Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, virus, or fungus. The most direct endogenous sources of any of these microorganisms include infected nasal carriers, sinusitis, oropharynx, gastric, or tracheal colonization, and hematogenous spread (Alcon Fabregas & Torres, 2005). Although much is known about pneumonia, it remains the leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death in the United States ("Pneumonia," n.d.). One of the reasons why pneumonia is common is that the lungs are exposed to some ten thousand liters of air each day, as well as small amounts of saliva and even occasionally aspirated regurgitation, all of which can contain bacteria, viral and fungal agents, and other pathogens ("Pneumonia," n.d.).
Although pneumonia is contagious via airborne particles shared by infected persons, self-infection is far more common. This is why oral hygiene, nutrition, and other lifestyle issues are central to reducing disease prevalence. When the immune system has been compromised already, the risk for pneumonia rises. The most common bacteria causing pneumonia outside...
In hospital settings, the most common strains of pneumonia-causing bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, all of which are highly resilient ("Pneumonia," n.d.). It is usually not possible to determine which specific pathogen is the culprit, which is why generalized antibacterial agents can address most of the bacterial infections. In healthy individuals, these types of microbes do not reach the alveoli in the lungs due to processes like coughing, and if they do reach the alveoli, immune cells can handle the infection readily. Unfortunately, viral infections causing pneumonia are more difficult to treat ("Pneumonia," n.d.). More effective antiviral medications are warranted to help minimize infections and prevent fatalities.
In hospitalized patients, the immune system is frequently compromised, leading to high rates of infection. At risk populations are particularly vulnerable when in contact with viral infections of pneumonia. Methods of prevention in the general population include oral hygiene, nutrition, aerobic exercise and refraining from smoking ("Pneumonia," n.d). Once infection has been detected, antibiotics will be indicated. The lungs react to a bacterial infection in various ways, the most notable of which is the leaking of capillaries, allowing protein-rich fluids to enter the alveoli ("Pneumonia - Pathophysiology Of Pneumonia," n.d.).
When the otherwise empty alveoli are inundated with fluids, the lungs cannot carry out their oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange efficiently, causing oxygen deprivation and/or…
HIV Infection A medical condition in which the immune system is destroyed by a virus called as Human Immune Deficiency Virus is known as HIV infection. The loss of immune function deteriorates the ability of the body to fight against various types of pathogenic infections (caused by harmful micro-organisms) (Quinn). The virus attacks the immune cells of the body which are basically the white blood cells (CD4 T cells) due to
Pneumonia and Timely Antibiotic Therapy The purpose of this project to educate hospital staff concerning the fact that research supports a best practice protocol that pneumonia patients should be provided with antibiotics within 4 hours of being admitted to the hospital. Pneumonia is defined by Evans and Tippins (2007) as being "an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract most commonly due to viral and bacterial infection. Areas or lobes of
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included. It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show
The presence of cardiac enzymes in the blood often indicates myocardial necrosis. Medical experts generally view MI as one among acute coronary syndromes. Unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI are among the syndromes. Statistics said that approximately 1.5 million cases come up each year. MI is a cardiovascular condition. About 12 million deaths worldwide each year are attributed to cardiovascular diseases as cause, according to the World Health Organization. These
41). Groups like the ALA fund research on various forms of COPD every year, so it seems certain that some kind of additional treatments and preventions may be discovered in the future. Since emphysema is such a prevalent disease, continued research must be completed to help ease the suffering of millions of Americans, and save lives, too. In conclusion, emphysema is a serious and deadly disease that can be prevented
COPD Case Study The author of this report has been prepare a brief report about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD for short. There will be two main foci when it comes to the subject. The first part will speak to the facts and details that pertain to COPD and what is involved in living with and treating the disorder. Further, there will be an explanation of how to implement these