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Tectonics the Ups and Downs
Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67941561
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As the mantle heats and cools unevenly, areas of differing density slowly move through the mantle. As they do, these areas of density variance have effects on surface features on the crust. For instance, there is a denser mass in the mantle shaped like a mushroom thousands of miles across and rising 900 miles from the Earth's core. The gentle rise of this mass has had the immediate effect of producing the African superswell, proof that motion in the mantle can have vertical as well as horizontal effects on the crust (Gurnis 40).

The lessons learned from the African superswell have been applied with great success in other parts of the world -- such as North American and Australia. The result has been a new understanding of the inner dynamics of the Earth. The motions of the mantle account for complex uplift situations throughout the world, and a deeper understanding…

Works Cited

Gurnis, Michael. "Sculpting the Earth from Inside Out." Scientific American 284.3 (Mar. 2001): 40-47.

Plate Tectonic
Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9689740
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The earth that we live in, from the scientific study, are formed from massive materials from millions of years ago. Scientists and geologists never stop the study of every inch of the earth's composition, but up to now, questions and debates brought up issues and fascinating stories of how the earth and its components were formed.

The history and evolution of the earth, its continents, and the bodies of water, are still yet to be proved. From the history of the solar system, the earth was formed from a large amount of rocky debris that fall together to form our planet. A massive material however crashed to the earth, melted its composition, solidified later, and formed crusts that created the earth's continents.

These crusts are unfathomable, too deep to enable scientists to conduct a study of what composes them and the various chemical processes that take place underneath the…


S. Ross Taylor and Scott M. McLennan. The Evolution of Continental Crust.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1996 Volume 274 Number 1 Pages 76-81.

Rock Cycle Most Processes on
Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59431248
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Both, ironically, are forms of pressure that also cause heat and changes. Water for instance, is so abundant on earth that it drives much of weathering and erosion. Precipitation, acidic soil water and groundwater dissolve mineral and rocks; serpentinization from heated seawater causes destruction of volcanic rock or changes in other seabed rocks; and the presence of water and carbon dioxide change rock as well. This is the manner in which the carbon and water cycle continually interact to change rock.

Plate tectonics, on the other hand, show that there are large scale motions within the earth that move, converge, and drive materials from deep inside the earth towards the surface and vice versa. Zones within the 8 or 9 major plates (subduction zones) form slabs of crust that become embedded and then if pressured enough with heat and more pressure, contribute to the evolution of rock. In addition, one…


All About Plate Tectonics. (2010). Enchanted Learning. Cited in: 

Rocks and the Rock Cycle. (2011). Windows to the Universe. Cited in:

Learning More About What Processes Change the Surface of the Earth
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72161887
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Structural Geology and Plate Tectonics

This concerns the changes in the formation of the earth crust and mantle from the smallest to the largest, such as a series of mountains (UWYO, 2011). Conducting a study of these changes requires a conduct of fieldwork in coordination with other scientific disciplines, such as geophysics, geochemistry and petrology. The University of Wyoming has conducted such fieldwork on the different active and ancient areas of crustl and mantle changes. This fieldwork continues at present on topics, including continental and oceanic extensional tectonics, aboriginal arc-continental collisions, fault systems, crustal studies, fold and fault features and direct dating of these changes (UWYO).

These studies looked into the Archean depths in Wyoming province, the Rocky Mountain, the Alps, the Colorado River, the Carribean and the San Andres fault (UWYO, 2011). Researchers have swam and dug into thousands of meters into the ocean in order to look and…


Noble, M.A. (2015). Processes that shape the surface of the earth. Vol. 11 Earth System History

and Natural Variability: Encyclopedia of Life Support System. Retrieved on July 17, 2015


UWYO (2011). Structural geology and tectonics. Department of Geology and Geophysics:

Ocean Basins the Oldest Oceanic
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41099697
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At the American coastline, the estimated age is between 1 and 60 million years. Finally, at the borderline with the Philippine and the Australian Plates, the approximated age is somewhere between 160, up to 180, or even 200 million years.

6) the Atlantic Ocean plate is similar to that of the Pacific Ocean in the meaning that its age differs. Just like with the Pacific crust, the Atlantic crust is younger at one border, to grow older towards the middle of the ocean, and even older as it reaches the opposite border.

