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Police Shooting Incidents
Cities across the United States have experienced numerous incidents of police misconduct, which occur several times in every decade, particularly when a high profile case takes place. Actually, police misconduct including police shooting has always been exposed by high profile cases, which highlight some forms of police abuse and violation of human rights. While police officers are mandated with the task of making several decisions and taking necessary actions in protecting the society, they sometimes use force irresponsibly and end up hurting the people they are supposed to protect. In the past few months, there have been increased incidents of police shooting, which can be effectively examined and understood through a sociological perspective.
The Phenomenon of Police Shooting
The increased cases of police shooting in the past few months are not a new phenomenon that has been highlighted by increased media coverage. This case of increased shooting…
CBS Interactive. (2015, March 28). Boston Police Officer in Coma after Shooting. CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/boston-police-officer-in-coma-after-being-shot-without-provocation/
Chappell, A.T. & Piquero, A.R. (2004). Applying Social Learning Theory to Police Misconduct. Deviant Behavior, 25, 89-108.
"Deviance and Social Control." (n.d.). Chapter 7. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://files.meetup.com/19005440/SampleChapter07_final.pdf
Farago, R. (2013, September 29). Hawaii: This is the Gun Control Paradise they're Looking for. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2013/09/robert-farago/hawaii-this-is-the-gun-control-paradise-theyre-looking-for/
References Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal of Public Health, 107(5), 662-65. Statista (2021). Number of People Shot to Death by the Police in the US from 2007 to 2021, by Race. Statista. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/585152/people-shot-to-death-by-us-police-by-race/Virginia Department of Education (2002). Model School Crisis Management Plan. Virginia Department of Education. Retrieved from https://www.doe.virginia.gov/support/safety_crisis_management/emergency_crisis_management/model_plan.pdf
The problem is that the RPP reports, almost in passing, that in all documented cases no victim has been looked into or his case considered before the execution was perpetrated. No prosecution or investigation had been held either. Rather, the victim was summarily executed.
More so, police routinely threaten haphazard witnesses of these killings with, a t least, one witness, being abducted and killed.
This makes all the difference between justified and non-justified execution, and there becomes no difference between a police and a thug. The very fact that he police threaten witnesses indicates some apprehension on the official's part of his selection and execution of a particular man. One may, further, suspect that not only were some of the killings unjustified, but, using this approach and wilding this power, Africans police may arbitrarily target scapegoats of their choosing whom they wish to manipulate or who have, for instance, offended…
Nzau Musau, (10 April 2012) Kenya: Extrajudicial Killings Still on, RPP Says
Bell was unarmed, yet the officers fired more than 50 shots into his car" (2007, p. 46). Following a grand jury investigation of the incident, three of the five detectives who were involved were charged for the shooting (Mayer, 2007). ccording to Mayer, "The incident is reminiscent of a similar situation in New York in 1999, in which a West frican street vendor, madou Diallo, was killed when police shot at him 41 times. Diallo was also unarmed" (2007, p. 46). The fact that these events occurred almost a decade apart and were unrelated was not the primary focus of the media coverage that attended them, and it is reasonable to assume that sensationalized media coverage of these and other instances of police brutality simply reinforce the perception in the minds of the merican public that the police are out of control.
ll of this is not to say, of…
All of this is not to say, of course, that police officers never engage in acts of brutality and the use of excessive force, but it is to say that little attention is paid to the millions of police-citizen encounters that take place every year in the United States where law enforcement authorities would be justified in using force -- even deadly force -- but refrain from doing so at their own personal risk based on their high regard for citizens' rights and the sanctity of human life. This precise point is made by Elicker (2008) who emphasizes that the statistics bear out just how restrained the police departments across the country are in their use of force at all. According to Elicker, "Despite the way mass media presents the subject of police brutality, the occurrences of police use of force cases are not all that common" (2008, p. 33).
Citing the results of a 1999 study sponsored by the United States Department of Justice based on the statistics from more than seven thousand arrests made by six different law enforcement agencies in urban settings wherein statistics had been collected concerning the use of force by and against police officers, Elicker reports that, "There were only 52 cases (or .07%) where police officers used weapons in the arrest. The use of weapons includes stick, knife, handgun, chemical agent, rifle/shotgun, motor vehicle, canine, and other" (2008, p. 34). The results of the Department of Justice study also showed that police officers used one or a combination of weaponless tactics to effect the arrest in 15.8% of the cases (Elicker, 2008). According to Elicker, "Weaponless tactics include grabbing, arm twisting, wrestling, pushing/shoving, hitting, kicking, biting/scratching, use of pressure hold, carotid hold, control hold, and other tactics. Grabbing was, by a vast margin, the most used weaponless tactic (12.7% or 954 cases), followed by arm twisting (3.7% or 281 cases), and wrestling (3.1% or 233 cases)" (2008, p. 34).
While some observers might suggest that there is no place in modern law enforcement for "biting/scratching" or the other weaponless tactics used by the police in the Department of Justice study, the fact that they were used at all when other, more harmful methods were readily available makes it clear that even when their lives are on the line, police officers can and do resort to using their training and discipline rather than simply pulling out a gun and shooting a criminal suspect. In this regard, Elicker concludes that, "To some, these statistics could be shocking. They
Police Brutality and Race
Police Violence and African Americans
When Does the Use of Force Become Police Brutality?
