Police Corruption Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Police Terrorism Ethics and Corruption the Traditional

Words: 1441 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63849911

Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption

The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.

Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from  http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
View Full Essay

Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
View Full Essay

Police vs Public

Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298945

Police Interviews

The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New

York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0

Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:

Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
View Full Essay

Policing The 21st Century Has

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12616969



There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:

The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…… [Read More]

References:

Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html 

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
View Full Essay

Police Officer Might Be One

Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35790299

In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.

The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.

Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…… [Read More]

Sources

Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).

Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.

Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.

Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
View Full Essay

Police Corrupted

Words: 5292 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92625669

Course Number
Police Corruption
A Problem with the law
Name
[Date]

Summary
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…… [Read More]

References
Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2010.536724#.U9sFVvldWa8
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10612-011-9133-0
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2011.635483#.U9sEofldWa8
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09627250903569890#.U9sFwldWa8
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
View Full Essay

Policing Through Community-Oriented Police Techniques

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19790162



In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.

Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…… [Read More]

References

Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.

Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.

Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
View Full Essay

Police Accept Gratuities In the United States

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44857119

Police Accept Gratuities?

In the United States, some lower-paid professions such as waitresses or pizza delivery drivers rely on gratuities from their customers in return for good service as an important part of their overall earnings, while other professions such as doctors and lawyers, rarely or never receive gratuities since they are deemed adequately compensated for their services from the outset no matter how well they perform. When it comes to law enforcement, though, the issue of gratuities becomes murkier, with the iconic image of the police officer on the beat accepting an apple from a smiling vendor being contrasted more recently by high-profile cases of police officers who have accepted much larger cash "gratuities" in return for looking the other way or providing advance notice of police raids. Because these cases adversely affect the entire law enforcement community, it is therefore important to determine the propriety of police officers…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Ellison, J. (2006). Community policing: Implementation issues. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,

75(4), 12-13.

Ivkovic, S.K. (2005). Fallen blue knights: Controlling police corruption. New York: Oxford
View Full Essay

Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,  http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
View Full Essay

Policing Services and Programs Even as Policing

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89219509

Policing Services and Programs:

Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…… [Read More]

References:

Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,

Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt

Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing

Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
View Full Essay

Police Recruiting

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82018761

Police ecruiting

Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…… [Read More]

References

1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey

3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Police Describe the Impact of Sir Robert

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937475

Police

Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing

Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.

Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…… [Read More]

References

Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html

New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html

Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online:    http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
View Full Essay

Police History the American System of Criminal

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1217712

Police History

The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.

The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…… [Read More]

References

Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html 

"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States

"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg

Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm
View Full Essay

Police Stress Christianity-Based Stress Therapy

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18573592



However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.

The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kurke, M.I. (1995). Police Psychology into the 21st Century. Hillsdale, New Jersey

Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

O'Connor, Dr. T. (2001). Police Psychology. Forensic Psychology.

Stearns, G.M. & Moore, R.J. (1993). The Physical and Psychological
View Full Essay

Police and Criminals Law Enforcement

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82721276

Furthermore, in this game of "cat and mouse," the law enforcement officers being the cat, they have to think and act in the way that criminals do in order to catch them- officers need to anticipate criminal actions. By doing this, officers need to be "at one" with criminals thus making criminals and officers to employ very similar ways of thinking. Thinking and operating in the same manner and anticipating one another's moves allows criminals and law enforcement officers to utilize the same skill set and mentality in order to stay one step ahead of the other.

Despite these similarities, it is important to delineate the differences between police and criminals, which includes, the police being moral and ethical, using their propensity for violence to ensure the safety of the community they are protecting and ultimately using their status in society for good. Being moral and ethical are two traits…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Terrorism Impact on Police Mission

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2291969

terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?

Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…… [Read More]

References

Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org:   http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf  

Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.

FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism

Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
View Full Essay

Law Enforcement Corruption Controlling Corruption

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31462683



Accountability

"Accountability refers to the mechanisms by which both law enforcement officers and the agencies they serve are held responsible for promoting social order, reducing crime, and treating each individual fairly and within the limits of the law" (Chambliss, 2011). The three dimensions of police accountability are accountability to the public, accountability to the law, and accountability to each other (other members of the police force. If one were to look at the most fundamental dimension of police accountability, such as accountability to the public, one would see just how crucial this is: "It both defines and protects citizens' rights while also promoting a collective sense of faith in the larger criminal justice system" (Chambliss, 2011).

The three E's are "Effectiveness -- whether police accomplish what they are supposed to do: A. Do they effectively control crime? B. Are they successful in arresting offenders? Efficiency-- whether they accomplish their tasks…… [Read More]

References

Chambliss, W. (2011). Police and Law Enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.

Katz, C. (2002). Chapter Outline. Retrieved from McGraw-Hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007241497x/student_view0/part3/chapter11/chapter_outline.html

Newham, G. (2011, June). Tackling Police Corruption. Retrieved from issafrica.org: http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/ISS_Anti-Corruption_SAPU.pdf
View Full Essay

Ethics Terrorism and the Future of Policing

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33398920

Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing

The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…… [Read More]

References:

Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse

Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website:   http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf  

Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/

Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
View Full Essay

Unethical Police Operations Over the

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96529109

The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)

Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?