7) the spatial pattern of the crustal age is consistent with the theory of the plate tectonics, which argues that -- at one point in time (or even at several times) -- the entire lands on the planet were joined together (ockhounding Arkansas, 1998). The pattern of the crustal age is consistent with this theory as it reveals…


Orfano, F., 2010, Topography of the ocean floor, Bright Hub,  last accessed on January 6, 2011

Patchett, P.J., Samson, S.D., 2003, Ages and growth of the continental crust from radiogenic isotopes, the Crust, Vol. 3

1998, Our changing Earth, Rockhounding Arkansas, last accessed on January 6, 2011

Crustal age, National Geographic Data Center,  last accessed on January 6, 2011

Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably
Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Chapter Paper #: 59755116
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Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably Deformed

Choose one answer.

at the surface of the earth.

when they were cold.

when the stress was applied very rapidly.

at a depth within Earth at elevated temperatures.


If rocks exhibit ductile behavior when exposed to compressive stress, they generally will form

Choose one answer.

normal faults.


reverse faults.



Which of the following types of strain does not result in permanent deformation?

Choose one answer.


elastic strain

plastic strain

brittle strain


Faults are geologic structures that result from which type of strain?

Choose one answer.

a. brittle strain

b. ductile strain

c. elastic strain

plastic strain


Question 5

In the Lesson 4 Topic 2 video, "Measuring Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude," you were able to see that the rupture from the 1906 earthquake traveled from mile marker 80 to mile marker 100 in 10 seconds. At…

Planetary Comparison the Earth and
Words: 1104 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25556576
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The inner core, meanwhile, has greater density, at 13, and temperature, at 6,650°C (or 12,000°F).

Compared against other planets in the solar system, the Earth contains just the appropriate amounts of gases, elements, and other properties that make human and other organism life possible.

Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, has lesser mass and volume than the Earth, at a fraction of only 1/18. However, it is as dense as the Earth, although Mercury's surface is made up of more solid mass, specifically rough, porous, dark-colored rocks. Its atmosphere is made up of sodium and potassium, which accounts for the planet's density and very thin atmosphere. It was hypothesized that the core of Mercury is made up of liquid iron compound, as a result of the presence of magnetic field.

Venus, meanwhile, exhibits a unique characteristic for being the brightest and hottest planet in the sky, with the presence…

Leopold Luna Bergere Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14426425
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Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.

Leopold's well-written and insightful book should be a required basic text for anyone interested in geomorphology. Specifically, the author delves into the basics of fluvial geomorphology, otherwise known as the study of the development of landforms under processes that are associated with running water.

Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology was originally written over 35 years ago, and does an amazing job of presenting the basic facts for fluvial geomorphologists. Over the years, a significant amount of additional detail has been added as the field of fluvial geomorphology has expanded.

Leopold's book consists of three main sections. The first part of the book centers on the process of change in the evolving landscape, and how geomorphology relates to field problems. The second part focuses on studies of climate, weather, flooding and erosion. The final third of the book centers on the processes…

Works Cited

Goudie, A. And Thomas, D., eds. The Dictionary of Physical Geography. Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.

Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.

Red Sea Spreading Seafloor the
Words: 5399 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1670069
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Hamilton explains that while Continental Lithosphere is as much as 93 miles thick, the "Oceanic Lithosphere" is much thinner - up to perhaps six miles. Indeed, the oceanic crust makes up only 0.099% of earth's mass, according to Hamilton. Oceanic lithosphere is a product of the volcanic magma that pushes up to force tectonic plates aside. As new oceanic lithosphere is actually formed the heat that comes up with the magma "escapes the interior as this new lithosphere emerges from below" in the Red Sea and elsewhere where there are tectonic plates spreading.

As the lithosphere cools, it contracts and then "moves away from the ridge, traveling across the seafloor to subduction zones." This process is technically called "seafloor spreading." After the lithosphere has been on the Red Sea floor for a while, it thickens up, Hamilton writes, and as it becomes even denser than the mantle just below…

Works Cited

Coleman, Robert G. (1993). Geologic Evolution of the Red Sea. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hamilton, Rosanna L. (1997). Earth's Interior & Plate Tectonics. Los Alamos National

Laboratory. Retrieved April 11, 2008, at .

