates between the pros and cons in society exist. There are those who oppose the practice of plastic…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Plastic Surgery The term 'plastic' is derived from the Greek syllable 'plastikos' meaning 'mold' or 'give shape to'. Plastic surgery is a special branch of medicine that deals with curing…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
A person with a deviated septum may benefit from a nose reshaping. omen whose breasts have become enlarged after pregnancy or nursing, patients who have been in car…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
All the above factors of social acceptability and media influence also play a role at this stage. The increasing popularity of cosmetic procedures are also related to the general…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Within this framework, it is also imperative to call attention to that appearance is an significant form of divination, and according to research about fifty percent of South…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Sufficient amounts of plastic surgery can result in irreversible damage to the normal body structure, which has occurred in those addicted to surgery for cosmetic purposes. Important risks cited by researchers…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
For some consumers, a price that seems "too good to be true" may warn them away from the product or service. It cheapens the product, and makes consumers…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Plastic Surgery in America hen people hear the term "plastic surgery," they almost immediately think of the negative connotations of that phrase. hile it is certainly true that many Americans…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Plastic Surgery in Our Society Plastic beauty -- curse or bliss? There is much controversy regarding physical appearance in the contemporary society, as while the masses promote the belief that…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Cosmetic surgeries still focused on reconstructive procedures, such as repairing cleft palates, skin grafts mastectomies and reconstructed noses and ears . Psychological Aspect of Cosmetic Surgery Cosmetic surgery is a…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Ethics Plastic The Ethics of Plastic Surgery Funding Based on the eason for Surgery and Other Factors: A Literature-Based Briefing Since the beginnings of recorded history at least, and indeed even…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
While it used to be primarily the face, the breasts and more visible parts of the body that people chose to have cosmetic surgery on, today they are…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Plastic Surgery Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown…Read Full Paper ❯