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Compassion Fatigue and Quality of Care: A Policy Analysis
Nurses enter their profession in hopes of a rewarding and fulfilling career caring for those in need. However, many of them do not realize the stress that can accumulate by caring for those who need them the most. Long-term stress as a caregiver can lead to a condition known as compassion fatigue. This form of burnout affects caregivers in every area of the nursing profession. Caregiver fatigue is a result of experiencing trauma that has occurred to others, but to which the nursing professional is exposed vicariously through their role as caregiver of the person.
Caregivers can experience stress symptoms such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability, anger outburst, startle responses, anxiety, and other common stress symptoms (Abendroth, 2011). If the condition continues the nurse may experience a decreased capacity to be empathetic to the needs of others.…
Abendroth, M., (Jan 31, 2011) "Overview and Summary: Compassion Fatigue: Caregivers at Risk" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 16 (1). Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/T ableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No1-Jan-2011/Overview-and-Summary-Compassion- Fatigue.aspx
Boyle, D., (Jan 31, 2011) "Countering Compassion Fatigue: A Requisite Nursing Agenda" OJIN:
The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 16 (1). Manuscript 2. Retrieved from
Policy Analysis Critique - Hong Kong Health Care System
Policy Analysis Critique: Hong Kong Health Care System
The health care system in Hong Kong is believed to be one of the best in the world. The majority of people there live longer than people in many other developed nations, and the infant mortality rate is also very low. Those things show that people in Hong Kong are committed to their health and that they have a government that enacts policies to protect them and allow them to have full access to health care. Many countries do not offer that to their citizens, so Hong Kong is actually something of a rarity - and allows its people to enjoy a life expectancy of upwards of 80 years for both men and women. That is the second-longest life expectancy of any country in the world. Of course, there are imperfections in the…
Adab, P., & Macfarlane, DJ. (1998) Exercise and health - new imperatives for public health policy in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 4(4): 389-393.
American College of Sports Medicine. (1975). Guidelines for graded exercise testing and exercise prescription. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger.
Berlin, J.A. & Colditz, G.A. (1998) A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 132: 612-28.
DeBusk, R.F., Stenestrand, U., Sheehan, M. & Haskell, W.L. (1990). Training effects of long vs. short bouts of exercise in health subjects. American Journal of Cardiology, 65: 1010-3.
Patton (1990) identifies six steps for policy analysis. Firstly, we must verify and define the details of the problem. This initial step ensures that objectives are clarified and any ambiguity resolved. Secondly, the evaluation criteria are created. These criteria are necessary to enable the comparison and measurement of measures. The cost of the program or policy is examined in its multifaceted components. Once the first two steps are adequately and effectively, completed options to the existing policy can be examined and considered. This step demonstrates the incremental nature of policy analysis. Each step is often dependent on successfully completing the first step.
The fourth step of policy analysis is the evaluation of the alternative policies. Policy analysis is inadequate if the competing policies are not examined for their feasibility and value. This evaluative action would usually involve different qualitative and quantitative analyses. Subsequently it becomes important to distinguish between alternative…
Patton C. (1999). Steps for a successful policy analysis. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Barrien/barrien.htm
Marston, G. (2004). Social Policy and Discourse Analysis: Policy Change in Public Housing.
London: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
The students from K-12 will receive daily choices about their food which will include fresh fruits, whole grains and dairy products.
The new policy will provide for students in K-12 to receive educational lessons about the importance of healthy eating as well as how to make the right food choices to be sure to get the proper nutrients in their diet.
The Kindergarten through third grade students will have a weekly class that will be part of their physical education training. It will consist of guest speakers and discussions about what healthy food is and how food helps the body grow.
The third through sixth grade students will meet once a week as well but they will also be taught how to plan a menu for one meal and instructed on what they can choose for that meal to help make it a healthy choice.
By middle school the students…
In March of 2005, she was finally removed from life support and died thirteen days later. The case had 14 appeals, numerous motions, petitions and hearings in Florida courts, five suits in the Federal District Court; Florida legislation struck down by the Supreme Court of Florida; a subpoena by a congressional committee in an attempt to qualify Terri for witness protection; federal legislation and four denials of certiorari from the Supreme Court of Florida (Jacoby 2005). The courts continued to hold that Terri was in a permanent vegetative state (PVS), and an autopsy showed that most of Terri's brain had atrophied.
Leeb outlines the responsibility of social workers to be knowledgeable in policy and law concerning end of life decisions. Sensitivity to ethical and moral considerations is also urged. Cultural differences may be encountered in such situations, as well.
A final discussion of the Oregon Death With Dignity Act reminded…
Annas, GJ (2005). "Culture of life" politics at the bedside: the case of Terri Schiavo. New England Journal Med, 1710, (352-355)
Betzold, M. (1993). Appointment with Dr. Death. New York: Momentum Books.
Coueman, Diane. (2000). Assisted Suicide and Disability. Human Rights: Journal of the Section of Individual Rights & Responsibilities, 27 (1), 5-7.
Caplan, a. (2005). Interview with Arthur Caplan, Ph.D. PBS Frontline/WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved October 19, 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kevorkian/medicine/caplan1.html
Principle 1: Family support and responsibilities
Support and supplement parents? And other family members? ability to carry out their responsibilities?
The Act (2006) provides for parents who are attempting to take good care of their families, even if they are sometimes unsure about how they should go about doing that. Because it is vital that parents are able to work with their children and care for them safely and properly if children are to stay in the home, it is clear that parenting classes and other methods are needed to ensure that family members treat children appropriately (Edwards, 2010). Not all children come from "good" homes, and some of those homes include parents who also did not come from "good" homes, meaning that the cycle is continuing and should be broken (Goodman, 2006). If the cycle of abuse or other family difficulties cannot be broken, children and their parents and…
Avery, R.J., Butler, J.S., Schmidt, E.B., & Holtan, B.A. (2009). AdoptUsKids national photolisting service: Characteristics of listed children and length of time to placement. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(1): 140-154.
