Pneumonia Essays (Examples)

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Routine Oral Care Positioning to

Words: 2436 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77539372

(Schleder, 2003)

Elevating heads of beds for patients on mechanical ventilation

Along with the recommendations for removal of plaque, there is also a guideline made by CDC that for proper treatment to "elevate at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees the head of the bed of a patient at high risk for aspiration." The benefits elevation of the head of the bed is on the theory that then gravity will reduce the possibilities of regurgitation that exists in an overly distended stomach. The recommendation by CDC also clearly states that the patients should not be lying flat unless there is some clinical need for that. At the same time, some medical authorities feel that this is likely to make the patients uncomfortable, though the recommendation is from CDC. This makes them reduce the angle of laying the patients bed at a lower angle than the angle specified by CDC.…… [Read More]

References

Afessa, Bekele. (May, 2004) "From pro and con debate to evidence-based practice: ventilator- associated pneumonia" CHEST. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0984/is_5_125/ai_n6094553. Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Caffery, Lisa. "Preventing Ventilator associated Pneumonia" Retrieved from www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf+elevating+patient's+beds+for+ventilator+acquired+pneumonia&hl=en" http://www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf. Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Chulay, Marianne. (1 March, 2005) "VAP Prevention: The latest guidelines" Retrieved at http://rnweb.com/rnweb/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=149672Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Geyer, Sherree. "Breathing easy" Retrieved from www.matmanmag.com/matmanmag/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=AHA/PubsNewsArticleGen/data/0407MMH_FEA_Cover_Story&domain=MATMANMAG
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Normal Saline During Suctioning Adults

Words: 1900 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67492568

(Torpy, 2007)

Some of the symptoms of ventilator assisted pneumonia may be the onset of fever, a higher white blood cell count, and a new or changing lung infiltrate that may be visible on a normal chest x-ray. Cultures taken as samples from the patient's airways may show the presence of microorganisms or bacteria and fungi that would eventually cause the dreaded ventilator assisted pneumonia in the patient. JAMA states that these risk factors may be eliminated to a large extent if the nurses and medical practitioners were to follow certain simple but essential steps in preventing the onset of the symptoms of pneumonia. First and foremost, the nurse must maintain a high degree of hygiene; he must wash his hands both before and after coming into contact with any patient, and second, he must try to keep the bed elevated to a 30 degree head up position, so that…… [Read More]

References

Druding, Mary. C. (1997, Aug) "Re-examining the practice of normal saline installation prior to suctioning" Medical Surgery Nursing, Retrieved 8 October, 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSS/is_n4_v6/ai_n18607505

Medscape. (2007) "Should Normal Saline be Used When Suctioning the Endotracheal Tube of the Neonate?" Retrieved 8 October, 2007 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552862

Schwenker, Ferrin, M; Gift, a.G. (1998) "A survey of endotracheal suctioning with installation of normal saline" American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 7, no. 4, pp: 255-260.

Torpy, Janet M. (2007, Apr) "Ventilator assisted pneumonia" the Journal of the American
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Care Needs Concerns and Treatment

Words: 4512 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58816657



Furthermore, one of the pillars of collaborative care that will need to be firmly established is the fostering of clear dialogue and a means for strong communication within the care management planning. For instance, there needs to be a clear decision and communication of all tests ordered and when the test results will be available. One of the most important aspects of this collaborative care will be the nursing interventions which can have significant impact on the patient's health and stabilization (Allen, 2010). In fact, strategic nursing care can even minimize readmission rates of Margaret and other patients with comparable conditions (Chen et al., 2012).

Prioritize the Nursing Care Needs of Margaret

The prioritization of nursing interventions is essential, and the way in which a nurse determines this priority is going to be something unique and distinct. "Trials reviewed demonstrated a beneficial impact of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in…… [Read More]

References

Adler, H.M. (n.d.). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient -- physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. (2007). J Gen Intern Med,22(2), 280 -- 285.

Afilala, J. (n.d.). Frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease: Why, when, and how to measure. (2011). Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep, 5(5), 467 -- 472.

Allen, J.K. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: Systematic review.

Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing,25(3), 207-220.
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Baker 2000 The Measurement of Project Effectiveness an

Words: 1444 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61117020

Baker, 2000).The measurement of project effectiveness, an element of project impact evaluation, is crucial for the success of every proposed project. In this section, we present the method/mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The process starts with the identification of the project users (Ventilation associated pneumonia patients), gathering data to be used in determining if the user received output, identification of process of transmission and ends up with the change process. This is indicated in the flowchart model (see figure 1.) which provides for an elaborate systematic way of examining the process within the proposed project and the outcome of the proposed project. The evaluation of the outcomes is the major purpose of the framework even though the outcomes can never be seen in total isolation of the proposed project "mechanics" (including transmission, project reception as well as use).At certain points in the project evaluation framework, it…… [Read More]