Police Brutality and the Black Lives Matter Movement
Police Brutality and the Blue Lives Matter Movement
The Use of Violence: Is there a Limit to the Amount of Force Police Officers Should Use on a Suspect?
Why Just Comply Is Not the Answer to Police Brutality
Are Minorities the Victims of Higher Rates of Police Violence?
Police Brutality: Is there a War on Cops or a War by Cops?
I. Introduction - Definition
B. Racial Disparity in American Criminal Justice
C. The Black Lives Matter Movement
D. Subsequent Killings
E. Delrawn Small on July 4, 2016
F. Alton Sterling on July 5, 2016
G. Philando Castile on July 6, 2016
H. Blue Lives Matter
I. Police Brutality and Attacks on the Police are…
Police use of force
There is no single globally accepted definition of use of force by police officers. The National Institute of Justice, which is a subsidiary of the Justice Department concurs with this. This leaves the approximately 18,000 police agencies in America with the leeway to formulate their own policies regarding the use of force. Some agencies may address the issue while some may not. The Justice Department has however provided a use-of-force continuum. This refers to a step-by-step manner in which the police officers can act in order to calm a situation. As such, a police officer can first present himself at the scene, resort to verbal warning if his mere presence is not enough, then use unarmed control, say grabbing the offender, proceed to use less harmful weapons such as tear gas and batons, and finally use excessive force (Vera, 2018).
This order of attack is quite…
.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Recklessly creating a situation that increases the required amount of force is immoral. Officer Smith should have ordered the occupants out of the car from the cover of her own vehicle. Using cover effectively would have required the occupants to take far more overt action, getting out of the car and turning around, in order to be a threat to the officers. Officer Smith unnecessarily increased the danger to herself, and therefore the risk that she would have to use deadly force. Creating a dangerous situation for others is immoral, and that was the result of Officer Smith approaching the car. Some might argue that the death of an armed robber may be a net positive for society, but death is an excessive punishment for robbery, and the police do not have the moral, or legal authority to appoint themselves judge, jury and executioner upon encountering criminals on the street.…
Kappeler, V, et. al. "Perspectives on the development of police character. Forces of Deviance: Understanding the Dark Side of," 84-108 Waveland Press, Inc. 1998
Worden, Robert. "Ther "causes" of police brutality: theory and evidence on Police Use of Force. And Justice For All: Understanding and controlling police abuse of force." 31-60, Police
Executive Research Forum, 1995.
Paramilitary Model of Modern PoliceThe paramilitary model of policing incorporates a kind of military-grade level of discipline into the ranks of the police so that they maintain better use of force at all times. The goal of this model is to help the officer be a more disciplined public servant who is self-possessed but fully equipped to restore order at times when public disturbances threaten to turn chaotic or violent (Potter, 2013). While the paramilitary model of policing certainly has its benefits, I believe that it also has some limitations, especially when it comes to the differences between police work and military work. It should be remembered soldiers are tasked with engaging an enemy while the police are tasked with serving and protecting the public. The militarization of the police can give communities the wrong impression that their communities are actually being occupied by a militarized police force rather than…
ReferencesCruickshank, D. (2013). Evaluating the paramilitary structure and morale. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/perspective/perspective-evaluating-the-paramilitary-structure-and-morale Friedersdorf, C. (2017). Footage of police shooting that jurors chose not to punish. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/12/footage-of-a-police-killing-that-jurors-didnt-punish/547868/ Greene, J. R. (2000). Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police.Criminal justice,3(3), 299-370.Potter, G. (2013). The organization of policing. Retrieved from http://plsonline.eku.edu/insidelook/organization-policing
Alleged Crimes -- Civil Action
The four alleged crimes in this scenario are: a) an alleged armed robbery and assault on a woman at 2:00 A.M. in a high-crime area; b) an individual refused to comply with an officer's commands; c) that individual was found to be in possession of illegal substances (possibly cocaine); and d) providing false information from the woman who alleged she was robbed and assaulted.
Review of the scenario
The officer was in full uniform and so even though it was nighttime, he could be recognized as a bona fide law enforcement officer. Clearly the woman was lying to protect her husband -- albeit he had apparently assaulted her because she was bleeding -- and that behavior (lying to a police officer) brings the possibility of criminal sanctions.
The assault on the wife is a felony domestic abuse incident, though even though the wife lied to…
Berardini, N. (2015). Opinion: How de-escalation is bad business for Taser International.
MSNBC. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.msnbc.com .
Findlaw. (2011). Police Misconduct and Civil Rights. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://civilrights.findlaw.com .
