Instead, Phillips sees that the issues surrounding #2 are the most important and neglected. He finds a lack of commonality in number of sessions, time of sessions, intervention, and even parental involvement (Phillips, 19). By its very nature, though, since each individual client is coming from a diverse background, would it not stand to reason that some children might need a longer session, or more sessions, than others -- depending upon the severity of their issue. Similarly, since each individual responds to play in a slightly divergent manner, their individual needs will naturally vary. but, is this not the same as other models of cognitive therapy? Some adults suffer from minor compulsions; say needing to quit smoking; some suffer from stronger issues; and some are ill enough to require daily therapy; why should this be different with children. More important, why should this invalidate an entire methodology?
Phillips' argument is…… [Read More]
Piaget and Play
What is / are the research questions explored in this article? Dougherty and ay
(2007) report that an estimated 20% of children and adolescents in the United States have treatable mental health problems and two thirds of these children do not receive the services they need. With respect to make-believe play, Piaget hypothesized play was a consequence of a maturing brain occurring in the preoperational stage that was able to engage in more symbolic or representational thought from the previous sensorimotor stage. Thus, make-believe play becomes less self-centered, more detached from real-world situations, and includes more complex combinations of schemes as the child matures. Play shifts from egocentric to social as the child moves from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage. Child centered play therapy (CCPT) applies clinically relevant techniques to working with children as children prefer play to talking. Previous research has indicated that CCPT…… [Read More]
Music therapy involves incorporating music into therapist-patient relationship development for promoting the latter's physiological, psychological, emotional and social health. One can consider music therapy to be a part of creative arts treatment, clinical treatment, or supplementary treatment relative to the conventional medical model. It encompasses numerous techniques such as playing a musical instrument, singing a song, listening to music and improvisation (McCaffrey 42). Autism spectrum disorder represents a lasting developmental disability which evolves at different levels of severity. The condition has been marked by the following three key characteristics: challenges when it comes to forging social bonds; intense limited fanatic interests; and issues when communicating verbally and non-verbally (National Autistic Society 1)
The Benefits of Music Therapy for Children with Autism
Autistic kids depict greater sensitivity to anxiety as compared to non-autistic ones, since they cannot effectively filter out any triggering stimulus. Steady rhythmic music or classical songs are considered…… [Read More]
Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).
(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).
(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…… [Read More]
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…… [Read More]
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…… [Read More]
"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…… [Read More]
The medical field is constantly undergoing significant changes in response to the changing health and social needs of Canadians, as well as health care delivery systems. Occupational therapy is an integral part of this process, as it has expanded from traditional hospital settings to home and community care.
Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists identifies some of the existing trends as affecting occupational therapy:
• an aging population
• increased awareness of the needs of people with disabilities
• higher survival rates from accidents and injuries
• increased emphasis on health promotion and prevention to keep health care costs down
• higher incidence of mental health and family problems
• changes in work conditions such as job stress and early retirement
• a more informed public regarding health and health concerns
In my opinion one of rapidly evolving trends in occupational therapy in Ontario is its increasing role in…… [Read More]
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…… [Read More]
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…… [Read More]
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.
The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl ogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.
Both Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy.…… [Read More]
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]
There are many instances of art acting as a means of enabling people back to health. This healing aspect of creativity is, I believe, due to the fact that we are liberated from the restrictions of the world in the process of creativity and because artworks are in a sense the residue of the experience of spiritual and expanded consciousness.
There are numerous clinical studies which show the effective of art therapy. For example, a number or art therapists have studied the affect of art therapy on people who have experienced loss. "Art therapists consistently observe the power and potential of art to help identify, cope with, and heal the pain experienced during the grief process..." (Hill, M.A.)
However, the healing process in creativity can best be explained by the deeper meaning of spontaneity.
Nachmanovitch asks the important question: "How does one learn improvisation?" The answer to this question is…… [Read More]
He realizes and wants the reader to realize that those roots have merit and modern day approaches simply that the field of mental health to the next step or next level of the industry, but he stresses the importance of action therapy not reflection therapy. Each step is a building block toward the eventual goal of having answers more quickly and more accurate than the past answers, however without Freud and those who came after him the new theories would not be possible.
he book is a refreshing approach and puts Glasser's reality therapy into play by acknowledging the others who have developed theories and giving them their dues before moving on to examine the next step which he believes is his approach.
