Plessy V Ferguson Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17309391

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the United States Supreme Court upheld racial segregation of passengers in railroad coaches as required by Louisiana law. Three years later the Supreme Court was asked to review its first school case dealing with equal treatment of school children. In Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education (1899) the court found that the temporary cessation of services for minority high-school children did not violate equal protection even though services continued at the high-school for Caucasian children. The Court reasoned that the closing of the school was based on economic considerations, and was not found to represent bad faith or an abuse of discretion. The court concluded that although all must share the burdens and receive the benefits of taxation, school finance was a matter belonging to the states and federal interference without a clear and unmistakable disregard for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Brown v. Board of Education." Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation. 2011. 14 June 2011. < http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112391/brown_v__board_of_education.htm>

"Brown v. Board of Education - 1954,1955." United States Courts. The History of Brown v. Board of Education. 2011. 14 June 2011.

Cambron- McCabe, Nelda H., Martha M. McCarthy, and Stephen B. Thomas. Public School Law: Teacher's and Student's Rights. 5th Ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc., 2004.

Meador, Derrick. "Brown v. Board of Education Summary." About.com. Teaching. New York Times Company. (2011). 16 June 2011.
View Full Essay

Brown v Board of Education Case

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22120938

Brown v. Board of Education

Its Legal and Historical Legacy, then and today

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) is one of the seminal legal markers of the civil rights era. The U.S. Supreme Court's finding in favor of Brown marked the transformation of the civil rights movement from a social and a historical force to one that had created a real, measurable political and legal impact upon American society. It changed American law, invalidating Plessy v. Ferguson 1896's allowance of supposedly separate but equal accommodations between the races. In the minds of African-Americans, the Supreme Court decision stated, there could be no such equality of the races in separation, in actuality, because separation of any racially influenced kind inevitably resulted in inequality, psychologically as well as practically. This was true particularly in the impressionable minds of children.

In arguing as for the relevance of Brown today in education, thus…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown v. Board of Education. (1954). U.S. Supreme Court Decision. Findlaw. Retrieved on May 3, 2004 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?navby=case&court=us&vol=347&invol=483

Wilson, Julius. (1999) The Bridge over the Racial Divide. University of California Press.
View Full Essay

Brown v Board of Education

Words: 3294 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67838020

Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.

The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)

Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)

Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus

Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998.  http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html . Accessed November, 2002.
View Full Essay

Brown v Board of Education

Words: 1959 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46321383



When Brown vs. Board of Education came to the courts the judges ruled that the school law allowing "separate but equal educations" was unconstitutional which set the stage for the later examination of special education students being "separate but equal" in the district's treatment of their education.

I agree with the decision that was handed down and believe that one justice decision summed up the facts when it comes to any student, including racially divided or special educationally divided or gender divided students when he said:

Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)

 http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html 

Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education
View Full Essay

Brown v Board of Education

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87332662

Brown vs. Board of Education

A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.

Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. 1954. Appeal from the United States

District Court for the District of Kansas [online]. Washington, DC: The National

Center

for Public Policy Research; available from
View Full Essay

Equal Protection the Supreme Court

Words: 4130 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69991310

The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.

100 U.S. 303, 306).

Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:

The…… [Read More]

References

Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).

Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
View Full Essay

Discrimination and Social Justice Issues Today

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12122321

Representative X:

As healthcare legislation continues to be debated in the House and Senate, I would like to express my support for the continuation of one, significant policy that was instituted under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely the idea that young people under the age of 26 should be permitted to remain on their family's health insurance policies. The current generation of young people is graduating with more college debt than ever before and many new graduates are forced to take jobs that do not offer full benefits. The rise of freelance employment also means that many young persons may be forced to forgo jobs with health insurance.

Buying independent insurance is a significant cost, even though ensuring that young and healthy people are in the health insurance risk pool is necessary to keep overall healthcare costs low. Preventative early care can also reduce the need for more costly…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

1946 Heman Sweatt an Intelligent

Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89338851

Ferguson required that the decision of the lower court be affirmed. The Court agreed with Mr. Sweatt. While the University of Texas School of Law "may properly be considered one of the nation's ranking law schools," Justice Vinson wrote for the Court, such could not be said for either version of the law school for African-American students (d. At 633). "n terms of number of the faculty, variety of courses and opportunity for specialization, size of the student body, scope of the library, availability of law review and similar activities, the University of Texas Law School is superior, " noted the Court (d. At 633-634). Moreover, Justice Vinson continued, in no way could the new institution compare with the University of Texas School of law in terms of more intangible measures, either (d. At 634).