References

Apisarnthanarak A, Thongphubeth K, Sirinvaravong S, et al.(2007) Effectiveness of multifaceted hospitalwide quality improvement programs featuring an intervention to remove unnecessary urinary catheters at a tertiary care center in Thailand. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007; 28(7):791 -- 798

Baker, JL (2000). Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners. A Handbook for Practitioners.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/handbook.pdf 

Gawlinski A. (2007)Evidence-based practice changes: measuring the outcome. AACN Adv Crit Care. Jul-Sep;18(3):320-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 180195

Hugonnet, S., S. Harbarth, H. Sax, R.A. Duncan and D. Pittet. (2004). "Nursing Resources: A Major Determinant of Nosocomial Infection?" Current Opinions in Infectious Diseases 17: 329 -- 33.
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Patients Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation Contract Ventilator Associated

Words: 2974 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20462057

patients undergoing mechanical ventilation contract Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This acute medical condition always results in increased death rates and associated medical costs among patients. This article reviews several literatures that try to enlighten masses on the diagnosis, medical treatments and VAP prevention methods. In addition, this article outlines recommendations medical practitioners can implement in their daily practices to curb VAP and offers an insight on controversies that usually arise during VAP diagnoses, treatment plans and prevention methodologies. This article defines VAP to be the causative agent of approximately 25 to 54% mortality rates among patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in ICUs. Factors responsible for VAP among patients include patients' population in ICUs, hospital stay durations and antimicrobial treatments. Even though antimicrobial medications are confirmed to reduce VAP casualties, further studies should be undertaken such as the ones outlined in the literatures below to help in early identification and treatment of…… [Read More]

References

Arroliga, A.C., Pollard, C.L., Wilde, C.D., Pellizzari, S.J., Chebbo, A., Song, J., et al. (2012).

Reduction in the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Multidisciplinary

Approach. Respiratory Care, 688-696.

Camargo, L.F., De Marco, F.V., Barbas, C.S., Hoelz, C., Bueno, M.A., Rodrigues Jr., M., et al.
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Treatment to Patients the Main Objective of

Words: 4516 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23316992

Treatment to Patients

The main objective of providing treatment to patients is to relieve symptoms along with decreasing the progression of the disease as well as the mortality or morbidity. However, in some cases, this objective is not fully achieved, especially in the case of the patients who are admitted to the ICU with some serious and almost always a terminal stage of the disease. For example, when old patients are admitted in the ICU, their immunity is extremely low and this is the perfect time for the opportunistic infections to make matters worse for these patients. There are many infections that are specifically associated with patients admitted in the hospitals. Pseudomonas Aurigeonosa is a micro-organism that is well documented to cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in the patients who are terminally ill and are receiving treatment in the hospital setting. Since most of the patients in the ICU are…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Beekmann, SE;Diekema, DJ; Chapin, KC;Doern, GV (2003) Effects of rapid detection of bloodstream infections on length of hospitalization and hospital charges.J ClinMicrobiol, 41:3119-3125.

Boussekey, N, Leroy, O, Georges, H, Devos, P, d'Escrivan, T, Guery, B (2005).Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit.Infection, 33:257-263.

Charles, PE, Dalle, F, Aho, S, Quenot, JP, Doise, JM, Aube, H, Olsson, NO, Blettery, B: Serum procalcitonin measurement contribution to the early diagnosis of candidemia in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med, 32:1577-1583.

Digiovine, B; Chenoweth, C; Watts, C; Higgins, M (1999)The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. RespirCrit Care Med, 160:976-981.
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VAP Prevention and Management Strategies

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25244165

Prevention and Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Hospitals

Ventilator-associated pneumonia is an infection in the airways that develops more than 48 hours after a patient is intubated. While the prevention and management of pneumonia of any kind is considered as a commendable objective, it is characterized with several concerns given the significant effect of pneumonia linked to ventilator use. Ventilator-associated pneumonia has attracted considerable concern in the recent past because it has become the leading cause of death among infections acquired in the hospital. Actually, the rates of deaths from ventilator-associated pneumonia have exceeded those associated with central line infections, respiratory tract infections, and serious sepsis in the non-intubated patient ("Preventing Healthcare and Community Associated Infections," n.d.). It is increasingly likely that the most concerning aspect of ventilator-associated pneumonia is the high associated mortality (Kalanuria, Zai & Mirski, 2014). Consequently, several peer reviewed studies have been carried out to…… [Read More]

References

Junega et. al. (2011, May). Prevention and Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A

Survey on Current Practices by Intensivists Practicing in the Indian Subcontinent. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 55(2), 122-128.

Kalanuria, A.A., Zai, W. & Mirski, M. (2014). Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the ICU.

