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Police corruption is a major problem throughout the world. As people of a civilized society we depend on our police department to protect us and the stop crimes from happening. Police corruption happens in many parts of the world, and the main motivation behind this crime against society is personal greed. In the United States, corrupted police officers takes bribes and get involved in drug operations while they allow murders to happen. Other officers have been caught framing innocent people for crimes that they did not commit. In foreign countries like Kenya, the police officers force innocent citizens to pay bribes, so they can continue with their normal daily activities. Police officers in Kenya abuse their power for their own personal gains. In ussia the police take bribes so that innocent women and children are sold into sex slavery. Officers gain from the suffering of others. As a society we…… [Read More]
Police Corruption and Citizens Complaints elative to Ethnicity:
Corruption activities by people in power have contributed to widespread loss of public faith in the government, especially the police. Public faith in law enforcement personnel has been acute because of corruption given that the police are the most visible arm of government with the mandate to uphold the law, help in times of need, and safeguard the community. When a police officer is involved in corruption, he not only dishonors himself but also disgraces the criminal justice system he represents. In the modern criminal justice system, there are some organizational cultures that encourage the police to carry out acts of corruption (Williams, 2002, p.85). Some of the most common acts of corruption by police officers include abuse of power, taking financial bribes, and covering criminal gangs and/or activities.
In the past few years, police corruption has evolved to include violation of…… [Read More]
New officers learn organizational principles as they are socialized into the police traditions. Ultimately, new officers display acceptance of these principles by way of their dealings in the neighborhoods that they serve. The knowledge of work-related principles is an important issue in formative efficiency of officers, the height of job fulfillment, the value of police and community relations, and the triumphant achievement of organizational socialization (Engelson, 1998).
Breaking the code of silence amongst officers in order to investigate corruption correctly would require infiltrating the organizational culture that has been established within police forces around the world, and I'm not sure that this would be so easy to do. Being part of the group is something that is part of the culture and ingrained in officers from the beginning. In part this is due to the essence of the job and in another part is just a faction of human bonding.…… [Read More]
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…… [Read More]
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…… [Read More]
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:
The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…… [Read More]
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…… [Read More]
A Problem with the law
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…… [Read More]
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…… [Read More]
Police Accept Gratuities?
In the United States, some lower-paid professions such as waitresses or pizza delivery drivers rely on gratuities from their customers in return for good service as an important part of their overall earnings, while other professions such as doctors and lawyers, rarely or never receive gratuities since they are deemed adequately compensated for their services from the outset no matter how well they perform. When it comes to law enforcement, though, the issue of gratuities becomes murkier, with the iconic image of the police officer on the beat accepting an apple from a smiling vendor being contrasted more recently by high-profile cases of police officers who have accepted much larger cash "gratuities" in return for looking the other way or providing advance notice of police raids. Because these cases adversely affect the entire law enforcement community, it is therefore important to determine the propriety of police officers…… [Read More]
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…… [Read More]
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…… [Read More]
Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing
Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.
Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…… [Read More]
The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.
The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…… [Read More]
However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.
The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…… [Read More]
Furthermore, in this game of "cat and mouse," the law enforcement officers being the cat, they have to think and act in the way that criminals do in order to catch them- officers need to anticipate criminal actions. By doing this, officers need to be "at one" with criminals thus making criminals and officers to employ very similar ways of thinking. Thinking and operating in the same manner and anticipating one another's moves allows criminals and law enforcement officers to utilize the same skill set and mentality in order to stay one step ahead of the other.
Despite these similarities, it is important to delineate the differences between police and criminals, which includes, the police being moral and ethical, using their propensity for violence to ensure the safety of the community they are protecting and ultimately using their status in society for good. Being moral and ethical are two traits…… [Read More]
terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?
Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…… [Read More]
"Accountability refers to the mechanisms by which both law enforcement officers and the agencies they serve are held responsible for promoting social order, reducing crime, and treating each individual fairly and within the limits of the law" (Chambliss, 2011). The three dimensions of police accountability are accountability to the public, accountability to the law, and accountability to each other (other members of the police force. If one were to look at the most fundamental dimension of police accountability, such as accountability to the public, one would see just how crucial this is: "It both defines and protects citizens' rights while also promoting a collective sense of faith in the larger criminal justice system" (Chambliss, 2011).
