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In general terms, pluralism implies the interrelationship between diverse groups. As a term, the same can also be used to represent a wide range of diverse views. In this text, I concern myself with pluralism, that is, its meaning and what working in a pluralistic environment means.
Pluralism & Working in a Pluralistic Environment
Literary, pluralism can be taken to denote 'more than one.' Hence at the organizational level, pluralism could simply mean that a given organization or entity embraces 'more than one' subcultures. Thus in a way, pluralism as a phrase is rather 'catch all' and towards that end, the same can be used as a philosophy that advocates for 'more than one' viewpoint. In passing, it is important to note that in a pluralistic environment, pluralism can be looked at from a number of angles. Thus in this case, we could have cultural pluralism, religious pluralism, ethical…… [Read More]
However, many have argued that the U.S., even though its institutions are not technically oligarchic, still functions as power elite. The United States, although it is a republic, clearly has certain types of power concentrated in the hands of some citizens as opposed to others, as wealth and professional or political positions give particular individuals added influence in terms of how policies are made. The American power elite sends its children to the best schools, makes connections with other powerful people, and assumes command of the major corporations, the military, and the government (the power elite, 2009, Afrostaff). Even though some outsiders may make incursions into this elite as a result of their talent, this only occurs if they do not threaten the elite's core values, or the power elite pressures these few upstarts to uphold the status quo. The U.S. may have institutions that seem to be pluralistic, but…… [Read More]
Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion, and while it does not hold view that only Buddhists will eventually attain enlightenment, it does profess that Buddhism is the only route to nirvana, or the state of awareness and existence through which a human being is freed from the cycle of suffering. In this way, Buddhists do not believe that any other religious practice or belief can lead to God. But it is interesting to note that Buddhists do not believe that non-believers will go to hell. Instead of employing fear as a tactic to draw more believers, Buddhism uses positive reinforcement, or the idea that nirvana can be achieved through the religion, as a major draw.
The Muslim religion is also one of the largest and oldest religions in the world. it's like other Abrahamic religions like Christianity and Judaism teach that their way is the only way to God.…… [Read More]
Describe how citizens of the United States foster a climate of acceptance and cultural pluralism.
American citizens foster cultural acceptance from their attitudes, beliefs and traditions. What is happening is a number of different areas within American society are based upon European customs and traditions. These ideas have become integrated as a standard part of the mainstream culture. Over the course of time, these values were combined with ideological principles such as self-determination to create unique groups that are embracing core ideas. (Marger, 2009)
The way that Americans are able to encourage a climate of acceptance is from their willingness to change. This occurs through new programs that are forcing everyone to reexamine themselves and their attitudes about others. Once this happens, there will be a shift in beliefs about different ethnic groups and their ideas. This is when new attributes are accepted by mainstream American culture. (Marger,…… [Read More]
Postmodernism and Pluralism
Pluralism and postmodernism revolve around the concept of truth, towards which many people are skeptical today. The field of epistemology has undergone a myriad of changes over the centuries, and there is a growing consensus that the concept of truth has not only become archaic, but also irrelevant. This trend, experts believe, depicts a shift from modernism to postmodernism, where people pursue knowledge in a radically differently way. The concept of plurality arises from postmodernism, and will be used to analyze the stand of the Mormon Church on controversial global issues later on in this text.
Modernism: dates back to the renaissance period and is characterized by the conviction that humans must discover the secrets of nature as this is the only way they can exercise power over it (Brantley n. pag.). A modern mind attaches more importance to reason than it does to God's documented writings…… [Read More]
"...religious establishment not religious freedom was the norm in colonial America. (eligious Pluralism in the United States)
An example that can be given is the influence of other cultural and religious beliefs in the country, such as the arrival of thousands of ussian Jews who fled to the United States from 1882 to 1924 to avoid persecution. This led in many case to the emergence of anti-Semitism in area of the country. (eligious Pluralism in the United States)
However, despite historical facts that tend to question the authenticity of religious freedom in the Untied States, many commentators and scholars refer to the long tradition of the acceptance of different regions and religious groupings in the United States. "American citizens span the spectrum from evangelical Christians to ardent atheists; from observant Muslims to secular and orthodox Jews. Ethnically, American citizens include Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, Puerto ican Americans, European-Americans, ussian-Americans, and many other…… [Read More]
Dialectical Pluralism means that the doctrine of pluralism in philosophy is arrived at by means of logical argument. This argument includes Hegel's technique of stating a thesis, for which an antithesis is then developed. These are then combined to become a coherent and logical synthesis.