Critical Care, 18(208). Retrieved from http://ccforum.com/content/18/2/208
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Mcclure Case Study Patient Overview -- Patient

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6658659

McClure Case Study

Patient Overview -- Patient, Mr. M., is 49 years old and has smoked for 25 years, quit three years ago when diagnosed with emphysema. He indicates he as shortness of breath for the past 48 hours, with sputum so thick he has difficulty coughing it out. Skin is warm and dry with slight clubbing of fingers noted. Lung sounds diminished with crackles and expiratory wheezes and barrel chest. Vitals are 101.8 Temp, pule 110, respiratory 32, BP 150/82. Blood gases show decreased O2 and increased C02 with an increase in red blood cells and twice the normal white cells.

M's risk factors for emphysema are high. Smoking for so long contributed to decrease of long function and is an abnormal dilation and destruction of the alveolar ducts and air spaces in the lungs. It usually occurs in people over 50, so Mr. M is at the lower…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cash, J. And Glass, C. (2011). Family Practice Guidelines. New York: Springer.

Dains, J., et al. (2012). Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care.

St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Mortelli, M., et al. (2002). Acute respirator distress syndrome. American Family Physician. 65 (9): 1823-30.
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Woman Entered the National Institutes of Health

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43959445

woman entered the National Institutes of Health esearch Hospital in Bethesda Maryland with a serious, but fairly routine infection; however the subsequent events were to prove anything but routine. The article titled "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-esistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with Whole-Genome Sequencing," traced the effort to discover the cause of the woman's illness, as well how the staff at one of America's most advanced hospitals dealt with the subsequent outbreak of disease. (Starr, 2012) This article interested me because it focused on an outbreak of illness, something which anyone could have been affected, but also because it discussed two aspects of the course and it's text: single-celled life forms and genetics.

The woman brought to the NIH research hospital was suffering from an infection caused by an antibiotic-resistant organism, but it was a new strain, never before encountered. About a month after she was treated and discharged, another patient…… [Read More]

References

"Klebsiella Pneumoniae Morphology" Klebsiella Pneumoniae.org. Retrieved from  http://klebsiella-pneumoniae.org/klebsiella_pneumoniae_morphology.html 

Melissa Block, Eddie Cornish. (30 Oct 2012). Interview "NIH Takes Extraordinary Steps

In Fighting 'Superbug'." NPR.org. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/08/23/159931389/nih-takes-extraordinary-steps-in-fighting-super bug

Snitkin, Evan, etal. (Aug 2012). "Tracking a Hospital Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant
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Oral Hygiene Methodology There Is a Significant

Words: 1736 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13409997

Oral Hygiene Methodology

There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.

Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov:  http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf 

Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.

Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540

Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…… [Read More]

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8454350

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.

The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]

References

Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
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Resp Report the Progress of

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20580497



Six days after his initial complaint, the patient returned with worsening symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. No bacterial or viral infections could be found, but the patient was treated with antibiotics anyway as his symptoms suggested that his respiratory distress and other symptoms were due to some sort of infection. The fact that his condition continued to worsen without any notable effect from broad-spectrum antibiotics suggests that perhaps the physicians erred in this assessment, and that the negative results of the many tests for infectious agents administered to the patient were more accurate than the physicians thought. Focusing attentions more immediately on other potential causes and more direct methods of symptom relief, either in addition to or instead of the antibiotic treatment and observation that constituted the primary means of treatment at this stage, might have prevented or at least postponed the need for intubation and the mechanical…… [Read More]

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Contemplate My Admission to Your

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93534305

I know whatever major I choose, my first priority is to help others and make a difference in their lives.

I feel I have a lot to offer to your university in my attitude, involvement, and dedication. I am a very sensitive person because of my sister and her condition. She has had many medical problems (including open-heart surgery, heart failure, and several battles with pneumonia). She is an inspiration to me, and my family rejoices in all of her successes. This has made me more open to others, and to understand those who are different, as well as those who fit in. I feel this will make me a better, more compassionate student and peer.

My sister has taught me more than compassion and sensitivity. Despite her health problems and situation, she still holds down a part time job at McDonald's, and is always positive and upbeat. As my…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Leadership and Management in Healthcare Effective

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10516037

Healthcare Leadership

Leadership and Management in Healthcare

Effective Leadership and Management

Leadership is much like communications in regards to the complexity inherent in these concepts. There are many different perspectives that are used to examine these issues and researchers study leadership and management from such disciplines includes Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, and Sociology. There have been somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight major approaches, depending on the vantage point, to leadership theory produced in the scientific literature over the last sixty years and even more have emerged from outside academia (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011). Competing theories include such perspectives as trait theory, situational theory, behavioral theory, competencies theory, network theory of leadership and many more.

Much of the work that a nurse-leader engages in on a daily basis rests in their ability to communicate with others; including clients, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Therefore, since this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.

Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 6-25.

Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Straker, D. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from Changing Minds:  http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm
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Chlorhexidine Use in VAP Cases

Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50579885

Omit itles and Degrees]

Klompas M., Speck, K., Howell M.D., Greene, L.R., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2014). Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorohexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA internal medicine, 174 (5), 751-761.

his article deals with the routine oral care of patients using chlorhexidine gluconate as standard care when they receive mechanical ventilation during their hospital stay. heir aim is to assess the overall impact routine oral care has in conjunction with chlorhexidine in regards to patient-centered outcomes for patients receiving the aforementioned mechanical ventilation. hey chose randomized clinical trials that compared a placebo to chlorhexidine and chose only sixteen studies out of the 171 citations they explored because the 3,630 patients observed in the selected studies met criteria.

he results showed chlorhexidine provide patients with a lesser occurrence of infection than with placebo, although pneumonia risk was around the same for both.…… [Read More]

This webpage gives information on what VAP is. It also provides links on possible prevention information. It does not really highlight use of chlorhexidine. However, it does include monitoring practices to check for VAP for early intervention.

15. Beraldo, C.C., & Andrade, D.D. (2008). Oral Hygiene with chlorohexidine in preventing pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. Jornal Braisileiro de Pneumologia, 34(9), 707-714

This article failed to provide any new information with the exception of reducing another bacterium through the use of chlorhexidine. It is a search kind of article. They chose eight studies. From those eight studies, seven of them confirmed the use of chlorhexidine reduces instances of VAP.
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Proposed Change for Preventing VAP Infections

Words: 1771 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17320498

Chlorhexidine to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common infections acquired by patients who've utilized mechanical ventilation in health care facilities. This infection is a major concern because it leads to several deaths, extends hospital stay, and increases the costs of medical care services. The infections are commonly developed when pathogenic bacteria colonize the aero digestive tract. According to Babcock et al. (2004), the prevention of these infections has usually entailed preventing bacteria colonization and the subsequent aspiration of the contaminated secretions to the lower airways. Given the increased incidents of ventilator-association pneumonia, this paper proposes the use of chlorhexidine in preventing it. Chlorhexidine has proven effective in prevention of VAP as shown in baseline data. The implementation of this proposed procedure in patient care will entail various logistics based on approval from organizational leadership.

Methods for Obtaining Necessary Approval and Support

One of the…… [Read More]

References

Babcock, H., Zack, J.E., Garrison, T., Trovillion, E., Jones, M., Fraser, V.J., & Kollef, M.H. (2004). An educational Intervention to Reduce Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in an Integrated Health System. Chest, 125 (6), 2224-2231.

Hoshijima et al. (2013, December). Effects of Oral Hygiene Using Chlorhexidine on Preventing Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Critical-care Settings: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Dental Sciences, 8(4), 348-357.

Keyt, H., Faverio, P. & Restrepo, M.I. (2014, June). Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review of the Clinically Relevant Recent Advancements. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 139, 814-821.

Klompas M., Speck, K., Howell M.D., Greene, L.R., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2014). Reappraisal of Routine Oral Care with Chlorohexidine Gluconate for Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174 (5), 751-761.
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Data Quality in Generating Hospital Reports

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95771631

Quality and Accessibility of Information

Quantitative or qualitative data used in the report on how many patients have been admitted for pneumonia over the past several months would need to be complete in that it shows evidence of each of the following characteristics: accuracy, accessibility, comprehensiveness, completeness, consistency, currency, definition, granularity, precision, lineage, relevancy, and timeliness. The same holds true for a scenario in which a drug has been recalled and patients need to be contacted. Data should be quality in both cases, as it informs the reader of pertinent stats and needed facts (Lin, 2013).

In the case of providing a report on the number of patients admitted for pneumonia, an example of accuracy of data would be that the report truly represents the actuality or the reality of the situation. Names, for example, are not misspelled and indicate actually persons in both qualitative and quantitative data and for…… [Read More]

References

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among

Five Approaches. UK: Sage.

Lin, C. (2013). Revealing the "Essence" of Things: Using Phenomenology in LIS

Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries (QQML), 4: 469-478.
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Evidence-Based Educations Programs as They

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98680795



The hospital used for the study already had protocols in place to prevent patients from getting pneumonia. Published data was provided and posters were placed in all units. However, the nurses chose not to follow the protocols set forth. This is the reason the study was conducted. The nurses confessed that they felt oral care was more of a comfort to the patients than a preventative measure to pneumonia. The really did not take the time to learn that improper oral care in these patients lead to the excessive growth of bacteria which eventually found its way down the respirator tube and into the patient's lungs causing pneumonia. Once the nurses went through formal evidence-based program and followed the proper protocol, the rate of ventilator pneumonia decreased by 50%.