The three E's are "Effectiveness -- whether police accomplish what they are supposed to do: A. Do they effectively control crime? B. Are they successful in arresting offenders? Efficiency-- whether they accomplish their tasks…… [Read More]
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…… [Read More]
The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)
Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?
The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)
While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…… [Read More]
Frank Serpico -- NYPD Police Officer 1960-1972
At the time that Frank Serpico served as a New York City Police Department (NYPD) police officer, corruption was rampant throughout the entire police department, the first and largest police department in the United States (Delattre. 2006). That corruption existed at all levels of the department from the street to the office of the Police Commissioner. Patrol officers routinely extorted bribes or stole money and drugs from criminals, even returning the drugs to the street by selling them to other dealers. Those types of practices were standard operating procedure to such a degree that police officers (like Fran Serpico) who refused to participate became social exiles among their fellow officers out of suspicions that they could not be trusted (Delattre, 2006). After trying unsuccessfully to report the problems to superiors, Serpico eventually contributed to a New York Times report detailing police corruption in…… [Read More]
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…… [Read More]
Frequently, veteran officers with no formal authority over other officers in the field teach new officers the "way we do things" and to "forget what you learned in the academy."
The phenomenon is pervasive enough that even the most dedicated and professional police supervisors and administrators have to work continually to promote high ethical standards. However, where police supervisors and administrators condone fundamental ethical and legal violations by police officers, the most likely outcome is a completely compromised police organization (eese, 2000). All the other factors contributed but the involvement of supervisors and administrators was the most significant cause of the ampart scandal.
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy esearch.
eese, . "The ise and Fall of a Public Leader: The Case of Willie Williams and the LAPD" Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 6 No.1;…… [Read More]
As a result, more small town police departments today have access to online resources and law enforcement networks. Not surprisingly, these innovations have provided small town police departments with access to the same level of online resources as their larger urban counterparts. For instance, a seminal study by Wasby (1975) found that there was a lack of communication of important Supreme Court decisions to small town police departments. The findings of the Wasby study were likely made obsolete by police administrators' higher educational levels today and by the introduction of Supreme Court opinions and case commentaries on the Internet, thereby providing easy access by small town police departments (Zalman & Smith, 2007).
Likewise, in their analysis of small-town police department information needs, Winn, Bucy and Klishis (1999) emphasize that even in "low-tech, nonmilitarized" settings, small-town police departments are increasingly experiencing the need for the same type of technology that their…… [Read More]
The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.
Community Policing Origins
Community Policing Philosophy
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…… [Read More]
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.
Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.mintpressnews.com/212404-2/212404/
A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…… [Read More]
Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).
A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.
Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/
Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html
National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php
Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232
Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit: http://www.policestress.org/choir.htm
Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…… [Read More]
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…… [Read More]
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]
Lessons of Police Force
A History of the United States Police Force
The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. hile the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.
The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…… [Read More]
As anyone who is arrested by law enforcement must be made aware of their basic civil rights. At which point, you have the option of determining if: you would like to talk to law enforcement alone or with your lawyer present during all questioning. You would then be booked and transferred to the jail, awaiting your preliminary hearing before the courts. ("Rights of the Accused," 2008)
Once this begins, is the point that a suspect can challenge their detention and question the fact that they may be innocent. Where, the judge will listen to arguments from both sides, to determine if there were any possible abuses that are: occurring and the preponderance of evidence against them. If there is sufficient evidence, they will set a trial date and listen to bail requests from the defense. Depending upon the severity of the crime and the possibility that the defendant could be…… [Read More]
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.
2. Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory
The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…… [Read More]
hile U.S., New Zealand and Denmark have many differences, they are basically capitalist, consumer economies. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business.
The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U.S. banking system is simply a part of the bigger problem. As the Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell text puts it well, "The ability to recognize and deal with complex business ethics issues has become a significant priority…" (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2009). Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority. There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this.
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February).…… [Read More]
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…… [Read More]
corruption as well as various theories that have attempted and done well in explaining the causes and propagation of corruption in the society. The paper will also highlight at the applicability of these theories to the existing society as well as the probable elucidation to the corruption cases through the theories that have been stated herein.