Pluralism may be contrasted with monism and dualism, in that it incorporates a multiplicity of ideas rather than a single one or a dual one, where there are two opposing forces. Pluralism holds that there cannot be only on or two systems according to which the world may philosophically be explained. Instead there is a multiplicity of ideas, each of which has its logical place in the philosophy of the world that is. The opposing force in this argument is then that, while there are many ways to explain whatever subject field is the focus, these explanations contradict each other. It is thus difficult to…… [Read More]
Humility and Moral Pluralism
Humility can actually play a fairly significant role in ethical decision making, particularly when those decisions are related to any form of organization, whether professional, clerical, or even personal (such as a family). Essentially, humility's part in ethical decision making stems from a person's ability to look beyond his or her own personal needs to determine a greater good. That greater good typically exists outside of the individual, and may reflect the interest of other people or groups. In especially difficult ethical decisions, the interest represented by an individual making a choice and the greater good that is to be achieved by such a decision are in conflict. However, it is safe to posit that no matter what sort of ethical decision is being made, there is a degree of self-effacement that needs to take place for the one determining the course of action.…… [Read More]
As Mitchell points out however, this criterion can overlook the major differences between the cultures that form the Hispanic group, and the multicultural curriculum should ensure the recognition of these basic differences. (Mitchell, 102)
However, this emphasis on difference that is characteristic of the contemporary ethnic studies is not to be taken as a form of absolute belonging or encapsulation of an individual in a certain culture. Multicultural education aims at teaching the differences between cultures and at equipping the individual with the necessary skills for the culturally plural environment. This means that the student learns to understand his own culture and the other cultures, but at the same time to detach himself from the unique identification with a nation or an ethnic identity:
Individuals are capable of having multiple identifications and attachments, including attachments to their cultural community, their nation, and to 'the worldwide community of human beings' (Nussbaum,…… [Read More]
President Karzai confirmed that the sharia would remain as the law of the land but gave assurances that amputation punishments would not be enforced (Shea 2002). He stressed that very strict rules applied in such cases. Extreme sharia had no room for checks on judicial power. Extreme sharia's all-powerful judicial mechanism excludes democracy and sharply reduces human freedom. With its 7th-century laws and punishments, the Supreme Court was not only another branch of government but the very seat of power. Countries with religious judges were in direct command of coercive powers. The president or parliament could not override their decisions and no politician or journalist could criticize them. It would be blasphemy to do so. With the drafting of a new constitution after a year-long process, the country's legislative body could prevent the portent spoken of by Shinwari. It would be crucial to the protection and expansion of human freedoms…… [Read More]
Modernism and Pluralism is a daunting task. Depending on the setting and discipline, both concepts mean different things to different people. Establishing the beginning and end of both concepts is equally as daunting but, regardless, it cannot be denied that both concepts have greatly influenced contemporary thinking and that the world, as we currently know it, would not have developed without the change in thinking brought about by both concepts (Wagers, 2007).
In politics, at least in the United States, there is likely no greater example of the influence of Modernism and Pluralism than President Franklin oosevelt. His election in 1932 marked a departure from the traditionalism that was characterized by the presidency of Herbert Hoover and America's adoption of the ideas of modernism and pluralism that had been circulating throughout the world for many years (Barone, 1990).
By the time that oosevelt was elected, modernism had been affecting culture,…… [Read More]
international community to know why so many movements have taken place. Was it the fall of the liberal pluralism theory? Is it the beginning of a new era of politics? The realism theory has been hurt badly by the recent developments of the international movements. Not only these movements have impacted international politics, they have changed the dynamics of the international relations.
Tunisian movement was the one to spark the beginning of many other revolutions. Tunisia was placed in a bleak environment of Middle East. It is a secular nation and has friendly ties with Western Europe and United States. It had an educated population and unlike many Islamic countries, women were provided their rights. Despite all of this the Ben Ali's regime was considered to be the most brutal which caused the extreme repression. The regime had blocked the freedom of expression which caused the liberals to start a…… [Read More]
CHANGING U.S. OLE OF ELIGIOUS PLUALISM
changing role relig U.S.
