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Policing Operations Hidden Dangers Real Weapons and
Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54409918
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Policing Operations:

Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies

Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…

Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Police History the American System of Criminal
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1217712
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Police History

The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.

The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…

References

Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html 

"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online:  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States 

"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online:  http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg 

Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online:  http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm

Policing in America As Compared to the
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74544890
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Policing in America:

As compared to the 1920's, policing in the United States has had to change over the years in order to cope with the numerous changes in the society.

Most of these changes have occurred during the 20th Century because of the rapid technological advancements and globalization. During this period, telephones, car ownership, and use of personal computers have become commonplace in the society. While these are positive changes, they have also contributed to significant changes that are sometimes negative in relation to law enforcement.

With the innovations of computers and telecommunication technologies in America, the police force and other criminal justice practitioners has really improved in terms of opportunity and challenges. These technologies have empowered the police force in the sense that they can now collect, store, study, and share records with stakeholders within and outside administration. The innovations of these technologies have created opportunities in the…

Reference:

Reichert, K. (2001, December). Use of Information Technology by Law Enforcement. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website:  http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf

Police Stressors
Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51506847
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Police Stress

Stress Associated with Policing

A look at some of the stresses that are associated with police fulfilling their job duties in the line of fire

Stress on the Job 4

The police profession is a highly stressful endeavor that often places officers in highly stressful situations on a regular basis. Police work is one of the few jobs out there where the employees must deal with murders, accidents, and the constant threat of personal injury. The effects of this environment can be cumulative and build up over time. Furthermore, many police officers are resistant to finding suitable outlets to deal with the effects of stress in a clinical setting or through counseling. There are many common objections for officers seeking help for the psychological issues that can emerge through the course of service. These include items such as it is not consistent with the image of masculinity that…

Works Cited

Anderson, B. (N.d.). Confidentiality in Counseling: What Police Officers Need To Know . Retrieved from PTSD Resources for Survivors and Caregivers:  http://www.giftfromwithin.org/pdf/confide.pdf 

Glass, I. (2010, September 10). Transcript. Retrieved from This American Life:  http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript 

University of Buffalo. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers. Retrieved from Physical and Mental Health:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm 

Vogel, D., Wester, S., & Larson, L. (2007). Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors That Inhibit Seeking Help. Journal of Counseling and Development, 411-422. Retrieved from Iowa State.

Police Terrorism Ethics and Corruption the Traditional
Words: 1441 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63849911
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Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption

The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…

Bibliography:

Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.

Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from  http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security

Police Recruitment and Hiring Has
Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38794168
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(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)

The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…

References

Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.

Police Describe the Impact of Sir Robert
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28937475
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Police

Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing

Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.

Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…

References

Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online:  http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html 

New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine:  http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html 

Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online:  http://www.aphf.org/hist.html

Policing Comparison of Policing Tactics
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71490106
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At this time there is no uniform consensus about what agencies have authority in the Middle East. The Dubai police are working with agencies including the Department of Homeland Security to establish a more democratic policing system. Despite their best efforts however, there still exist many groups within the Middle East that adopt radical approaches to policing. Not every agency agrees on uniform democracy, and some still prefer an authoritarian approach to policing (Exum, 2006, p. 1). This can and often does lead to greater violence within the region, with in many cases people living within the regions of the Middle East still lacking freedom of expression and living in fear of violent punishment for any crimes committed.