Although the decision in Sweatt was a vitally important step in the creation of justice…… [Read More]

It was amid this turmoil that the U.S. Supreme Court then issued its decision in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, 377 U.S. 218 (1964), or, as the case is colloquially known, Brown II. Faced with the problems and impediments to integration created by Senator Byrd's "massive resistance" campaign in Virginia, the Court made it the responsibility of the U.S. District Courts to implement school desegregation and ordered that they do so "with all deliberate speed." (Id. At 234).

Few today can argue the correctness of the Court's decision in Brown v. Board, or the case that came before it, and upon which it so heavily relied, Sweatt v. Painter. Few cases exist, moreover, that were of greater importance, and so directly affected the lives of so many.

Ultimately, the State did open the Texas State University for Negroes in Houston with "a faculty of five full-time professors; a student body of 23; a library of some 16,500 volumes serviced by a full-time staff; a practice court and legal aid association" (Id. At 633). This law school, at Texas Southern University, is today named the Thurgood Marshall School of Law.
View Full Essay

Timeline American Education Has Evolved Considerably Since

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90546015

Timeline

American education has evolved considerably since the late 19th century. One of the first philosophers to influence the character of modern American education was John Dewey. Dewey was a progressive, and believed that children should not just sit in classrooms passively memorizing material. Instead, students should learn via experience and interaction with their environments. Dewey's humanistic approach to education revolutionized the ways people thought about schooling and pedagogy. A timeline of American education begins with Dewey, because he was the person to first codify the structure and philosophy of education, and then offer the methods and means to implement those ideas. Dewey is known as a "pragmatist" because of his ability to fuse philosophy and practice, and had "the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century," (Smith, 2001).

Maria Montessori was the first female to become a doctor in Italy. Working closely with…… [Read More]

References

"No Child Left Behind Worsened Education, 48% Of Americans 'Very Familiar' With The Law Say In Gallup Poll," (2012). Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/21/no-child-left-behind-wors_n_1819877.html 

Smith, M.K. (2001). John Dewey. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm

Smith, M.K. (2012). Maria Montessori. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-mont.htm
View Full Essay

Death Penalty the Supreme Court

Words: 1237 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26741978

Although that case involved jury selection, the Court established a standard for alleging racial discrimination in prosecution. The Court held that the defendant has to show that he is a member of a cognizable racial group, that the prosecutor has acted in a manner having a discriminatory effect, and that the procedure in place allows those who choose to discriminate the leeway to do so. Once a defendant has established a prima facie showing of discrimination, the State then has the burden of proving race-neutrality. (Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79, 96-98 (1986)). The clear reasoning of the Batson decision would suggest that since Bass could show that he is an African-American, that African-Americans are disproportionately subject to the death penalty, and that the decision whether to charge a defendant with the death penalty is left to the discretion of the prosecutor, that he has established a prima facie case…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986).

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).

United States v. Bass, 2001 FED App. 0340P (6th Cir.).
View Full Essay

US Supreme Court

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78344139

Supreme Court

In the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard adopted by the 1892 Plessy v. Ferguson. Until Brown v. Board of Education passed, American public schools were segregated. Brown v. Board of Education transformed American society by outlawing racial segregation. Now that American schools are integrated, the Brown v. Board of Education decision seems immutable. However, the decision potentially represents an overstepping of the Judicial Branch's power. While most people would agree that the decision of Brown v. Board of Education was absolutely mandatory, others would note that from a purely rational standpoint, the Supreme Court overstepped its role as an interpretive body.

In its reasoning, the Court relies on the research conclusion of psychologists as one of the bases of its decision. Although psychology may be considered to be a "soft" science, it is…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Should Same Sex Marriages Be Legally Sanctioned

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27834390

Same Sex Marriages Should Be Legally Sanctioned

Some of the most pervasive problems that exist within American society today are the problems of prejudice, stemming from fear of what is different and seems to be alien. Only by making what is alien seem to wear a more familiar, human face, can such deep-seated hatred be uprooted and destroyed. Prejudice, and the violence that is the result of such hatred, is particularly virulent against those individuals whom identify as homosexual, even if they wish to form stable and legitimate marital unions until death do them part. One of the reasons for this is because homosexuality is still seen as a vice, rather than as a legitimate bond between two loving people. The solution to this problem is to legally sanction same-sex marriages, giving same-sex unions equal legal and moral legitimacy as heterosexual unions.

Conservative opponents of same-sex marriages are quick to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

George, Robert P. (Nov. 28, 2003): "One Man and One Woman." Wall Street Journal. A8.

Thomas, Evan. (July 7, 2003): "The War Over Gay Marriage." Newsweek. P.38.
View Full Essay

Gender Bias in British Education Are Boys Really Failing

Words: 2252 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30458456

statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.

Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology

Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.

Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That

Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
View Full Essay

History of Stare Decisis

Words: 2596 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90911055

Stare Decisis

Legal Precedent and the Legal System

The principle of stare decisis is a legal principle that suggests that courts rule consistently with case precedent or cases that have been previously decided. The doctrine originated from the common law in England and was purposed to promote uniformity in the justice system. Courts are not always bound to rule according to previous decisions, especially if these decisions are from districts outside of the sitting court, and increasingly many courts have declined to follow precedent in its rulings. However, the United States Supreme Court, as the highest Court in the land, sets the precedent for the courts of the country on constitutional issues. If a lower court fails to follow a Supreme Court decision, its decision will be overruled in the event of an appeal. Stare decisis, although instituted for a beneficial purpose, has not been without controversy. The Supreme Court…… [Read More]

References

Briggs v. Elliott, 342 U.S. 350 (1952).

Del Carmen, R. (2007). Criminal procedure: law and practice 7th Ed. Belmont, California:

Thompson Wadsworth.

Gonzales v. Carhart, 127 S. Ct. 1610 (2007).
View Full Essay

Changes in Supreme Court Philosophies

Words: 2132 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46065403

Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist

Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:

The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court

A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…… [Read More]

References

Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.

Legal Solutions. Retrieved from:

 http://blog.legalsolutions.thomsonreuters.com/top-legal-news/john-g-roberts-conservative-yet-apolitical-consensus-building-chief-justice/ 

Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.
View Full Essay

Perception of Racism

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77088300

Perception of acism and Colour Students

Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role in being considered a disadvantaged individual. According to Boyle (2008) and the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3% Black/African-Americans, 21.5% Hispanics, and26.6% Native Americans and Native Alaskans live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008).In comparison, 10% of Whites and Asians live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008). The percentage of Black/African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Native Alaskans living under the poverty line is doubled in comparison to Whites and Asians. For every one White or Asian individual living under the poverty line, there are two more Black/African-Americans, Hispanics or Native Americans and Native Alaskans that are living under the poverty line.

There is no coincidence that individuals living under the poverty line also live in areas where schools lack…… [Read More]

References

Alon, S. & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72(4), 487-511.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Cancian, M. (1998). Race-based verses Class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(1), 94-105.

Dee, T.S. (2004). The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, 4(2), 52-59. Retrieved from ERIC database.
View Full Essay

Early American History

Words: 2153 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41518257

Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.

Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.

Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.

Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
View Full Essay

Affirmative Action Was White Review

Words: 2036 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46574227

In the speech that Canon, Colman & Mayer reprint; "You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence." I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its angry dogs sinking their teeth into six unarmed, non-violent Negroes, I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhuman treatment of Negroes her in the City Jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham Police Department." (140) the message her is clear and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canon, David, Coleman, John & Mayer, Kenneth. The Enduring Debate: Classic and Contemporary Readings in American Politics, Fifth Edition. New York: Norton, 2008.

Katrznelson, Ira. When Affirmative Action Was White, New York: Norton, 2005.

Lowi, Theodore J., Ginsberg, Benjamin, Shepsle, Kenneth a. American Government: Power and Purpose, Tenth Edition. New York: Norton, 2008.
View Full Essay

Fighting in the Jim Crow Army by

Words: 1494 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45875061

Fighting in the Jim Crow Army by Maggie Morehouse

Maggie Morehouse (2007) opines early in Fighting in the Jim Crow Army that the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, wherein America codified "separate-but-equal," was still in effect by the time of WWII. The effects of the Supreme Court decision would impact the lives of black Americans for the next half century -- especially in the armed forces, which were segregated until 1947. Morehouse goes on to detail the trials and complications for black soldiers in the segregated Army, as remembered by the black men and women who lived through those times. This paper will examine the most significant aspects of Morehouse's work, and provide a detailed look at the stories therein that shaped the people and the structure of the 92nd and 93rd all-black active divisions.