Providing proper training in addition to the posters displayed helped to reinforce the significance of proper oral care for their patients.…… [Read More]

References

Ross, a. And Crumpler, J. (2007). The impact of an evidence-based practice education program

on the role of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 23(3), 132-136.
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Dysphagia in the Elderly the

Words: 2606 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26467054

" (Stone, 2006) Treatment is stated by Stone (2006) to be "diagnosis dependent and may be medical or surgical." Practical modifications include simple steps such as crushing of pills or opening of capsules to ease and facilitate swallowing.

The work of Leibovitz, et al. (2007) entitled: 'Dehydration Among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia" states that long-term care (LTC) residents in the nursing home "especially the orally fed with dysphagia are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) it is related however that "combinations of these indices are more reliable." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) the study reported by Leibovitz et al. is one that assessed hydration status among elderly LTC residents with oropharyngeal dysphagia and in which a total of 28 orally…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Spieker, Michael R. (2000) Evaluating Dysphagia. American Family Physician 14 Jun 2000. Online available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000615/3639.html

Marik, Paul E. And Kaplan, Danielle (2003) Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly. Chest. July 2003. Vol. 1224, No. 1. Online available at http://www.chestjournal.org/content/124/1/328.full

Bautmans, I., et al. (2008) Dysphagia in elderly nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment can be attenuated by cervical spine mobilization. J. Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):755-60. PubMed Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=18843429

Stone, Rebecca S. (2006) Dysphagia in the Elderly. Inpatient Times. October 2006. Online available at  http://www.bmc.org/geriatrics/RStone_DysphagiaintheElderly.pdf
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Evidence-Based Practice Project a Literature Review Conducted

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68908398

Evidence-Based Practice Project

A literature review conducted by abie and Curtis (2006) aimed at establishing the effects of washing hands in reducing respiratory infections. The literature was obtained by searching CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science library. The inclusion strategy for the review were any studies that reported having an impact of hand washing to reduce respiratory infections. All articles included in the review were published before June 2004. This was a quantitative systematic review, which made it an effective method of analyzing and evaluating the selected studies. After searching for the relevant articles, the researchers found 395 articles, but only 61 articles were selected after the researchers reviewed their abstracts (abie & Curtis, 2006). The review and selection process continued and the final review included only eight articles, which the researchers established were more relevant to their study. Having eliminated the articles that focused on children…… [Read More]

References

Loeb, M., McGeer, A., McArthur, M., Walter, S., & Simor, A.E. (1999). Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Archives of internal medicine, 159(17), 2058-2064.

Rabie, T., & Curtis, V. (2006). Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical medicine & international health, 11(3), 258-267.

Smith, P.W., Bennett, G., Bradley, S., Drinka, P., Lautenbach, E., Marx, J., . . . Stevenson, K. (2008). SHEA/APIC Guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility. American journal of infection control, 36(7), 504.
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
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30-Day Hospital Readmission

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4801141



One of the key reasons that was found to be a factor in readmissions is that insurance companies continue to push for shorter hospital stays. They have reduced the number of days that they will pay for certain conditions. This was found to be a key factor in releasing patients early, when they might have benefited from a longer hospital stay (Bueno, oss, & Wang et al., 2010; Capelastegui, A,, Espana, P., & Quintana, J. et al., 2008), This factor will have to be considered as a potential barrier to the study. It may be that insurance companies and Medicaid/Medicare reimbursements are a factor in early release of patients rather than hospital practices.

Factors that were identified in other studies of hospital 30-day readmissions included the presence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (Spencer, Gore, & Lessard et al., 2008). Severity scores such as those for community-acquired pneumonia were…… [Read More]

References

Bueno, H., Ross, J. & Wang, Y. et al. (2010). Trends in length of stay and short-term outcomes among Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure, 1993-2006. JAMA.

303(21):2141-7.

Capelastegui, A,, Espana, P., & Quintana, J. et al. (2008), Declining length of hospital stay for pneumonia and post discharge outcomes. Am J. Med. 121(10):845-52.

Capelastegui, A., Espana, P, & Chest.Quintana, J.
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Dealing With Nosocomial Infections in a Long-Term Nursing Facility

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56986473

Long-Term Nursing Facility Management Risks

FACILITY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

Long-Term Nursing Family Management Risks

The major risk management issue of our hospital is the spread of nosocomial infections, more popularly known in the medical circle as hospital-acquired infections. This infection is something that a patient can contract or develop besides the condition for which he is admitted (Duel et al. eds, 2004). The include infections, which surface after discharge and occupational types among the workforce of the facility. These are widespread globally and assert strong impact among patients and facility workforce. The most common sites, according to a recent survey, are the urinary tract, the catether site, respiratory tract, bacteremia, skin and soft tissue, lower respiratory, surgical and the eyes (Duel et al., eds).