As Exum (2006) noted in his overview of policing in the Middle East, a bus driver was at one point withdrawn from his vehicle and beaten as well as sodomized as a…

References

Exum, Andrew. (2006). "Hizballah at War: A Military Assessment." The Washington

Institute for Near/East Policy, Accessed 3, May 2007:  http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2574 

Institute of Race Relations. (2007). "The politics of fear: Civil society and the security state." Institute of Race Relations, Accessed 3, May 2007:

http://www.irr.org.uk/2004/june/ak000011.html

Police Recruiting
Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82018761
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Police ecruiting

Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…

References

1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey

3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Police in America in the
Words: 871 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 6493473
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Because of the type of individuals police officers in mid-to large cities often deal with, they can engender a mind-set of violence and abuse of power. Certainly, the military approach is efficient; the command style authoritarian so it can get quicker results. However, in going with more modern leadership approaches, the servant leadership, or service style might be more appropriate in many areas. This would stress community service; keeping areas safe, but referring as many problems as possible to social agencies, trying for education and partnership, and working to improve society through a more egalitarian approach in which police are integral to the community's entire philosophy.

Part 4 -- Design for an effective police department would entirely depend on the size and composition of the area affected. For instance, large urban area with a concentrated inner-city would require a different organization than a smaller community of 30,000 people. Hypothetically, if…

Sources:

Patrol Staffing and Development Study. (n.d.) International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from:  http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=AKL78d4MBw8%3  D&tabid=252

Hesser, L. (2010). Police Chief's Desk Reference. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from:  http://www.olemiss.edu/ciss/Academics/Research/Police_Chiefs_  Desk_Reference/pdf/4%20org%20strategy%20guide.pdf

Church, J. (April 2007). Non-Sworn Positions in Law Enforcement. Officer.com. Retrieved from:  http://www.officer.com/article/10249940/non-sworn-positions-in-law-enforcement 

Earle, J. (June 2012). Police Say No Magic When Calculating Staffing Levels. Reporter Newspapers. Retrieved from: http://www.*****/2012/06/28/police-say-theres-no-magic-when-calculating-staffing-levels/

Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st
Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395
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Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…

References

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html.

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.

Police Psychology Identify the Different Domains Police
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12354204
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Police Psychology

Identify the different domains police psychologists work in, and discuss some of the roles psychologists might assume when working in different domains.

A police psychologist will work primarily in the assessment domain. In many instances, police officers must be properly screened and evaluated prior to duty. In other instances, officers will be evaluating during duty to proper access their ability to fully protect society. As such, psychologists have the primary function or determining the adequacy of a police officers skill set relative to predetermined metrics of success. Through periodic evaluation, the psychologist has the distinct role of assessing the skills and abilities of current and prospective police officers.

Psychologists also operate within the intervention domain. This domain is particularly important due to the nature of police officer work. Law enforcement officers are unique to many professions, as their job requires exposure to very contentious issues. Particularly troubling, is…

Reference:

1) Kitaeff. JackHandbook of Police Psychology, 2011. Bookshelf. Web. 07 November 2013

2) Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage. p. 5. ISBN 0-534-58158-7.

Police Communication Technology the Need
Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27318766
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Conclusion:

The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.

eferences

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…

References

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media

Age." Routledge: New York.

Police on Jupiter Madame Council
Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73779958
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In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.

People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.

ibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…

Bibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.

Police Systems and Practices Question Set Discuss
Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78880879
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Police Systems and Practices Question Set

Discuss how temperament can impair communication?

The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.

Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.

A police officer's locker room is like any other…

Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil
Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41646569
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Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.

Police in Society Organizational Structure
Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24317557
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Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.

Conclusion

The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…

Bibliography

NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm

Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html 

James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at,  http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html 

City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html

Police Motivation a Relationship Does Exist Between
Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90860720
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Police Motivation

A relationship does exist between control and motivation in a police force. Generally police officers are used to working under a fairly individual and self structured environment. Thus when new order is established it is often the source of conflict. In any environment the tendency of personnel is to close up and become less motivated the more control they perceive is being forced over them. A more authoritarian environment such as that under Captain Frebe often breeds resentment rather than discipline and a loyal workforce. It is important however that a chief working in this environment maintain some level of control over employees to maintain order.

How does a unit create balance? Anderson (1999) suggests that managers of a police department should try to distinguish themselves by maintaining an equal amount of concern for the needs of officers as well as the needs of a department.