When I volunteered in a museum, one of the exhibits that passed through was a collection of Buddhist artwork. One of the displays featured the "Bamiyan Buddhas," two ancient statues that had been recently destroyed in Afghanistan by Al Qaeda. These were the largest stone Buddhas in the world, and apparently the Taliban locals would not destroy them so extremists had to be imported (Martin, 2005, p. 76). Now Muslim fundamentalists have destroyed another 30 historic Buddhist relics, again on grounds of iconoclasm, in the island of Maldives (Bajaj, 2012, n.p.). This illustrates the changing role of religious pluralism in America today, not only as we police religious conflict in Afghanistan and abroad, but here at home protecting the irreplaceable relics of ancient religions that continue to be destroyed all around us.
Esposito (2008) reminds us of the role of…… [Read More]
Critically assess the extent to which deliberative democracy, neo-conservatism and/or neo-liberalism promote and/or restrict democratization for groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates presented in the attached readings to make your points and cite your sources.
Civil society may make up a place for democratization, owing to its ability to enable individuals to decide on living their public life and resolving common issues. Individuals who consider deliberation to be the soul of democracy ought to be drawn to a broad form of public domain. Postmodernists, who hold rather divergent views, conceptualizing democracy with regard to agonistic regard formed via identity and difference negotiations, ought to similarly be drawn to pluralism. Democrats ought to support, in general, a state complete in key elements, as appropriately organized exclusion may prove beneficial to democratization and democracy, even from excluded parties' standpoint. All historical decisions taken by governments to ensure…… [Read More]
he Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.
he United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. he way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions…… [Read More]
Whitney collection, what qualities do the art works seem to have in common?
When you look at the Whitney collection from the year 2000, it is clear that that all of the artists are reflection of a sense of realism in the various works. As, they are taking everyday events and are depicting them in such a way, that they are giving the audience a sense of appreciation for what many people see regularly.
A good example of this can be seen by comparing the works of Doug Aitken with John Coplans. In the Doug Aitken's photograph, he is illustrating an everyday event by highlighting a single shopping cart sitting in a parking lot. As, everyone has: went home and Aitken is showing how this is part of everyday life in America. This is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for the kinds of images that we see everyday,…… [Read More]
The press is paid to spread their particular message rather than to spread the truth. This is true, to a greater or lesser degree, even of the mass media in the most democratic of countries such as the United tates of America. The countrywide hysteria after the 9/11 attacks is a case in point. President Bush used both the emotional state of his fellow Americans and the power of the mass media to justify his destructive "War on Terrorism."
On the other hand, one cannot deny that truth and democracy do at times triumph with the occasional integrity in reporting. An increasing number of reporters have become forefront fighters for democracy and freedom in the press, particularly in American politics. These cases are however in the minority.
To therefore claim that the mass media is predominantly functional, always revealing the truth by democratic and free communication, is hardly accurate. ociety…… [Read More]
PLUALISM BEST FO SOCIETY?
Diversity and Pluralism
Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?
Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?
Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…… [Read More]
Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.
Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…… [Read More]
America was not founded as a Democracy or as a Monarchy, for the educated and landed founding fathers felt assured that neither would provide the nation with rights for all and privilege for the few. America was founded as a Republic, and one might add as an ogliarchic republic at that. Those with the right gender, race, and wealth were represented through their while others were represented through the votes of their betters. Today, nearly-universal sufferage (age and past misbehavior are both barriers) assures that these factors do not determine whether a person can vote -- but an argument can still be made that the majority of the political process is determined by wealth. "The creators of America's constitution and government were among the wealthy aristocrats of their day. When they created their new government, the founders excluded democracy to the extent politically possible at the time. ..The great…… [Read More]
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]
Jesus the Only Savior?
Part I Pluralism
It must first be noted that the author, Ronald H. Nash, was a Calvinist/aptist philosopher and apologist and a professor on theology and history for more than four decades. He earned many more honors and occupied more positions than will open him to questioning as to his vast knowledge of the theological discipline.
His book introduces the philosophies surrounding salvation, i.e., exclusivism, inclusivism and pluralism. The first Part of the book discusses pluralism, which argues that all religions offer all men a way to salvation. Nash replies most adequately to the repudiation of pluralism, as presented by John Hicks, its most influential proponent, and inclusivism. Pluralists, like Hicks, and inclusivists wage ferocious attacks against the long-held iblical doctrine of Christianity that Jesus Christ is the only way to salvation, as explicitly stated in John 14:6. Pluralism holds that there are many paths to…… [Read More]
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…… [Read More]
politics is and what it is not. Some definitions of politics are examined. The applications of politics in society are explored. The paper also looks at some of the things that are not politics, and examines why these things are not politics. The role of politics is distinguished from the role of government, and the reasons for this are looked at more closely.