The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)

While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…… [Read More]

References

2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from:  http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/ 

Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from:  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm 

Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from: http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/officers-accused-of-smuggling-guns-in-federal-corruption-case/

Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from:  http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/elizabeth_police_brutality_cas.html
View Full Essay

Individuals Who Changed Policing in

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48814424



Frank Serpico -- NYPD Police Officer 1960-1972

At the time that Frank Serpico served as a New York City Police Department (NYPD) police officer, corruption was rampant throughout the entire police department, the first and largest police department in the United States (Delattre. 2006). That corruption existed at all levels of the department from the street to the office of the Police Commissioner. Patrol officers routinely extorted bribes or stole money and drugs from criminals, even returning the drugs to the street by selling them to other dealers. Those types of practices were standard operating procedure to such a degree that police officers (like Fran Serpico) who refused to participate became social exiles among their fellow officers out of suspicions that they could not be trusted (Delattre, 2006). After trying unsuccessfully to report the problems to superiors, Serpico eventually contributed to a New York Times report detailing police corruption in…… [Read More]

References

Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Ethics in Criminal Justice The Police Function

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97518654

Ethics in Criminal Justice:

The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.

Slippery Slope and Gratuities:

One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…… [Read More]

References:

Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.

Retrieved April 12, 2013, from  http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp 

Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
View Full Essay

Los Angeles Police Department Rampart

Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87310997

Frequently, veteran officers with no formal authority over other officers in the field teach new officers the "way we do things" and to "forget what you learned in the academy."

The phenomenon is pervasive enough that even the most dedicated and professional police supervisors and administrators have to work continually to promote high ethical standards. However, where police supervisors and administrators condone fundamental ethical and legal violations by police officers, the most likely outcome is a completely compromised police organization (eese, 2000). All the other factors contributed but the involvement of supervisors and administrators was the most significant cause of the ampart scandal.

eferences

Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy esearch.

eese, . "The ise and Fall of a Public Leader: The Case of Willie Williams and the LAPD" Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 6 No.1;…… [Read More]

References

Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Reese, R. "The Rise and Fall of a Public Leader: The Case of Willie Williams and the LAPD" Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 6 No.1; 2000.

Williams, G. "Incubating Monsters? Prosecutorial Responsibility for the Rampart
View Full Essay

Small Town Policing Although the

Words: 3483 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92413790

As a result, more small town police departments today have access to online resources and law enforcement networks. Not surprisingly, these innovations have provided small town police departments with access to the same level of online resources as their larger urban counterparts. For instance, a seminal study by Wasby (1975) found that there was a lack of communication of important Supreme Court decisions to small town police departments. The findings of the Wasby study were likely made obsolete by police administrators' higher educational levels today and by the introduction of Supreme Court opinions and case commentaries on the Internet, thereby providing easy access by small town police departments (Zalman & Smith, 2007).

Likewise, in their analysis of small-town police department information needs, Winn, Bucy and Klishis (1999) emphasize that even in "low-tech, nonmilitarized" settings, small-town police departments are increasingly experiencing the need for the same type of technology that their…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Blumenson, E. & Nilsen, E. (1998, March 9). The drug war's hidden economic agenda. The Nation, 266(9), 11.

Falcone, D.N., Wells, L.E. & Weisheit, R.A. (2002). Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(2), 371-384.

Feagin, J.R., Vera, H. & Batur, P. (2001). White racism: The basics. New York: Routledge.
View Full Essay

History of Community Policing in America

Words: 1276 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41471056

Community Policing

The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.

Community Policing Origins

Community Policing Philosophy

Community Projects

Office of Community Oriented Policing Services

Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AA County Police. (2007, July 7). POLICE DISCRETION & ALTERNATIVES TO ARREST. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Police Rules and Regulations: http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections01-06/0105.2DiscretionAlternArrest.pdf

Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf 

COPS. (2011). Community Policing Defined. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Community Oriented Policing Services:  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36 

Sherman, L. (1990). POLICING FOR CRIME PREVENTION. American Journal of Police, 43-74.
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse Among Police Officers

Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36719883

Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).

A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.

ibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit: http://www.policestress.org/choir.htm

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232
View Full Essay

Police Strategies

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50516603

Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department

For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…… [Read More]

References

Official web site of the New York Police Department: http://www.nyc.gov

Official Web site of the Los Angeles Police Department: http://www.lasd.org
View Full Essay

Police Management Throughout History Police Management Has

Words: 5721 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39703152

Police Management:

Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]

References:

Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.

"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."

(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from  https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf 

Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
View Full Essay

Police in America

Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72197491

Lessons of Police Force

A History of the United States Police Force

The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. hile the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.

The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.

Answers.com. (2012). Who said that with great power comes great responsibility? Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_said_that_with_great_power_comes_great_responsibility#ixzz26x2sMR5B. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from Answers.com Web site: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_said_that_with_great_power_comes_great_responsibility

Kilgannon, C. (2010, January 22). Serpico on Serpico. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/24/nyregion/24serpico.html?pagewanted=all

Sabeth, D. (n.d.). The Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from American Federation of Police & Concerned Citizens:    http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
View Full Essay

Policing Suppose You Are Traveling

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19769341

As anyone who is arrested by law enforcement must be made aware of their basic civil rights. At which point, you have the option of determining if: you would like to talk to law enforcement alone or with your lawyer present during all questioning. You would then be booked and transferred to the jail, awaiting your preliminary hearing before the courts. ("Rights of the Accused," 2008)

Once this begins, is the point that a suspect can challenge their detention and question the fact that they may be innocent. Where, the judge will listen to arguments from both sides, to determine if there were any possible abuses that are: occurring and the preponderance of evidence against them. If there is sufficient evidence, they will set a trial date and listen to bail requests from the defense. Depending upon the severity of the crime and the possibility that the defendant could be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mexico Police and Law Enforcement. (2004). Photius. Retrieved from:  http://www.photius.com/countries/mexico/national_security/mexico_national_security_police_and_law_enfor~516.html 

Rights of the Accused. (2008). America. Retrieved from: http://www.america.gov/st/democracyhr-english/2008/June/20080630231256eaifas0.3084683.html

Guiterez, M. (2001). Central America. Global Corruption Report.
View Full Essay

Corruption Many Things Are Different

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94287368



hile U.S., New Zealand and Denmark have many differences, they are basically capitalist, consumer economies. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business.