Bruskas, D. (2008). Children in Foster Care: A Vulnerable Population at Risk. 21 Journal of Children & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 70, 71.
Davidson, H. (2008-2009). Federal law and state intervention when parents fail: Has national guidance of our child welfare system been successful? 42 Family Law Quarterly 481.
Edwards, J.L. (2010). Relative Placement in Child Protection Cases: A Judicial Perspective. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 61: 1 -- 44.
Policy Analysis Child Protective Service Include Abuse, Foster Care and Adoption
Child physical abuse did not receive widespread attention in this country until a 1962 medical journal article discussed patterns of suspicious injuries in children. ithin four years, all 50 states had passed laws requiring certain professionals to report cases of suspected child maltreatment. These laws were intended to protect children because they are a particularly vulnerable portion of the population. As reporting increased, states developed systems to support their child protection responsibilities, and a number of federal laws were enacted that have guided the development of states' child protection systems. The primary responsibility for responding to cases of child maltreatment rests with state agencies. States must comply with federal child abuse and neglect guidelines to receive federal funds and have some independence of how the services are provided.
The policies of Child Protective Services (CPS) and the Department of…
Besharov, D.J. And with Dembosky, J.W. Child Abuse: Threat or Menace - How Common is it Really? Op-Ed in Slate: Oct. 3, 1996).
Bess, R., Urbel, J.L., and Geen, R. The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children II What has Changed since 1996? (February 01, 2001). Retrieved November 2, 2005 from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310071
Christian, S.M. New directions for child protective services: Supporting children, families, and communities through legislative reform. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures, July 1997.
Costin, L.B., Karger, H.J., and Stoesz, D. The politics of child abuse in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Policy Analysis -- Gang activity in New York City
Identification of a problem
Nowadays the American society is facing a pool of problems and this pool includes the well-known issue of gang activity, i.e. A group of people targeting innocent people for money and spreading violence. National Gang Centre (NGC) was amongst the first ones to take an initiative to address this problem within the United States. A National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) was conducted in 1996 which provided an overall picture of gang problem in United States, including the distribution and level of gang problems within the state of New York. The NYGS is acknowledged as the first international survey that targets the responsible citizens of each dominion on an annual basis and inquires about the frequency of gang activity in their area and their idiosyncrasies. The survey was conducted each year from 1996 to 2009 using the same…
Adamson, C. (1998). Tribute, turf, honor and the American street gang: Patterns of continuity and change since 1820. Theoretical Criminology, 2, 57 -- 84.
Adamson, C. (2000). Defensive localism in white and black: A comparative history of European-American and African-American youth gangs. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 272 -- 298.
Decker, S.H. (2007). Youth gangs and violent behavior. In D.J. Flannery, A.T. Vazsonyi, and I.D. Waldman (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression (pp. 388 -- 402). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Egley, A. Jr., Howell, J.C., and Major, A.K. (2006). National Youth Gang Survey: 1999 -- 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Furthermore it was a challenge for the government to provide computers and other equipments at large level (Thaichayapong, 1997)
Similarly ussell Pipe who was the Deputy Director of Global Informaiton Infrastructure Commission also criticized the policy saying that there were many risks involved in spreading IT facility and also that the expectations are high. He also stated that IT policy 2000 aims to provide TI facilities all through the country but practically it will need ten years to offer these services to every part of the country particularly to the rural areas. This problem was due to the inability of two government institutions CAT and TOT which were not capable of providing information infrastructure to fulfil the requirements of NIL. Pipe also commented that the dream of Thailand to be an information society in the next decades is not realistic because of the strong influence of buddism on Thai society…
AlAwadhi, S., & Morris A. 2008. The Use of the UTAUT Model in the Adoption of e-Government Services in Kuwait. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, USA, 1-11.
F. Statistics. Press Room viewed on 7 December 2011. http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics , 2010.
Guntasopatr, P.1999, 'IT and development policies in Thailand, and the evaluation of their interaction' Doctoral Thesis, the University of Manchester, 1999
J. Lynn. Internet Users to Exceed 2 Billion This Year viewed 6 December, 2010 http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE69I24720101019 , 2010
Obama's failure to mandate that every adult American must participate in some form of health insurance plan has drawn criticism from Hillary Clinton and her supporters. Also, even nonpartisan industry analysts note that his plan may not solve the systemic problems generated by uninsured Americans of all ages: "Millions of children qualify for coverage through S-CHIP (State Children's Health Insurance Program), but parents don't always buy coverage for their children. Some can't afford it, while others have no idea it exists. Voluntary programs always leave people behind, even when they include subsidies like those in Obama's plan. In fact, the Urban Institute notes that no study has ever shown better than a two-thirds rate of participation in a voluntary program. This means Obama's plan would leave about 15 million people without coverage, at least. This is an improvement over the 47 million without insurance now, but public health care…
Holahan, John & Allison Cook. (2005). "Supplemental data." Health Affairs. Published by the Urban Institute. Excerpt at the Health Care Blog. Retrieved 27 May 2088 at http://www.thehealthcareblog.com/the_health_care_blog/2005/11/policy_the_unis_1.html
Krugman, Paul. (4 Feb 2008). "Clinton, Obama, insurance." The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/04/opinion/04krugman.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
Obama, Barack. (2008). "Change we can believe in: Health care coverage for all."