Glasser's book is based on an individual's power to choose. hey can choose how they react to life, they can choose how they react to people and…… [Read More]
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…… [Read More]
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…… [Read More]
Cog Beh Therapy
With respect to the businessman who comes to see the therapist about the problems in his marriage, there are two issues immediately apparent from the brief case history. The first is the man's unwillingness to accept any responsibility for the success of the relationship. He is immediately defensive, blaming his wife for all their problems. He claims that she is hypercritical and that she is "probably" suffering from PMS. Without getting the wife's side of the story, it is impossible to know the extent of her complaints against her husband, the degree to which she feels they need help, and the amount of effort she is willing to expend -- and has already expended -- to put the marriage back on track, if that is in fact what she wants. It is unlikely she has had a formal diagnosis of PMS. Used in this context, "PMS" is…… [Read More]
UNSTUCTUED PLAY AND CHILDEN'S DEVELOPMENT
Unstructured play in childhood
The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development
Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…… [Read More]
Freeview Company / e-Launch of Freeview
Analysis of Interpersonal Skills
With over 19 million subscribers Freeview is the most subscribed or popular digital television service in the United Kingdom. ecently they launched Freeview Play enabling their subscribers even more control and choice. Freeview Play has a catch up TV feature, too. The greatest selling point for Freeview is the fact that it free. Subscribers do not have to pay anything to subscribe to its channels. The company was launched in the year 2002 by DTV Services Limited, a firm that is jointly owned by Arqiva, BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and Sky. When the company was launched in 2002 it had just twenty five channels but now it has grown to include over sixty free-to-view channels and twelve high definition (HD) channels (Freeview, 2015).
Summary of Case Study
In the last few years, there has…… [Read More]
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…… [Read More]
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…… [Read More]
afternoon, light rain falling and predictions of thunder storms on the way. Client was eight minutes late to his appointment. "It doesn't matter that you're a few minutes late, I am glad to see you -- but is everything going okay this afternoon?" he was asked by therapist.
Client seems defensive when no pressure at all is put on him. First he said his watch stopped, then he admitted he lost track of time because he was into playing a new video game. He asked if video games are a bad thing and was assured that entertainment was his choice.
"Oh, also," he added. "After I was in my car I went back to my apartment to get my umbrella." Client is trying to maintain a good relationship with the therapist.
The client was sweating when he sat down, and it was humid in the room so we agreed the…… [Read More]
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…… [Read More]
Gervaise et. al, (1999) point out that increasingly financial reimbursement restrictions from managed care agencies play a critical role "in the quality of patient care" (1). According to the researchers, "complicated contractual arrangements among multiple providers obstruct rather than facilitate provisions for continuity of patient care" (Gervaise, et. al, 1).
New Advances In Modern Care - Addressing Time Limited Therapy
In the short- and long-term it is likely that limits on therapy will remain. Thus new treatment models must be developed to ensure adequate care. New requirements and restrictions placed by managed care organizations necessitate change in the health care field. Much of the research available supports more training for psychologists so they learn techniques for succeeding using group therapy practices (Drotos, 1997; Kent, 2000; Joseph, 1997). Group oriented approaches enable successful time limited treatments and cost effective services that health maintenance organizations are more likely to support.
There is…… [Read More]
What Corey describes as "postmodern" therapy is, in reality, largely a series of evolutionary changes. Recalling how evolution works -- in which organisms change form ultimately as an adaptive mechanism -- might be useful here, insofar as many of these "postmodern" approaches seem adaptive in terms of the actual climate of opinion concerning psychotherapy and its medical utility. The chief example that I am thinking of here is "solution-focused brief therapy."
The notion of "solution-focused brief therapy" would have caused Sigmund Freud to spin in his grave, considering Freud devoted an entire book, entitled Analysis Terminable and Interminable, to the question of whether psychotherapy should ideally last forever. However the widespread cultural rejection of the Freudian paradigm is, perhaps, one reason why the notion of long-term Freudian analysis has come to be replaced with the fast food approach. But the chief reason appears to be adaptive: increasingly health…… [Read More]
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…… [Read More]
Human beings are manifest as male and female. The long absence of a female deity has resulted in the repression of the female energy as subordinate and less important than that of the male. However, Woodman's suggestion of the Goddess Kali and Shearer's suggestion of Themis could serve as bases for reconciliation within the self and between the genders on a collective level.
Ann Shearer (in Huskinson, 2008, p. 49) notes that Themis provides a point of reconciliation between the male and the female. Her name means "right order," and she represents the relationship of the human with the divine. As a Titan, she predates the split between the male and female and represents the healthy psychological being. Indeed, the author compares her with Jung's concept of the "Self," where an instinctual psychological being is present, where the male and female aspect are in harmony with each other. As archetype,…… [Read More]
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…… [Read More]
E Nurses -- Evaluated situation, helped calm Hally, retook vital signs, prepared for NP
E Nurse Practitioner -- Examined Hally, ordered X-ay, reviewed all symptoms and signs; interpreted x-ray, with Nurse, administered muscle relaxer and anesthesia, set arm in cast.