The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U.S. banking system is simply a part of the bigger problem. As the Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell text puts it well, "The ability to recognize and deal with complex business ethics issues has become a significant priority…" (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2009). Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority. There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this.

orks Cited

Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/

Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/

Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February). Retrieved 11

August 2010 from http://www.caslon.com.au/secrecyguide10.htm

Coincidental spike? (2010, April 1). The Economist, Retrieved 11 August 2010 from  http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/04/heroin_afghanistan
View Full Essay

Corruption in Sheriffs' Departments

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26580969

efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?

Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).

What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?

Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,

74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid 

=87314.
View Full Essay

Corruption as Well as Various Theories That

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26158503

corruption as well as various theories that have attempted and done well in explaining the causes and propagation of corruption in the society. The paper will also highlight at the applicability of these theories to the existing society as well as the probable elucidation to the corruption cases through the theories that have been stated herein.

The thought of corruption, predominantly in the midst of the police force has not been an issue that troubles the American society alone but is an extensive spread right through the entire world. Various societies have invested their efforts to stop the vice but the consequence has always been similar; too much effort giving too little change in the police force corruption cases.

The slippery slope as it is in the view of Richard Nordquist, (2011) is a misleading notion in which there is an protestation to a course of action on the grounds…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Delattre, E. (2006). Character and cops: Ethics in policing (5th ed., pp. 10, 79, 85, 88). Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/359222/predominant_theories_of_police_corruption_pg2.html?cat=17

Prof. Robert B. Reich (2004). The Rotten Apple Theory http://securities.stanford.edu/news-archive/2004/20040304_Headline08_Reich.htm

Richard Nordquist, (2011). Slippery Slope. http://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/slipslopeterm.htm
View Full Essay

Police Honesty

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43523034

Officer Misconduct

Disclosing Officer Untruthfulness to the Defense: Is a Liar's Squad Coming to Your Town?

Officer misconduct scenario

Police officers must not simply be held to the same standards as members of the public. They must be held to a higher standard. This is illustrated in the following scenario: a police officers is found to have searched for pornographic materials on a work computer and when initially confronted about this violation of department policy he lied, claiming he had no idea how the search history of the pornographic materials made its way onto his computer. He only confessed once the link was made between his log-in information and the search. This combination of dishonesty and poor judgment is a compelling argument for the officer's immediate dismissal, despite the fact that he has an otherwise largely unblemished record.

If an ordinary citizen was found to have been searching pornographic websites…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brady v. Maryland. (1963). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from:

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/373/83

Giglio v. United States. (1972). Find Law. Retrieved from:

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=405&invol=150
View Full Essay

Police Stress

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7819846

Stress Before Referencing

hat are the primary points of this article or informational link? How could a forensic psychologist contribute to a positive outcome? hat type of psychological instrument could be of assistance in resolving the problems noted in this article?

Although the physical dangers of policing the community are well-documented on the evening news on almost a daily basis, the psychological difficulties police officers confront are often less publicized. Police officers, as representatives of the law, are seen as immune to the impact seeing violence and tragedy can have upon the psyche. But according to PBA psychologist Daniel Goldfarb, the 'Scrooge' effect is a dangerous one, causing officers to become cynics to the point where they are incapable of seeing the good in people. A healthy skepticism is essential and healthy to doing the job, but cynicism, defined as the corruption of skepticism, leads to burnout (Goldfarb, 2008, "Scrooge").…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "10 Reasons Cops are Different." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/10reason.htm

Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "Critical Incident Stress Reactions." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/cisd.htm

Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "The Home Front." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 a http://www.heavybadge.com/wframe.htm

Goldfarb, Daniel. (1995). "In Search of the Silly Thought." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/silly.htm
View Full Essay

Ethical Dilemmas in Police Work

Words: 741 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16031888

Policing Dilemmas

Ethical Dilemmas in Police ork

For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. ithout proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.

Ethical Dilemmas…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gilmartin, K. And J. Harris. "Law Enforcement Ethics." 2006. E-S Press. Online. 2 April 2013.

Lieberman, B. "Ethical Issues in the Use of Confidential Informants for Narcotic Operations." 2007. The Police Chief. Online. 2 April 2013.

