Pneumonia Is A Lung Infection Caused By Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 2 Subject: Disease Type: Essay Paper: #79272603 Related Topics: Pathophysiology, Respiratory System, Bacteria, Hygiene
Excerpt from Essay :

Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, virus, or fungus. The most direct endogenous sources of any of these microorganisms include infected nasal carriers, sinusitis, oropharynx, gastric, or tracheal colonization, and hematogenous spread (Alcon Fabregas & Torres, 2005). Although much is known about pneumonia, it remains the leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death in the United States ("Pneumonia," n.d.). One of the reasons why pneumonia is common is that the lungs are exposed to some ten thousand liters of air each day, as well as small amounts of saliva and even occasionally aspirated regurgitation, all of which can contain bacteria, viral and fungal agents, and other pathogens ("Pneumonia," n.d.).

Although pneumonia is contagious via airborne particles shared by infected persons, self-infection is far more common. This is why oral hygiene, nutrition, and other lifestyle issues are central to reducing disease prevalence. When the immune system has been compromised already, the risk for pneumonia rises. The most common bacteria causing pneumonia outside...

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In hospital settings, the most common strains of pneumonia-causing bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, all of which are highly resilient ("Pneumonia," n.d.). It is usually not possible to determine which specific pathogen is the culprit, which is why generalized antibacterial agents can address most of the bacterial infections. In healthy individuals, these types of microbes do not reach the alveoli in the lungs due to processes like coughing, and if they do reach the alveoli, immune cells can handle the infection readily. Unfortunately, viral infections causing pneumonia are more difficult to treat ("Pneumonia," n.d.). More effective antiviral medications are warranted to help minimize infections and prevent fatalities.

In hospitalized patients, the immune system is frequently compromised, leading to high rates of infection. At risk populations are particularly vulnerable when in contact with viral infections of pneumonia. Methods of prevention in the general population include oral hygiene, nutrition, aerobic exercise and refraining from smoking ("Pneumonia," n.d). Once infection has been detected, antibiotics will be indicated. The lungs react to a bacterial infection in various ways, the most notable of which is the leaking of capillaries, allowing protein-rich fluids to enter the alveoli ("Pneumonia - Pathophysiology Of Pneumonia," n.d.).

When the otherwise empty alveoli are inundated with fluids, the lungs cannot carry out their oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange efficiently, causing oxygen deprivation and/or…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Alcon A1, Fabregas N, Torres A. (2005). Pathophysiology of pneumonia. Clin Chest Med. 2005 Mar; 26(1):39-46.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2014). Pneumonia. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumonia/basics/causes/con-20020032

"Pneumonia." Chapter 15. Retrieved online: http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-15-pneumonia.pdf

"Pneumonia - Pathophysiology Of Pneumonia," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://science.jrank.org/pages/5358/Pneumonia-Pathophysiology-pneumonia.html


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