Further managers…

References:

Anderson, D. (1999). "Policing the police." The American Prospect, January. 49.

Kurke, M.I. & Schrivner, E.M. (1995). "Police psychology into the 21st century." Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Police Applicants What Types Questions Police Applicants
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29634806
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Police Applicants: What types questions police applicants interview phase determine possessed racist bigoted ideologies? 2. eligious Beliefs: 1. Should police officers pro-life forced provide security pro-choice demonstrators clashes religious beliefs? 2.

Police applicants: What types of questions would you ask police applicants during the interview phase to determine if they possessed racist or bigoted ideologies?

When interviewing a police applicant, it is possible to ask direct questions regarding his or her legal beliefs, such as "do you believe that all persons are entitled to equal treatment under the law" and "do you believe that the U.S. Constitution applies to all citizens, regardless of their race, creed, or color?" More personal questions are also valid such as: "do you believe that people of similar backgrounds should 'stick together' or not" and "do you believe that certain types of people are more likely to commit crimes and why?"

While such direct questions…

References

Williams, J. (2013). Public safety for all? Huffington Post. Retrieved:

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/racial-profiling

Police History Structure and Functions
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71182572
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Police: History, Structure, and Functions

The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…

References

Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police  on October 5, 2016.

Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from  https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy  on October 5, 2016.

Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.

Police How Would You Shape
Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86655524
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Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).

A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…

Works Cited

O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."

MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at  http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm 

Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch

Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com

Police Law Enforcement Agencies or the Police
Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19893591
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Police

Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.

Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…

REFERENCES

The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org:  http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html 

Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.

Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.

Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html

Police Are Still Routinely Executing
Words: 733 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 2424631
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The problem is that the RPP reports, almost in passing, that in all documented cases no victim has been looked into or his case considered before the execution was perpetrated. No prosecution or investigation had been held either. Rather, the victim was summarily executed.

More so, police routinely threaten haphazard witnesses of these killings with, a t least, one witness, being abducted and killed.

This makes all the difference between justified and non-justified execution, and there becomes no difference between a police and a thug. The very fact that he police threaten witnesses indicates some apprehension on the official's part of his selection and execution of a particular man. One may, further, suspect that not only were some of the killings unjustified, but, using this approach and wilding this power, Africans police may arbitrarily target scapegoats of their choosing whom they wish to manipulate or who have, for instance, offended…

Source

Nzau Musau, (10 April 2012) Kenya: Extrajudicial Killings Still on, RPP Says

AllAfrica.com

Police Mentally Ill Policing and Mentally Ill
Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57895589
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Police Mentally Ill

Policing and Mentally Ill Individuals

There is a significantly higher proportion of mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system than compared to the same proportion of the United States in the society in general. It is estimated that a mentally ill individual is about eight times more likely to enter into the criminal justice system than they are a mental hospital. These individuals, as the video and the interview illustrates, have special challenges that make them difficult to deal with. Often they hear voices and are paranoid schizophrenics that require a host of special medications to allow them the possibility of being stable. However, many of these individuals face specific challenges that make it difficult for them to access and maintain an effective treatment regimen. This paper will provide a brief overview of how this situation arose and what implications it has for modern police forces.…

Works Cited

CIT International. (N.d.). Mephis Model. Retrieved from CIT International:  http://www.citinternational.org/training-overview/163-memphis-model.html 

Conan, N. (2012, April 2). A Patient's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from NPR:  http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill 

PBS. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from Frontline:  http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/ 

Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.

Policing in the Future One
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93963499
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One of the major things that management can do is increase traffic control. From the Department of Motor Vehicles, which screens people before issuing identification, to officers in routine traffic stops and roadblocks that look for suspected terrorist activity, management can change policies in a manner aimed at increasing detection. (Riebling, p.8). The more routine contact that the police have with members of society; the more likely they are to uncover possible terrorist activity.