This is a paper written in Harvard style that is actually three five page essays in one. These three essays all answer specific questions about politics, particularly the theories of elitism and pluralism.
What is Politics?
Many people believe that politics is simply the workings of the government, the ins and outs of the daily process of making, enforcing, and interpreting the laws. This is certainly one aspect of politics. However, politics encompasses so much more than just this. Politics also takes into account the structures of…… [Read More]
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…… [Read More]
War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective
The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.
The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…… [Read More]
Viet Nam War and its comparison to several social theories. Using the war as a measuring stick theories are examined and held against the war to see how the war could be applied to each theory. The writer explains a short history of each theory and then examines how the war holds up using that particular theory.
The Viet Nam War was arguably the most controversial war that America has ever been involved in. It sparked social movements that had never before been seen. It pitted the young against the old, the conservative against the liberal and the rich against the poor in ways that threatened to tear the nation in pieces. Until Viet Nam, service personnel had been considered heroes, worthy of the nation's admiration. During the Viet Nam war those who served often came home to being spit on, and having things thrown at time. Until Viet Nam…… [Read More]
Nursing Theorist: Sr. oy Adaptation Model
The oy Adaptation model for Nursing had its beginning when Sister Callista oy happened to get admitted in the Masters Program of pediatric nursing in the University of California, Los Angeles, in the year 1964. At that time, Sr. Callista was familiar with the idea of 'adaptation' in nursing, and it must be mentioned that Sr. Callista's adviser at that time was Dorothy E. Johnson, who believed firmly in the need to define nursing as a means of focusing the development of knowledge, for the practice of nursing. When Sr. Callista oy started working with children in the pediatric ward of the hospital, she was quite impressed with the basic resiliency of the small children who had been admitted into the wards for treatment. This was why when the first seminar in pediatric nursing was called for; Sr. Callista oy proposed that the basic…… [Read More]
Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.
Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.
esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.
Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.
9:00-9:10: Opening prayer
9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.
11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.
1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…… [Read More]
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]
The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.
Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."
Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."
In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
eligious Group's Statement
William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"
is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process
In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.
The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…… [Read More]
Improving Group Productivity
The National Call Center for the Veteran's Administration (VA) Education Department employs over 700 people, which can be called upon to answer incoming calls from veterans. Within the four regional offices, there are employees of various positions, including Case Managers, Educational Liaison Representatives, application processors, and leaders who verify compliance, productivity, etc. With all employees being called upon to answer incoming calls, each employee needs to be aware of changes on an immediate basis, which can incorporate over 50 changes on a given day. As a result of work demands on all employees in different roles of the organizational structure, adequate training programs are of extreme importance in ensuring employees are properly trained, contain clear definitions of expectations in the various roles, and support teamwork within the groups to provide for efficiency in operations as well as performance goals and objectives.
A key component to the process…… [Read More]
person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.
First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…… [Read More]
Today's world does not have many examples of absolutist monarchies left in the world (Bhutan and Nepal were good example, but recent political changes in these countries no longer qualify them for inclusion), but historically France is probably the best example to fit as an absolutist monarchy.
Representative democracy is a political system in which the people elect individuals to represent their interests in the decision making process at a state level. In a pure democracy, usually going back to ancient Athens, was a form of consultative democracy in which every member of the society participated in the political meetings and decision making process. With the growth of population that sort of democracy was obviously no longer functional, turning it into a representative democracy.
In the United States, the electing constituencies and districts are formed by a small number of individuals who reside in a certain area and have specific…… [Read More]
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]
Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.
Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.