Morehouse asserts right away that the policy of segregation "failed to produce military efficiency,"…… [Read More]

Reference List

Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women

Remember World War II. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
View Full Essay

Th Amendment to the U S Constitution Neither

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27869363

Th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (13 Amendment, Article 1, "U.S. Constitution")

Abraham Lincoln's 1863 "Emancipation Proclamation" stated "that all person's held as slaves' within the rebellious states 'are, and henceforward shall be free.'" ("Featured Documents") Many claim that Lincoln's real motivation in freeing the slaves was to politically outmaneuver the south internationally; to make the war about slavery thus keeping the Europeans from supporting the South. However, Lincoln's support of, and the adoption of the 13th amendment in 1865, seems to prove this wrong; Lincoln's real motivation was the end of slavery in the United States. But Lincoln issued his "Emancipation Proclamation" in the middle of a war, using his emergency war powers, and it was limited…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Feagin, Joe. "Excluding Blacks and Others From Housing: The Foundation of White Racism" Cityscape. Web 14 May 2011. http://users.wfu.edu/yamaned/teaching/151/docs/feagin.pdf

"Featured Documents: The Emancipation Proclamation." National Archives and Records Administration. Web 14 May 2011.

www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/emancipation_proclamation/

"The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net." Index Page -- the U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net. Web 14 May 2011.  http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html
View Full Essay

Stare Decisis

Words: 3955 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97727549

Stare decisis, from the Latin meaning "to stand by that which is decided," is a judicial doctrine, which provides that precedent decisions are to be followed by the courts ('Lectric). The doctrine of stare decisis has developed in common-law legal systems, which enable judges to create law through judicial interpretation. In contrast, jurisdictions with a civil-law legal system reject the doctrine of stare decisis, because civil-law systems require a stricter separation between the legislative and judicial branches. The United States' legal system developed from a common-law base and embraces the doctrine of stare decisis.

Although the doctrine of stare decisis appears, at first blush, to give great power to the judicial branch, it is actually a judicial discretion constraining device. If the legislature is unhappy with a high court's interpretation of a law, it can change the law to reflect the actual legislative intent. However, if the legislature is content…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amar, Akhil R., and Vikram Amar. "Precedent on the High Court: More On." FindLaw. 2002.

FindLaw. 28 Feb. 2005 .

Lessner, Richard. "Staring Down Stare Decisis." National Review. 2003. National Review. 28

Feb. 2005 .
View Full Essay

Singular Events Can Have Profound

Words: 2179 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 961984

Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.

It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.

The 1990s: The First Gulf War

The decade opened with a literal bang when…… [Read More]

References

1950s

About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/

Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at  http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html 

1960s
View Full Essay

Difficult to Answer the Following

Words: 2305 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10578152

I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.

II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.

Roe v. Wade

From a constitutional perspective,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Validity of Data America Considers

Words: 15529 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27742090

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).

That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE

History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…… [Read More]

Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)

Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
View Full Essay

Afro American Education

Words: 449 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35175962

Afro American Education

Black Americans have had to battle for their right to public education from their very start in this country (Forsyth, 1991). The precedent of Brown v. Board of Education catapulted this battle to the forefront in1954 (Forsyth, 1991). The struggle for education was one of the most important in the struggle against oppression because blacks were denied education as a group-based entirely on the foundation of race (Forsyth, 1991).

In earlier times, the general right to public education pertained only to Caucasians (Forsyth, 1991). In slavery times, outhern states prohibited teaching slaves to read and write (Forsyth, 1991). ome slaves learned to read and write in secret, had their owners found out, it would have meant a severe beating -- perhaps even death (Forsyth, 1991).

After the Civil War and during the Radical Reconstruction period, Black lawmakers developed the first Black free public schools (Forsyth, 1991). When…… [Read More]

Sandy, S. 2001. African-American Internet Resources. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from Prima Community

College Page. Web site: http://www.library.pima.edu/subjects/afamer.html

The African-American Journey. 2002. Retrieved November 3, 2002, from The World Book Online. Web site: http://www2.worldbook.com/students/feature_index.asp
View Full Essay

Free How the Criminal Justice System Is

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79452872

Free

How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free

The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…… [Read More]

Reference List

Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:

ReadHowYouWant Publishers.
View Full Essay

The WASP Version of History in the U S

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31593115

Racism and the American Ideals

Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crevecœur, J. Hector St. John de. Autobiography. Gutenberg. Web. 26 Feb 2016.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life. Web. 26 Feb 2016.

Franklin, Ben. "Remarks concerning the Savages of North America." Web. 26 Feb

2016.
View Full Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird Essay

Words: 4859 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

[toc]

Topics


Discuss the presence of Jim Crow laws and their manifestation in the novel and social ramifications.
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark case for maintaining segregation and inequality for blacks. Discuss how this was demonstrated in the novel.
Discuss how the economic stresses of the time added to social tensions in To Kill a Mockingbird.
Tom Robinson is a black man charged with rape of a white woman, tried by a white jury. Discuss the problems inherent in this situation that will ensure he won’t receive a fair trial.
Discuss the parallelisms between Boo Radley and Tom Robinson.
Discuss the parallelisms between Jem Finch and Tom Robinson.
Dill Harris is an intriguing supporting character as he represents a melee of so many of the people and circumstances around him. Discuss.
Critics have described Atticus Finch as overly optimistic. Agree or disagree and explain.
The novel is not a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Graham vs Florida Focal Point Analysis There