X-ay Technetium -- Took X-ay films of Hally's right arm; processed for NP's review.
General Practitioner -- Follow up after E visit, watched for signs of infection or discoloration; insured blood flow to arm, managed pain and swelling medication. emoved cast at appropriate time.
ehabilitative Personnel -- Specialized to help Hally gain full use of her arm through exercise therapy, ultrasound, Jacuzzi, and massage therapy.
Part 3 -- in its very basic form, broken bones are quite common in children. However, there were a number of factors that needed to be assessed by health professionals during Hally's incident:
Location and type of Break -- Ensure no bone or part of…… [Read More]
However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.
The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…… [Read More]
Alternate Practice Therapy Experiment
The truant individual also tends to manifest through dangerous behaviors and travel a path of extremity with sad endings and wasted lives. This chapter will serve to review literature that speaks to and of the problem of the truancy that is so highlighted in schools at the top of the 21st century. Extremely a progressive problem that is firmly within the very root of belief, thought and process as the truant has through reactionary events and then formation of environment. Then there were those who made a difference in the very experientially gained concepts or expressions of purpose.
The students love her and called her their teacher with red hair. Mrs. lack, the teacher who loved to read and then you follow. Those teachers who are of the teaching essence as so to captivate the child's mind are often barred from governance within the educational practice…… [Read More]
Jeffrey a. Daniels, C. Bradley, Daniel P. Cramer, Amy inlker, Kisha Kinebrew, and Deleska Crockett interviewed a counselor that dealt with a difficult hostage taking situation and talked the student involved into surrendering. Apparently, counselors are most qualified to deal successfully in this kind of situations.
Article critiques," written by Susan Student, examines several papers by counselors who touch the relationship between man and computer, which is taking dramatic proportions. The article is written in order to make counselors more aware of their present situation and it is supposed to emphasize the responsibilities that counselors have.
Sullivan, J. Engeland, J. (2008). Educational Theories.
Moyer, M. Sullivan, J. Student Risk-Taking Behaviors:hen Do School Counselors
Davis, T. Elementary and Middle Level Counselors' Courtroom Hearing.
Daniels, a.J., Bradley, M.C., Cramer D.P., inkler, a., Kinebrew, K., Crockett, D. In the Aftermath of a School Hostage Event: A Case Study of…… [Read More]
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…… [Read More]
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…… [Read More]
Presence of regional and distant metastases alters the stage of the disease and for these patients, standard therapy is inadequate [KEYS et al. 2004]. With the diagnoses of endometrial adenocarcinoma it is most likely that the patient in question is at an early stage of disease. To have a better prognosis, further surgical diagnosis to achieve a FIGO stage is needed as that will allow doctors to ascertain the level of myometrial muscle invasion, histological type, and differentiation grade [AMANT et al. 2005]. If the patient is at a FIGO stage one, the five-year survival rate stands at 85%, with stage II standing at 75%, stage III at 45%, and stage IV at 25% [GRISBY et al. 1992]. Treatment should follow the established regimen of hysterectomy along with radiation therapy.
Amant, F. et al. 2005. Endometrial Cancer. ancet, 366, pp. 491-505.
Boulet, G.A.V., et al. 2008. Human Papillomavirus…… [Read More]
What is the key question, problem, or need the project will address?
The key question this project will address is the history of food-as-medicine and the benefits of diet-as therapy. The focus will be on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) dietary therapy within the context of Korean traditional food and lifestyle; the kinds of medicinal cuisines still popular in modern Korean society today; and the actual benefits of TCM vs. people's beliefs.
Why is the project important?
Diet is an important factor in longevity and also in improving the quality of life. As well as prolonging life, there is a growing interest in the extent to which diet can reduce the risks of developing chronic conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.
What data will be used, how will it be collected and how long will this take?
This paper will consist of a review of the literature…… [Read More]
Some other factors may also be addressed such as the client's perception of his or her role in homosexuality, if he comes from a culture where it is normal or acceptable for men to be sexually active with other men, so long as he is not sexually passive -- this may affect his sense of his sexual identity as well.