Travis, A. (2014). Police use of Tasers continues to rise. The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Bernie Goetz is a vigilante that shot 4 black male youths in 1984. The victims asked Goetz for five dollars to play video games and Goetz accepted. He stated he would give them each five dollars and proceeded to shoot all four, leaving one paralyzed for life. Goetz was eventually caught and later went on trial, receiving 1 year of prison and serving eight months. He lost a civil case against him by one of the victims, but failed to pay a 'single penny' after filing for bankruptcy even when the judge stated he had to pay. W
Regarding how society viewed him at the time. There were three camps. The first supported his actions, believing he was in danger of being beaten and robbed. The second believed the victims, thinking they just wanted to panhandle to play video games. The third believed Goetz, but saw his actions as extreme.…
While no one is immune from police brutality, statistics show that African-Americans are far more likely to be the victims of police brutality than are whites. As Lopez notes, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” Moreover, of the people killed by police who were not attacking, 39% were black (Lopez). These statistics have not improved over time. Between 2015 and 2016, there were 1,146 victims of police violence and nearly 40% of those victims were either African-American or Hispanic, according Bui, Coates and Matthay. The tragedy is, of course, that according to the U.S. Census Bureau, African-Americans and Hispanics only account for a quarter of the U.S. population. So how is it that roughly half of all victims of police brutality are minorities who altogether make up only a quarter of the…
noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.
Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…
shooting of Arizona congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, writers Michael Grunwald and Jay Newton-Small asked an important question: How could Jared Loughner, the shooter, be considered too dangerous to attend community college but not too dangerous to buy a gun? Grunwald and Newton-Small (2011) point out that gun control continues to be a hot topic in the United States, despite the fact that the Arizona shooting occurred after the horrors of Columbine and Virginia Tech. Many people thought the attention to gun control after those mass killings would have resulted in significant changes but that has not happened. There continue to be very strong feelings on both sides of the gun control debate.
Gun control is an important factor in any discussion of school or workplace violence but it is not the only one that deserves our attention. Loughner bought a gun, but so do millions of law-abiding citizens. What happened in…
Grunwald, M., & Newton-Small, J. (2011). Fire away. Time 177 (3), pp. 36-39.
Hauser, C. (2007). Virginia Tech shooting leaves 33 dead. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/us/16cnd-shooting.html
How Virginia Tech notified students of shooting. (2007). The Washington Post online.
Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.
The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments
In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…
Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).
Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.
Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.
Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
Subsequently, the primary focus of this editorial is to urge Police Magazine, individual law enforcement offices across the country, as well as law enforcement officers themselves, to implement these type of measures (which allowed for such a coordinated response from these disparate entities) across the country. The benefits of implementing programs such as the Metropolitan Medical Response System in cities and states throughout the U.S. would certainly be manifold, as it would dramatically assist in the work efforts of the aforementioned departments were they previously familiarized with working together in the face of adversity.
I do realize, of course, that the coordination of this type of municipal cooperation would require a substantial amount of training for the various employees involved, which would ideally be an addition to the training necessary for the respective jobs in these organizations. I am also aware that such organization would require a significant amount of…
A Problem with the law
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…
Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2010.536724#.U9sFVvldWa8
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10612-011-9133-0
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2011.635483#.U9sEofldWa8
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09627250903569890#.U9sFwldWa8
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Other ranks have their areas of responsibility and control covering a geographic area, a detective division, or a specialized division (Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions, 2006).
The internal structure of the two departments is not that different, while the areas covered and the number of officers in each department varies greatly. The LAPD covers more territory and does so with a smaller force, also relying more on the patrol car than the officer on a beat than is true in London (or in many other American cities, for that matter). The LAPD has also been characterized as a more paramilitary organization than many police departments, and this would mean more than the Metropolitan Police as well. Of course, another major difference generally known is that the police in London do not carry guns as a rule (except under special circumstances), while the Los Angeles police do carry…
Making the LAPD a Model for Training Police Officers in the 21st Century (2003). RAND Research Brief, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB6015/index1.html .
Structure of Policing in London (2006). Metropolitan Police, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm .
Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions (2006). The Los Angeles Police Department, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.lapdonline.org/join_the_team/content_basic_view/9127 .
Policy Analysis Essay on Police Killings
The recent police killings and other forms of abuse of authority by law enforcers in the US reinforce the critical and long-demanded need for policy reforms in the nation, a need that has too frequently been disregarded. While some attempts, on the part of authorities, at dealing with these issues have enjoyed a certain degree of success, others have proven unsuccessful. The issue of poor law enforcement relations with communities and police abuse of authority continues to acutely plague several communities in the country. The incidents at Baltimore and Baton Rouge highlight the urgent need to tackle this problem. Though all cases (Ferguson, New York, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, and Minneapolis, to name a few) are unique, they are characterized by one highly disturbing similarity – implicit racial prejudice and unwarranted use of official force against Black Americans, especially male Black Americans. The incidents…
police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…
Colavecchio, Shannon (2001). OFFICERS GET SCHOOLING IN PREVENTING CAMPUS VIOLENCE., The Palm Beach Post, pp 1A.
____(1998). HOUSE PASSES MALONEY SCHOOL COPS BILL., States News Service,.
Gold, Maria (2002). Police Presence in Schools Is An Asset, Report Says; Resource Officers Handle Mostly Minor Incidents., The Washington Post, pp T04.
____(2002). MORELLA ANNOUNCES FEDERAL COPS IN SCHOOLS GRANT FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY., Capitol Hill Press Releases,.
He still has his pride, even if his pride does not trickle down to his work. He is anything but ambivalent about the reaction he will get from the people, and so, he must shoot the elephant to save face, rather than to "serve and protect." This illustrates his ambivalence to everything but his own reputation in front of the people. However, he discovers he has lost more than just is reputation.
