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Pluralistic and Functional Approach
Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90085250
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The press is paid to spread their particular message rather than to spread the truth. This is true, to a greater or lesser degree, even of the mass media in the most democratic of countries such as the United tates of America. The countrywide hysteria after the 9/11 attacks is a case in point. President Bush used both the emotional state of his fellow Americans and the power of the mass media to justify his destructive "War on Terrorism."

On the other hand, one cannot deny that truth and democracy do at times triumph with the occasional integrity in reporting. An increasing number of reporters have become forefront fighters for democracy and freedom in the press, particularly in American politics. These cases are however in the minority.

To therefore claim that the mass media is predominantly functional, always revealing the truth by democratic and free communication, is hardly accurate. ociety…

Sources

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. (2007, Feb 13). Hong Kong's Democratic Reform - an Unexpected Path?  http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/index.cfm?fa=eventDetail&id=958&prog=zch 

Lasswell, Harold D. "The Structure and Function of Communication in Society," in Wilbur. Schramm, ed., Mass Communications (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1960), pp. 117-1303.

Good and Bad About Religious Diversity
Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40265235
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PLUALISM BEST FO SOCIETY?

Diversity and Pluralism

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…

References

Dick, P.K. (1968). Do androids dream of electric sheep? New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Eck, D.L. (1997). From diversity to pluralism. In: On Common Ground. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from  http://www.pluralism.org/encounter/challenges .

McFaul, T.R. (2006). Religion in the future global civilization. The Futurist, 40(5), 30-6.

Religion Is Jesus the Only Savoir Is
Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 2051126
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eligion

Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.

Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…

References

Bible: New International Version (NIV)

Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-

Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online:  http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html 

Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online:  http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/

Accounting America Was Not Founded as a
Words: 1876 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7176595
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Accounting

America was not founded as a Democracy or as a Monarchy, for the educated and landed founding fathers felt assured that neither would provide the nation with rights for all and privilege for the few. America was founded as a Republic, and one might add as an ogliarchic republic at that. Those with the right gender, race, and wealth were represented through their while others were represented through the votes of their betters. Today, nearly-universal sufferage (age and past misbehavior are both barriers) assures that these factors do not determine whether a person can vote -- but an argument can still be made that the majority of the political process is determined by wealth. "The creators of America's constitution and government were among the wealthy aristocrats of their day. When they created their new government, the founders excluded democracy to the extent politically possible at the time. ..The great…

Bibliography

Bernstein, A. (1998) "Republican and Democratic -- The Identical Party? The Two Major Parties Are Becoming Dangerously Alike -- in Their Opposition to Individual Rights." Capitalism Magazine, Nov. 6. http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2020

Gitlin, T. (2000) "The Renaissance of anti-intellectualism." The Chronicle of Higher Education, Dec. 8. Archived at:  http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i15/15b00701.htm 

Grinning Planet. (2004) "INJECTING A SHOT OF REBEL YELL INTO OLD GLORY"  http://www.grinningplanet.com/2004/11-11/direct-democracy-plutocracy-article.htm 

Morgan, D. (2000) "Mercenaries For Big Business: Corporate Funding of Think Tanks Raises Question of Credibility" San Francisco Chronicle, Feb 16. Archived at:  http://www.commondreams.org/views/021600-102.htm

Literature and History
Words: 8876 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51478975
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tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)

rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.

The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…

Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.

Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.

Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.

Pluralist's View of Salvation
Words: 4023 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43654088
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Jesus the Only Savior?

Part I Pluralism

It must first be noted that the author, Ronald H. Nash, was a Calvinist/aptist philosopher and apologist and a professor on theology and history for more than four decades. He earned many more honors and occupied more positions than will open him to questioning as to his vast knowledge of the theological discipline.

His book introduces the philosophies surrounding salvation, i.e., exclusivism, inclusivism and pluralism. The first Part of the book discusses pluralism, which argues that all religions offer all men a way to salvation. Nash replies most adequately to the repudiation of pluralism, as presented by John Hicks, its most influential proponent, and inclusivism. Pluralists, like Hicks, and inclusivists wage ferocious attacks against the long-held iblical doctrine of Christianity that Jesus Christ is the only way to salvation, as explicitly stated in John 14:6. Pluralism holds that there are many paths to…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology, 2008

Nash, Ronald H. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Paperback. Michigan: Zondervan Publishing

House, 1994

Nash, Ronald H. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Kindle Edition. Amazon Digital Services,

Politics Is and What it Is Not
Words: 4665 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24526529
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politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.