Retrieved 27 May 2088 at http://www.barackobama.com/issues/healthcare/#coverage-for-all
what dives/motivates povides. In a nutshell, these authos asset that any healthcae system built on maket pinciples is doomed to eventual cisis as payes (meaning patients by and lage, whethe diectly o though govenment taxation) attempt to eceive adequate cae while educing the flow of dollas to povides while povides attempt to incease the flow of dollas fo the same o lowe levels of cae (Haington & Estes, 2008). Issues of pesonal and medical ethics aside, it must be acknowledged that in any othe maket setting this would pefectly descibe behavio, and though this view is commonly bandied about in public discussion and political hetoic it is not a fequent featue of empiical eseach. Though this might be due to the causal assetion this pespective makes it could potentially point to the capitalist bias that exist in healthcae policy examination in the United States, and is wothy of futhe consideation.…
references when it comes to care provision, and developing healthcare policies that address these variances while maintaining consistency in direct medical practice could potentially lead to vast improvements in the level and the perception of care provided (Ryan, 2000).
Social impacts not directly related to healthcare must also be taken into account when examining healthcare policy in relation to patient outcomes, as policy must effectively manage all large-scale social trends that can influence healthcare demands (Stuckler et al., 2009). Unemployment, poverty, and crime all have separate and intertwined impacts on healthcare issues and outcomes, for example, and must be properly accounted for in healthcare policy theory and practice yet are complexities often left out of healthcare policy analysis (Stuckler et al., 2009).
In the public sector employees continue to be largely covered by generous pension plans and, unlike in the private sector, there has been decrease in the number of plans or the amount available for funding. This differential between the public and private sector has raised the high brows of many and has brought into question the imbalance now present between private and public employment.
The present situation that exists between the availability of pension plan coverage between the private and public sector has caused government officials and voters to look at the equities of the situation (rown, 2011). In essence, the private sector is being asked to fund the pension plans of the public sector and being asked to provide the public sector with benefits that are virtually non-existent for private employees. Many question the fairness of such a situation and are, therefore, clamoring for change.
Public sector pension plans…
Policy Analysis for Veterans
The objective this paper is to discuss the stigmatization and mental disorders of Veterans after the service. After the Iraqi war, the numbers veterans suffering from mental illness continues to increase, and one of the factors that aggravate the problems is a stigmatization from the society. The paper identifies that the costs of providing treatment for veterans continue to increase in the last 10 years coupled with an increase in the waiting times to receive their benefits and healthcare delivery. The study also explores the political, economic, legal and social factors affecting Veterans administration. The study recommends that the government should provide both intensive and quality care for servicemen during and after the operations. Moreover, the government should pass a bill to reduce the waiting times to receive their benefits and care. The options will assist in reducing veterans mental problems and stigmatization they face in…
Acosta, J., Becker, A., Cerully, J. et al. (2014). U.S. Military Making Progress on Reducing Stigma Associated with Seeking Help For Mental Illness. Retrieved April 24, 2017, from http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR426.html
Congress (2016). H.R.203 - Clay Hunt SAV Act 114th Congress (2015-2016). Veterans' Affairs.
Department of Veterans (2015). VA Mental Health Services Public Report. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved April 24, 2017, from https://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/docs/Mental_Health_Transparency_Report_11-24-14.pdf
IAVA (2016). IAVA Program Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America. Retrieved April 24, 2017, from https://iava.org/programs/
This paper focuses on a bill currently going through Congress that would restrict the right of Americans to voice their support for the oppressed and marginalized Palestinian people by joining in the BDS Movement. This paper discusses why this issue is important to social welfare policy and shows that the bill would deny people the right to advocate by using social, political and economic means. The opposition towards the Israeli settlement practices in Palestine has already been condemned by the UN, but the U.S. Congress is now seeking not only to condemn the UN for its 2016 resolution against Israel, but it is also seeking to condemn any American person engaged in interstate commerce who chooses to support the UN resolution by boycotting Israeli products. This bill therefore would marginalize and socially, politically and economically exclude Americans in a dangerous way. This policy analysis paper also shows…
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
In my opinion, the disadvantages of PAM were a little too numerous and too consistent to justify its creation and capacity to operate and I think time would have conclusively shown this as well. The accuracy of the information on the market is sensitive to the subjectivity of the investors and it is difficult to make a positive evaluation on the effects PAM would have had.
1. Policy Analysis Market. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy_Analysis_Market.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
2. Hanson, Robin. The Informed Press Favored the Policy Analysis Market. August 2005. On the Internet at http://hanson.gmu.edu/PAMpress.pdf.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
3. Khallow. The Policy Market Analysis. August 2003. On the Internet at http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/8/13/33840/2554.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
4. Pennock, David M. Commentary: The Good Side of the 'Terror Futures' Idea (Yes, There is One). 2004. On the Internet at http://dpennock.com/pam.html/.Last retrieved on December 11, 2006…
1. Policy Analysis Market. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy_Analysis_Market.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
2. Hanson, Robin. The Informed Press Favored the Policy Analysis Market. August 2005. On the Internet at http://hanson.gmu.edu/PAMpress.pdf.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
3. Khallow. The Policy Market Analysis. August 2003. On the Internet at http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/8/13/33840/2554.Last retrieved on December 9, 2006
4. Pennock, David M. Commentary: The Good Side of the 'Terror Futures' Idea (Yes, There is One). 2004. On the Internet at http://dpennock.com/pam.html/.Last retrieved on December 11, 2006
This results in several other problems. First, without quality city and school services, there is nothing to attract new businesses and individuals to the town. Further, without quality and opportunities, there is nothing to retain the current population. As opportunities, especially social and recreational opportunities, decrease, drug use and crime will often increase. Again, this will prevent the city from attracting new citizens and businesses.
Clearly, the loss of the initial businesses has caused a downward spiral for the community of Waterville, creating a Catch-22 for policy officials. With the loss of business there is a loss of income which leads to a loss of quality and opportunities which prevents the recruitment of new businesses, which only furthers the cycle, leading to such problems as increased drug use and criminal activity.