The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…… [Read More]
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…… [Read More]
Social scientists often state that there are four models of group interaction, models of pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide. These models exist on a sliding scale in terms of the degree of positive relations they exhibit between the dominant or hegemonic group and the minority or less powerful group involved in the interaction. In the first interactive model, that of pluralism, there is the smallest gulf of power between the majority and the minority group, or the most powerful and least powerful group in the dynamic. In a pluralistic state of interaction, no single group's set of values or one group truly dominates another group's set of values. This is a kind of mosaic model of group interaction, as is embraced in Canada, where a multitude of linguistic and ethnic groups are all considered equally 'Canadian,' and is also a model of interaction theoretically embraced within many American…… [Read More]
Define each of the following terms with specific examples of religions: Secularization, Exclusivism, Inclusivism, Pluralism, and interfaith initiatives
Secularization can be seen in the modern, Protestant shift to separating religious, private life from public, profane life. In this view it is fine to make money, and to live one's daily life outside of religious values, given that religion is relegated to a different sphere of human existence. Exclusivism stresses the unique nature of a particular sect, like a cult that believes it stands outside of a corrupt society, or even Judaism's stress upon its unique and seamless connection with its past history, and the difficulty for gentiles to easily covert to the religion. In contrast, sects such as Unitarians are highly inclusive, or desirous of incorporating many persons into the fold. Even non-believers are free to attend ceremonies. Pluralism, in contrast, acknowledges differences between different sects but still attempts to…… [Read More]
Plurality is built into Islam's legal and ideological foundations, complicating the political and social structure of the religion and its institutions. Principle means by which to explore and critique the complexity and plurality of Islam include the Hadith and the various schools of Islamic law. Because of the relatively equal veracity of all six books of the Hadith, and of the various schools of law, there is no singular authoritative body in Islam. Each region of the world has instead opted to emphasize some teachings and some legal schools over others.
The Hadith is a collection of writings reflecting the traditions, actions, and actual sayings of Muhammad. The Hadith comprises six books, compiled in the ninth and tenth centuries, and are viewed as "second only to the Quran in their practical significance and authority," (p. 74). The "soundness of their claims of transmission" is one of the central issues…… [Read More]
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…… [Read More]
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…… [Read More]
One example of this is the "famous egg box metaphor of international society (in which states were the eggs, and international society the box), one might see this unevenness as a pan of fried eggs. Although nearly all the states in the system belong to a thin, pluralist interstate society (the layer of egg-white), there are sub-global and/or regional clusters sitting on that common substrate that are both much more thickly developed than the global common, and up to a point developed separately and in different ways from each other (the yolks)" (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6).
For example the EU and North America, for example are "sub-global interstate societies that are more thickly developed within themselves. Lesser attempts to create thicker, liberal, regional interstate/international societies by cultivating joint economic development can be found in...various other regional economic cooperations," such as OPEC (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6). "Above some of…… [Read More]
Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).
Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…… [Read More]
While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.
America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…… [Read More]
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…… [Read More]
Art Analysis: Art21
After reviewing the artists from Art21, the artists chosen are Pierre Huyghe and AI Weiwei as the subjects of this paper. The pieces the paper will be "This is not a time for dreaming" by Huyghe and "Forever" by Weiwei. Both pieces are installation pieces although the artists are not classified under the same grouping on the Art21 website. Weiwei is listed as "Featured in Change" and Huyghe is listed as "Featured in omance." Though they are not featured or classified in the same group, their respective groups are related. There are several different kinds of people in the world for whom change is romantic. Weiwei is a renowned activist as well as renowned artists. Artists typically have a deep passion within that they express via their art. Therefore, Weiwei could see the connection between romance and change. For the native Parisian Huyghe, romance may very well…… [Read More]
Solidarity (Solidarnosc) Movement in Poland Led to the Collapse of Communism in Poland
History has shown time and again that when people are subjected to inordinately oppressive conditions long enough, they will rise up and slay their oppressors, literally or figuratively, and this is precisely what happened in Poland during the 1980s. This paper provides an analysis of the Solidarity (Solidarnosc) movement in Poland that led to the collapse of communism in Poland. A description of the events that led to the growth of the Solidarity movement is followed by the identification and an analysis of the events that followed Gorbachev's policy of political pluralism in Poland. Finally, an evaluation of the relative success of democracy and capitalism in Poland after the end of the Cold War is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
In retrospect, the events that led up to the…… [Read More]
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…… [Read More]
These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…… [Read More]
Patrick J. Buchanan is a conservative political leader in the United States. The article Deconstructing America was published in his 2007 book, Day of Reckoning. Buchanan says "America is today less a nation than an encampment of politics and power.." Although the rhetoric surrounding the creation of the nation did focus on themes such as equality, democracy, and diversity, in practice there were certainly more superficial ideologies at play.