In our 150-bed facility in Chicago, pneumonia is a critical respiratory nosocomial infection concern. Our facility is a component of one of the biggest network of medical care…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, BM. And Roschm N, (2000). Hospital-acquired infections in Norwegian long-

term care institution. Vol. 46 Issue 4, Journal of Hospital Infections: The Hospital

Infection Society. Retrieved on March 18, 2015 from http://www.lofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(00)90840-5/abstract?showall=true=

Conly J. And Johnston, L. (2001). The impact of health care structures on nosocomial infections and transmission of antimicrobial and resistant organisms. Vol. 12 # 5,
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Children Putting to a Test

Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92746564

Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
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Feeding Tubes at the End

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63541816



The quality of life was another issue addressed in research of the use of feeding tubes with patients who have dementia (Finucane, 2001).

obert MCCann, MD reports that the everyday imagery of food and its pleasant addition to life cannot be ignored in the discussion of removing natural nutrition and using a feeding tube.

McCann reminds the medical community that the image of a family gathered around the Thanksgiving table, interacting and nurturing each other through the meal presents an entirely different image than an elderly person suffering from dementia alone in a bed in a nursing home with a tube inserted into their stomach. The imagery of food and its measurable impact on a person's life must be accurately envisioned for the decision to be made according to McCann (Finucane, 2001).

McCann studied Hospice cancer patients who were in the end stage of life. According to his research it…… [Read More]

References

Funicane, Thomas (2001) a Review of the Evidence the American Geriatric Society.

Lebovitz, Lubert, a. Habot (2003) Attitudes of Relatives and Nursing Staff Toward Tube feeding in the Severely Dementia Patients. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias.

Ersek, Mary PhD RN (2003) Artificial Nutrition and Hydration. The Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing.
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Differential Diagnosis and Treatment for Several Possible Maladies

Words: 999 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28502346

Healthcare -- Nursing -- Case Study

I am required to make differential diagnosis, examine health issues and their management, order diagnostic tests and provide health teachings/health promotion for "Ted." Ted is a 55-year-old Caucasian man with general malaise and a 6-day history of a productive cough. During this time he had noticed a gradual accumulation of fluid in his legs and feet. He had not seen a health care professional in 3 years. His social history was significant because he smoked about a pack of cigarettes a week. Ted reported having a dry, hacking cough for years, but he attributed it to 30 years of smoking. The review of systems was unremarkable. Generally he appeared well nourished and in no acute distress. The physical exam showed the following: weight 142 pounds, height 5'8," blood pressure 150/92 mmHg left arm and 158/96 mmHg right arm, temperature 99.2 degrees F, and oxygen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ackley, B. J., & Ladwig, G. B. (2014). Nursing diagnosis handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care, 10th ed. Maryland Heights: Elsevier-Mosby.

Jensen, M., & Rhoads, J. (2014). Differential diagnosis for the advanced practice nurse. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Pleural Effusion in Children

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50132599

Pleural Effusion in Children -- An Overview

Pleural Effusion is a disease resulting from excess production of fluids or a decrease in absorption or in some instances both thereby leading to an abnormal collection of fluids in the pleural space. It is the commonest pleural disease and has etiologies that include symptomatic inflammatory, cardiopulmonary disorders and malignant diseases that require speedy evaluation as well as treatment (Jeffery ubins 2016).

Disorders like an infection are some of the primary afflictions that could lead to the collection of fluids in the pleural space leading to pediatrics pleural effusion. The fluid accumulation can result from poor absorption or an increase in filtration. While mild effusion is asymptomatic, complications like septicemia, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, bronchopleural fistula, and respiratory failure might accompany it (Shahla Afsharpaiman, et al. 2016). a chest ultrasound or lateral decubitus indicates the probability of the existence of a large pleural effusion.…… [Read More]

References

Andrews CO & Gora ML., 1994. Pleural effusions: pathophysiology and management. SAGE Publications - Anual Pharma, 28(8), pp. 894-903.

Hyeon Yu, 2011. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess. Seminars in Interventional Radiology, 28(1), pp. 75-86.

Jeffrey Rubins, 2016. Pleural Effusion. [Online]

Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/299959-overview
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Hospital Acquired Infections a Discussion

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49934314

Nurse burnout is a common occurrence. This can exacerbate an ongoing problem that is seen in hospitals, nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections remain prevalent for patients with extended hospital stays like those in intensive care units. An infection that starts roughly 48 hours after admission, those in intensive care units (ICUs) experience a continued rate of infection leading to increase length of stay, mortality, and morbidity. The number of patients that develop a nosocomial infection are from 7 to 10% internationally (Dasgupta, Das, Hazra, & Chawan, 2015). As such, hospitals have decided to classify nosocomial infection sites based on clinical and biological criteria.

esearch has led to the discovery of several bacterial strains that involve the formation of nosocomial or hospital acquired infections. "The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members,…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (n.d.). HAI Data and Statistics. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/ 

Cheng, C., Bartram, T., Karimi, L., & Leggat, S. (2016). Transformational leadership and social identity as predictors of team climate, perceived quality of care, burnout and turnover intention among nurses. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1200-1216. doi:10.1108/pr-05-2015-0118

Cimiotti, J. P., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., & Wu, E. S. (2012). Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care -- associated infection. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(6), 486-490. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2012.02.029

Dasgupta, S., Das, S., Hazra, A., & Chawan, N. (2015). Nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit: Incidence, risk factors, outcome and associated pathogens in a public tertiary teaching hospital of Eastern India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, 19(1), 14. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.148633
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Population Assessment of the Elderly

Words: 2453 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28794137

Elderly in Monrovia, CA

The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.

Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:

http://www.breathela.org/

California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010

Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
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Head-Of-Bed Positioning Is an Important

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88835533

Prior to the study, the researcher consulted pertinent literature on both the head-of-bed elevation standard and the Clinical Decision Support System. The sources used were authoritative and relevant. The information presented by the author is in agreement with other research in this clinical area of study (Frederich, Sud, & Sud et al. (2008); Williams, Chan & Kelly (2008).

The author placed considerable emphasis on nurse characteristics, which were not even mentioned as an objective of the study. They seem to have been added into the methodology without justification. The objective of the study addressed patient characteristics, but not nurse characteristics. This added in another variable that was not part of the original research study. Patient characteristics and the affect of the CDSS were discussed sufficiently, as were the limitations of the study. The authors provided enough details of the study to be replicated by other researchers. The authors were careful…… [Read More]

References

Frederich, J., Sud, S. & Sud, M. et al. (2008), Prone position ventilation for community-acquired pneumonia [letter]. CMAJ 178 (9): 1153-1161.

Lyerla, F., LeRouge, C. & Cooke, D. et al. (2010). A Nursing Clinical Decision Support System and Potential Predictors of Head-of-Bed Position For Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation. American Journal of Critical Care, January 2010, 19 (1): 39-47.

Williams, Z., Chan, R. & Kelly, E. (2008). A Simple Device to Increase Rates of Compliance in Maintaining 30-Degree Head-of-bed Elevation in Ventilated Patients. Crit Care Med. 36(4):1155-1157.
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Coli and IT's Filamentous Morphology

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98976208

"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."

E. coli Outbreak:

There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…… [Read More]

References

Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.

Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.

Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
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Empyema Clinical Manifestation Empyema Lung Sounds and

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86986479

Empyema Clinical Manifestation

Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations

Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.

The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…… [Read More]

References:

1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.

2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.

3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.

4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39583971

Subtype a is the one that predominates in many of the outbreaks that are seen and presents much more severe clinical illness. It affects both the lower and the upper respiratory tract but is most prevalent in illnesses of the lower respiratory tract such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The obstruction of the airway in RSV can be very dangerous, and this is especially true of infants because their peripheral airways are much smaller than adults. Because of this it is very important to know what the warning signs of the illness are so that children can be treated properly and can recover fully. Infants between age two months and six months are most at risk for RSV, as are premature babies and babies that have other problems that may make their immune system not as efficient such as those that have lung conditions, congenital heart disease, cystic fibrosis, a lack…… [Read More]

Works Cited www.cdc.gov.(2005). Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Retrieved 8 February 2005 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm.

A www.rsvinfo.com.(n.d.). RSV. Retrieved 7 February 2005 at http://www.rsvinfo.com/diagnosing/diagnosing.html.
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Vitamin C For Common Cold What Is

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82371923

Vitamin C for Common Cold

What is Vitamin C?

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble ingredient that is essential for the health of human beings. It is essential for normal growth and development and it has consumed regularly. Since Vitamin C dissolves in water, the excess amounts leave the human body through urine and this means the body needs a constant supply of this vitamin everyday. The body cannot store vitamin C in any form.

One of the primary role of vitamin C is to repair the body cells and tissues and to prevent free radicals and toxins from getting accumulated in the body. It repairs wounds and makes them heal faster. The free radicals are known to play a role in cancer and heart diseases and good amount of vitamin C everyday helps to prevent any damage.

Sources of vitamin C

Most fruits and vegetables…… [Read More]

References

Frances Sienkiewicz Sizer, Leonard A. Piche, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Kentucky: Cengage Learning. 2011.