What is the solution to this cycle? Without a budget, the city cannot improve quality or opportunities. This being…
Clemons, Randall S., Mark K. McBeth. (2001): Public Policy Praxis Theory an Pragmatism: A Case Approach. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Policies and Emergency Management
ABSTACT/INTODUCTION: As a representative democracy, the United States tries to include as many people and interests into its decision-making processes as possible. Seldom has this practice been more challenged than since the country's intensive focus on emergency planning and preparations because of the rash of high-profile incidents that have brought about death, destruction, fear and critical assessments of our national capabilities, including the 9/11 terror attacks (Perry and Lindell, 2003). For the most part, the main sources of action in this regard have come from the federal government, which has been adopting various mandates and incentives to invite more effective systems of readiness. But state and local agencies and private and public organizations have also found their places in these steadily improving processes even though they continue to struggle with the many complexities they face of being ready for all types of conditions. Large and small…
CAN HealthPro (2007). Emergency Management Planning, Health Care. Viewable at http://www.cna.com/vcm_content/CNA/internet/Static%20File%20for%20Download/Risk%20Control/Medical%20Services/EmergencyMgmtPlanning-PrepMakesforSmootherRecovery.pdf .
ERCMExpress (2006). Creating Emergency Management Plans. U.S. Department of Education. Vol. 2, No. 8. Viewable at http://rems.ed.gov/docs/CreatingPlans.pdf .
ESRI (2005). Improving Emergency Planning and Response with Geographic Information Systems. White Paper. Viewable at http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/emergency-planning-response.pdf .
FEMA (2012). Communications and Information Management. Viewable at http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/CommunicationsInfoManagement.shtm .
This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.
As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.
The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…
Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:
Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.
Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Health Policy Analysis for Maryland AC (Affordable Care) Act
McLaughlin, & McLaughlin (2014) rank 11 areas of health innovation based on their impact on costs and quality of healthcare delivery. The process improvement is the highest ranking item. However, the authors identify data analytics, disease management, "non-physician delivery alternatives," and "alternative to fee-for service" (McLaughlin, & McLaughlin, 2014 p 335) as other innovation items that can enhance quality and reduce costs. Additionally, the authors point out that innovation in electronic medical records, diagnosis, and pharmaceuticals can also assist with quality and cost.
Objective of this health policy paper is to evaluate the items that can play important role in the health policy process of Maryland's ACA (Affordable Care Act).
Healthcare items for Health Policy Process for in Maryland Affordable Care Act
The ACA (Affordable Care Act) is a federal government legislation focusing on healthcare coverage for small groups and individuals.…
Abrams, M. Nuzum, R. Mika, S. et al. (2011). Realizing Health Reform's Potential How the Affordable Care Act Will Strengthen Primary Care and Benefit Patients, Providers, and Payers. The Commonwealth Fund.
Chin, W.W. Hamermesh, R.G. Huckman, R.S. et al.(2012). 5 Imperatives Addressing Innovative Challenge. Harvard Business School.
McLaughlin, C.P. & McLaughlin, C.D. (2014). Health Policy Analysis: An Interdisciplinary Approach.(2nd Edition). Burlington, Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Resnik, D.B. (2007). Responsibility for Health: Personal, Social, and Environmental. J Med Ethics. 33(8): 444-445.
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…
Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press
Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985
Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998
Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…
Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).
CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).
Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).
Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.
Over the years, given the awareness and exposure that came with the advent of media and the internet, human societies and cultural norms across the globe have evolved from being very conservative to moderate to liberal. With apparent increases in literacy rates, standards of living and awareness in general, people around the world have reconsidered many of their notions and have adopted more liberal approaches towards social norms and myths. That said, despite of moving towards liberal broad minded cultural notions, the practice of Abortion still attracts intensive debates in both developed and less developed societies. This paper particularly focuses on the degree to which poverty is related to the practice of Abortion and how this relationship does implicates on the lives of poor women. The paper also aims at proposing a policy that would help in tackling the said problem.
As medical sciences evolved and progressed for…
Bachiochi, E. (2011). Embodied Equality: Debunking Equal Protection Arguments for Abortion Rights. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 34(3), 889+.
Bridges, K.M. (2009). Quasi-Colonial Bodies: An Analysis of the Reproductive Lives of Poor Black and Racially Subjugated Women. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 18(2), 609+.
Kopaczynski, G. (2011). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.
Kumar, A. (2012, February 2). House votes to ban subsidies for poor women who abort fetuses with birth defects. The Washington Post. Retrieved from The Washington Post Database.
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
Policy Problem & Proposal
The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.
"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…
Advance Pricing Agreement Quarterly Reports, Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-apa/
Announcement and report concerning advance pricing agreements. (2011, March 29). § 521(b) of Pub. L. 106-170, Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/2010statutoryreport.pdf
Brehm, J., and Gates, S. (1997). Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic
Response to a Democratic Public. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Policy and Science
Fiddler on the oof
Science has traditionally been presented as the a priori fact-finding, theory-establishing stage one of policy making. Stage two of this conventional approach has policy makers utilizing the "empirical truths" that science offers in support of policies to be enacted to solve a policy problem. Yet both policymaking and empirical research are -- by their very nature -- ongoing human endeavors. Policymakers want the best that science has to offer -- when they need it -- for decision-making, policymaking, and policy implementation. Science marches to its own tune, with agendas set by dynamics such as funding for research or public and private priorities and pressures (Kingdon, 1984). And, increasingly, in a funding environment that is cooling off, the ability to do research is often determined by its application -- public service adding a positive valence -- and the ability to enact policy is dependent…
Haller, S.F. And Gerrie, J. (2007). The role of science in pubic policy: Higher reason, or reason for hire. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 20,(2).
Kingdon, J.W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.
Pressman, J.L. And Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Wildavsky, A. (1979). Speaking truth to power: The art and craft of policy analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown Publishers.
Policy Direction & Politics
Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…
Frederickson, H.G. (2010). Social equity and public administration: Origins, developments, and applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Kingdon, J.W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. Russell Sage Foundation.
Stone, D. (2001). Policy paradox: The art of political decision-making.(rev.ed). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co.
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…
GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best.
Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
Exchange is a program designed to educate and promote health among drug-users. Needle Exchange, and similar programs that provide needles and syringes to drug-users are a harm-reducing motive whose aim is to enable access to sterile needles and syringes for individuals injecting drugs. This kind of action is recommended by The World Health Organization (WHO), whose experts suggest that each drug-user injecting drugs needs to be given access to two hundred clean needles and syringes on an annual basis as a way of tackling and preventing the transmitting of HIV and other blood-borne viruses through this method.
Overall, most programs similar to Needle Exchange are facilitated by pharmacies. Some of these programs work from fixed locations, while others are mobile, and some even employ strategically placed sites. The aim of most Needle Exchange programs is to alleviate and prevent the transmission of HIV, as well as other blood-borne viruses, through…
Harris, Gardenia, Bernard I. Tamas, and Nancy S. Lind. Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy: Right vs. Left. Lanham [u.a.:Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Brownstein, Joseph. "Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America." Opposition to Clean Needles for Addicts: Symbolism over Science? | Al Jazeera America. 18 Apr. 2014. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .
"Needle Exchange Program - Alcohol Rehab." Alcohol Rehab. 27 Dec. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. .
Strike, C., et al. "Ontario Needle Exchange Programs: Best Practice Recommendations. 2006." Toronto: Ontario Needle Exchange Coordinating Committee.
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…
Alternativestodv. (2013a) "Administrative Staff" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/staff.html
Alternativestodv. (2013d) "History of the organization" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/advhistory.html
Alternativestodv. (2013c) "Financial Information" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/financials.html
Alternativestodv. (2013b) "ADV Federal 990 form" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/images/ADV_Federal_990_Form.pdf
Improving consumer protection is a less vital factor in the reform package. It focuses on ancillary issues such as predatory lending and credit card interest. Improving protections may help to reduce the incidence of consumer bankruptcy, but has two negative consequences. The first is that the illusion of protection can encourage increased risk-taking behavior among consumers. The second is that increasing consumer protection fails to address the underlying issue, which is the atrocious level of financial literacy among the general population. These reforms, therefore, may not be effective.
The fourth set of reforms addresses the ability of government to respond to the crisis. The Federal Reserve's involvement in stabilizing the financial industry may have been needed at the time, but is inappropriate in the context of the Fed's tradition role. Furthermore, the FDIC has been forced into desperate action as its reserves have run low in the face of 100+…
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…
Corrective Action: Professional and Support Staff. March 1, 2002. Retrieved From
http://atyourservice.ucop.edu/employees/policies/staff_policies/spp62.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
Employee Conduct, Disciplinary Discharge Guidelines. Retrieved From
http://www.rpi.edu/dept/hr/policy/empconductguide.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.
Major Policy Concepts
Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…
Shay, S. (2011). Homeless 'One Night Count' numbers decrease. West Seattle Herald. http://www.westseattleherald.com/2011/01/30/news/homeless-one-night-count - numbers-decrease
SKCCH. (2012). Everyone counts. Retrieved from http://homelessinfo.org/one_night_count/
Tong, C. (2011). Seattle homelessness a long-standing problem with no easy solution in sight. The International Examiner. http://seattlepostglobe.org/2011/02/03/seattle - homelessness-a-long-standing-problem-with-no-easy-solution-in-sight/
Policy Process: Evaluation, Analysis and evision
The National Nursing Shortage eform and Patient Advocacy Act was designed to address the public health workforce shortage that is seen, especially where nurses are concerned. It is no secret that nurses are leaving the profession in record numbers, and as they do that it is becoming more and more difficult to replace them with others who want to do the same type of work (Buerhaus & etchin, 2013; Iglehart, 2013). Because of all the nurses retiring, and so many of them experiencing burnout, the gap between the number of needed nurses and those who are available continues to widen (Negron & Cohen, 2013). The issue here is how that Act becomes a policy, so it can provide more help to a public health workforce that is struggling. In order for the Act to become a policy, it must first be evaluated. The Act…
Buerhaus, P.I., & Retchin, S.M. (2013). The dormant National Health Care Workforce Commission needs congressional funding to fulfill its promise. Health Affairs, 32(11), 2021-2024.
Iglehart, J.K. (2013). Expanding the role of advanced nurse practitioners - risks and rewards. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(20), 1935-1941.
Negron, B., & Cohen, E. (2013). Back to the future: A standardized approach to delivering effective nursing care. Nurse Leader, 11(2), 52-56.
S.739 (2014). Congress.gov. Retrieved from https://beta.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/senate-bill/739
Ongoing Duty to Inform
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.3 under Section A. General Principles adds a comprehensive explanation of the specific duty of researchers to continue the information disclosure element of the duty to inform throughout the participation in the research project. In that regard, the 2008 draft version details the obligation of researchers to bring to participants' attention any information that comes to light subsequent to the initial informed consent acquisition process. That provision further details the obligation to continue providing relevant information even beyond the conclusion of the research study where appropriate or necessary.
The 2008 draft version of Chapter 3: Free and Informed Consent, Article 3.4 under Section A. General Principles adds an Incidental Findings section that is absent from the 2003 draft version. In principle, this provision defines incidental findings as findings that could have potentially…
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,
Levine C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:
The McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…
ESRI (2006). Environmental Systems Research Institute. Retrieved from the Internet on July 14, 2006. (www.esri.com)
Gates Technology Foundation (2005). Interviews and on-site visits with GIS planners and network technicians while donating servers, laptops, and desktop computers for a major PC manufacturer. Onsite interviews in Seattle, Washington. April, 2005.