Lovgren, Stefan. (2006). Red Sea Region Parting in Massive Split. National Geographic News.

Supercontinent Theory the Physical Geology of the
Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10576083
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Supercontinent Theory

The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…


Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.

United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:

Catalog of Earthly Wonders Only
Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40634208
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The Mayans believed that a land called Mu once existed above the waves and that when that civilization fell below the surface, the survivors created the Mayan people (Hancock, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization 73). In their creation story, the Mayans place Mu in the Pacific as a continent that pre-dates the Atlantis story. According to a translated Mayan Codec, the Land of Mu, like Atlantis, had been the center of significant social, scientific, religious, and cultural thought - it was, unlike Atlantis, an ideal place. When Mu fell during a massive geological upheaval, its people were able to escape to the continent of what is now South America and created the Mayan civilization - one of the most complex and significant of the ancient civilizations on the Americas.

Mu has been since taken up by what can only be loosely called New Age writers using it to link…


Collins, Andrew

Gateway to Atlantis: The Search for the Source of a Lost Civilization. Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1st Edition, New York

Erlingsson Ulf and Wibjorn Karlen.

Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective. Lindorm Publishing, Oslo.

Albert Lothar Wegener
Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6868740
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Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880-1930), German meteorologist, Arctic explorer and a brilliant interdisciplinary scientist, is best known as for his theory of "continental displacement" (that became famous, later, as the theory of continental drift). Since the technological means for proving the theory had not yet been developed and the idea was a radical departure from the scientific thinking of the time, Wegener's theory was widely rejected during his lifetime. After gradual accumulation of evidence in support of the idea, the theory finally gained acceptance in the early sixties. This paper gives a brief biography of Alfred Wegener, his theory of continental drift and other contributions to the world of science.

Early Life & Education

Alfred Wegener was born on November 1, 1880 in Berlin. His father was a minister and ran an orphanage. Even as a young boy Wegener was interested in walking, skating and hiking that he put to use…


Alfred Wegener 1880-1930" (1998) People and Discoveries. A Science Odyssey. Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Waggoner, Ben. (1996) "Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)." Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Watson, J.M. "Alfred Lothar Wegener: Moving continents." The United States Geological Survey (USGS Website). Retrieved on May 7, 2003 at 

Wilkson, Tuzo J. (April1963) "The Continental Drift." Article first printed in the Scientific American Journal-Reproduced in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Igneous Rock Is One of the Three
Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53543229
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Igneous rock is one of the three main types of rock formations making up the earth's crust. It is formed primarily through the cooling and subsequent solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may also form without any crystallization -- below the surface as intrusive rocks or above as extrusive. It is best to think of igneous rock as being formed with heat -- one or more of three processes: temperature increases, decreases in pressure, or changes in composition. There are a number of types of igneous rocks; at least 700 have been cataloged, with most being formed deep within the earth's crust.

To describe the events that take place to move igneous rock from deep within the earth's core to the surface requires an understanding of the rock cycle. This is a concept that describes how rocks move and evolve into other types of rock or onto the surface…

Rising from the Plains
Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 56336464
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ising From the Plains

John Mcphee, a writer of creative nonfiction books, started writing about the earth in 1985. He described the structure and movement of the earth's crust and mantle based on geology. He focused on the theory called plate tectonics which describes the earth's crust as several plates that bump with each other while gliding over the mantle. That theory was accepted only in the latter part of 1960's (decades after this idea was put forward for consideration), based upon geologic beliefs (Quammen, 1998). ising from the Plains is a good book in itself but can be seen as a sequel to his two earlier books namely In Suspect Terrainand Basin and ange. The book revolves around the ocky Mountains' geology and an adjacent terrain in Wyoming, both of which are near Interstate 80. The life story of David Love, a ocky Mountain geologist, and his household was…


Hannibal, J. (n.d.). Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from Library Journals LLC:

Long-Term Landscape Evolution of the Colorado Front Range and its Foreland. (2016). Retrieved from Colorado University Papers: 

Maher, S. (2014). Deep Map Country. University of Nebraska Press.