Words: 3201 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93398211

Graham vs. Florida Focal Point Analysis

There are many issues involved in the Supreme Court decisions especially with regard to the Constitution. One important assumption is that the court is moving to create a situation where the rights of humans are being protected and arbitrariness being curbed. In the light of the fact that human rights are now a universal concept and is globally acknowledged, the fact that constitutions and laws that abridge the human rights have to go or be amended cannot be argued against. While the constitution may be supreme, the rights of humans take priority, especially in the global context. In such a case the case of Graham vs. Florida can be seen as a landmark judgement so far as the way prisoners have to be treated is concerned.

The problem is more of legal rationality because the laws are rules that a society creates for the…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, James; Byrne, Dara N. (2004) "The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education." Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.

Ashworth, Andrew; Wasik, Martin. (1998) "Fundamentals of Sentencing Theory: Essays in Honour of Andrew von Hirsch." Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Cornell. Edu. (2010) "Supreme Court of the United States Graham v. Florida. certiorari to the district court of appeal of florida, 1st district No. 08 -- 7412. Argued November 9, 2009 -- Decided May 17, 2010." Retrieved 10 August 2011 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-7412.ZS.html

Cornell University Law School. (2010) "Thomas, J., dissenting Supreme Court of the United
View Full Essay

Hispanics to Study Law One

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12498855

However, the law did engender social change; fifty years after the Brown decision, there is no system of legal segregation in America.

While changing the law through the use of the court system by challenging laws that violate the Constitutional guarantees of equality is an effective means of social change, it is insufficient to provide the broad scale social change needed to protect the rights of Hispanics in America. One of the problems facing Hispanics is the fact that English, while not declared an official language, is used in a way that excludes Hispanics from participating in many facets of American life, including the American legal system. The use of English-only is not discrimination and does not violate the letter or the spirit of the Constitution. Therefore, it is only by having Hispanics involved in the legislative process that such disparity can be corrected. The fact is that legislators, while…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Standard Joke About America in the 1960s

Words: 3939 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52676921

standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?

New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.

Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
View Full Essay

Isolation African-American Civil Rights Historically

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37834676

Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.

By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…… [Read More]

References

Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903

Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40

Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2

Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
View Full Essay

Redressing Hamilton's Ancient Statement

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70787240

Hamilton Assertion Proves Incorrect

There are parts of Hamilton's statement regarding the nature of the Supreme Court and its influence that are largely inaccurate. There are myriad examples which prove the Supreme court has both force as well as will. Moreover, its influence certainly pertains to matters that are both related to finances as well as government or military solidarity (what Hamilton referred to as "the sword"). hen one considers both of these aspects of what the legislative branch of the government has come to mean in contemporary times as well as throughout history, it seems readily apparent that Hamilton was incorrect in his views regarding it.

Perhaps the most prominent way in which the aforementioned statement from Hamilton is judged as incorrect relates to the fact that, contrary to his opinion on the matter, there certainly is a sense of will associated with the Supreme Court. It is not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Engl, Margaret; Permuth, Steven Brown; Wonder, Terri K. "Brown v. Board of Education": A Beginning Lesson in Social Justice." International Journal of Educational Reform. v13 n1 p 64-73. 2004. Print.

Scott, Rebecca. "The Atlantic World and the Road to Plessy v. Ferguson. The Journal of American History. Vl94 n3 p 726-733. 2007. Print.
View Full Essay

Performance Assessment Description Performance Assessment

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55576685

S. have tried to govern themselves. You can use the Internet, but don't use the Internet exclusively. Also, try to research different nations, not just the U.S. I've given a brief overview of the Bill of ights, one of the most important and contested aspects of the Constitution, but look into the British system of government as well (which influenced the creation of our own) and France. And ask why have some constitutions and nations failed, while the U.S. system has remained intact. Bring your research to class with you.