HHS (2006). Federal Register Data on Poverty Line Statistics by size of household. January 24, 2006. See table 1 of this document.
Pew Center for Internet Research (2006). Key statistics downloaded from the Internet on February 14, 2006. http://people-press.org/
Policy Issues in Education Settings AB
Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (2010). "A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning"
Retrieved from: http://www.aplu.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=311
"The A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was formed in May 2007 to engage the A-P-L-U Presidents and Chancellors in a discussion about the utility of online education as a means to achieve broader institutional priorities, such as diversity, retention, internationalization and accountability." This resource specifically examines the policy and infrastructural issues dealt with by four-year colleges and universities experimenting with online learning and/or hybrid courses. The longitudinal study is meant to offer comprehensive data about the specific challenges of integrating online learning into traditional college experiences.
C.J. Bonk, The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004)
This is a comprehensive publication reviewing the infrastructural challenges, including policy concerns, effecting colleges who integrate e-learning…
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…
Bryamn, A.; Bell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Policy and Politics
Policy and decision-making are complex issues. Even for what might appear to be a simple decision, there many underlying factors that influence the final outcome. Some of these factors are obvious, but some can be elusive and hidden from all of the parties. Policies are not instituted in a flash and the process of policymaking should not be taken lightly. This makes the process of policy making a slow one at best. The many facets of the issue must be discussed and debated for often long periods of time. Policymaking is wrought with many problems for which there is no obvious right or wrong answer. Deborah Stone addresses these paradoxes in The Art of Political Decision-making.
Stone's work stands apart from many authors that focus on the application of their model in only a few specific applications. One example is einhart and einhart (2011) who recently discussed…
Reinhart, C. & Reinhart, V. (2011). Limits of Monetary Policy in Theory and Practice. Cato Journal. 31 (3): 427-441.
Stone, D. (2001). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, W.W. Norton, third edition.
Thorson, K.(Producer) (2002-2008). The highlights of 100 [Television series episode]. HBO.
Retrieved from http://www.hbo.com/the-wire
Policies and Procedures for Interactive Training for Pastors
Policies and Procedures for Interactive Training
a) What is the relationship between formal training and none formal training?
Training in both cases is based on certain principals (religious) that guide the person facilitating the training program. However, while formal training is primarily based on biblical teaching, informal training involves general references to everyday experiences in life.
b) What is the relationship connecting availability of training programs and instructors in formal training?
The basis of training programs both formal and informal is to provide knowledge that facilitates a certain activity within the given institution. Availability of training program mainly concerns the educative session that are introduced alongside the main course in an institution. Such training is formal, but act as an added advantage to the learners as it provide extra lessons to higher performance in the respective field. Hence, instructors in the formal…
Policy Brief eview
The author of this report is to find and summarize a policy brief as it appears on the obert Wood Johnson Foundation website. As part of the review process, there will be a summary of several of its main points and objectives. These will include the policies and subjects covered, who the foundation is trying to influence, whether the brief is evidence-based, whether there are gaps in the knowledge base, what the expected outcomes might be, who those outcomes would affect, what the burdens would be, who those burdens would affect, what the benefits would be and who precisely would gain the most. While price transparency may not be seen as a major issue, the Foundation website assert that there is roughly $105 billion in annual waste due to price variations and an overall lack of price transparency.
As explained by the policy brief, the problem…
RWJF. (2015). Home. RWJF. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from http://www.rwjf.org/
RWJF. (2015). PBGH Policy Brief: Price Transparency. RWJF. Retrieved 27 July 2015,
Policy of choice: Patient Safety
The provision of healthcare services is a complex responsibility that the professionals in healthcare risk management must never take lightly. Hospital regulations and accreditation standards make the safety requires complex and inevitable (PSQH, 2014). With formal procedures and policies, it is possible to promote and encourage compliance with regulation and high safety standards in the workplace. These policies also make quality healthcare and patient safety easier to deliver. Well articulate policies will alleviate variability in nursing practice that is likely to lead to compromises in care and eventual harm to the patient. The financial situations that require more attention for patient care may make it difficult to continuously review procedures and policies. Failure to update and develop policy can cause negative consequences for the patients (PSQH, 2014).
Patient safety policy is significant for the fulfillment of several professional requirements including:
· Adherence with the set…
One of the key distinctions to be found within the first two chapters of this book is the difference between policy analysis and policy advocacy. Policy analysis is primarily an examination for what and why public policy is, by analyzing both causes and effects of such policy. Policy advocacy, however, is urging a government to set a certain policy for a desired outcome. The analysis of policy is essential because it allows for various groups to then determine what sort of goals or direction they want their policy makers to advocate.
There are several different policy models that can be used to properly examine and analyze public policy, each of which is somewhat suggestive of a particular line of thought or of advocacy for policy. Institutionalism, for example studies policy in terms of its output from a number of important institutions such as the different branches of government (judicial, executive…
They exploited the opportunities created by relaxing those standards and eventually brought about exactly the kinds of fiascos that previous laws governing the relationships among and between investment firms, insurers, and savings banks were intended to prevent (Ehrenreich, 2009). The same is true in the case of health care lobbyists and their influence over government policies. Since the historic 2010 Supreme Court decision granting free speech rights to corporations, the wealthy have become more politically powerful than ever before.
4. At least 100 words - Identify three uses or lessons that can be learned from policy analysis and include an example of each use.
olicy analysis can identify areas of fiscal waste and corresponding opportunities to reduce waste of public resources. For example, when the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) identified certain types of urinary tract infections in hospitals that were caused primarily by poor care delivery, it…
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health
Care. New York: Penguin Books.