The thought of corruption, predominantly in the midst of the police force has not been an issue that troubles the American society alone but is an extensive spread right through the entire world. Various societies have invested their efforts to stop the vice but the consequence has always been similar; too much effort giving too little change in the police force corruption cases.
The slippery slope as it is in the view of Richard Nordquist, (2011) is a misleading notion in which there is an protestation to a course of action on the grounds…… [Read More]
Disclosing Officer Untruthfulness to the Defense: Is a Liar's Squad Coming to Your Town?
Officer misconduct scenario
Police officers must not simply be held to the same standards as members of the public. They must be held to a higher standard. This is illustrated in the following scenario: a police officers is found to have searched for pornographic materials on a work computer and when initially confronted about this violation of department policy he lied, claiming he had no idea how the search history of the pornographic materials made its way onto his computer. He only confessed once the link was made between his log-in information and the search. This combination of dishonesty and poor judgment is a compelling argument for the officer's immediate dismissal, despite the fact that he has an otherwise largely unblemished record.
If an ordinary citizen was found to have been searching pornographic websites…… [Read More]
Stress Before Referencing
hat are the primary points of this article or informational link? How could a forensic psychologist contribute to a positive outcome? hat type of psychological instrument could be of assistance in resolving the problems noted in this article?
Although the physical dangers of policing the community are well-documented on the evening news on almost a daily basis, the psychological difficulties police officers confront are often less publicized. Police officers, as representatives of the law, are seen as immune to the impact seeing violence and tragedy can have upon the psyche. But according to PBA psychologist Daniel Goldfarb, the 'Scrooge' effect is a dangerous one, causing officers to become cynics to the point where they are incapable of seeing the good in people. A healthy skepticism is essential and healthy to doing the job, but cynicism, defined as the corruption of skepticism, leads to burnout (Goldfarb, 2008, "Scrooge").…… [Read More]
Policing needs to change, especially has it has failed to live up to its potential in improving quality of life for all citizens. The ideal police force is indeed one that prevents crime, keeps order, respects the rights and dignity of citizens, is friendly and courteous, respects the laws, and does not abuse its power through corruption. Policing needs to be increasingly situated as integral to all other community organizations and institutions. Collaborative and strategic partnerships will help law enforcement achieve the goals it shares in common with other social and political organizations. Reforming community relations, improving trust and accountability, and working together with stakeholders are some of the keynotes of twenty-first century policing models.
According to the IACP (2018) policing will change in the upcoming years by focusing on both internal and external issues. This means that in addition to the externalities of community relationships and strategic partnerships, police…… [Read More]
Ethical Dilemmas in Police ork
For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. ithout proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.
Ethical Dilemmas…… [Read More]
Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System
Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…… [Read More]
Police and Politics
Do you believe there is a connection between politics and the police? Why or why not?
Yes, there is a connection. The police is a key pillar of governance and is thus closely related to politics. However, the link between the two is not as simple as individuals may think. The majority of the people have the view that any buffer between the political leadership of a country (especially the executive) and the police in the form of representation and bureaucracy will bring about a police force that is truly independent (Stevens, 2005; Noble & Alpert, 2009). Politics is defined as the art of exerting power over government affairs. For instance, political power can be seen through one's control of the power of the office they hold; control of certain aspects of leadership in government; and exerting one's interest on government. Thus, some individuals with political influence…… [Read More]
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…… [Read More]
Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society
The American police force is one of the strongest and most effective in the world. What makes it so? There have been recent changes to the hierarchy and structure of the police force, particularly since the terrorist attack in New York City on September 11, 2001. One such change has been increased decentralization of law enforcement. How is this shift characterized? What are the implications for law enforcement, the citizens it serves, and American society in general? The paper will address the affects of decentralization upon how investigations are conducted and affects upon society in general.
The Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society
Typically, when citizens consider the subject of decentralization, it is in regards to governance. The governance may be on a national level, such as a decentralized government, or the decentralization can be highly…… [Read More]
Decentralization and Policing
Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?
Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that…… [Read More]
law enforcement agencies have often struggled with officer dishonesty and the impact such an action leaves not just in the criminal justice system, but more specifically in court proceedings. When an officer lies, their credibility may be threatened due to their previous dishonest comportment. Agencies must, on a continued basis, disclose information to prosecutors concerning the issue of officer dishonesty if the officer in question must testify against a defendant. That defendant must also be made aware of the instance of officer dishonesty and if this is not done, the agencies and officers may be held accountable as well as potentially lead to dismissal of charges against the defendant. An example of this was seen in Brady v. Maryland.
The landmark case of Brady v. Maryland demonstrated the effects of withholding information or evidence in case proceedings by the decision of the prosecutors to not submit Boblit's confession as evidence.…… [Read More]
Annotated Literature Review
Carlitz, R. (2013). Improving transparency and accountability in the budget process: An assessment of recent initiatives. Development Policy Review, 31(1), S49-S67.
The author of this article is a political science professor at the University of California, an exemplification of his mastery and knowledge of the subject. The article emphasizes the importance of transparency and accountability in the budget process. With reference to empirical literature, the author points out that though there is no universally accepted methodology for ensuring transparency and accountability in public budget management, there are four important ingredients of success: the production of valid information, alliances between stakeholders, legal empowerment, and international support. Enhancing transparency and accountability in the budget process is vital for ensuring efficiency in the allocation of public finances, promoting fiscal discipline, minimizing corruption and embezzlement of public funds, and most importantly, increasing public confidence in public institutions. The element of stakeholder…… [Read More]
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…… [Read More]
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…… [Read More]
Eras of Policing
According to most experts there are three distinct eras of policing, the political (1840-1930), reform (1930-1970) and community problem-solving era (1970-current). During the political era policing was focused on making politicians happy, was loosely based and had limited civic ties or regulatory bodies. The reform era of policing began to normalize policing in the civic sense, with stronger connections between bureaucratic agencies and the police, moving away from political motive and toward the needs of the community. It was during the reform era of policing that police agencies and departments began to be governed by a hierarchy, in a more militaristic style, began to wear uniforms reflective of a more professional level of policing and began to answer to a less political body, i.e. The public. After the 1970s a demand began to make police more accountable to the public and the community-problem solving era began. This…… [Read More]
City Police Department
Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).
Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…… [Read More]
Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:
Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's
NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.
Just as pre-employment…… [Read More]
6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"
Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.
Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…… [Read More]
In reviewing some of the studies done on the impact of community policing on officers' attitudes, Lurigio and Rosenbaum (1994) isolated many of the specific techniques used in community policing programs. These programs are generally marked by the use of foot patrols to engage with citizens and establish a tangible presence, storefront police stations providing visibility and accessibility to the public, and the use of targeted police units designed to develop roots and tailor themselves to the specific communities they serve.
Like problem-oriented policing, community policing often requires a fundamental change in both the attitude and organization of police departments. As Dennis Nowicki (1997) points out, these changes are often difficult to implement consistently. The empowerment need by individual officers to adapt to individual situations within their community "clearly runs counter to the paramilitary structure of police agencies" (Nowicki, 1997, p. 365). In addition, the establishment of close ties between…… [Read More]
History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis
A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America
History of Policing
Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms professional and police were not likely to appear together. Policemen in this historical period were typically not much more than watchmen. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that professionalism began to characterize American police. It is mostly agreed that the professionalization of the police in the United States began with the efforts of August Vollmer. (Douthit, 1975).
Vollmer was the first Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, elected as the town Marshall in 1905.…… [Read More]
COPs and POPs
Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.
Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…… [Read More]
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]
politically and practically feasible for state police to partner with non-State actors (policing) so as to extend access to justice and security.
State Police Partnership with Non-State Actors in Policing
Justice and security matter to citizens in fragile states. Insecurity in the world today is the greatest setback to the development of nations. According to a report presented by the World Bank in the year 2005, security and justice matters most to women and children. These groups of individuals in a society face security challenges because of bad policing, corrupt justice systems and weak penal and justice systems (Baker and Scheye, 2007). Consequently, they are likely not able to access government services. Crimes have made it necessary for police to find ways of policing rather than its end. There has been a paradigm shift of police operations from the incentive-driven or the reactive approach to the partnership approach.
This proactive…… [Read More]
ole of Education in Police Management
The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…… [Read More]