Finally, the community at large faces new challenges in the wake of 9-11. Americans have a tremendous amount of civil rights, which generally exceed those that have received constitutional protection. Prior to 9-11, the majority of community members who avoided criminal activity would be able to avoid interactions with the police. However, now that law enforcement has had to broaden its emphasis and take a closer look at the community, the average citizen can anticipate greater…

Works Cited

Connors, Timothy and Georgia Pellegrini, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: Policing Terrorism in the United States. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.

Riebling, Mark, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: The New Paradigm- Merging Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism Strategies. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.

police brutality and behaviorism
Words: 1826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71293747
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Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…

Police Management Performance Management Comparison
Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79206236
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(NCPP 2004)

II. Performance Management in England and Wales:

In Wales and England the National Policing Plan 2004-2007 was published in November 2003 with the stated aim of the plan being to: "Deliver policing to high national standards and for communities to be increasing engaged in the policing of their area." The stated plan is inclusive of a "framework for local police planning in England and Wales over the next three years." Within the scope of the plan are 'five key priorities' for the police service' which are: Provision of a 'citizen focused service to the public'

Tackling anti-social behavior and disorder as well as continuing to bring a reduction to 'burglary, vehicle crime, robbery and drug related crime' are said to be in line with the Government's Public Service Agreement targets Stated as the Performance Police Authority Role is the holding together of the police force on behalf of…

Bibliography

Eigerman, M.R. 1988, "Who should be responsible for business strategy?" Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 40.

Gummer, B. 1992, "Ready, fire, aim! Current perspectives on strategic planning,"

Administration in Social Work, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 89.

Cross, K.F. & Lynch, R.L. 1992, "For good measure," CMA Magazine, vol. 66, no. 3,

Police in America
Words: 853 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72197491
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Lessons of Police Force

A History of the United States Police Force

The story of the American experience is one of principled laws that reflect the values of our society. Laws establish the boundaries of permissible conduct that guides particular aspects of interactions between individuals. hile the military is generally tasked with countering large scale and organized external threats, the modern police force accomplishes the bulk of maintaining order and security at the local level.

The history of the police force demonstrates three primary themes illustrating that its duties are both reactive and proactive, the size and scope of the organization is an adaptation of the local community, and the unique role in upholding justice entails a greater expectation of virtuous conduct. Recognizing the themes that characterize the history of the police force demonstrate that the future will encompass change, yet the guiding principles of the past enhance us with…

Works Cited

Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.

Answers.com. (2012). Who said that with great power comes great responsibility? Read more:  

Policing Issues Affecting 21st Century Law Enforcement Officers
Words: 2520 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77159469
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Militarization of Police

The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.

The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.

The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…

References

Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 

Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from  https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers 

Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/ 

Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.

Police Management Throughout History Police Management Has
Words: 5721 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39703152
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Police Management:

Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…

References:

Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.

"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."

(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from  https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf 

Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:

Policing The 21st Century Has
Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12616969
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There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:

The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…

References:

Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html 

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html

Police Relations
Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10706032
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police forces are run, and Thibault et al. take examine some of the important issues that have prompted these changes. Their work on police management, and the research that they have pursued on the ways in which police departments are constituted, have helped to created the kinds of community-based, progressive forms of policing that are becoming more and more widely used - even if they are still in the minority overall in this country.

In the preface to their work, the authors argue for three elements to be included in every progressive police department:

First, we believe that sound management is management based on a combination of theory and practice. Practice without analysis will cause us to repeat the mistakes of history, so our theoretical analysis must be directed toward the practical for implementation into the day-to-day rigors of operating a police department.

Second, we reject complete adherence to the…

References

Block, R. (1971). "Fear of Crime and Fear of the Police." Social Problems 19: 91-100.

Davis, M. (1998). Community policing: How to get started. Denver: Anderson Publishing.

Harris, D. (1997). "Driving While Black' and All Other Offenses: The Supreme Court and Pretextual Traffic Stops." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 87: 544-582.