Pure Policy: The Kantian Inquiry System
The philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote his treatise, A Critique of Pure Reason, as a way of striking a balance between rationalistic and empiricist modalities of acquiring knowledge. It was not possible, Kant stated, to live in the world and to merely understand knowledge through one's mind and preexisting rational cognitive faculties. The mind could have tricks played upon it in terms of its sensory perceptions that affected such faculties. Thus, the mind was not a perfectly receptive organ. However, he also believed that pure empiricism, the idea that there was nothing other than experience of the immediate present, not to be perfectly valid either.
Rather, Kant suggested that we glean information through pre-existing human mental frameworks and sensations, but process such data in unique ways, commensurate and shifting with experience. In other words, one must think one's way as a human being, both inductively…
Mitroff, Ian I. & Louis R. Pondy. 1974. "On the Organization of Inquiry: A Comparison
of Some Radically Different Approaches to Policy Analysis," Public Administration
Review. 34: 471-479.
Oganizational Stuctue & Policies
Oganizational Stuctue and Policies
Community centes can be the heatbeat of a neighbohood -- a vibant, enegetic space whee people ae guaanteed a wam welcome, find needed suppot, and exploe options fo impoving thei lives. Yet many community centes ae located in aeas of few economic suppots and substantive need. This means that duing the nighttime hous the community cente may be a pinpoint light in a hazadous o bleak milieu. Staff and voluntees give geneously and happily of thei time at Bightwood Community Cente. Safety fo Bightwood staff, neighbohood membes, and pogam paticipants is uppemost on the minds of the Executive Diecto, the Assistant Diecto, and the Boad of Diectos. Accodingly, a ecommendation has been fowaded to establish a policy equiing staff and othes who ae engaged in pogam activities duing the evening hous to leave the community cente in goups, neve going solo into…
references in order to increase the probability that adaptive behaviors are fostered. By practicing safe behaviors such as the one addressed in the policy, the staff of Brightwood Community Center can be confident that they are not presenting any temptation to individuals who might choose to rob or harass them should the be in a vulnerable situation. The policy doesn't really establish winners and losers, nor does it cost anything to enact. Basically, the consequences of the policy are that the probability of safety for staff is enhanced. Diversity in human behavior, cultural values, and socio-economic variables are reflected in the safety policy; and the policy speaks to the human right of safety in the community. The overall strengths of the policy are that it is simple and easy to implement, and the policy is realistically grounded in the actual attributes of the Brightwood neighborhood. The only apparent weakness in the policy is that some occasions may present exceptions that make it difficult for all staff members to comply, however, exceptions are expected to be rare -- and generally could be worked around. A potential recommendation for a policy modification could be to ensure that a sturdy male is present each evening when the staff leaves the facility: this could either be a security guard or a volunteer, such as one of the members of the Ten Point Coalition.
This exercise illustrated the importance of writing policy with due consideration of the context. For instance, knowing what external policies exist can be a fundamental assistance to creating a policy that is supported by community values and the weight of several years of curfew policy to verify the decision of the agency to adopt and implement the policy. The hierarchical structure of the agency ensures that important issues receive due consideration and that authority is coupled with responsibility -- a factor that can have substantive influence over compliance to policy. Methodically considering the various factors that influence policymaking and policy implementation can result in stronger policy with fewer unanticipated side effects.
I am currently writing a handbook of policies and procedures for my practicum, so there is nothing in writing yet, so your answers will come from interviewing CL Day and Izera Day (obviously you won't really be interviewing them).
The policy I would like the paper to discuss is how at the end of the night, everyone walks out in a group. Brightwood is not a safe area, so at nighttime it is important to walk out as a group.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
This suggests that fine-tuning the model may be required in order to identify optimal approaches. For instance, Gionnani and oodford add that, "It is only if we ask whether the same policy continues to be optimal when we vary the statistical properties of the disturbances that we can hope to find an advantage of one representation of the policy rule over the other (1427).
Gionnani points out that rather than restricting the analysis to the Taylor rules component of the new Keynesian model, an optimal model should determine a robust optimal monetary policy rule within a larger family of rules that is sufficiently flexible to implement the optimal plan in those cases where the parameters are known with certainty. A study by Leeper reports that optimal monetary policy behavior in the simplest forward-looking version of the popular class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models with nominal rigidities. oodford (2003) exhaustively…
Blanchard, Olivier and Jordi Gali. (2007). "Real Wage Rigidities and the New Keynesian
Model." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 39(1): 35-7.
Dotsey, Michael and Andreas Horstein. (2006, Spring). "Implementation of Optimal Monetary
Policy." Economic Quarterly 113-34.
intended for a quantitative public policy perspective analysis of strategic and financial changes in small, private as well as not for profit advanced schooling organizations and institutions in Jamaica. The primary intent behind this paper would be to assess the framework by which strategic and financial innovational changes in small, private, not for profit advanced schooling institutions in Jamaica operate. They concentrate on the conditions which will make financial investments much better than be adopted and even implemented in a variety of contexts. In this way hopefully to lay smooth the road for just about any future studies conducted in the region or on the main topic of financial investments with the associated implications. This could, hence inadvertently, provide all potential studies and researches an excellent service. It might provide them with a foundation base on which to consult in most regions of conflict and trouble that may arise due…
Allen, K.M. (1999). The response of small private colleges to financial distress in the nineties. Dissertations Abstracts International, 60 (04), 1034A.
Bauer, J.E. (1987). An analysis of the relationship between the use of adaptive and interpretative survival strategies and financial resilience in Lutheran colleges. Dissertations Abstracts International, 48 (09), 2250A.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principals. Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7 -- 74.
Bower, J.L. (1970). Managing the resource allocation process: A study of corporate planning and investment. Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…
Holloway, S.K. (2006). Canadian Foreign Policy. Peterborough: Broadview.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…
Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)
Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html
British policy style?