McPhee, J. (1986). Rising from the Plains. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Large Scale Features of This
Words: 1761 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80693916
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The materials that are collected in them are solids from the various gases (which cooled inside these clouds). The gravity from the sun pulled them closer towards each other. This contributed to the formation of the planets and asteroids. ("Summary," 2007) (Williams, 2010)

Once a star is finished developing, is when solar winds will blow rock and debris away from the sun. This forms the Kuiper Belt and Oort Clouds, which is where the smaller debris is collected near the orbit of the outer body planets. These are the remains of the rubble that was used to create the solar system billions of years ago.

However, there is an exception to this pattern. In research that was conducted on distant galaxies, scientists discovered that there are not large outer planets with asteroid belts (i.e. Jupiter). This led to theories that much warmer Jupiter like bodies could exist closer to these…


Quick Mars Facts. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from: 

The Milky Way. (2011). Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from: 

The Moons of Saturn. (2010). UTK. Retrieved from: 

Saturn Overview. (2012). NASA. Retrieved from:

Metamorphism Physical Geology Metamorphism Causes
Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34555526
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The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…


Contact metamorphism. (2010). Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.

Jessey, Dave. Metamorphism. (2010). Geology 101. Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.

Geothermal Energy the Earth Formed Approximately 4 5
Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29253476
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Geothermal Energy

The earth formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago. Our planet's geothermal heat originates from the energetic remnants of that coalescence. Over time, the interior of the earth "became differentiated into several distinct compositional zones: a large, iron rich core; a thick surrounding mantle; and at the surface, a thin, low density crust." (Montgomery 10). This fact contributed to a number of important attributes of the earth, including the formation of the atmosphere -- which came into existence thanks to gases escaping from the hot interior.

Despite the fact that the earth has been gradually cooling for the past 4 billion years, "The earth still retains enough internal heat to drive large-scale mountain-building processes, to produce volcanic eruptions, to make continents mobile, and indirectly to trigger earthquakes." (Montgomery 10).

A cross-section of the earth would reveal that it is surrounded by a thin outer crust that is about 10…


Gallant, Roy A. Geysers: When Earth Roars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1997.

Geothermal Energy Facts." Geothermal Education Office. December 23, 2000. Retrieved October 9, 2004 from

Montgomery, Carla W. Physical Geology: Third Edition. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1987.

Accounting-History Was the 20th Century
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22013255
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It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.

Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."

oles of Women

Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna

Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…


Asmar, Marwan. Dr. (31 December, 1999). "The makers of the 20th century." The Star (Jordan,

Middle East.

Cowen, Tyler. (January, 2000). "Who Says the Arts Are Dying?" USA Today (Magazine). (accessed 28 November, 2004).

Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. (22 March, 2004). "Sustaining gains: reflections on women in science and technology in 20th-century United States." NWSA Journal.

Values and Practices That Comprises
Words: 1606 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39503238
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The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)

To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…


Caldwell, Roger. C. "Paradigms - the Big Changes and Shifts in Society" Retrieved from . Accessed on 2 February, 2005

Jeantheau, Mark. "Paradigm Shift-How Some Try to Win by Changing the Rules of the Game" Retrieved from -- how-some try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html -- howsome try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html Accessed on 2 February, 2005

McNamara, Carter. (1999) "New Paradigm in Management" Retrieved at . Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Paradigm Shift" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at . Accessed on 2 February, 2005

Metamorphic Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks and Their
Words: 1239 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7055696
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Metamorphic, Igneous, And Sedimentary Rocks and Their Application to Planets in the Solar System

The objective of this study is to examine metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks and their application to planets in the solar system.

There are reported to be three primary classes of rocks, which are classified according to their origination. The three rock types are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when bodies of magma cool. As time passes and the rocks undergo process due to various weather cycles the igneous rocks erode and the particles and chemicals, which settle into beds, become compressed or cemented forming into what are known as sedimentary rocks. In the event igneous rocks are buried and then undergo a high state of heating and compression they form into what are known as metamorphic rocks. Eventually, the rocks undergo heat and compression and then melt with the molten rock…


Basic Rock Types (2012) Zooinverse. Geology Basics. Retrieved from: 

Major Rock Types (2012) Rocks & Other Mineral Sources. Retrieved from: 

Nelson, SA (2012) Earth Structure, Materials, Systems, and Cycles. Tulane University. Retrieved from:

Topography Climate and Biogeography in
Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30233385
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These mountains surrounding the area have had an influence on much of the Great Valley's climate.

Particular to the valley is grassland which, in fact, has earned a name for itself and an advocate in this sense. Great Valley Grasslands State Park thrives on preserving whatever grassland is left in the region of San Joaquin Valley. The Valley allows for the nourishment of such wild flower as lupines, California Poppies, and Purple Owl Clover. Mountain runoff created wetlands habitats throughout the years, leading to the formation of marshes. Although they are not common anymore, they supplied the right environment for such trees as the Black illow, which is a water loving tree. Riparian oodland is also to be found in the Great Valley, as it is common to the Mojave Desert, however, their existence within the regions of the latter has been burdened by the tamarisk.

Spreading across the coast…

Works Cited

Schoenherr, a.A. (1995). A Natural History of California. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Naturalists and Materialists Philosophy Is Credited to
Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50417909
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Naturalists and Materialists

Philosophy is credited to the Ancient Greeks. Historians, sociologists, and modern philosophers have traced the origins of philosophy to this period in history. The philosopher's position was as the community thinker, the people of the community who would sit around and think. Their jobs were to think about the best ways to improve society and to understand through thinking and concentration the principles of humanity. Philosophers attempted to use certain thoughts and concepts of understanding to come to some larger conclusion about the human condition as a whole. Socrates is argued to be the greatest of the philosophers and his way of thinking is believed to have shaped the ideas of centuries of philosophers to come. Before him, there were other great thinkers who, although they might not have had the same overreaching and lasting importance as Socrates, nonetheless contributed monumentally to the development of philosophical thought…

Works Cited

Allen, Reginald E. Greek Philosophy: Thales to Aristotle. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1991.


Greatest Show on Earth the Evidence for Evolution Richard Dawkins
Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57897380
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In the book The Greatest Shown on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution author Richard Dawkins (2009) attempts to explain how it is impossible for evolution to be logically denied if people look at the scientific evidence behind the theory. In the book, he in fact states that evolution should not still be considered as just a scientific theory. Rather, he believes that evolution should be considered an established fact regardless of people's religious teachings and subsequent beliefs. His attitude is one of an expert in the field who is talking down to those who do not agree with him, a perspective that makes his book believable but unlikely to convince people who do not agree with him on the subject.

In Dawkins' book, he uses many specific examples to further prove his assertion that evolution is far more than a theory, but proven fact. Among the many things that…

Works Cited:

Dawkins, R. (2009). The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution. Free Press: New

York, NY.

Generational Differences in Volcanic Activity
Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37150615
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Hawaiian Volcanoes and Relationship to a Deep-Mantle Plume

From the many topics that were given as options by the facilitator of this class, the author of this report has chosen to write about Hawaiian volcanoes and their relationship to the deep-mantle plumes that are nearby and close to them. The area that has come to be known as Hawaii exists within a hotbed of volcanic activity. Of course, this is true both above ground and below it as well. Volcanos play a huge part in how the earth has taken on its current shape as many islands and even many continents have been greatly impacted or formed by the activity of volcanoes. hile the topic of this report makes it very clear that the deep-mantle plume and Hawaiian volcanoes are very heavily linked and this report will explore this in great detail using the suggested resources.


The deep-mantle plume…

Work Cited

Foulger, Gillian R., and Don L. Anderson. "The Emperor and Hawaiian Volconaic Chains." The Emperor and Hawaiian Chains. N.p., 11 Mar. 2006. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

Mastin, Larry G., Robert L. Christiansen, Donald A. Swanson, Peter H. Stauffer, and James W. Hendley, II. "Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98." Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98. N.p., 14 Oct. 2004. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.

NPS. "Frequently Asked Questions: Volcano - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park

Service)." N.p., 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.