Thibault, E., Lynch, L. & McBride, B. (2000). Proactive Police Management. (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

Police Community Relations
Words: 1063 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33436936
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Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.

Video one: Bill of Rights Overview

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXopINJmxkE

Which amendment do YOU value most?

I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.

WHY?

Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).

Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?

Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…

Police Discipline
Words: 1847 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50316667
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The problem with hiring an internal investigator in that his judgment, in most cases, may be clouded by friendship, bias or even personal grudges. Another possible solution would be office shuffling. This police tradition is usually repugnant, superfluous to the public, and ineffective in dealing with the problems in the police. Office shuffle is only effective if competent officers and dedicated to combating police problems replace non-performing officers. For the case of Officer Joe who has had no previous criminal record, shuffling could be effective. The best solution would be progressive discipline for the case of Officer Joe.

To evaluate the success of progressive discipline, the manager has to monitor Officer Joe. Progressive discipline is not a single occurrence; rather it is a continuous process. For the case of Officer Joe, improved dressing, calm in the workplace and evidence of teamwork would be an indication of success of the process.…

References

Castillo, A., & Martinez, C. (2008). Library Science in Mexico: a discipline in crisis. Progressive Librarian, 31, 29-36.

Ellison, K.W. (2004). Stress and The Police Officer. Spring Field, IL:Charles C. Thomas Publishers

Kelly, S.F. (2003). Internal Affairs, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72(7), 1 -- "6. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.lib.kaplan.edu/ehost/detail-vid =12&hid=10&sid =8b9 339b0-4467-44cd-8072 173f1416b5b8%40sessionmgr13&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3 Qtb Gl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=10341537

Raterman, M.T. (2003). Progressive discipline as a police management tool police department disciplinary, Bulletin, 8(9)Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.lib.kaplan. edu / socialsciences/docview/198687865/13941E3FCEE3AFCCBE7/3?accountid=34544

Police Officer Might Be One
Words: 2028 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35790299
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In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.

The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.

Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…

Sources

Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).

Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.

Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.

Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.

Police Officers Are Faced With
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 9418985
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Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.

ll of this is not to say, of…

All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).

Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).

While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They

Police and Public Relations
Words: 427 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17889194
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Video One: Can Volunteers Protect Communities?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67XKF7CkHLQ

Is this a "Police-Public Relations" or "Police-Community Relations" program? Explain why.

In a sense, it is. While the people in question are volunteers and are thus not members of the police force. Even so, the volunteer force is a manifestation of a group that has at least somewhat good intentions when it comes to the crime rates involved.

Is this the answer in these tough fiscal times?

It can be given that having more and more police on hand costs money and this is not the easiest thing to do when budgets are stretched thin due to recession, over-use of resources and so forth.

Is this a good idea? Yes? or No? Explain why.

Only if it is properly limited and controlled. It can be good in that the volunteers can be extra sets of eyes and ears and this can in many…

Police Corrupted
Words: 5292 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92625669
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Course Number
Police Corruption
A Problem with the law
Name
[Date]

Summary
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…

References
Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2010.536724#.U9sFVvldWa8 
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from  http://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct 
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10612-011-9133-0 
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2011.635483#.U9sEofldWa8 
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09627250903569890#.U9sFwldWa8 
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Police Departments the Metropolitan Police
Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40469851
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Other ranks have their areas of responsibility and control covering a geographic area, a detective division, or a specialized division (Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions, 2006).

The internal structure of the two departments is not that different, while the areas covered and the number of officers in each department varies greatly. The LAPD covers more territory and does so with a smaller force, also relying more on the patrol car than the officer on a beat than is true in London (or in many other American cities, for that matter). The LAPD has also been characterized as a more paramilitary organization than many police departments, and this would mean more than the Metropolitan Police as well. Of course, another major difference generally known is that the police in London do not carry guns as a rule (except under special circumstances), while the Los Angeles police do carry…

References

Making the LAPD a Model for Training Police Officers in the 21st Century (2003). RAND Research Brief, retrieved November 19, 2006 at  http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB6015/index1.html .