Step 3: Come to an agreement about what rights to include

On Wednesday, we'll have our own Constitutional Congress. I will observe the unstructured debate, which will revolve around how Freedonia will govern itself and what rights will be included in the new constitution and government. Some things you may want to think about: what rights don't Americans have? What…… [Read More]

References

Linder, Douglas. (201). The right of privacy. Exploring constitutional conflicts. Retrieved July 8,

2010 at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/rightofprivacy.html

Slater, Timothy. (2010). Performance assessment. Department of Physics. Montana State

University. Retrieved July 8, 2010 at  http://www.flaguide.org/extra/download/cat/perfass/perfass.pdf
View Full Essay

California Proposition 8 Same Sex Marriage the

Words: 2846 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32270127

California Proposition 8: Same Sex Marriage

The equal right to marry for same-sex couples in the United States has acquired growing public support over time, with a quantity of state-level laws passed and others presently up for debate. Proposition 8 was a ballot proposition and constitutional amendment that was passed in the November 2008 state elections in California. The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution, which provides that only marriage between a man and a woman is legitimate or recognized in California. By limiting the acknowledgment of marriage to opposite-sex couples, the proposition reversed the California Supreme Court's ruling of In re Marriage Cases that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to get married (Newman, 2010). The wording of Proposition 8 was exactly the same as Proposition 22, which had passed in 2000 and, as an ordinary statute, had been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hirsch, Alan. 2004. "Separate Still Not Equal." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:

http://www.villagevoice.com/2004-02-03/news/separate-still-not-equal/

Holloway, Carson. 2009. "Same-Sex Marriage and the Civil-Rights Movement: A

Problematic Analogy." Web. 9 January 2012. Available at:
View Full Essay

Progress of African-Americans Historical Progress

Words: 3045 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9188025

e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.

The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)

The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…… [Read More]

References

Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley

Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.

Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia

Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
View Full Essay

History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]

References

McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html 

Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from  http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/ 

Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439

Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html
View Full Essay

Legislation B Roman Code C

Words: 2454 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75686715

The Corporation must have cross-boarder transactions. Which of the following would be classified as Cross-Boarder?

(a) a merger wherein at least two companies are governed by the laws of different member states

(b) the conversion into an SE of an existing company that for at least ONE year has had at least one subsidiary in another member state

(c) the formation of a parent company where each of at least two of the companies is governed by the laws of different member states.

(37) What is the minimum share capital required to convert to an SE?

(a) 120,000 Euros

(b) 200,000 Euros

(c) 300,000 Euros

(d) There is no capital requirement to convert to an SE

(38) the process of registration includes the following EXCEPT:

(a) Bank Accounts must be established after notarization of the Articles of Association

(b) Cash Contributions must be paid AFTER corporate registration

(c) Directors must…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Three Most Significant People Since 1865

Words: 2704 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48066797

people in American history. Specifically it will discuss the three most significant people in American History since 1865: George Washington Carver, Shirley Chisholm, and Thurgood Marshall, and tell why they are significant and how they affected the course of U.S. history. Each of these three individuals was extremely important to American history. Black, driven, and significant, they helped change the course of education and agriculture, politics, and criminal justice, and they live on today as heroes of the Black community. They show that anyone can make a difference in American society, and that hard work and dedication really do pay off, for individuals, and for society.

Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was born on November 30, 1924, in Brooklyn, New York. Her mother and father were both Caribbean, and moved to New York a few years before Chisholm was born. She was the oldest of three daughters. Her mother, uby,…… [Read More]

References

Haskins, James. Distinguished African-American Political and Governmental Leaders. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Kessler, James H., et al. Distinguished African-American Scientists of the 20th Century. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1996.
View Full Essay

Equal Protection

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88849960

Amendments to the Constitution

In any criminal cases, the individual will be arraigned before the judge. This is when they will be informed about the charges and given the chance to enter a plea. Once this takes place, is the point a preliminary hearing is scheduled. It focuses on the evidence and if there is enough to warrant a trail. If the judge is convinced there is enough evidence, they will schedule a date and time for a jury trial. This is when there will be series of hearings challenging the discovery process, the evidence and any that could have been collected in violation of the Constitution. In these situations, the judge will rule on the evidence and determine which items can be included at trial. During the process, both sides will call witnesses and try to prove their case. (Hess, 2014) (Parpworth, 2012)

At the heart of these issues…… [Read More]

References

Hess, J. (2014). Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System. Mason, OH: Southwestern.

Parpworth, N. (2012). Constitutional and Administrative Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stering, R. (2004). Police Officers Handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Strauss, D. (2010). The Living Constitution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Political or Social Problem Racism Has Been

Words: 1821 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4413228

Political or Social Problem

Racism has been a major social problem in American history going back to the colonial period of the 17th and 18th Centuries, and by no means only in the former slave states of the South. In fact, the condition of blacks in the United States has always been a central social, political and economic problem that resulted in the nation's most destructive war in 1861-65 and in its most important civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. As the moral and spiritual leader of the latter, Martin Luther King's place in American history is well-known: this was the central preoccupation of his life from 1955-68, and he died as a martyr to this cause. Karl Marx was merely a foreign observer of the U.S. Civil ar, but he understood the issues of slavery and racism very well and was an enthusiastic abolitionist and supporter of…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Gilman, S.L. "Karl Marx and the Secret Language of the Jews" in Jessop, Bob (Ed) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought. Routledge, 1999: 22-41.