"The United States, the greatest republic since Rome and the British Empire may be said to have risen from that three-cornered for the Jamestown settlers began to build the day they arrived. But that republic and that empire did not rise because the settlers and those who followed believed in diversity, equality, and democracy (Buckanan)."
The settlers were in no way worried about equality within their own groups or especially with the natives. The pilgrim's societies were based…… [Read More]
Organizational Behavior Analysis
Explored here will be a former employer, whose culture and method of communication in the workplace made it difficult for the organization to work together as a whole. Many organizations struggle with this particular issue, because they are not aware of what they can do to make much-needed changes that will allow for better communication in the workplace. The company in question was domineering in a sense, in that it did not allow for a good mixing of the cultures of the people who worked there. There was some mixing, because that is inevitable when there are a number of people who have different cultural beliefs all working in one spot. However, there was far less mixing and understanding than could have been seen and then could have been expected. This made it very difficult for people to do their jobs properly, because a significant number of…… [Read More]
Diana Eck's new book about religion, entitled, "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now ecome the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation" talks about the growing diversity in religious affiliations in America especially among its immigrants and native people. Eck provides her readers a new issue that is controversial politically, sociologically, and personally among America's citizens. The book was released before the September 11, 2001 bombings at the World Trade Center in New York City, USA, but its release became even more important, since Eck discusses the important issue that played in the said terrorist attacks, that is, the issue of religious and cultural diversity. This paper will discuss and analyze whether "religious pluralism," a term used by Diana Eck in her book so many times, a term used to describe America's 'melting pot' of various Western and Eastern religions, serves as a unifying factor to the Americans…… [Read More]
Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…… [Read More]
At the same time there are also many areas of contention and criticism of these groups. In order to put this debate into perspective one has to take into account that the concept of democracy is complex and that there are many views of what true democracy is and how it should function. As suggested above, the pluralist notion of democracy is different in many respects to the more formal or 'elitist' views of democracy. One's assessments of pressure groups will therefore depend to a great extent on one's concept and understanding of democracy.
On the one hand the pluralistic view that pressure groups expand involvement in the democratic process and bring important issues to the attention of both the public and the state is a view that many pundits tend to accept. But there are many other arguments against these groups; such as the view that they can in…… [Read More]
Zinbauer and Pargament (2000).
The counselor ontologically stands in a different mode to the client and has his or her values. This necessarily extends to religion, or lack of it, and the problem may be that even though the counselor seeks not to impose his values on the client, his or her values and ways of thinking covertly rub off and may repel or influence the client. Many counselors deal with this problem by adopting a certain methodology that guides them, for instance a counselor may choose the humanistic approach and closely adhere to Carl oger's prescription of assuming a non-judgmental client-oriented position and refraining from directing the client in any which way. Humanism is a general approach that refers to the counseling methodology in general.
eligion is a subject that may often -- to some extent or other -- creep into the session. There are -- the authors suggest…… [Read More]
John Rawls reworks the theses contained in his previous works with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Rawls' political philosophy is a modern formulation, presupposing a democratic foundation, which seeks to define justice as a purely political concept. Because Rawls' previous work, A Theory of Justice, still contained moral arguments, the author here attempts to divest the concept of justice as fairness from its moral underpinnings. Therefore, with Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Rawls reformulates the basic theories contained within his former works in order to distinguish the political from the moral or philosophical spheres. Justice as Fairness contains elements found in the theories of political philosophers like Locke, Hobbes, Kant, Hegel, and Marx and the book is a compilation of his political philosophy lectures at Harvard in the 1980s. Rawls systematically analyses the idea of justice as a primarily political concept. He then applies this concept to a workable theory…… [Read More]
Pluralistic and Elitist Perspectives
Pluralism promotes the idea that it would be possible for two or more forms of authority to coexist. This is a very general concept and can be considered in a wide range of topics with the purpose of demonstrating the way that these respective systems function. The pluralist perspective can be considered as something meant to emphasize the organization as being composed out of a series of sub-groups. In contrast to pluralism, elitism relates to the idea of a situation in which an elitist group is in charge of matters. This group needs to be able to adopt a series of controlling attitudes in order to make sure that it still holds power.
In the pluralist perspective, managers focus more on coordinating the overall affairs in the organization rather than on employing controlling attitudes toward their subordinates. This way power is being distributed among several individuals…… [Read More]