This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.

What is Politics?

Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…

References

Dahl, R., "Pluralism revisited," Comparative Politics, 10, (1978)

Dunleavy, Patrick and O'Leary, Brendan, Theories of the State, (London, Macmillan, 1987). Chapters 2 and 6.

Schwarzmantel, J., The State in Contemporary Society (Harvester, 1994). Chapter 3

American Pragmatism in the 20th
Words: 1778 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64171687
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Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.

Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.

Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…

References

Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,

 http://perspicuity.net/sd/pub-choice.html 

James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Political Science - Domhoff Shapiro
Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21981158
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Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…

References

Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press

Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.

New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education

Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American

War in Afghanistan From a Liberal Pluralist
Words: 2518 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72581327
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War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective

The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.

The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…

References

Bajoria, J. (2011). The Taliban in Afghanistan. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 17, 2012 from  http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551 

Conservative. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from  http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conservative 

Galston, W.A. (2005). The practice of liberal pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Liberal. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from  http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/liberal

Viet Nam War and Its Comparison to
Words: 3472 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89847448
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Viet Nam War and its comparison to several social theories. Using the war as a measuring stick theories are examined and held against the war to see how the war could be applied to each theory. The writer explains a short history of each theory and then examines how the war holds up using that particular theory.

The Viet Nam War was arguably the most controversial war that America has ever been involved in. It sparked social movements that had never before been seen. It pitted the young against the old, the conservative against the liberal and the rich against the poor in ways that threatened to tear the nation in pieces. Until Viet Nam, service personnel had been considered heroes, worthy of the nation's admiration. During the Viet Nam war those who served often came home to being spit on, and having things thrown at time. Until Viet Nam…

REFERENCES

Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory

Sociology of Deviant Behavior

 http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html 

The Theory of Hegemonic Stability

Nurse Theorist the Roy Adaption Model
Words: 3386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64933693
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Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model

The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…

REFERENCES

"Callista Roy's Adaptation Model" Retrieved From

http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/callistaroy Accessed 28 October, 2005

'Case Study" Retrieved From

http://www.geocities.com/ninquiry2002/casestudy.html Accessed 28 October, 2005

Religion Workshop Missiology for a
Words: 1818 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50237491
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Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.

Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.

esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.

Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.

Activities:

9:00-9:10: Opening prayer

9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.

11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.

12:00-1:00: Lunch

1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…

Reference

Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).

Counseling Master Questionnaire Counseling Questionnaire Define Research
Words: 4305 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 85640226
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Counseling Master Questionnaire

Counseling Questionnaire

Define research

A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.

In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…

References

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Buddhist Theology As a Buddhist
Words: 1548 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16459683
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The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.

Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."

Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."

In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…

References

Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God, Craman.

Understanding Buddhism, Jacobson.

Buddhism and the Contemorary World, Jacobson

Beyond Ideology: Religion and the Future of Western Civilization, Smart

Environmental Policies Give an Example
Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279
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The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem.  http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm 

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.

Compare and Contrast a Religious Group's Statement
Words: 2777 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15907760
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eligious Group's Statement

William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"

is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process

In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.

The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…

References

Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-

Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:

Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:

Improving Group Productivity the National Call Center
Words: 2831 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83976034
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Improving Group Productivity

The National Call Center for the Veteran's Administration (VA) Education Department employs over 700 people, which can be called upon to answer incoming calls from veterans. Within the four regional offices, there are employees of various positions, including Case Managers, Educational Liaison Representatives, application processors, and leaders who verify compliance, productivity, etc. With all employees being called upon to answer incoming calls, each employee needs to be aware of changes on an immediate basis, which can incorporate over 50 changes on a given day. As a result of work demands on all employees in different roles of the organizational structure, adequate training programs are of extreme importance in ensuring employees are properly trained, contain clear definitions of expectations in the various roles, and support teamwork within the groups to provide for efficiency in operations as well as performance goals and objectives.