Planning and Reflection During My Student Teaching
Words: 2663 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15884440
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Planning and Reflection

During my student teaching experiences I kept a journal, which greatly helped me to organize my thoughts and clarify the areas in which I most needed to improve. My mentor also pointed out for me the key areas that need improvement. Therefore, as I look forward to a professional career as a teacher, I will be able to draw on these early experiences. I will remember what works and what doesn't and I already feel far more confident and proficient than I did before I undertook the student teaching challenge. In general a few major themes emerged through reviewing my journal entries and the statements written by my mentors. My strengths are my willingness to use a wide variety of teaching materials and teaching styles. An enthusiastic implementation of multimedia materials keeps students actively engaged, and keeps lessons more interesting. Moreover, my lessons are well-planned and incorporate…

Works Cited


Ballantyne, R & Packer, J 1995, making connections: gold guide no 2, Hersda, Canberra, pp 4-14

Department of Education and Training. Online at < >.

Lorsbach, Anthony and Tobin, Kenneth. "Teaching"

Ruddiman's Account of Ancient Human
Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69627461
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Humanity might not have the same effective power over the environment when fossil fuels run out. While this assumption is certainly believable, humans will not doubt reach a point where the greenhouse gas absorbing plants and bodies will no longer be able to keep up with human activity. This will further exacerbate the problem of human-caused global climate change. On the other hand, if humans are able to develop non-fossil fuel alternatives that do not have a negative effect on the environment on a global scale, the warming trend might very well be reversed in a generation or two. Either way, Ruddiman's arguments will likely be proven to be wrong or right, on a long enough timeframe.

ection IV: Opposing Points-of-View

Anthropologists, specifically, disagree with Ruddiman. ince the author himself is not an anthropology professor and admittedly has very little experience in this field, it would only seem natural that…


Allen, Robert, Scott Seaman and John DeLascio. "Emerging Issues: Global Warming Claims and Coverage Issues." Defense Counsel Journal 76 (2009): 12-9. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .

Bast, Joseph. "Eight Reasons Why 'Global Warming' is a Scam." The Heartland Institute. The Heartlander, Feb. 2003: n.pag. Web. 10 Apr. 2010.

Bert, Ray. Rev. Of Plows, Plagues, & Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate, by William F. Ruddiman. Civil Engineering 78 (2008): 73.

Morgan, Sally. Global Warming. New York: Heinemann, 2009. Print.

San Gabriel River Fluvial Landscape
Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36977536
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Fluvial Landscape: Chino Hills State Park

Chino Hills State Park is located in the Chino Hills, which are in the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. Chino Hills State Park is located almost entirely in the city of Chino Hills, California. Chino Hills State Park is a link in the Puente-Chino Hills ildlife Corridor, which enables migrating wildlife to retain their normal migratory patterns despite widespread human habitation in the surrounding area. It provides open space for human recreation, but its most important functions are to provide a natural habitat for native vegetation, water resource protection, and wildlife protection.

Chino Hills State Park is just over 14,000 acres and can be found near where Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties intersect. The park includes some of the Santa Ana Mountains and a significant portion of the Puente-Chino Hills Located in the hills; it is no surprise to find a wide…

Works Cited

California State Parks. "Chino Hills State Park." California State Parks. 2002. Web. 7 Oct.

Ucsd Application as a Resident of Taiwan
Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59085798
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UCSD pplication

s a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.

s terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. s scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to…

As a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.

As terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. As scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to help their countries prepare. In the Far East, where the risk of earthquakes is high, there is a high level of preparedness, with infrastructure in place to help minimize the physical damage and assist people with basic needs in the aftermath of disaster. There is still much more to be done, however. I would very much like to attend the summer program "Earthquakes in Action" at the University of California at San Diego's Jacobs School of Engineering. I hope to learn more about earthquakes and explore various academic and career options in which they are a focus.

I have a strong background in mathematics and I believe that prepares me for the rigors of the summer course. I am particularly interested in the ways that bridges and buildings respond to earthquakes and I look forward to the opportunity to use computer-generated models to study the methods of design and construction that are meant to address these problems. I would appreciate the opportunity to study with experts in seismology and structural engineering and learn as much as I can. The summer program sounds like a great cooperative learning experience. I am really looking forward to the possibility of working with professionals and other students in this endeavor.

Science Tasks Document 2 Of 2 Moisture-Related
Words: 1633 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19085735
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Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)



Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."

This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.

Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).

But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?

I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…


Gibb, Timothy J. And Oseto, Christian Y. (2006). Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. San Diego and London: Elsevier Academic Press.

Robinson, William H. (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.