King, Martin Luther. "Address to the Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the National Bar Association, August 20, 1959" in Carson, Clayborne (Ed) The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume V, Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959-December 1960. University of California Press, 2005.

Marx, Karl. "Comments on the North American Events," Die Presse, October 12, 1862 and "The Election Results in the Northern States," Die Presse, November 23, 1862 in Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels, Writings on the U.S. Civil War. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/us-civil-war/index.htm
View Full Essay

When Seton Hall Went Co Ed

Words: 2408 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79354340

Kenneth Burkes Dramatism Theory and Seton Hall

Today, Seton Hall University is attended by nearly 10,000 male and female students, but it has not always been that way. Just over a half century ago, Seton Hall University was a male-only institution that only accepted female students into its main South Orange campus after a series of debates that spanned more than 4 years. The artifacts of interest for this study are two newspaper articles from issues of the Setonian in 1963 and 1967, with the first announcing the student vote concerning whether Seton Hall should be a co-educational institution and the second announcing the approval of the initiative. This paper reviews the relevant literature to connect these articles to Kenneth Burkes' Dramatism Theory concerning the reasons women are treated less fairly than men and why they have not experienced the same academic fairness as men. Finally, a summary of the…… [Read More]

References

About Seton Hall. (2015). Seton Hall. Retrieved from https://www.shu.edu/about.cfm.

Allan, E. J. & Madden, M. (2006, July-August). Chilly classrooms for female undergraduate students: A question of method? Journal of Higher Education, 77(4), 684-686.

As uproar fades, Seton Hall students meet to study gay marriage. (2010, December 10). National Catholic Reporter, 47(4), 3.

Burke's five elements of dramatism. (2015). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http:/ / changingminds.org/disciplines/storytelling/articles/burke_five_elements.htm.
View Full Essay

how'supreme court justices are appointed

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78223047

Clause 2 of the United States Constitution outlines the process whereby the President of the United States is entrusted with the responsibility of selecting the Supreme Court Justices: "The President...shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States." Because unlike other public servants, Supreme Court Justices serve for life, their appointments need to be considered carefully. The general public cannot be trusted to make decisions this important with proper care and consideration. The most recent election of Donald Trump further proves this to be the case. Even though presidential appointments are problematic in their own way, they still remain the best solution to protect the system of checks and balances.

The recent fiasco with the opposition government stymying the President's Supreme Court nominees shows that…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Affirmative Action in the Workplace

Words: 1729 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41747596

Human esource Management Issues -- Affirmative Action

The long history of the United States includes a shameful three-century-long period during which African people were rounded up in their native lands, bound by shackles, forced into the putrid, rat-infested holds of ships, and transported to North America where they were worked, often to death, as slaves, especially in the southern states. Despite the fact that the institution of slavery officially ended by the 1865 enactment of the Thirteenth Constitutional Amendment, known as the Emancipation Proclamation, it would be an entire century before black Americans received the full rights of citizenship and the same protections of law to which they had officially been entitled since the era immediately following end of the American Civil War.

During that time, they endured systemic discrimination, frequently with the outright support or tacit approval of local, state, and federal authorities, including law enforcement (Edwards, Wattenberg, &…… [Read More]

References

Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,

Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Ethics and the War on

Words: 3193 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47292008

Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.

In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…… [Read More]

References

Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/

Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.

Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law

Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
View Full Essay

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings

Words: 2042 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87512616

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, a Florida Folklife riter

It is important when pursuing the study of history, not to get caught in the habit of reciting historical dates and facts. If this is the true study of history, then it involves nothing more than memorization. For one to truly understand why the people of a certain time period behaved as they did, it is necessary to get into their personal daily lives. It is important to know the passions of their daily struggles. It is rare that we get such as glimpse into these other lives, so long ago. This is the type of valuable information that we get when reading the works of Marjorie Rawlings.

Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings is one of the most famous Florida writers of all time. She loved the folklife in Alachua County, Florida and has been compared to Henry David Thoreau in her style. She gives…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kennedy, Stetson. A Florida Treasure Hunt. Florida Folklife Home Date unknown. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/flwpahtml/ffpres01.html Accessed March 2002.