As one begins to consider British policy, both foreign and domestic, one conjures pictures of the Queen-mother and her regal adherence to British tradition. In this way the Queen-mother stands as an icon of everything that is British. One pictures solicitors, in their powdered wigs and smart suits engaging in scholarly argument that will shape British policy in the future. These icons are the epitome of British policy, they are steadfast, solid and true. Their foundation is rock-solid as it has its basis in the argument of many others before them.
Government policy is the result of conflict. The people of a particular country develop policies as a result of the needs of the individual country. These needs may vary due to many factors, including the availability of natural resources in the region. Traditions arise from necessity. As time passes, many times the people tend to forget…
Benz, A. And Ebelein, B., (1999) ' The Europeanisation of regional policies: patterns of multi-level governance' Journal of European Public Policy, 6.2 pgs 329-48
Baumgartner, F.R. And Jones, B.D. (1993) Agendas and Instability in American Politics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois, USA. 298 pages
Dudley, G. And Richardson J. (1999) 'Competing advocacy coalitions and the process of "frame reflection": a longitudinal analysis of EU steel policy', Journal of Public Policy 6.2 pg. 226-247
Jordan G. And Richardson J. (1982) ' The British policy style or the logic of negotiation', in J. Richardson (ed.) Policy Styles in Western Europe (London: Allen & Unwin) pp 80-110.
28). The directions that this new "great and powerful" friend takes in the next 20 years will have a pronounced effects on what type of foreign policy is needed to maintain the middle road aspired to by Australian foreign policymakers. In the Australia's Defence Department's White Paper, "Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030," published in 2009, a number of eventualities are examined in terms of the appropriateness of an independent, dependent, interdependent or coindependent foreign policy in the future, depending on how the world changes. In the chapter, "Australia's Defence Policy," the White Paper makes the following points:
1. A nation's 'strategic posture' is the expression of how it seeks to secure its strategic interests, including by reducing the risk of conflict in the first place, and how it would potentially use force in relation to its strategic interests. In terms of strategic posture, an Australian government…
Berger, M.T. & Borer, D.A. (1999). The rise of East Asia: Critical visions of the Pacific century. London: Routledge.
Copper, D.A. (2002). Competing Western strategies against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Comparing the United States to a close ally. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030. (2009). Australian Government:
Department of Defence -- Australian Policy Online. Retrieved from http://www.apo.org .
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
Even Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be made totally independent from the government. This should be followed up by other methods to increase the individual ownership of housing and at the same time reduce the costs of owning a house. Even if the housing sector cannot be made totally private, it is important that the government make statements saying that it has no intentions of supporting Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac any further, and at the same time, try to improve the operations of these two companies. This can be achieved by limiting the amount of debt that these regulatory deposit organizations can hold and also focusing clearly with the two institutions on the sections of the housing market where their activities would provide the best social benefits. (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Housing Finance: Why True Privatization Is Good Public Policy)
The weakness comes from the feeling that…
After the Housing Boom. 11 April, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_15/b3928001_mz001.htm . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Cederholm, Fred. Is the Housing Market Going to Crash? Retrieved at http://baltimorechronicle.com/033105Cederholm.shtml . Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Federal Home Loan Bank System. Retrieved at http://www.fhfb.gov/FHLB/FHLBS.htm. Accessed on 30 April, 2005
Housing' Direct Economic Impact. 2005. Retrieved at http://www.nahb.org/generic.aspx?sectionID=784&genericContentID=543Accessed on 30 April, 2005
The Congress was exasperated with the AFDC's (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) cost, nature and scope, and thus decided to put an end to it. In 1994, a record number of families (5 million, with over 1/8th of American children) were enrolled in the program. Over 50% of the kids enrolled were born out of wedlock, and around 75% had a physically-fit parent not living with them (lanche, 1995). Nearly 50% of the enrolled families received program benefits for over 5 years (including repeat spells). In the 1994 financial year, benefit costs reached their peak (22.8 billion dollars, with 12.5 billion dollars from Federal funds and 10.3 billion dollars from local/State funds). Some legislators pressed for curbing AFDC coffers for controlling expenses, while others believed that permanent help offered to the needy kids from single-parent households helped encourage family breakups, allowed births out of wedlock, and promoted long-run…
Alfred, Mary V. (August 2007).Welfare Reform And Black Women's Economic Development, Adult Education Quarterly 57: 293-311
Benjamin E. Sasse and Kerry N. Weems, (February 2009). The Return of Welfare as we Knew it, The Wall Street Journal, 10
Blanche, Coll. (1995). Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929-1979. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, p. 104.
Blank, Rebecca. (2002). Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States. Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association 40(4): 1105-116.
If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why?
The national proposal to increase sin taxes on alcoholic beverages is long overdue and should be supported not only by all sectors of the government but the American public most especially. The fact is well-known that alcohol consumption is not only dangerous for the consumer but also has various economic and social harms for the society as well as users' immediate environment. It means that alcohol can affect not only the drinker but other people in the form of violence or road accidents. Taxing alcohol at higher rates will provide a mechanism that will taper buying due to high prices. But I believe that taxing alone should not be the only thrust of this policy. Rather, continuous education and awareness campaigns by both the public and private sector will go further to ensure that people…
public policy cycle. Public policy is defined as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem," (Pal, 2013, p. 3). The first step of making a given problem known is through public opinion, public interest, and related issues like values and norms. However, as Pal (2013) points out, a more idealistic motivation for bringing policy issues to the attention of policymakers is actually public interest itself in terms of core needs like public safety. There are multiple avenues by which an issue may be made known to the Canadian government. One is via the research route, including university and "think tank" methods of analyzing problems empirically and presenting reports to stakeholder organizations or policymakers. A second is from ministers themselves, through close attention being paid to their constituents and the prevailing interests of the people. Legal restrictions might constrain the ways a potential…
Atkinson, M. M. (1993). Public policy and the new institutionalism. Governing Canada: Institutions and public policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Canada Inc.
Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.