Pollock, J. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
View Full Essay

Governmental Crime and Corruption

Words: 1096 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59809

Corruption Within the Criminal Justice System

Although the American system of criminal justice and jurisprudence is widely regarded as a model for democratic nations across the globe to emulate, with its guarantee of due process and protection from illegal search and seizure standing as pillars of liberty, glaring defects still exist which warrant further improvement. From the disturbing trend of disproportionate arrest and sentencing among minorities, to the inability of courts to adequately enforce prohibitions levied against sexual predators, America's criminal justice system is imperfect at best, and inherently broken at worst. Widely publicized court cases such as the recent trial of George Zimmerman, a Florida vigilante charged with, and late acquitted of, murdering a young African-American man named Trayvon Martin, only serve to expose the fundamental flaws which are still far too prevalent within corrupt law enforcement agencies, an aging and outmoded judiciary, legions of overburdened prosecutors and defense…… [Read More]

References

Associated Press. (2013, August 29). Montana judge's remarks about raped teen prompt outrage. BBC News, Retrieved from   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23882735  

Feinstein, R. (2013). Juvenile Justice and the Incarcerated Male Minority: A Qualitative

Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact.

Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department's Stop & Frisk Practices: A Report to the People of the State of New York from the Office of the Attorney General. DIANE Publishing.
View Full Essay

Analyzing Police and Politics

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24998624

Police and Politics

Do you believe there is a connection between politics and the police? Why or why not?

Yes, there is a connection. The police is a key pillar of governance and is thus closely related to politics. However, the link between the two is not as simple as individuals may think. The majority of the people have the view that any buffer between the political leadership of a country (especially the executive) and the police in the form of representation and bureaucracy will bring about a police force that is truly independent (Stevens, 2005; Noble & Alpert, 2009). Politics is defined as the art of exerting power over government affairs. For instance, political power can be seen through one's control of the power of the office they hold; control of certain aspects of leadership in government; and exerting one's interest on government. Thus, some individuals with political influence…… [Read More]

References

Noble, J. J. & Alpert, G. P. (2009). Managing Accountability Systems for Police Conduct: Internal Affairs and External Oversight. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press.

Ozcan, Y. Z. and R. Gultekin (2000) Police and Politics in Turkey, British Criminology Conference

Stevens, J. (2005). Not for The Faint-Hearted: My Life Fighting Crime. Weidenfeld and Nicolson
View Full Essay

Departments Police Officer a Generalist Discuss Inconsistent

Words: 822 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64835715

departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.

Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.

Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Decentralization of U S Police and the Affects

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47392513

Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Law Enforcement

The American police force is one of the strongest and most effective in the world. What makes it so? There have been recent changes to the hierarchy and structure of the police force, particularly since the terrorist attack in New York City on September 11, 2001. One such change has been increased decentralization of law enforcement. How is this shift characterized? What are the implications for law enforcement, the citizens it serves, and American society in general? The paper will address the affects of decentralization upon how investigations are conducted and affects upon society in general.

The Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Typically, when citizens consider the subject of decentralization, it is in regards to governance. The governance may be on a national level, such as a decentralized government, or the decentralization can be highly…… [Read More]

References:

Cheikbossian, G., & Marceau, N. (2007) "Why is Law Enforcement Decentralized?" Centre Interuniversitaire sur le Risque, les Politques Economiques, et l'Emploi, University of Quebec, 1 -- 26.

Kaminski, R.J., & Martin, J.A. (2000) "An analysis of police officer satisfaction with defense and control tactics." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 23(2), 132 -- 153.

King, W.R. (2000) "Measuring police innovation: issues and measurement." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 23(3), 303 -- 317.

Marx, G.T. (2001) "Police and Democracy." Policing, Security, and Democracy: Theory and Practice, Volume 2. Office of International Criminal Justice, Huntsville, TX. Web.
View Full Essay

Decentralization and Policing Define Decentralization Explain the

Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83253226

Decentralization and Policing

Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?

Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that…… [Read More]

Reference

Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.

Rosenfeld, R. Fornango, R. & Rengifo, A (2007). The Impact of Order-Maintenance Policing

On New York City Homicide And Robbery Rates:1988-2001. Criminology Volume 45

Number 2
View Full Essay

Brady Disclosure and Police Officers

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49405964

law enforcement agencies have often struggled with officer dishonesty and the impact such an action leaves not just in the criminal justice system, but more specifically in court proceedings. When an officer lies, their credibility may be threatened due to their previous dishonest comportment. Agencies must, on a continued basis, disclose information to prosecutors concerning the issue of officer dishonesty if the officer in question must testify against a defendant. That defendant must also be made aware of the instance of officer dishonesty and if this is not done, the agencies and officers may be held accountable as well as potentially lead to dismissal of charges against the defendant. An example of this was seen in Brady v. Maryland.

The landmark case of Brady v. Maryland demonstrated the effects of withholding information or evidence in case proceedings by the decision of the prosecutors to not submit Boblit's confession as evidence.…… [Read More]

References

Lewis, R. & Veltman, N. (2015). The Hard Truth About Cops Who Lie. WNYC. Retrieved 16 October 2016, from http://www.wnyc.org/story/hard-truth-about-cops-who-lie/
View Full Essay

American Policing Issues Why Is

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32212869



11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?

Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).

12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?

The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…… [Read More]

Reference

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Community Oriented Policing

Words: 6694 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38020628

Community Oriented Policing

new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:

For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…… [Read More]

References

Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.

O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.

Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.

MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
View Full Essay

Eras of Policing According to Most Experts

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39077789

Eras of Policing

According to most experts there are three distinct eras of policing, the political (1840-1930), reform (1930-1970) and community problem-solving era (1970-current). During the political era policing was focused on making politicians happy, was loosely based and had limited civic ties or regulatory bodies. The reform era of policing began to normalize policing in the civic sense, with stronger connections between bureaucratic agencies and the police, moving away from political motive and toward the needs of the community. It was during the reform era of policing that police agencies and departments began to be governed by a hierarchy, in a more militaristic style, began to wear uniforms reflective of a more professional level of policing and began to answer to a less political body, i.e. The public. After the 1970s a demand began to make police more accountable to the public and the community-problem solving era began. This…… [Read More]

References

Greene, J.R. (2000) Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police. Criminal Justice 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf?q=understanding-community-policing.

Hartman, F.X. ed. (1988) Debating the evolution of American policing. Perspectives on Policing. Retrieved June 18, 2011 from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf.
View Full Essay

City Police Departments

Words: 1863 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56981886

City Police Department

Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).

Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.

Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.

Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.

New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/home.html.
View Full Essay

Terrorism & Police Organizations Global

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74232381



Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:

Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's

NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.

Just as pre-employment…… [Read More]

References

Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it

Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press

German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission

Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
View Full Essay

Intelligence Led Policing Sounds Like

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54503020

6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"

Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.

Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.

orks Cited

Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)

http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/intelsharingreport.pdf, Accessed December 15, 2007
View Full Essay

History Policing the Law Enforcement Industry America

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61646033

History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis

A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America

History of Policing

Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms professional and police were not likely to appear together. Policemen in this historical period were typically not much more than watchmen. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that professionalism began to characterize American police. It is mostly agreed that the professionalization of the police in the United States began with the efforts of August Vollmer. (Douthit, 1975).

Vollmer was the first Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, elected as the town Marshall in 1905.…… [Read More]

References

911 Commission Report (2004), Washington, D.C.: GAO.

Crank, John P. (2003), "Institutional Theory of Police: A Review of the State of the Art," Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 26 (2): 186- 207.

Douthit, Nathan (1975), "August Vollmer, Berkeley's First Chief of Police, and the Emergence of Police Professionalism," California Historical Quarterly, 54), spring: 101-124.

Goldstein, Herman (1979), "Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach," Crime and Delinquency, 25: 236-58.
View Full Essay

Cops and Pops Community- and Problem-Oriented Policing

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67097917

COPs and POPs

Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.

Community Policing

Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…… [Read More]

References

Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.

Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36 .

Goldstein, Herman. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from  http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop .

Lombardo, Robert M., Olson, David, and Staton, Monte. (2010). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy: A reassessment of the CAPS program. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(4), 586-606.
View Full Essay

Proactive Policing

Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42132239

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
View Full Essay

Zero Tolerance Policing a Comparative

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79318347



In reviewing some of the studies done on the impact of community policing on officers' attitudes, Lurigio and Rosenbaum (1994) isolated many of the specific techniques used in community policing programs. These programs are generally marked by the use of foot patrols to engage with citizens and establish a tangible presence, storefront police stations providing visibility and accessibility to the public, and the use of targeted police units designed to develop roots and tailor themselves to the specific communities they serve.

Like problem-oriented policing, community policing often requires a fundamental change in both the attitude and organization of police departments. As Dennis Nowicki (1997) points out, these changes are often difficult to implement consistently. The empowerment need by individual officers to adapt to individual situations within their community "clearly runs counter to the paramilitary structure of police agencies" (Nowicki, 1997, p. 365). In addition, the establishment of close ties between…… [Read More]

How, then, does zero-tolerance policing compare to these other approaches? It depends largely on how zero-tolerance policing is practiced and what end it serves. Some see zero-tolerance as "zero thinking" and diametrically opposed to both the spirit and practice of problem-oriented approaches (Nowicki, 1997, p. 366). Its law-based focus and its rigidity do seem to run counter to the openness and flexibility necessary to problem-oriented and community policing. However, others see zero-tolerance as essentially a problem-oriented approach in that it was designed with a problem-solving end in mind and not just as a theoretical approach (Kelling & Bratton, 1998).

Even if zero-tolerance policing is used in the service of problem-solving, however, its organizational structure prevents it from being a true problem-oriented or community approach. Problem-oriented and community centered policing must be characterized by active and vibrant partnerships between citizens and police. As Judith Greene put it in her argument against zero-tolerance, problem-oriented and community approaches seek to join "community policing and community participation" in a way that zero-tolerance policing cannot allow (Greene, 1999, p. 326).

Each of these methods of policing has its strengths and weaknesses. Zero-tolerance can be very effective, as seen in the case of the NYPD, and its clearly-delineated goals and strategies make it relatively easy to implement consistently. Problem-oriented policing benefits from its broadness of approach and its commitment to creating long-lasting solutions, but its definition as a "state of mind" does not give clear guidelines on how to put this commitment into practice. Community policing has the problem-solving approach but seeks to create specific techniques for implementing these approaches into the communities. Perhaps the ideal type of policing incorporates the best of all three approaches, and is still waiting to be developed.
View Full Essay

Role of Education in Policing

Words: 1365 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54690182

ole of Education in Police Management

The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…… [Read More]

References

Delattre, E.J. (1989). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington D.C.

Morn, Frank. (1995). Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.

Greenwood Press.

Thibault, E.A., Lynch, L.M. & McBride, R.B. (1995). Proactive Police Management.
View Full Essay

Politically and Practically Feasible for State Police

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24918669

politically and practically feasible for state police to partner with non-State actors (policing) so as to extend access to justice and security.