Structure of Policing in London (2006). Metropolitan Police, retrieved November 19, 2006 at  

Force Police and Other Protectors
Words: 3816 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69106210
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One of the authors in the review, in fact details a reporting system that effectively makes the use of force scene an investigated crime scene, where forensic and other evidence, physical and testimonial, is collected to develop a clear understanding of the events as they unfolded. (2005) Some would argue that this sort of method smacks of the police policing the police, and yet the OSCE Guidebook and many experts would argue that this sort of transparency is necessary for public trust and the insurance of reduced opportunity for corruption at every level. (2006) This emphasis on transparency is relatively new to policing, but in my opinion is demonstrative of positive social change and the eventual development of a much clearer sense on the part of the police, their governing agencies and the public of the nature and definitions of justifiable.

Suspect Coercion by Force or Threat of Force:

Klokar's…

Works Cited

Buker, H. (2005) Book Reviews, International Journal of Police Science and Management 7: 3 pp. 208-312

Carty, K. (2006) "Guidebook of Democratic Policing Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe" Vienna

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers (COECM) "Recommendation Rec (2001)10 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Code of Police Ethics" 19 September 2001, Retrieved, November 15, 2007, at  http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=155&lid=4886 

Evans, M.D., & Morgan, R. (1998). Preventing Torture: A Study of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Police Killings
Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70578666
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Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings

Introduction

The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…

Police and Law Enforcement Officers Have More
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 1110033
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police and law enforcement officers have more or less discretion? Why? Give an example of a specific discretionary power in your answer. What parameters may be used to set the limits to discretion, apart from the provisions of applicable laws? Consider the role of ethics in society and discuss how those ethics are funneled to policing and law enforcement. What impact do varying ethical norms of the increasingly diverse American society have on policing? As the police force itself becomes more diverse, would we see different police responses to similar situations?

Although the Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, the police have considerable latitude in determining what constitutes probable cause. In general, "courts ordinarily suppress evidence obtained during an unreasonable search or seizure and offered against the accused" and a warrant must be obtained (Fourth Amendment, 2013, Cornell University Law School). However, exceptions to the Fourth Amendment include…

Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision
Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66549585
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The data compiled pointed to some interesting conclusions, and they were not what many people would imagine causes police stops. This is not what most readers would expect, and it seems that while racial profiling may take place initially, it is not always the final aspect of behavior that causes an office to actually pull over a car or confront a citizen. The authors concede there are many variables in their research, and that they do not "address the question of police fairness" (Alpert, Macdonald and Dunham 427). Their data was presented completely and in detail, and was still easy enough to understand that most laymen would understand the issue and the results.

The value of this paper was twofold. The data the authors finally compiled was quite useful in really understanding just what causes an officer to find something unusual - unusual enough to make a stop or confront…

References

Alpert, Geoffrey P., Macdonald, John M. And Dunham, Roger G. "Police Suspicion and Discretionary Decision Making During Citizen Stops." Criminology, Vol. 42, Number 2, May 2005. 407-page numbers

Police Honesty
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43523034
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Officer Misconduct

Disclosing Officer Untruthfulness to the Defense: Is a Liar's Squad Coming to Your Town?

Officer misconduct scenario

Police officers must not simply be held to the same standards as members of the public. They must be held to a higher standard. This is illustrated in the following scenario: a police officers is found to have searched for pornographic materials on a work computer and when initially confronted about this violation of department policy he lied, claiming he had no idea how the search history of the pornographic materials made its way onto his computer. He only confessed once the link was made between his log-in information and the search. This combination of dishonesty and poor judgment is a compelling argument for the officer's immediate dismissal, despite the fact that he has an otherwise largely unblemished record.