Finally, the narrator comes to understand that he has essentially given up his freedom in his support of the tyrannical British government. Orwell states, "I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys" (Orwell). Thus, the narrator becomes even more ambivalent about his duties because he realizes just what he has lost in protecting his reputation, supporting the empire (at least in front of the people), and…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant."
Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities
Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police
Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations
The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…
IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf
Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/
Dawson College shooting occurred on September 13, 2006 at Dawson College located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was reported that the shooter was Kimveer Gill and he shot a total of nineteen people. Out of a total of nineteen people, one person died whereas others were injured. Out of the injuries, a total of eight students were critical and six of the people required surgery. Subsequent to the shootings, the shooter shot him in the head and committed suicide. It was reported that the gunman also had a bullet in the arm which was due to the police when the person was shot. (CBS) The victims that were hurt were treated at the Montreal General Hospital when the shooting occurred.
Pathway to Violence explained.
Before we get in the details of how the shooting unfolded, it is crucial to explain the path to violence as presented by Calhoun and Weston…
Buncombe, A. (2006) College Gunman Revealed Obsession with Columbine Killings on Internet . The Independent (London, England), [online] September 15. Available at: http://www.questia.com/library/1P2-2057765/college-gunman-revealed-obsession-with-columbine-killings [Accessed: 8th January 2013].
Canada.com (2012) Who Was Kimveer Gill? (Part 2). [online] Available at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/story.html?id=d1933b65-8a0c-454f-bff0-9e072f8918b5 [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman called himself 'angel of death' - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/gunman-shooting.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2006/09/14/qc-dawsoninvestigation.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
One community problem that can be addressed through a Community Oriented Policing Service (COPS) program is the tragedy currently plaguing communities throughout the nation: drive-by shootings. This particular criminal incident involves the shooting of a gun from a moving vehicle at a person, building, or other vehicle and while it may not be as common as a shooting involving persons on foot, it almost always involves multiple victims. However detrimental this type of criminal activity is, there has been research conducted into the causes and effects of drive-by shootings and a number of possible strategies have been developed to allow police and community members to deal with it. Using the COPS system, police can respond to the problems involved in drive-by shootings as well as develop effective strategies to reduce the number of incidents.
Drive-by shootings may not be the most dangerous threat to a community, but for…
Dedel, Kelly. (2007). "Drive-By Shootings: Problem-Oriented Guides for Police
Problem-Specific Guides Series No.47." U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e02072864.pdf
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
Brown's Shooting And Organizational Deviance
Michael Brown was fatally shot dead by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri on August 9. While the circumstances surrounding the shooting remain under investigation, the incident contributed to several days of protests and conflicts between citizens and law enforcement officers that have been covered extensively by the media. During the time of the shooting, Michael Brown was shot six times and murdered despite presenting no threat to the life of the officer or any other individual. Therefore, the use of deadly or brutal force by the police officer was not immediately necessary to enforce the arrest of the suspect. The series of protests in the aftermath of the incident was fueled by the fact that the police officer presumably killed an innocent individual and endangered the lives of others by discharging his weapon several times in an area with a high population.
Alba, M. (2014, September 5). Ferguson Police Force Faces Civil Rights Investigation. NBC
News. Retrieved September 8, 2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/ferguson-police-force-faces-civil-rights-investigation-n196236
Pazzanese, C. (2014, August 21). The Fumbles in Ferguson. Retrieved from Harvard University
Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens
he nature of police work must ensure that is as adaptable, sophisticated, networked, and transnational as the criminals and terrorists it fights. A modern approach to policing must contain elements of traditional, mainstream efforts to fight crime along with a set of tools for carrying out an effective community policing approach. his paper provides a brief discussion about what such a hybrid model looks like in practice and touches on elements of complexity of police work in an increasingly global arena.
Addressing Escalated hreat Levels.
Some dynamics of society seem inevitably linked, moving in tandem as though some invisible lynch-pin had been driven through their respective cores. Poverty and crime. Violence and counter-violence. Wealth and indifference. Frustration and destruction. Fanaticism and irrationality. Naturally, there are exceptions. Some Buddhists live in poverty but are peaceful and law-abiding. Where culture or religion calls for acceptance of one's…
There is an inherent tension between a retreat from the tenets of community policing and policing strategies intended to keep a safety buffer between the police and the community they serve and protect. The research includes work from authors who believe that a shift toward policing that could be characterized by paramilitarism occurred prior to September 11 (McCulloch, 2001a, Weber, 1999, p.2). Describing how community policing works in the Australian environment, McCulloch (2001b, p. 4) referred to an "iron fist" covered by a "velvet glove." Murray (2005) presented a comparison between the transitions that have occurred with regard to traditional policing and community policing. His work also includes a comparison of the cultures of both approaches to policing. Murray's conclusion is that the two orientations to policing are not incompatible; he proposes a hybrid model of policing that would enable both approaches to coexist.
Murray suggests that community policing continues to be the best way to prevent crime and to prevent acts of terrorism. He bases this conclusion on the enhanced capacity of a community to effectively communicate concerns and observations when there is a basic level of trust between citizens and the police in the community. The issue is that it is increasingly difficult to distinguish those with malevolent intent from those who must be protected from malevolence. When community members see themselves as partners in the efforts of the police to keep them safe in their own communities, the efficacy of community policing is both possible and enhanced.
The pressure on a police force that currently operates in a community policing mode to transition back to a traditional policing model is substantive. This pressure comes from the citizens -- who desire to see evidence that the country is taking effective steps to fight the war on terror, and from politicians for whom crime fighting and homeland security issues are "election sensitive." Paramilitary approaches to national security can readily be seen in other countries, as discussed, and it may be difficult for the
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Fort Hood Shooting
On November 5, 2009 at Fort Hood, a military base close to the city of Killeen Texas, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist opened fire on the people. Thirteen people were murdered and thirty-two other people were injured (Kenber 2013). One of the victims was pregnant and the baby was lost when she died, so some put the figure of murder victims at fourteen. Nidal Malik Hasan has since been convicted of those shootings and has been sentenced to death by a military court. Hasan has never denied being the killer, nor has he wavered in the explanation of his motives behind the actions. He has stated repeatedly that he is a Muslim and that the United States is at war with Islam. His actions, he claims, are a direct result of his Muslim extremism. Hasan was due to be shipped to Afghanistan where he would have…
Crabtree, S. (2012, Oct. 22). Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack. The Washington Times.
Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. code. (2013). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Esposito, R., Abraham, M., & Schwartz, R. (2009, Nov. 12). Major Hasan: soldier of Allah; many ties to jihad web sites. ABC News.
Hsu, S.S., & Johnson, C. (2009, Nov. 8). Links to imam followed in Fort Hood investigation.
The decree also requires a negotiation with the police union and representation by attorney. (Simmons, 2008) Thus there are problems and countermeasures that could effectively bring down the power of investigating complaints.
(d) Critique the effectiveness of citizen oversight as a police management tool, and early warning device:
The tracking system essentially consists of identifying personnel who are exhibiting chronic misconduct patterns. This system could check the unconstitutional violations both with the citizens and within the department as a whole. The intervention systems are good in managing the police and are based on the principle of preventing misconduct by monitoring the police. It was as stated by the Christopher Commission's analysis of one thousand eight hundred Los Angeles police officers showed that the top five percent of the officers were involved in 20% of complaints and the top 10% accounted for 33%. (Simmons, 2008)
Following that the early warning system…
Alexander, Arthur. (2005) "Panel Polishes Police Oversight System"
The Register-Guard, p. d1.
Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing."
Clarendon Press: Oxford.
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
Discuss how social psychologists might view the conflict between police officers and video advocates.
What many (but certainly not all) social psychologists would feel and think is that police officers are being singled out when they happened to get caught on tape doing something they should not be and/or something that is illegal. They would probably feel that police officers are being treated unfairly in that only the bad events and illegal events are being focused on. At the same time, video advocates would potentially appear to have the intentions of only zeroing in on situations and events where the police officer is truly doing something bad and probably would not pay a second thought to when a police officer is actually doing a good thing.
In short, a social psychologist would probably center on the idea that police officers are in a very stressful job and the…
ABC News. (2015). Video: 3/7/91: Video of Rodney King Beaten by Police Released.
ABC News. Retrieved 7 June 2015, from http://abcnews.go.com/Archives/
Feldman, R. (2011). Understanding psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
The Aurora theater shooting incident is the largest shooting incident in the history of the U.S. in terms of the number of casualties. Perpetrated by one James Eagan Holmes, the 20th July 2017 incident left 12 people dead and 58 people critically injured. Overall, response to the incident was commendable, with the police and fire personnel arriving within five minutes after the shooting. The Aurora Police Department, the Aurora Fire Department, hospital-based emergency departments, and Emergency Management Services (EMS) worked together to manage the crisis. The agencies collaborated in evacuating victims, apprehending the suspect, searching the theater building, providing emergency medical care, transporting victims to hospitals, and assisting families of victims. Nonetheless, similar to other previous incidents, inter-agency coordination and communication difficulties were experienced. These difficulties provide crucial lessons for leadership within the field of emergency management.
Background/Summary of the Incident
The 20th of July 2017 was a sad day…
Conflict esolution: Analysis of the Virginia Tech Shootings
This paper examines the horrible tragedy that struck Virginia Tech on that took place on April 16, 2007. This paper goes on to examine things such as the delays of reporting the correct information of the shooting at its early stages to the poor security that was put in operation. It also explores the life of disturbed student and what possibly led up to that fatal day. It goes into detail and gives a psychological examination of his being and brings up the point of how a university failed at not being able to see that Cho, the shooter was dangerous to himself and to other around him. The paper dives into the aftermath of explaining how campus security has changed its game since that dreadful day, as well as how it had effected other colleges around the nation and what they…
Crizer, Z. (2012, April 15). Virginia Tech leads campus safety revolution. Retrieved from collegiatetimes: http://www.collegiatetimes.com/news/virginia_tech/virginia-tech-leads-campus-safety-revolution/article_4b577132-3984-541f-8f0f-8fcc3aa42e5d.html
Cull, I. (2011, December 13). GU tightened campus security in wake of VA Tech massacre. Retrieved from KXLY: http://www.kxly.com/news/GU-tightened-campus-security-in-wake-of-VA-Tech-massacre/9225136
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007, April 7). School Shooting: Update on Our Role at Virginia Tech. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2007/april/vtech_shoot041707
Friedman, E. (2009, August 9). Va. Tech Shooter Seung-Hui Cho's Mental Health Records Released. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./seung-hui-chos-mental-health-records-released/story?id=8278195
Every day, our police officers put their lives on the line to defend law-abiding citizens. It is imperative that a police officer's judgment is trusted, so officers can with full confidence perform their duties and know that they will not be 'second-guessed' when they act in good faith. In this instance, the officer was pursuing a suspect who was apparently armed and dangerous. Given the circumstances of the situation, it was reasonable for him to believe that the suspect was holding a gun. The suspect was behaving in an aggressive and threatening manner. The officer in question did not 'shoot to kill,' but shot to disarm the suspect instead. He had a responsibility not only to his own safety but to preserve the safety of his fellow officers and the safety of the community, as part of his duties.
In this instance, it was fortunate that the officer…
Deadly force. (1998). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved:
mass shooting could have been prevented. The key to knowing what to do in the future is to understand how to recognize signs of mental illness and stability. In this case, the gunman "had been expelled, possibly for behavioral problems." It is clear the school understood that this student had problems. Yet even after the expulsion, the school did not do enough to ensure Goh's mental stability. The issue was not necessarily bullying, as the headline suggests. Students might have been teasing Goh in a good-natured way. After all, a large number of Americans speak English as a second language and it would be odd for someone to get maliciously teased for it. Goh reacted in an extreme way because he was mentally unstable. He had suffered trauma (after the unresolved death of his brother) and had a history of behavioral problems. Students like him need monitoring, counseling and intervention…
"Japan tsunami reconstruction money 'misspent'," (2012). BBC. Oct 31, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-20150364
"Oikos University Shooting: Suspect In Deadly Attack Was Upset About Being Teased Over Poor English Skills, Police Say." Huffington Post. April 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/03/oikos-university-shooting-teased-english-skills_n_1399680.html
Finally, the use of military authority and dress, and the adherence to a set of rules that is not observed by the public the police serves can contribute to an 'us vs. them' mentality that is not conducive to creating positive relations between the police and community the police are supposed to serve. (O'Connor, 2004) final contributor to a hostile police and community relations is the development, as a result of this paramilitary emphasis on 'us' (the police) versus 'them' (the civilians who presumably do not understand the dangers and stresses of policing), of what Jerome Skolnick called "the policeman's working personality." A sense of constant professional danger reinforced by one's fellow officers and through the paramilitary, formalized training all policeman face. The policeman becomes a continually suspicious person, constantly aware that persons he or she deals with outside of the ranks of his or her fellow officers may break…
Historical Context within Jerome Skolnick's Theory of Police Organization." (2006) Crime Theory. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/skolnick.htm
O'Connor, T. (2004) "Police Organization." Criminal Justice: Lecture 7. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lect07.htm
Weber, Diana Celia. (1999) "Warrior Cops: The ominous growth of Paramilitarism in American Police Departments." 20 Aug 1999. No. 50. The Cato Institute. Retrieved 31 Jul 2006 at http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp50.pdf
The inability of the police to report crimes because of political purposes is disturbing. The fact that Mayor Bloomberg would try to make himself and his city look better by underreporting on crime is a very disingenuous type of leadership: it indicates that people should lie and falsify claims in order to make the situation look better than it is. This is not how communities are transformed for the better, however. The police have a duty to serve and protect, and if the community feels it is not being served by them or is being underserved (because their issues are not being reported—such as shootings, assaults, attempted rapes and so on) then why is the community going to trust the police or its leadership? By urging the police to not report on so many crimes, the Mayor is undermining his own authority as well as that of the police…
Law Enforcement Opinion
This report will cover a topic that has always been controversial. However, there have been some events as of late, most of them racially and otherwise socially charged, that have forced the argument the subject firmly back into the forefront. Of course, that topic would be law enforcement. While gun violence, politics and so forth are all the rage in the modern blogosphere and social media realms, the topic of law enforcement is high on the minds of many regular people and activists due to, among other things, the events and details surrounding what happened to people like Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, Michael Brown and so forth. There are plenty of talking heads that would paint the police as abusive and authoritarians. However, that is far from being the true picture that should be painted and this report shall aim to fill in the rest of the…
Parkland, Florida Shooting – Rampant Gun Violence in the Nation’s Schools
What started as a normal day for the teachers and students at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida on February 14, 2018, soon transformed into a scene of grisly mass murders and injuries perpetrated by 19-year-old high school student Nikolas Cruz. Unfortunately, this national tragedy was just another in a seemingly unending series of similar massacres of students and teachers in the nation’s schools in recent years and it galvanized the American public attention to the need for stricter gun control laws. Indeed, even as this paper was being written, two more students were shot to death at Central Michigan University by another 19-year-old, James Eric Davis Jr. who remains at large (Chicago-area teen suspected of fatally shooting two people at Central Michigan University, 2018). To determine the facts about the Parkland shootings, this paper reviews the…
E.M. Forster's the Life to Come, on the other hand, is a tale divided into four parts: Night, Evening, Day and Morning. Its main character is a young missionary by the name of Paul Pinmay who is sent to spread the word of Christ to the native people. All prior attempts to proselytise these people have failed. During his attempt he meets with the tribal chief, who approaches him to learn more about "this god whose name is Love." The two then sleep together and the tribe becomes Christian.
This leads to Pinmay being appointed by the Bishop to become the minister of the new district. The chief again asks Pinmay to sleep with him, and Pinmay orders the chief not to mention the night ever again. This causes the chief to question the new religion. Eventually this relationship dissolves and the story ends with the chief killing Pinmay.
Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.
Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…
Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011
CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011
This paper analyzes the case of Seung-Hui Cho, who killed dozens at Virginia Tech in 2007. The paper examines Cho’s background, his mental illness, the way in which reports of the investigation and incident were changed to hide the inept responses of administrators and police. The paper also examines changes that were made to protocol following the massacre and discusses lessons that can be learned from this incident and how institutions can better prepare themselves to ensure that this kind of tragedy is prevented in the future.
Keywords: Seung-Hui Cho, school shooting, mental illness student
Revisions to On and Off Campus Reports
As Urbina (2009a) notes, “during the worst campus shooting spree in American history, Virginia Tech officials locked down some administrative offices and warned their own families more than an hour and a half before the rest of the campus was alerted, according to revisions made in the state’s official report on…
Those that oppose the allowing of firearms on campus also assert that there are other ways to make college campuses more secure. For instance, the development of campus wide alarms, email and text alerts have been implemented at college campuses throughout the country (Magnusson, 2008). In addition opponents argue that tighter laws governing the mental health status of students should be examined so that people who have a history of mental illness are monitored more carefully. They argue this is important because both of the perpetrators of recent college campus shootings were treated for mental illness. Opponent of guns on campus argue that careful monitoring and greater vigilance it what is needed and not the addition of guns to college campuses.
Are Campuses Safer with or without firearms
The arguments for and against the allowing of firearms on campuses really boils down to what makes the campus safer. The apprehension…
Bello, Marisol. 12 states debate guns on campus. USA Today. Retrieved October 23,2008 from; http://www.usatoday.com /printedition/news/20080215/a_campusguns15.art.htm
Comerford, Mike. (2007) High Cost of Campus Security Colleges Have Been Forced to Spend More. Daily Herald. Pg1
Magnuson, Stew. March, 2008. "Mass Notification alerts spread on campuses."
Second mendment to the Constitution of the United States can often be as prevalent and potentially divisive as the First mendment, which covers freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the establishment caused which has come to justify the perceived separation of church and state. While there are practical and common-sense applications for gun ownership and rights, there are some weapons that probably shouldn't be in the hands of normal civilians and some people should not be allowed to own guns period due to things like felonious history, mental health issues and other similar conditions.
There has always been a butting of heads regarding what the Second mendment refers to and what it does not. To be precise, the ratified version of the Bill of Rights that was signed by Thomas Jefferson stated it "a well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of…
A map that shows where concealed carry is allowed and which states allow reciprocity with others.
Washburn, Michael. "Our Favorite Weapon." The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Jan. 2012. Web. 9 May 2014. .
A profile of prolific gun maker Glock and their ubiquity in the United States gun culture and the homes of owners.
Interview with a Law Enforcement Specialist
This interview took place on October 10 with a retired police officer. He spent 32 years with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and had some very interesting things to say about the changes he has witnessed over the years.
hat were some of the typical law enforcement issues when you first worked for LAPD?
e were responding to murders, arson, street crime and domestic disturbances though not as often nor as dangerously like we are today. e also had a lot of stolen cars and we had auto accidents with injuries to attend to.
ere you a beat cop?
Almost every cop starts out that way. Yes I worked the streets in what is now known as Korea Town. I also worked the streets in downtown Los Angeles, in Carson, and even in atts. By my fifth year on the force I was…
Keen, Judy. (2012). Murders in Chicago: What can stop the bloodbath? USA Today. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from http://www.usatoday.com .
Criminal Justice Organization and Management: The Paramilitary Model Adopted by Police Organizations
The paramilitary model provides a degree of discipline and training to police officers that they might not otherwise obtain. The paramilitary model not only gives law enforcement officers the knowledge and skills regarding how to use force in an effective manner, it also gives police a type of professionalism that helps them to be more organized and opposed to corrupting influences (Potter, 2013). I believe that the paramilitary model adopted by police organizations is effective in some ways but has its limitations in others. For that reason, I think that it should be balanced out by a model of policing that takes into account the fact that police are not engaged in a military campaign against an enemy but are actually working among civilians in communities and are there to serve and protect them. Because police are…
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
These areas are illustrating how Harris is violating numerous aspects of criminal justice procedures and the law. ("Training Day," 2001)
Key Criminal Justice Procedures
In the film, there are a number of criminal justice procedures that are continuously ignored by Harris to include: not following proper procedure to obtain a search warrant, covering up crimes that are committed by himself / other police officers and failing to arrest criminal suspects who are involved in felony related activities. In the case of not follow proper procedure for obtaining a warrant, Harris engaged in these activities twice. This occurred when he raided Sandman's house and gave his mother a Chinese food menu in lieu of warrant. The second time happened, when he paid police officials' money under the table for the warrant. These issues are troubling, as Harris did not collect evidence and go to a judge showing how a crime is…
Officer Response. (2012). Miami Shores Village. Retrieved from: http://www.miamishoresvillage.com/Police/police_procedure.htm
Training Day. (2001). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved from: http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/training_day/
Understanding Police Procedures. (2012). Portland Police. Retrieved from: http://www.portlandonline.com/police/index.cfm?a=31583&c=29869
Carlson, R. (2005). Criminal Justice Procedures. Newark, NJ: Lexius Nexius.
Hate Groups, Hate Crimes, and acism in the U.S. today
The problem of hate groups that perpetuate the hate crimes has been a challenge in the U.S. not only in the present times, but has existed from the times of the WWI with groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged (FBI, 2014). Since the 1980s, there have been several hate groups that have emerged which have perpetuated heinous have crimes that mostly border on the race specific targets, as is the case with skinheads and the likes. As the world changes and the technology takes over the communication and information platforms, the hate crimes have been escalated to the internet with groups having inclination towards racism using the social media and internet to carry on their hate speeches and even organize hate crimes. The ever changing nature of such groups and the adverse effects that such groups forms…
FBI, (2014). Hate Crimes Add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to Our Communities. Retrieved February 16, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes
Gun Violence in the United States
According to the Gun Violence Archive, which keeps track of gun-related violence in the United States, 2016 has had 53,602 known incidents, resulting in 13,854 deaths and 28,505 injuries. There have been 363 mass shooting incidents in 2016. In 2015, there were 372 mass shootings killing a total of 475 people and wounding 1,870, according to the Mass Shooting Tracker ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Defensive use accounts for 1683 of all gun-related incidents in 2016, and 1,988 gun incidents in 2016 were classified as being accidental (Gun Violence Archive, 2016).
In 2015 alone, there were 64 school shootings. Some of those incidents did not involve casualties, but the numbers still prove alarming, revealing the extent of the problem ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Even more mass shootings take place in ordinary businesses --…
Barry, C.L., Mcginty, E.E. Vernick, J.S. & Webster, D.W. (2015). Two years after Newtown -- public opinion on gun policy revisited. Preventative Medicine 79,pp. 55-58.
Barzilay, Julie and Mohney, Gillian, 2016. "Why the CDC Hasn't Launched a Comprehensive Gun Study in 15 Years."
DeFilippis, E. & Hughes, D. (2015). The Myth Behind Defensive Gun Ownership. Retrieved online: http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/defensive-gun-ownership-myth-114262#.VLhsjS42d6I
"Firearm Access is a Risk Factor for Suicide," (n.d.). Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved online: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/risk/
One of the fundamental issues taking place in the United States in the present day encompasses the aspect of civil liberties and civil rights for all individuals and groups. A particular aspect in consideration is the lack of fairness and equity for black people in the United States. In the contemporary, there continues to be heated debate and arguments made regarding how the African-American group of people are being treated in the nation. In particular, the issue in this regard encompasses the recent verdict made by a jury ruling that Jeronimo Yanez, a police officer in Minnesota was not guilty for shooting and killing Philando Catile. Imperatively, castile was killed by the police officer during a routine traffic stop while with his girlfriend and child (Miller, 2017).
Observed Political Event
The observed political event is a political rally and speech made by Valerie, Philando Castile's mother subsequent to the verdict…
Songs of Sorrow
"The Sorrow Songs" is a message that is related to the spirituality of the African-American people. In summary, Dubois gives what he perceives as a message of the African-American people, which is that of hope, not only in that particular time period, but also subsequent generations. Without doubt, African-Americans have made a substantial contribution as to what the United States is as a nation. This, in particular, does not take into account the work that the African-American partook and accomplished for the economy of the United States while being slaves, or the influences of African-American playwrights and originators as significant as all that was. Instead, this takes into account the manner in which the African-Americans' struggle for freedom and liberties instigated by the United States to extensively analyze its morals and epitomes. More so, this caused the United States to question itself, whether it actually was the…
Craven. J. (2014). Please don't tell me all lives matter. Huffington Post. Retrieved 30 November 2015 from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/julia-craven/please-stop-telling-me-th_b_6223072.html
Du Bois. (1903). The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1903.
Gooding-Williams, R. (2009). In the Shadow of Du Bois. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Massey, J., Tenhoor, M., Korsh, S. (2015). Introduction: Black Lives Matter. Aggregate Organization. Retrieved 30 November 2015 from: http://we-aggregate.org/piece/black-lives-matter
Criminal Justice System Has Had on Minorities
History and the Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Minorities -- 1940 to 1960
The 20-year period from 1940 to 1960 represented a crossroads for the United States in terms of engagement in an enormously costly world war as well as the social upheavals that resulted from the manner in which minorities in general, and Asian and African-Americans in particular, had been historically treated. While blacks had historically been the target of much of the racist views and violence in the U.S. through the mid-20th century, Asian-Americans were never far behind in the social mix and the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 just made matters worse for all concerned. Indeed, tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans were interred during the war "for their own protection," but many observers suggested this fundamental abrogation of these citizen's constitutional rights was tantamount to illegal imprisonment…
Bailey, F.Y., & Green, A.P. (1999). Law never here: A social history of African-American responses to issues of crime and justice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Bouza, A.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Collins, D.E. (1985). Native American aliens: Disloyalty and the renunciation of citizenship by Japanese-Americans during World War II. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.