State Police Partnership with Non-State Actors in Policing

Justice and security matter to citizens in fragile states. Insecurity in the world today is the greatest setback to the development of nations. According to a report presented by the World Bank in the year 2005, security and justice matters most to women and children. These groups of individuals in a society face security challenges because of bad policing, corrupt justice systems and weak penal and justice systems (Baker and Scheye, 2007). Consequently, they are likely not able to access government services. Crimes have made it necessary for police to find ways of policing rather than its end. There has been a paradigm shift of police operations from the incentive-driven or the reactive approach to the partnership approach.

This proactive…… [Read More]

References

Abrahamsen, R., and Williams. 2007. "Securing the city: private security companies and non-

state authority in global governance." International relations, 21 (2) Pp: 237-253.

Baker, B., and Scheye, E. 2007. "Multi-layered justice and security delivery in post-conflict and fragile states: Analysis." Conflict, Security & Development, 7 (4) Pp: 503-528.

Bush, G., W. 2009. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Morgan James Pub.
View Full Essay

History of Police in America

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62939784

history of the police department in America. The writer explores why the nation determined police departments were necessary and how they began their ascent to various cities.

Before one can understand the current police departments in America it is important for one to understand how the police came to be viewed as something that was needed. Police departments in America origins have been traced back to early English Society. Before the Norman Conquest there were no police forces that were formally administered and implemented. Instead society depended on something called the pledge system which entailed a type of code of honor. This code said that each village member pledged to protect the entire village against crimes such as thieves and murderers. If any member of the village saw something occurring they were honor bound to make such a fuss the rest of the village would be alerted. They as well…… [Read More]

REFERENCE

Police History and Organization History of Police (Accessed 2-2-2003)

http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/just/just110/police1.html
View Full Essay

Grand Corruption

Words: 5751 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29308264

Grand corruption is a serious issue throughout the world which has led to the development of many different laws. The United Nations defines grand corruption as "corruption that pervades the highest levels of a national Government, leading to a broad erosion of confidence in good governance, the rule of law and economic stability ("United Nations Convention against Corruption")." Grand corruption is such a concerning issue because of the costs associated with this deceptive activity. Eliminating grand corruption has become a major quest of NGOs such as the UN. According to an article entitled "The Global Programme against Corruption" published by the UN, efforts to raise awareness about corruption have been made since 1994. The report explains that corruption has an insidious nature and can have devastating impacts on entire countries and their citizens. The report asserts that "Corruption not only distorts economic decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"African Charter on Human and People's Rights." http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/charter_en.html

Argandona A., (2007) The United Nations Convention Against Corruption and its Impact on International Companies . Journal of Business Ethics 74:481 -- 496

Baker, Raymond. 2005. Capitalism's Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market

System. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
View Full Essay

Modern-Day Corruption and Graft the Watergate Incident

Words: 2937 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92642275

Modern-Day Corruption and Graft

The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.

Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?

Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…… [Read More]

References

Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html 

Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html 

Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm

Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
View Full Essay

Public Corruption and Its Effect Including the

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53939292

public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.

The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/faq/corruption_faq.

Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.

Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
View Full Essay

Force Police and Other Protectors

Words: 3816 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69106210

One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.

Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:

Klokar's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312

Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886

Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Curtis Lynnette 2011 Aug 5 Police Union

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55284971

Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas eview-Journal.

As the nation comes to grip with the budgetary problems associated with a poorly performing economy, and the prospects of better economic days seem a long lost dream, cities all over America are having difficulties with their own financial issues. In the city of North Las Vegas, there is a budgetary issue which directly effect the police department, and the officer's union. ather than close several recreation centers, the city has asked the police officers to make financial concessions in order to raise the necessary funds. The article "Police union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers" described the current situation relating to the negotiations between the police union and the city.

There are actually two unions involved in the negotiations with the city, the 60-member police…… [Read More]

References

Curtis, Lynnette. (2011, Aug. 5) Police Union talks raise concerns about saving North Las Vegas recreation centers. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved from http://www.lvrj.com/news/police-union-talks-raise-concerns-about-saving-north-las-vegas-recreation-centers-126870533.html?ref=533
View Full Essay

Investigation and Police Organization

Words: 1443 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16116170

evidence, it seems possible that an altercation occurred between the husband and wife and the two of them are 'covering' up this incident. deally, a detective with expertise in domestic violence cases should be in charge of the investigation. Separate officers should interview both the wife and husband before the couple has a chance to 'get their stories straight,' and note any inconsistencies between the two accounts. The other officers involved should attempt to exclude any other possible explanations for the injuries, eliminating the possibility that a so-called burglary did occur. The patrol officer who has established a rapport with the children should clearly be a presence during the interview process, given that children can be notoriously difficult interview subjects and it is helpful to have a comforting figure to support them. nterviewed independently, the children might be more forthcoming than either parent about the details of the husband's assault…… [Read More]

I agree with Jones (2008) and his assessment that police bureaucracies are complex by their very nature. Even if there is an attempt to enact change in a top-down fashion, the multifaceted nature of police organizations means that changes tend to occur in a non-linear format. Also, police organizations are affected by many situational variables and constraints that can inhibit reforms such as the different perspective of officers in the field and managers with less exposure to physical risks. There is also an institutional culture which can be very insular and resistant to change yet which may be necessary to brave some of the stressors of modern policing. Crime itself is a multifactorial problem and as complexity science allows, causal relationships in regards to criminal behaviors are difficult to determine. This is one of the advantages of de-centralized approaches such as community policing, which creates a more atomized and responsive structure for police organizations.