A key component to the process…

Bibliography

Anthony, L. (2013). How do I Improve Team Communication? Retrieved from Chron:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/improve-team-communication-3077.html 

Archibald, R.D. (2013). nlocking a Project Team's High-Performance Potential Using Cognitive Readliness: A Research Study Report and Call to Action. PM World Journal, vol 11, issue XI, 1-46 Retrieved from http:/;/pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/pmwj16-nov...unlocking-high-performance-FeaturedPaper.pdf.

Fisher, R. (2005). Intergroup Conflict. Retrieved from Colorado University:  http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/fishint.htm 

GI Bill. (2013, Nov 22). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs:  http://gibill.va.gov

Personhood an Interdisciplinary Look at the Individual
Words: 5434 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24383626
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person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.

First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…

References

Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 22 June 2009 from the Evangelical Climate Initiative Web site:  http://christiansandclimate.org/about/ .

Gibson, T.S. (2004). Proposed levels of Christian spiritual maturity. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(4), 295+.

Holy Bible. New King James Version.

Schmeltekopf, D.D. & Vitanza, D.M. (Eds.). (2006). The future of Baptist higher education. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

Republic Can Be Defined as
Words: 780 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80248634
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Today's world does not have many examples of absolutist monarchies left in the world (Bhutan and Nepal were good example, but recent political changes in these countries no longer qualify them for inclusion), but historically France is probably the best example to fit as an absolutist monarchy.

Representative democracy is a political system in which the people elect individuals to represent their interests in the decision making process at a state level. In a pure democracy, usually going back to ancient Athens, was a form of consultative democracy in which every member of the society participated in the political meetings and decision making process. With the growth of population that sort of democracy was obviously no longer functional, turning it into a representative democracy.

In the United States, the electing constituencies and districts are formed by a small number of individuals who reside in a certain area and have specific…

Elaine Graham's Transforming Practice Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Words: 4411 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 75473831
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Elaine Graham's

Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Major Schools of Thought and Actors

In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.

As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…

Works Cited

Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.

Ethnic Conflict When Considering the
Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9370457
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Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.

Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.

The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…

Diversity Policy at Lehigh This
Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68102552
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Diversity Training

The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.

No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…

Works Cited

Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.

Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from  http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .

Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."

Diversity

Patterns of Interaction
Words: 451 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19060477
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Group Interactions

Social scientists often state that there are four models of group interaction, models of pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide. These models exist on a sliding scale in terms of the degree of positive relations they exhibit between the dominant or hegemonic group and the minority or less powerful group involved in the interaction. In the first interactive model, that of pluralism, there is the smallest gulf of power between the majority and the minority group, or the most powerful and least powerful group in the dynamic. In a pluralistic state of interaction, no single group's set of values or one group truly dominates another group's set of values. This is a kind of mosaic model of group interaction, as is embraced in Canada, where a multitude of linguistic and ethnic groups are all considered equally 'Canadian,' and is also a model of interaction theoretically embraced within many American…

Western Religion Many Scholars Have
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Define each of the following terms with specific examples of religions: Secularization, Exclusivism, Inclusivism, Pluralism, and interfaith initiatives

Secularization can be seen in the modern, Protestant shift to separating religious, private life from public, profane life. In this view it is fine to make money, and to live one's daily life outside of religious values, given that religion is relegated to a different sphere of human existence. Exclusivism stresses the unique nature of a particular sect, like a cult that believes it stands outside of a corrupt society, or even Judaism's stress upon its unique and seamless connection with its past history, and the difficulty for gentiles to easily covert to the religion. In contrast, sects such as Unitarians are highly inclusive, or desirous of incorporating many persons into the fold. Even non-believers are free to attend ceremonies. Pluralism, in contrast, acknowledges differences between different sects but still attempts to…

Islamic Law
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Islam

Plurality is built into Islam's legal and ideological foundations, complicating the political and social structure of the religion and its institutions. Principle means by which to explore and critique the complexity and plurality of Islam include the Hadith and the various schools of Islamic law. Because of the relatively equal veracity of all six books of the Hadith, and of the various schools of law, there is no singular authoritative body in Islam. Each region of the world has instead opted to emphasize some teachings and some legal schools over others.

The Hadith is a collection of writings reflecting the traditions, actions, and actual sayings of Muhammad. The Hadith comprises six books, compiled in the ninth and tenth centuries, and are viewed as "second only to the Quran in their practical significance and authority," (p. 74). The "soundness of their claims of transmission" is one of the central issues…

Reference

Kamali, M.K. (1999). Law and society. Chapter 3 in The Oxford History of Islam. Ed. Esposito. Oxford University Press.

biculturalism and how to create multiple Identities
Words: 2014 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53421669
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A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…

Ethics Table Q1 Brief Definitions of
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Consequence-based ethics

c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics

d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics

e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics

f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics

g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics

Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.

Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…

Reference

Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

English System Order Out of
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One example of this is the "famous egg box metaphor of international society (in which states were the eggs, and international society the box), one might see this unevenness as a pan of fried eggs. Although nearly all the states in the system belong to a thin, pluralist interstate society (the layer of egg-white), there are sub-global and/or regional clusters sitting on that common substrate that are both much more thickly developed than the global common, and up to a point developed separately and in different ways from each other (the yolks)" (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6).

For example the EU and North America, for example are "sub-global interstate societies that are more thickly developed within themselves. Lesser attempts to create thicker, liberal, regional interstate/international societies by cultivating joint economic development can be found in...various other regional economic cooperations," such as OPEC (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6). "Above some of…

Works Cited

Armstrong, David. (2007). Order and Justice in International Society. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/readarmstrong.doc

Bania-Dobyns, Sarah. (2005, Aug). The Contribution of the System Concept to the English School: Clarifying the System Concept by Means of Methodological

Pluralism. Paper for the Panel 'ES Theory Debates' WISC Conference Istanbul. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at  http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/papers.htm 

Buzan, Barry & Ana Gonzalez-Pelaez. (2005, Aug). The Middle East Through English

Tolerance and Its Limits
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Tolerance

Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).

Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…

References

Blake, Michael. "Religion and Statecraft: Tolerance and Theocracy: How Liberal States Should Think of Religious States." Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2007: 1-17.

Stetson, Brad and Joseph G. Conti, The Truth about Tolerance: Pluralism, Diversity, and the Culture Wars. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005.

Hinkson, John. "In the name of freedom: is the legacy of September 11 a global anti-liberal ascendancy?" Arena Magazine, February 1, 2002.

Hoodbhoy, Pervez. "The United States and Islam:toward perpetual war?(Views from Russia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China." Social Research, December 22, 2005.

Rabbit in the Moon Along
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While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.

America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…

References

Author "Chapter 10: Japanese-Americans."

Chapter 11: "Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Asian-Indian-Americans."

In the White Man's Image. Prod. Christine Lesiak and Matthew Jones. American Experience, 1993.

Ly, Kuong C. "Asian: Just a Simple Word." Human Architecutre: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. Vol. II, Issue 2, Fall 2003/Spring 2004. 119-124.

Race and Ethnic Relations History
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Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.

The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):

Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents

The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate

The populace are racially and ethnically diverse

These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…

Works Cited

Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.

Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19

Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.

Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.

Art Analysis ART21 After Reviewing the Artists
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Art Analysis: Art21

After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…

References:

Art21, Inc. (2012) Explore Artists. Available from:  http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists . 2012 July 10.

European Graduate School. (2012) Pierre Huyghe -- Biography. Available from:  http://www.egs.edu/faculty/pierre-huyghe/biography/ . 2012 July 11.

Wines, Michael. (2009) Ai Weiwei, China's Impolitic Artist. The New York Times, Available from:  http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28weiwei.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 12.

Pierre Huyghe, "This is not a time for dreaming," 2004.

Contemporary History
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Solidarity (Solidarnosc) Movement in Poland Led to the Collapse of Communism in Poland

History has shown time and again that when people are subjected to inordinately oppressive conditions long enough, they will rise up and slay their oppressors, literally or figuratively, and this is precisely what happened in Poland during the 1980s. This paper provides an analysis of the Solidarity (Solidarnosc) movement in Poland that led to the collapse of communism in Poland. A description of the events that led to the growth of the Solidarity movement is followed by the identification and an analysis of the events that followed Gorbachev's policy of political pluralism in Poland. Finally, an evaluation of the relative success of democracy and capitalism in Poland after the end of the Cold War is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

In retrospect, the events that led up to the…

References

Magner, M. (2005, March-June). Civil society in Poland after 1989: A legacy of socialism?

Canadian Slavonic Papers, 47(1/2), 49-55.

Poland. (2013). World factbook. Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library  / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pl.html.

Poland economy. (2013). World factbook. Retrieved from

Social and Cultural Impacts of Establishing an
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socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:

An analyss of eco-toursm development

An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal

An evaluaton of the projects feasblty

An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm

Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.

Research Methods

Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…

i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).

The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.

Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in

Spiritual but Not Religious An
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These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…

References

Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown -

phd/spiritual-but-not-religio_1_b_5054627.html

Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:

 http://www.christianexaminer.com/Articles/Colson/Art_Sep08_Colson.html

Buckanan Deconstructing America Patrick J Buchanan Is
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Buckanan

Deconstructing America

Patrick J. Buchanan is a conservative political leader in the United States. The article Deconstructing America was published in his 2007 book, Day of Reckoning. Buchanan says "America is today less a nation than an encampment of politics and power.." Although the rhetoric surrounding the creation of the nation did focus on themes such as equality, democracy, and diversity, in practice there were certainly more superficial ideologies at play.

"The United States, the greatest republic since Rome and the British Empire may be said to have risen from that three-cornered for the Jamestown settlers began to build the day they arrived. But that republic and that empire did not rise because the settlers and those who followed believed in diversity, equality, and democracy (Buckanan)."

The settlers were in no way worried about equality within their own groups or especially with the natives. The pilgrim's societies were based…

Works Cited

Buckanan, P. Deconstructing America. 2007. Print.

Renshon, S. "Multiculturalism in the U.S.: Cultural Narcissism and the Politics of Recognition." 8 February 2011. Center for Immagration Studies. Online. 29 July 2014.

Scruton, R. "MULTICULTURALISM, R.I.P." December 2010. The American Spectator. Online. 29 July 2014.

Taylor, S. "The Challenge of 'Multiculturalism' In How Americans View the Past and the Future." The Journal of Historical Review (2013): 159-164. Online.

Organizations and Behavior
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Organizational Behavior Analysis

Explored here will be a former employer, whose culture and method of communication in the workplace made it difficult for the organization to work together as a whole. Many organizations struggle with this particular issue, because they are not aware of what they can do to make much-needed changes that will allow for better communication in the workplace. The company in question was domineering in a sense, in that it did not allow for a good mixing of the cultures of the people who worked there. There was some mixing, because that is inevitable when there are a number of people who have different cultural beliefs all working in one spot. However, there was far less mixing and understanding than could have been seen and then could have been expected. This made it very difficult for people to do their jobs properly, because a significant number of…

References

Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), pp. 656 -- 665.

Black, R.J. (2003) Organizational culture: Creating the influence needed for strategic success, London, UK.

Jex, S.M. & Britt, T.W. (2008) Organizational psychology, a scientist-practitioner approach. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

O'Donovan, G. (2006). The corporate culture handbook: How to plan, implement and measure a successful culture change programme. NY: The Liffey Press.

Religion and Culture
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Diana Eck's new book about religion, entitled, "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now ecome the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation" talks about the growing diversity in religious affiliations in America especially among its immigrants and native people. Eck provides her readers a new issue that is controversial politically, sociologically, and personally among America's citizens. The book was released before the September 11, 2001 bombings at the World Trade Center in New York City, USA, but its release became even more important, since Eck discusses the important issue that played in the said terrorist attacks, that is, the issue of religious and cultural diversity. This paper will discuss and analyze whether "religious pluralism," a term used by Diana Eck in her book so many times, a term used to describe America's 'melting pot' of various Western and Eastern religions, serves as a unifying factor to the Americans…

Bibliography

Abernethy, Bob. "Profile: Diana Eck." Religion and Ethics Newsweekly. Public Broadcasting Service Online. 27 September 2002.  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week443/profile.html .

Eck, Diana L. "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now Become the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation." Harper San Francisco. 2001.

Eck, Diana L. "Neighboring Faiths: How Will Americans Cope with Increasing Religious Diversity?" Harvard Magazine, September- October 1996. Harvard Magazine Website. 27 September 2002. http://www.harvard-magazine.com/issues/so96/faith.html.

Eck, Diana L. "Religious Consciousness Rises in U.S.: Eck Looks at Post- September 11 Attitudes in U.S." Harvard Gazette, February 14, 2002. Harvard Gazette Archives Website. 27 September 2002.  http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/02.14/10-eck.html .

Religion Part Two of Ronald Nash's Book
Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 63946071
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eligion

Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…

References

Bible: New International Version

Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf

Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online:  http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm

Pressure Groups in What Ways
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At the same time there are also many areas of contention and criticism of these groups. In order to put this debate into perspective one has to take into account that the concept of democracy is complex and that there are many views of what true democracy is and how it should function. As suggested above, the pluralist notion of democracy is different in many respects to the more formal or 'elitist' views of democracy. One's assessments of pressure groups will therefore depend to a great extent on one's concept and understanding of democracy.

On the one hand the pluralistic view that pressure groups expand involvement in the democratic process and bring important issues to the attention of both the public and the state is a view that many pundits tend to accept. But there are many other arguments against these groups; such as the view that they can in…

References

Do pressure groups add to democracy?, viewed 8 August, 2010,

 http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/do_pressure_groups_add_to_democr.htm 

Bhandari J. 2003, Democracy of pressure groups, viewed 8 August, 2010,

 http://www.jayantbhandari.com/democracy_of_pressure_groups.pdf

Zinbauer and Pargament 2000 The Counselor Ontologically
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Zinbauer and Pargament (2000).

The counselor ontologically stands in a different mode to the client and has his or her values. This necessarily extends to religion, or lack of it, and the problem may be that even though the counselor seeks not to impose his values on the client, his or her values and ways of thinking covertly rub off and may repel or influence the client. Many counselors deal with this problem by adopting a certain methodology that guides them, for instance a counselor may choose the humanistic approach and closely adhere to Carl oger's prescription of assuming a non-judgmental client-oriented position and refraining from directing the client in any which way. Humanism is a general approach that refers to the counseling methodology in general.

eligion is a subject that may often -- to some extent or other -- creep into the session. There are -- the authors suggest…

References

Malone, A., Meyer, D.D., Tarlton, T., Wasielewski, L., Reuben, P., West, C., & Mitchell, V. (2011). The relationship between forgiveness and emotional well-being. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com / vistas/vistas11/Article_23.pdf

Zinnbauer, BJ & Pargament, KI (2000). Working with the sacred. Journal of Counseling and Practice, 78, 601-609.

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John Rawls Justice as Fairness a Restatement
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John Rawls reworks the theses contained in his previous works with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Rawls' political philosophy is a modern formulation, presupposing a democratic foundation, which seeks to define justice as a purely political concept. Because Rawls' previous work, A Theory of Justice, still contained moral arguments, the author here attempts to divest the concept of justice as fairness from its moral underpinnings. Therefore, with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Rawls reformulates the basic theories contained within his former works in order to distinguish the political from the moral or philosophical spheres. Justice as Fairness contains elements found in the theories of political philosophers like Locke, Hobbes, Kant, Hegel, and Marx and the book is a compilation of his political philosophy lectures at Harvard in the 1980s. Rawls systematically analyses the idea of justice as a primarily political concept. He then applies this concept to a workable theory…

Matrix Between Pluralist and Elitist Perspectives
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Pluralistic and Elitist Perspectives

Pluralism promotes the idea that it would be possible for two or more forms of authority to coexist. This is a very general concept and can be considered in a wide range of topics with the purpose of demonstrating the way that these respective systems function. The pluralist perspective can be considered as something meant to emphasize the organization as being composed out of a series of sub-groups. In contrast to pluralism, elitism relates to the idea of a situation in which an elitist group is in charge of matters. This group needs to be able to adopt a series of controlling attitudes in order to make sure that it still holds power.

In the pluralist perspective, managers focus more on coordinating the overall affairs in the organization rather than on employing controlling attitudes toward their subordinates. This way power is being distributed among several individuals…

Works cited:

Janoski, T. "The Handbook of Political Sociology: States, Civil Societies, and Globalization," (Cambridge University Press, 20 Jan 2003)

Porta, D.D., & Keating, M. "Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences: A Pluralist Perspective," (Cambridge University Press, 28 Aug 2008)