It must be stressed, above all, at the first session, that the counselor cannot provide the client with an all-encompassing answer to his or her dilemmas regarding family and identity. The counselor cannot be the person who gives permission to 'leave,' or the person who orders the individual to 'stay.' Rather, the counselor is there as a sounding board. At this early juncture, once the client's readiness to leave or not leave his current marital session is assessed, it may be helpful to have another counselor deal with the problems…… [Read More]
Nurse's ole As esearcher
The nurse plays a unique role as a researcher. This involves them focusing on the latest treatment options, how they affect patients and the best times specific techniques should be utilized. Moreover, they must understand the numerous side effects of different therapies and how this will affect the patients they are working with. These areas help them to serve as confidant in comprehending how and when to apply certain procedures. (Allan, 2005)
At the same time, the nurse will understand the psychology, customs, behavior and biological factors which are contributing to a host of conditions. This enables them to comprehend the challenges patients are going through and the lasting impact this is having on them. When this happens, they can reduce suffering and improve their ability to cope with the issues they are facing. These insights will help patients to make a full recovery with reduced…… [Read More]
role Americans Disabilities Act 1990 plays hiring evaluation process police officers. 3. The ethical conflicts unique police psychologists.
Abelardo Morell At the indow: The Photographer's View
The Cuban-born photographer Abelardo Morell is best known for his photographic work using the technique known as camera obscura. This technique actually pre-dates contemporary photography and was used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as well as Leonardo. Camera obscura involves the use of "light passing through a pinhole into a dark room" which will "project and transpose an image of whatever lies outside" (Di Pero 2013). Morell has adapted this technique to cotemporary photography. He dates his fascination with the method to the birth of his son, in after which he became inspired to look at the world with the eyes of a child and desired to take a more domestic view of life. "I started making photographs as if I…… [Read More]
Musical play was designed to elicit greater responsiveness from the child in a fun setting and also to enhance the enjoyment of the adult involved in the activity. The aim of the activity was to encourage age-appropriate physical and speech-related activities as well as accustom the child to the sound of music. Rolling over while the music played, imitating the sounds and words were initiated by the adult, and when the child mimicked the adult, the child was told 'good job.' The activity was also designed to positively sensitize the child to instrumental and sung music in a social setting.
alworth, Darcy D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46(1), 32-52. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library…… [Read More]
Norton, B. et al. (2011) "Somatic Expressions of rauma in Experiential Play herapy" in International Journal of Play herapy, Vol. 20, No. 3, 138 -- 152.
Researchers have found connections between animal and human responses to trauma that are important in understanding somatic (non-verbal) cues and conditioning. Some research has been done that shows parallels between animal behaviors and child behaviors in cases of abuse and neglect, although the literature remains scant. Children act out trauma in play therapy, resulting in a building of "trauma energy," expressed through movement in the discharge, or surge, phase. Following is the "soothe phase," in which the child becomes calm as part of trauma processing. As the authors point out, some severely traumatized children must undergo the process several times during treatment.
hompson, E.H. et al. (2012) "School-Based Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Domestic Violence" in Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 27,…… [Read More]
Dibs in Search of Self by Virginia Mae Axline is such a profoundly interesting book because it demonstrates one of the most challenging cases I've ever encountered within the realm of child psychology and an effective yet, gradual method of dealing with this case. Dibs to me represents a child stifled and overcome with emotions. He is so choked with emotions he's become almost completely uncommunicative. He did not socialize with other students in his class, and would not engage with any adults except by way of hysterics or tantrums. Dibs in many respects had checked out of life and out of all social situations: he would not speak, but would hide under tables or in isolation from the groups. Axline makes this apparent from the start of the book; the example that she uses in this case is extremely well representative of the behavior that Dibs engages in as…… [Read More]
Afraid to Talk
The case study examined for this paper involved a seven-year-old girl who had been a witness to her 18-month-old sister dying after her stroller was struck by a car. The seven-year-old, Kathy, was also present at the hospital and saw her sister, Kim, when she died. The bulk of the case study involves Bruce St. Thomas, the psychiatrist, working with Kathy over a long series of sessions to resolve her emotional issues. The diagnosis for Kathy was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the doctor used play therapy and other techniques geared toward the counseling of young children to allow the child to work through her emotional issues. This paper looks at the diagnosis and its accuracy, the method of therapy and its true effect, and whether there were any personal disagreements with the case.
For many years it was believed that PTSD, and other mental health disorders,…… [Read More]
Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…… [Read More]
Supervisee should have a clear view on what to expect during the supervision process.
Supervisor: Are there any courses or resources that would develop your standards in relation to services delivery?
Supervisee: Learning provides room for improvement, and that would be no different to my scenario. I would attend to relevant courses to boost my confidence and expertise level in dealing with clients on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Structural coaching on relevant issues would enhance my development to tackling therapeutic problems in the clinical field of study. The structural coaching would supplement the pertinent information from this and the previous supervision programs. Much exposure such as working in large organizations would improve the level of standards in dealing with cultural problems among different clients.
Supervisor: What are the six dimensions of multicultural competencies supervision?
Supervisee: The first dimension is the Supervisor-Focused Personal Development that reflects examination of the…… [Read More]
The concept of general ability or intelligence has in the past been the most important single way of accounting for individual differences. IQ (Intelligence quotient) is usually assessed by measuring performances on a test of a number of different skills, using tasks that emphasize reasoning and problem solving in a number of different areas. Early assessments of IQ were done in France by Alfred Binet in 1905, as part of an attempt to identify children who needed specialist help to make educational progress. Interest in IQ testing continued in the U.S. By researchers such as Louis Terman.
IQ was thought to be fixed in these early years and so was often used in education in an attempt to predict children's future academic progress with different levels of measured intelligence being taken to imply the need for different forms of educational experiences. More able children are supposed to need…… [Read More]
Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).
The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."
Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.
Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…… [Read More]
Rankin (2003) affirmed that the purpose of art therapy is to address the major affects of trauma on the child's life. Additionally, Rankin (2003) stated that art interventions begin with self-management, then proceed with safety planning, telling the trauma story, grieving traumatic losses, self-concept and world view revision and finally ends with self and relational development. Treatment progress and outcomes will vary from patient to patient, as therapy is an individualized process.
Although the amount of empirical research regarding art therapy is limited, the use of art therapy has been confirmed as a means for victims to express how they feel and find some closure. Art therapy has also become a type of intervention that is used in combination with other interventions. ith this understood, the preceding section of this discussion will focus on play therapy as an intervention.
Play therapy is a long-established and highly effective treatment…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused
This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.
The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children - a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.
This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4…… [Read More]
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…… [Read More]
One play therapy technique that I would use is to have Ben play with toy figurines of family members, so that he can act out events between family members. I would observe the types of events that are simulated and whether the behavior exhibited by the characters is conducive to a healthy familial relationship. After he has enacted a sequence, I would engage Ben in a dialogue surrounding the consequences of the actions portrayed in the sequence. This exercise would allow Ben to intellectually understand the consequences for the behavior that he exhibits, which will cause him to act with greater foresight and understand his conflicted emotional state. Helping Ben to understand the consequences of his actions borrows from the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and my hope is that the play therapy will result in him using his cognitive faculties to regulate his emotional turmoil. I would also have…… [Read More]
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]
Multicultural Counseling Competency
A counselor's knowledge, awareness, and skills concerning multicultural differences can have a significant impact on their ability to provide quality care (Penn and Post, 2012, p. 14-17). These multicultural competencies have therefore been recognized by counseling scholars as increasingly important, especially since American society is becoming more ethnically diverse. A recent study examined multicultural competencies among play therapists and found self-perceptions of competency to be independent of training. More recently, Penn and Post (2012) expanded on this finding by attempting to identify the factors that influence a play therapist's perceptions of their multicultural competency.
Penn and Post (2012) surveyed 510 members of the Association of Play Therapy to assess self-reported levels of multicultural competency, then compared these self-reports to records of multicultural training. The first set of findings revealed self-reported multicultural knowledge was inversely correlated with ignorance about the racial issues that minorities face. The second…… [Read More]
journal and literature review that all centers on the same single test case of a patient situation that is known to the author. Indeed, the case in question is one the author of this report is aware of from an internship as a social work intern. The specific case is that of a seven-year-old Hispanic male that has been diagnosed with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). The boy in question comes from lower socioeconomic status and, obviously, is of a racial minority group at the same time. The author will cycle through five different book excerpts and journal articles that pertain in whole or in part to the plight and diagnosis faced by the boy mentioned above and the learning gleaned from each source will be applied to his case. While the boy in question has a comorbid diagnosis and faces some societal roadblocks…… [Read More]
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…… [Read More]
The room provided space and some materials that might lend themselves to the emergence of personalities of the children who might spend time there. The ingredients of experience would make the room uniquely different for each child. Here a child might search the silence for old sounds, shout out his discoveries of a self momentarily captured, and so escape from the prison of his uncertainties, anxieties, and fears. He brings into this room the impact of all the shapes and sounds and colours and movements, and rebuilds his world, reduced to a size he can handle. (Axline 1964, p.22)
Axline's observations of Dibs led to a demonstrative understanding of his fears and needs and the surrounding, i.e. play therapy gave him full permission to interact and react to the world as he saw fit, and to such a degree that his skills and actual intelligence became known. (pg. 219)
The…… [Read More]