DENISE ARTHUR M4D2

The concept of 'strategic management' is interesting when applied to policing because it takes some of the models previously only relegated to business and applies them to modern-day policing. The police must serve the public like effective business organizations must serve customers. The concept of 'systems thinking' takes into consideration the dynamic social environment in which police organizations must operate, in contrast to the usual static approaches embraced by many government organizations hemmed in by bureaucratic cultures. By decentralizing authority police organizations can be more adaptive.
View Full Essay

Role of Leadership in Police Management Police

Words: 1664 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36234323

Role of Leadership in Police Management

Police organizations have historically emphasized the use of authoritarian types of administration and Machiavellian leadership practices. Even today, many police organizations have behavioral orientations reflective of dominance, individual achievement and masculinity.

However, recent challenges such as developing community-oriented policing and transforming a traditional police culture that typically emphasized operational "efficiencies," to one that promotes team collaboration, innovation, and "effective" processes suggest the need for new leadership patterns within law enforcement agencies.

In all organizations, effective leadership is necessary, as a lack of it can be detrimental to an organization's success. In many cases, organizations faced with bankruptcy have turned their businesses around by replacing ineffective administrations with efficient, dynamic leadership. In addition, military leaders have used various leadership styles to turn ineffective military units into highly effective and motivated teams.

While the importance of good leadership is not a new one, it is one…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blake, Robert. (1964). Mouton, Jane. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing.

Bucqueroux, Bonnie. (2002). Leadership vs. Management. Policing.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.policing.com/articl/lead.html.

Hansen, Paul. (2002). Developing Police Leadership. Rochester, New York: Irondequoit Police Department.

Hersey, Paul. (1984). The Situational Leader. New York, New York: Warner Books.
View Full Essay

Compstat and Its Potentials in Policing

Words: 1417 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43189669

COMPSTAT

FOR MORE EFFECTIVE POLICING

Random Police Patrolling vs. IT Policing Application

The research supported by the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice presented eight major hypotheses on crime prevention by the police (Sherman et al., 1990). The third was random patrolling, which assumed that the more random patrols in public places, the greater the perceived "omnipresence" of police force to discourage crime. Early beat officers checked on specific areas at specific times according to strictly supervised patterns (Reiss, 1992 as qtd in Sherman et al.). The adoption of the Rapid 911 response scheme in automobiles gradually replaced random patrolling. The basis was the perceived unpredictability of patrolling patterns, which would create police omnipresence to discourage crime in public places. Finding of a research came up with weak evidence on the effect of patrolling either in number or variations. It concluded that patrol presence in big…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

EndVAWNOW (2012). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT)

analysis. UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: Virtual

Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. Retrieved on April 19,

2014 from http://www.envawnow.org/en/articles/1055-strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-and-threats-SWOT-analysis-.html
View Full Essay

Law Enforcement Introduction the Modern Police Forces

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1599506

Law Enforcement Introduction

The Modern Police Forces

Prior to the formation of the Philadelphia force in 1833, policing primarily consisted of "night watches" and sheriffs recruited from the community (Sabeth). The role of law enforcement was ad hoc in nature to fight crime, night watch patrols, and not an organized or uniform organization. Incidentally, the rural nature of the country did not necessitate an established and robust policing force until the urbanization and industrialization of the 1830s and 1840s. In response to a growing need to maintain law and order on city streets, a significant and visible presence was needed to counter riots and avert crime.

Philadelphia, and later New York, first established polices forces whose jurisdiction and duties were attended twenty-four hours a day (Sabeth). The significance of the modern police force was that it was developed to prevent crime, law enforcement, and maintain order by being visibly present…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.

Sabeth, D. (n.d.). The Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from American Federation of Police & Concerned Citizens:    http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
View Full Essay

Gender Policing Law Enforcement and Equality

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66016937

Women have not played a significant role in law enforcement until recently, and especially since the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission legislation. Law enforcement continues to be a male-dominated profession, although women are becoming increasingly visible at multiple levels of the profession. Estimated representation of women in law enforcement ranges from 2 to 15%, depending on the jurisdiction/department, the rank/role, and the year of the survey (Blackstock, 2015, Horne, 2006; Price, 1996). Although women remain underrepresented in law enforcement, attitudes and norms may be changing significantly to encourage more women to achieve positions of power. Interestingly, African-American women comprise thirty percent of all female-held law enforcement positions; in contrast, African-American men comprise fifteen percent of all male-held law enforcement positions.

Literature eview

A review of literature shows what barriers women have encountered in law enforcement, from the time of job consideration and recruitment, through job satisfaction and role fulfillment, to…… [Read More]

References

Blackstock, H. (2015). Interview.

Flanagan, D. (n.d.). Women in policing. PB&J 1(1). Retrieved online: http://www.wtamu.edu/webres/File/Academics/College%20of%20Education%20and%20Social%20Sciences/Department%20of%20Political%20Science%20and%20Criminal%20Justice/PBJ/2009/1n1/1n1_02Flanagan.pdf

Harrington, P.E. (2002). Advice to Women Beginning a Career in Policing. Women & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 1-13.

Harrison, J. (2012). Women in law enforcement. Women and Criminal Justice 22(3): 226-238.
View Full Essay

Minority Arrests and Predictive Policing

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43111597

noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.

Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Improving Police Accountability in Law Enforcement

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52940650

law enforcement agents do better?

The key to improving the efficacy of law enforcement agents is changing the organizational culture to one built on accountability. Walker and Archibold offer a new and potentially revolutionary framework for police accountability. The new vision for law enforcement centers on the PTS model, in which policy, training, supervision, and review are the core parts of organizational change. The current organizational culture of law enforcement has several dysfunctional features, values, and norms. Viewing police culture from anthropological and sociological perspectives, as Kappeler, Sluder and Alpert suggest, shows how norms, values, structures, and institutions create dysfunction, misbehavior, and corruption. Problems like excessive use of force and abuse of power can only be controlled through systematic changes in the organizational culture of policing.

Changing organizational culture requires more than just altering departmental policies and procedural guidelines. After all, most departments will have codes of ethics and guidelines…… [Read More]

References

Kappeler, V.E., Sluder, R.D. & Alpert, G.P. Forces of Deviance. 2nd edition. 1998.

Miller, L. & Tolivier, J. Implementing a body-worn camera program. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2014.

Sklansky, D.A. The persistent pull of police professionalism. New Perspectives in Policing, March 2011. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/232676.pdf

Walker, S. & Archibold, C.A. The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. Kindle Edition, 2014.
View Full Essay

EPA Corruption at the Top and Response From Below

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57355073

Guerrilla Government and the EPA

Guerrilla government within the EPA grew out of a response to various failed administrations, which were led by men who did not approach their leadership position with the type of virtue and character that those passionate about the environment and the organization would have preferred to see. Thus, under ussell, for example, the EPA had become a shell of what it was supposed to be, with ussell using EPA funds for self-pleasure and even blocking clean-ups and environmental action for occurring as in the case of the smelter complex in Idaho (O'Leary, 2014, p. 61). The ethics issue that ussell violated was his lack of transparency, which resulted in dishonesty among the administration and a failure to live up to the expectations of the mission of the EPA by getting in bed with big business instead of holding business's toes to the fire and demanding…… [Read More]

References

O'Leary, R. (2014). The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government (2nd ed.).

Washington, DC: CQ Press

U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2000). A brief wrap on government ethics. Retrieved from https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ethics_brief_3.pdf

U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2015). OGE Publishes Updated Compilation of Federal Ethics Laws. Retrieved from https://www2.oge.gov/"
View Full Essay

Domestic Violence Policies Evolved in

Words: 2645 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46114356

Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.

Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…… [Read More]

Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.

Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.

Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
View Full Essay

Terrorism the American Heritage Online Dictionary Specifies

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62456154

Terrorism

The American Heritage Online Dictionary specifies Terrorism as an illegal use or threatened use of force or physical violence by an individual or pre-arranged team against individuals or physical assets with the objective of frightening or pushing societies or governments, typically for ideological or political reasons. Provided this meaning this paper will try to clarify on how terrorism has an effect on society as an entire and how it has actually triggered alterations in existing laws as it relates to the security of all U.S. citizens.

Terrorism is a significant problem in American and has a remarkable affect on individuals of all walks of life, since terrorism has an effect on everybody both directly as ell as indirectly in one form or another.

Considering that the notorious 9-11 terrorist attacks on the United States there have actually been lots of alterations in the way police assess and execute their…… [Read More]

References

American Heritage Online Dictionary (2009), Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/terrorism

Dantzker, Mark L. (2005, Jul 25). Understanding today's Police. Criminal Justice Press.

Gentile, John. Free Donuts and More: A Commentary on Police Misconduct and Corruption. Problems, Issues and Challenges in Law Enforcement. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.spiritofthelaw.org/sol1art1.html

Hasisi, Badi. (2008, Spring). Police, politics, and culture in a deeply divided society. (Symposium on Redefining International Criminal Law). Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 98(3), 1119(27).
View Full Essay

International Criminal Organizations

Words: 2566 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57505316

International Criminal Organizations

Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…… [Read More]

References

Barkan, S. & Bryjak, G. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Center for International Cooperation -- CIC (2013). Organized Crime. Retrieved from http://cic.nyu.edu/content/organized-crime

CNN Library. (2013). Mexico Drug War Fast Facts. CNN. Retrieved from  http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/ 

Edmonds-Poli, E. & Shirk, D.A. (2012). Contemporary Mexican Politics (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
View Full Essay

Crimjust Slippery Slope What Are Some Examples

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69011377

Crimjust

Slippery slope: What are some examples of the slippery slope, as it applies to criminal justice ethics? How can/should slippery slope issues be addressed from a leadership or administrative standpoint?

The concept of slippery slope is a metaphor used to describe the ways small ethical infractions can lead to larger and more damaging ones. For example, the question, "Does taking a free cup of coffee or a half price burger mean you are on a slippery slope to taking bribes from the guy who runs the local crack house?" relates to the concept of slippery slope, albeit in an exaggerated format (Smith, n.d.). The idea that accepting small gifts is innocent reveals fractured ethical thinking. If an officer thinks that it is alright to accept a small gift, then the cognitive process used can be extended to accepting big gifts.

The slippery slope concept is easy to understand. It…… [Read More]

References

Smith, B.B. (n.d.). Criminal justice ethics for everyone. Police Link. Retrieved online:  http://policelink.monster.com/education/articles/103583-criminal-justice-ethics-for-everyone
View Full Essay

American Criminal Justice Systems and Policies

Words: 3251 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16883688

History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police

It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.

The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)

Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.

Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9487482

Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.