Weber, Olaf; Eccles, Ronald. Common Cold. New York: Springer. 2007.
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Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn Karl Marlantes' Novel of

Words: 2096 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79758778

Karl Marlantes' Matterhorn

Karl Marlantes' novel of the Vietnam War, Matterhorn, seems to want to offer the reader an immersive approach towards the experience of Vietnam. If we can say of earlier Vietnam narratives -- whether in film, such as Oliver Stone's Platoon or Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket, or in fiction, such as Tim O'Brien's novels Going After Cacciato and The Things They Carried or Gustav Hasford's The Short-Timers (a cult classic of Vietnam fiction and the basis for Kubrick's film) -- that they have a sort of expressionistic technique, seeking to capture the experience of the war in a series of vignettes, we can see the originality of Marlantes' approach in greater relief to what has come before: his approach is not so much expressionistic as it is encyclopedic, an attempt to catalogue (in fiction) every single aspect of the one small event, the movement of a Marine…… [Read More]

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M C Is a 1-Year-Old Female

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12774766

, 2010). egardless of the cause, infant SV is linked to "significantly more symptoms of wheezing disorder and clinical allergy than controls and were more likely to be sensitized to common inhaled allergens" (Todd et al., 2010). The number of studies and the number of subjects is still small, but the correlations have been consistently large enough to suggest that a serious bout of SV-bronchiolitis in infancy is linked to later lung problems such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy. Therefore, M.C.'s parents should be educated about the possibility that M.C. may experience breathing problems in later life, and told to advise her primary care physician of her SV diagnosis and hospitalization.

eferences

Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.

(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.

Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. etrieved March 9, 2013…… [Read More]

References

Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.

(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.

Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. Retrieved March 9, 2013 from WebMD

website:  http://www.webmd.com/lung/tc/bronchiolitis-topic-overview
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Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There Are More Than

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92069765

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci

There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)

Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.

The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm

2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml

Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm

4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
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Assessing Use of Chlorhexidine in Prevention of VAP

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19304483

oral chlorhexidine as preventative agent in of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults who are critically ill and mechanically ventilated in intensive care units (ICUs). The process of critiquing published studies leads to higher level of comprehension of empirical and evidence-based research. The discussion devotes some consideration to the way the authors addressed the protection of human participants, the research methodology -- including data collection, data management and analysis -- the research findings, and the conclusions drawn from the study outcomes.

Protection of Human Participants

isks to human participants in this research were minimal since the study is retrospective review of research. The original research studies protected the identity of the research participants, and data was presented in the aggregate form. The current research article is yet another layer away from the original studies and further still from the original information about the participants, none of which was presented in disaggregate…… [Read More]

Reference

Snyders, O., Khondowe, O, Bell, J. (2011). Oral chlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults in the ICU: A systematic review. South African Journal of Critical Care, 27(2). Retrieved from http://www.sajcc.org.za/index.php/SAJCC/article/view/123/127
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Using Roy S And Neuman S Theories in Nursing

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34715070

Theory

In critically ill adults (p), how does the daily use of chlorohexidine (I) compared to sterile water reduce VAP (ventilator-associated pneumonia) (O) during hospitalized stay (T)?

oy's Adaptation Model (AM) states that the "nursing process is a problem solving approach for gathering data, identifying the capacities and needs of the human adaptive system, selecting and implementing approaches for nursing care, and evaluation the outcome of care provided" ("Application of oy's Adaptation Model," 2012). This approach seems uniquely well-suited to the question of how to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia, a common complaint of patients during hospital stays. AM focuses on objective analysis of the problem and attempting to provide solutions which address human needs through a scientific approach to care. The first step of the nursing process is gathering data, in this case determining why pneumonia is so common amongst patients. Next identifying "internal and external stimuli" that give rise to…… [Read More]

References

Application of Roy's Adaptation Model. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:

http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_Roy's_adaptation_model.html

Gonzalo, A. (2011). Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved from: http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/betty-neuman.html
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Avian Bird Flu the Avian

Words: 2335 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64467397



The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).

Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Avian1 Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from Centers for Disease

Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm

Avian Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from World Health Organization Web site: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en/index.html#whatis

History1 of the Avian Flue. The Avian Flu Information Site. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://www.avian-flu-info.org/history_of_bird_flu.asp
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Whooping Cough Known Medically as

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46415890

Because some children have developed brain damage after the immunizations, some parents are concerned that the vaccine is responsible for neurologic impairment, however research does not indicate a definitive link between the pertussis vaccine and brain damage, although research is still ongoing (hooping 2005). Yet, as a precaution, children with a history of seizures or brain disorders may not be proper candidates for the DTaP vaccine (hooping 2005).

2001 study revealed that pertussis was the cause of chronic cough in 19.9% of the patients studied. Once a disease that ravaged children worldwide, whooping cough is once again on the rise (Green 2002). Today, approximately 300,000 children worldwide die every year from whooping cough, usually in areas where immunization rates are low (Green 2002). Nonetheless, even in the United States, where immunization rates are high, roughly 1 out of every 200 babies who get whooping cough will die from it, another…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Green, Alan. (2002). Pertussis. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.drgreene.com/21_1155.html

Whooping Cough. (2005). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whooping-cough/DS00445/DSECTION=3

Whooping Cough. (2006). MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/whoopingcough.html

Whooping cough a continuing problem. (2002, June 29). British Medical Journal.