Parker, Idella. Idella: Marjorie Rawlings' Perfect Maid, (UPF, 1992) ISBN 0-8130-1706-8

Pickard, Ben. Guide to Alachua County History, Places and Names. Alachua County Historic

Trust. Matheson Museum, Inc. 2001
View Full Essay

American Dream of Egalitarianism

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41264984

America: A nation of paradoxes

America is a nation of paradoxes. On one hand, it is a nation that has symbolized freedom to many immigrants, as poignantly illustrated in Emma Lazarus' poem "The New Colossus," a poem included on the famed Statue of Liberty that greeted so many refugees as they strove to escape from Europe and avoid intolerable situations. The Lazarus poem proclaims the dawning a new America, free of class restrictions, which can offer prosperity even to the poorest new arrival. Yet federal policies in regards to African-Americans and Native Americans have been marked by injustice and prejudice. The American Dream of egalitarianism exists next to an ugly strain of racism that has run through the thread of American history since its inception.

Emma Lazarus' poem is perhaps the most explicit, famous rendition of the American dream: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp... / Give me your tired,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. "Unguarded Gates." 1895. Print.

Hawk, Walter Echo. In the Courts of the Conqueror. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, 2010.

Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American century." Demography (pre-2011) 42.4

(2005): 595-620. ABI/Inform Complete. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.
View Full Essay

Workings of the Sharecropping System

Words: 3383 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86732366

his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.

he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…… [Read More]

The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.

The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.

Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
View Full Essay

Structural Inequality & Diversity Root

Words: 5575 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73975506

" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
View Full Essay

In the Wake of War

Words: 366 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66151471

War

Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification. Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress.

The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Gay Alternate Marriage

Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25736413

Gay Marriage

Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.

Gay Marriage in a historical context

According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…… [Read More]

References

Conger, J.J. (1975). Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the year 1974: Minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 620-651.

Duncan, D.G. (2004). The Federal Marriage Amendment and Rule by Judges. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 27(2), 543+.

Coolidge, D.O. Wardle, L.D., Strasser, M., Duncan, W.C., (Eds.). (2003). Marriage and Same-Sex Unions: A Debate / . Westport, CT: Praeger.

DiPlacido, J. (1998). Minority stress among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: A consequence of heterosexism, homophobia, and stigmatization. In G.M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation (pp. 138-159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Women and Gender Bias the

Words: 13238 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41373850

Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?

If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).

ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html

Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005

"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/ 

"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from  http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
View Full Essay

Crisis at Central High the

Words: 2470 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57024844

Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.

In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…… [Read More]

6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.

7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17

8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
View Full Essay

Gideon's Trumpet -- Not a

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84749169

Even if the decision might not be popular, wrote the court, "from the very beginning, our state and national constitutions and laws have laid great emphasis on procedural and substantive safeguards designed to assure fair trials before impartial tribunals in which every defendant stands equal before the law," and because these procedures are often very complicated to understand, "this noble ideal cannot be realized if the poor man charged with crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to assist him," when he or she is striving to make a credible defense before a judge or jury. ("Gideon v. ainwright," 1963)

Justice, and the work of the nine men (today, eight men and one women) on the court, is not always about the will of the majority of the American people, it is often about the rights of the individual. A case that demonstrates this principle even more vehemently…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka." 347 U.S. 483. 1954. [5 Dec 2006] http://brownvboard.org/research/opinions/347us483.htm

Gideon v. Wainwright." 1963. Source: 372 U.S. 335 (1963). [5 Dec 2006] http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/67.htm

Lewis, Anthony. Gideon's Trumpet. New York: Vintage Reissue, 1988.
View Full Essay

Philosophical influences on the American Constitution

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53856197

The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.

The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.

John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Impact of Federalism on Privacy Rights

Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48864000

Federalism and Constitutional Debates

One of the most significant and innovative ideas in the American Constitution is federalism even though the word does not appear in it. This concept entails sharing of power between two different levels of government i.e. federal and state governments. Through this system of government, power from the central government is shared to state governments. While federalism has existed in the United States for centuries, there are numerous problems relating to the sharing of power between these different levels of government. These problems have generated constitutional debates on whether the concept has positive or negative impacts on certain fundamental rights. An example of an issue that has generated such debates is privacy rights i.e. whether some federal laws infringe on individuals right to privacy. This paper will examine the positive and negative impacts of federalism on privacy rights and identify the most significant impact.
Positive Impact…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Illegal Immigrants in the U S

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39582268



So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, Leahy Colleen. Growing Up and Old In Italian-American Families, page 223, 1985

Michael T. Lempres. "Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration." National Review 46.3 (1994): 52.

Ted Hayes. "Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture." Insight on the News 16.36 (2000): 46.

Michelle Malkin. "Dismissing the Dangers of Illegal Immigration." Insight on the News 18.32 (2002): 46.