If an ordinary citizen was found to have been searching pornographic websites…

Works Cited

Brady v. Maryland. (1963). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from:

 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/373/83 

Giglio v. United States. (1972). Find Law. Retrieved from:

 http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=405&invol=150

Comparing the Modern Nature of Policing in the USA UK and Germany
Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33289036
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Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany

The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.

Criminal Justice in the United States

The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…

On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.

future of policing law enforcement
Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86974812
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Policing needs to change, especially has it has failed to live up to its potential in improving quality of life for all citizens. The ideal police force is indeed one that prevents crime, keeps order, respects the rights and dignity of citizens, is friendly and courteous, respects the laws, and does not abuse its power through corruption. Policing needs to be increasingly situated as integral to all other community organizations and institutions. Collaborative and strategic partnerships will help law enforcement achieve the goals it shares in common with other social and political organizations. Reforming community relations, improving trust and accountability, and working together with stakeholders are some of the keynotes of twenty-first century policing models.
According to the IACP (2018) policing will change in the upcoming years by focusing on both internal and external issues. This means that in addition to the externalities of community relationships and strategic partnerships, police…

Psychological Support for Police Operations
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33846034
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Police Ops

For police officers, undercover work provides a priceless opportunity to help the force achieve its goals and to infiltrate large criminal organizations. However, undercover work can be tremendously stressful. The stress of undercover work often reaches a boiling point, leading the officer to have mental health issues and even suicide attempts. In New York, Detective Margaret Sasso served as an undercover officer successfully, but a failed suicide attempt using doctor-prescribed muscle relaxants served as a wake-up call.

In an interview, Detective Sasso claimed that she needed a "rest," which is itself a symptom of the stress experienced as an undercover officer. Undercover officers are new to the force, largely because of the need to ensure their not being recognized. However, their relative inexperience, coupled with the nature of their socially isolating work, causes a large number of undercover officers to experience stress. Dozens request transfers, according to research…

References

Baker, A. & Goldstein, J. (2012). Police working under cover, and under strain. International New York Times. May 6, 2012. Retrieved online:  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/07/nyregion/undercover-officers-under-strain-with-no-clear-way-off-the-beat.html?pagewanted=all 

Joh, E.E. (2009). Breaking the law in order to enforce it. 62 Stan. L. Rev. 155 (2009-2010).

Analyzing Police and Politics
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Police and Politics

Do you believe there is a connection between politics and the police? Why or why not?

Yes, there is a connection. The police is a key pillar of governance and is thus closely related to politics. However, the link between the two is not as simple as individuals may think. The majority of the people have the view that any buffer between the political leadership of a country (especially the executive) and the police in the form of representation and bureaucracy will bring about a police force that is truly independent (Stevens, 2005; Noble & Alpert, 2009). Politics is defined as the art of exerting power over government affairs. For instance, political power can be seen through one's control of the power of the office they hold; control of certain aspects of leadership in government; and exerting one's interest on government. Thus, some individuals with political influence…

References

Noble, J. J. & Alpert, G. P. (2009). Managing Accountability Systems for Police Conduct: Internal Affairs and External Oversight. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press.

Ozcan, Y. Z. and R. Gultekin (2000) Police and Politics in Turkey, British Criminology Conference

Stevens, J. (2005). Not for The Faint-Hearted: My Life Fighting Crime. Weidenfeld and Nicolson

racialized violence and police brutality in usa
Words: 1781 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76614777
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.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…

Building Trust Between Police and Communities Police
Words: 1148 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58441676
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Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities

Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police

Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations

The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…

References

IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from  http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf 

Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from  http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/

Police Function the Functions of Policing at
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Police Function

The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels

The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…

Works Cited:

Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.

Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.

Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..

Policing Services and Programs Even as Policing
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Policing Services and Programs:

Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…

References:

Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,

Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website:  http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt 

Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing

Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf