The policy has discussed the issue of contamination as a whole, it should be more specific about the threats posed by different types of chemicals, organic materials or other dangerous materials and in a broad perspective and compare these problems with one another in order to justify which is a bigger threat and which is considered a nominal threat, in this regard the policymakers should have given more info on the most common types of hazardous materials which pollute the land, and then compare them with one another to justify to the reader about which is the bigger threat comparable to other threats
The main emphasis of the policy is to remediate the land affected by contamination in a sense that only if there is something new being developed in the proposed land,
"Close co-ordination between planning authorities, transport authorities and pollution control regulators is essential to meet the common…… [Read More]
Reduction of air pollution (PM 2.5) in Beijing, China
The environmental challenge of pollution has been at the top of the agenda in any conferences where the environmental conservation is the theme. There are various categories of pollution that are experienced and one of the major one, and sadly the fasted growing and dangerous, is air pollution. There are various cities that are considered worse off in terms of air pollution and Beijing, China happens to be one of the leading cities in air pollution.
Over the years, there has been a serious problem of air pollution within Beijing, with some levels going so high that the reach the 151-200 air quality index (AQI) such that the residents of these areas have to use masks (U.S. Department of State, 2014 Mission China: Beijing). The main sources of pollution within this city have been noted over time to be exhaust from…… [Read More]
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…… [Read More]
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…… [Read More]
Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, a.L., Damian, a., Amiri, O., and Molina, J.L. (2003). Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air, 13(3), 310-318.
Daisey, J.M., Angell, W.J., and Apte, M.G. (2003). Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor Air, 13(1), 53-64.
Fink a. (1998). Conducting research literature reviews: From paper to the Internet . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Overmeire, M.V., Verbrandt, F.J.. & Jonckheere, .E. (1999) Noise Pollution: Causes, effects and control. In Environmental Management in Practice: Compartments, Stressors, and Sectors. Volume: 2, eds. Nath, B. Hens, L. Compton, P. & Devuyst, D. London: outledge.
Palfrey, J. (1994) Community child health: An action plan for today. Westport, CT: Praeger
Pope, C.A., Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., Dockery, D.W., Evans, J.S., Speizer, F.E., and Heath, C.W. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of…… [Read More]
Soft and hard targets and defined and discussed as well as the need for population defense and the idea that with a coordinated, comprehensive response plan and team implementation, the disaster related damage can be minimized. This chapter is devoted to covering the terrorism aspect of disaster, and helps to tie together the previous two chapters.
Chapter 12 deals with mass casualties and evacuation. This chapter also ties in closely to the previous chapters regarding terrorism weapons of mass destruction. Large-scale evacuations have their own set of challenges, as do dealing with huge numbers of casualties. And because this is not a very common scenario, many fire departments and local authorities are not well prepared for these types of emergencies. Kramer discusses the dire necessity of proper planning and execution of disaster relief efforts during these specific times of crisis. The National Disaster Medical System is discussed as well as…… [Read More]
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…… [Read More]
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]
China's Health Indicators
China has gone through impressive economic development over the past few years, and has experienced a big reduction in poverty along with other positive achievements. Due to improvement in living conditions, nutrition, and healthcare, there have been " ... declines in infant mortality and deaths from infectious diseases," according to The New England Journal of Medicine (He, 2005). But there have also been negatives associated with urbanization and industrialization -- in particular China's stubborn air pollution and its negative impacts on health -- that have increased the risk of " ... chronic disease, including vascular disease and cancer" (He, 1125). This paper reviews the health indicators for China along with other pertinent data and information relating to the well-being of the Chinese people.
China's Demographics and Data on Health Issues
The population of China (based on 2013 data from the orld Health Organization -- HO) is approximately…… [Read More]
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…… [Read More]
Engineering controls should be the first choice for dealing with noise pollution issues in the workplace, and this is NIOSH policy - they have three categories that all involve engineering and all three are ranked higher than administrative controls and PPE (NIOSH, 2015). Engineering solutions would include designing noise buffers around particular pieces of equipment, whereas administrative controls would reflect things like supplying protective equipment or scheduling people to reduce their exposure to unsafe noise levels. There are two reasons for this. First, an engineering solution is a one-time fix that hopefully will solve the problem, so that it no longer needs to be dealt with. Second, an engineering solution deals with the problem by reducing the amount of noise, where an administrative solution merely works around the problem, but the problem still persists.
There are some instances where it is onerous to use engineering controls first. In…… [Read More]
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
The…… [Read More]
ethical implications of a business polluting a third world country are fairly straightforward -- at first. Businesses are able to do such things in third world countries because of a number of factors that are intrinsically related to the innate poverty that exists in these nations. As such, it appears as though businesses are forsaking the health concerns of local inhabitants in order to maximize their profits and increase their commerce and productivity.
Doing so, of course, from a perspective that completely disregards basic humanitarian concern for citizens who have to live in polluted areas -- who breathe contaminated air, drink and bathe with contaminated water, and eat food raised from contaminated land and water sources -- is ethically irresponsible. This line of thinking presents a skewed cost-benefit analysis in which the ultimate costs of such an action are not the monetary ones a business must pay to dump or…… [Read More]
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]
Solid Waste is generally described as:
• Trash (for instance dairy boxes and even coffee grounds)
• eject (for instance metallic scrap, wall panel, and even empty storage containers)
• Sludges coming from waste materials treatment facilities, drinking water supply clarification facilities, or air pollution control establishments (for instance scrubber slags)
• Manufacturing waste products (for instance manufacturing process contaminated waters and non-waste-water sludges as well as solids)
• Other dumped supplies, such as liquid, semisolid, solid, or even contained gaseous supplies caused by industrial, business, mining, farming, and local community pursuits (for instance boiler slags).
The phrase solid waste isn't restricted to waste products which are physically solid. Numerous solid wastes tend to be liquid, whilst some others happen to be semisolid or even gaseous.
The word solid waste, as based on the Statute, is extremely wide-ranging, including not just the conventional non-hazardous solid waste products, like…… [Read More]
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]
Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.
Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…… [Read More]
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…… [Read More]
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Systems - a Critical Study of TQEM
Relevance of TQM to Environmental Management
Scope of Dissertation
Moving from Reactive to Proactive Management
Understanding TQM in Relation to TQEM
History of TQM
Operation of TQM
Quality and Environmental Management Standards
Environmental Management Systems
Weaknesses of EMS Standards
Total Quality Environmental Management
Comparing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
Integrating the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System
Impact of certification on economic and ecological performances
Research Design and Nature
Integrating a Sustainable EMS with TQM
Steps to Implementing an Effective TQEM Strategy
INTEGRATING QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ManagementS SYSTEMS - A CRITICAL STUDY
ackground and Overview of Study
For decades economic growth has been considered the main indicator of a healthy society (Oliver, 1996). However, only recently has society begun to recognize the environmental cost of this growth. As a result, there is now an…… [Read More]
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…… [Read More]
On the subject of shareholders and adverse publicity, in the book Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, the authors mention how much investors / shareholders "hate" surprises, in particular when the surprises are caused by the "unethical behavior of senior managers…" (Zimmerli, et al., 2007, p. 155). In today's mass media environment it is a sure thing that some blogger, local newspaper reporter or national cable news talking head is going to find out that company X has hired a lobbying firm to basically bust the competition. hen this story hits the 24-hour news cycle -- and the media today is extremely competitive, so it is a given that several media outlets will dig deeper into the story and be less than objective in their reports -- the shareholders will be hit with the surprise they did not want to be hit with.
An embarrassing public relations disaster like this…… [Read More]
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on discovering the reason for losses and preventing further loss of mangrove habitat. This philosophy supports natural recovery of the ecosystem, once the sources of destruction have been discovered and eliminated (Lewis & Streever, 2000). Both of these approaches have merit for different reasons.
The first option is to plant mangroves to replenish areas that have been lost. This method is the most costly in terms of capital input. However, it will result in the most rapid recovery of the mangrove forests. Natural recovery of the forests takes between 15-30 years, and that is only if the sources of destruction can be adequately controlled (Lewis & Streever, 2000). However, as mentioned earlier, replanting may be difficult, especially if the area has been…… [Read More]
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…… [Read More]
This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.
A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.
The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…… [Read More]
Air We Breath
Contrary to the popular phrase "I'll go out for some fresh air," one might ask is the present air that we are breathing is still fresh? Or, has this phrase become irrelevant the present day world. Air pollution has been very evident ever since history entered industrial revolution. By the time we step our foot on our doorstep, the moment we open the doors of our car, the very first instance that we pull up the drapes and open our window, we are experiencing air pollution at its finest ....so to speak. Smoke billowing from a factory chimney, fly-ash generated by thermal power plants, and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads, smokes from cigarettes, and the list would go on and on. If there is a drawback when we speak of modern day technology it is the pollution it emits into the very air…… [Read More]
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…… [Read More]
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…… [Read More]
Environmental Protection Program
Environmental protection is one of the major issues in the contemporary society given the increased negative impacts of human activities on the environment. In light of numerous industrial activities that have characterized today's production processes, environmental protection has attracted significant attention from governments, policymakers, businesses, and the public. These concerns have been accompanied by the development and implementation of various environmental protection policies and programs. These policies and programs are developed by policymakers, governments, and businesses in order to ensure that their operations generate environmental benefits rather than harm. An example of environmental protection programs with considerable impacts on manufacturing facilities, the society, and the environment is The Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program.
Summary of The Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) Program
The Pollution Prevention Pays program was created by 3P in 1975 as a concept of pollution prevention. This concept emerged from the fact that pollution prevention…… [Read More]
tension between businesses interests in maximizing profits and the public's interest in receiving complete, truthful, and non-misleading information about products that they purchase.
The dangers against greenwashing are that consumers will have no confidence in the products or services they are buying. This means that they will not purchase specific items. As they feel they are being deceived and cheated through false labeling / misrepresentation. At the same time, there is the possibility that a firm could face penalties from government regulators who feel that they are engaging in false advertising. This will have a negative impact on the image of the organization and their ability to address the needs of customers in the future. ("Six Sins of Greenwashing," 2007)
For an executive; it is advisable to not practice these kinds of policies. The reason why is because it will hurt the brand image of the products they are selling…… [Read More]
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that the Clean Air Act has obviously evolved over the years to allow more government intervention and increased technological innovation, however, improvements can still be made. For example, the Clean Air Act of 1990 does not make mention of the contribution homes make to the problem. The World Wide Fund for Nature, however, suggests that simple daily living changes can greatly benefit the environment. Indoor air pollution, and smoking, which are harmful to the environment and others' health, is also not addressed.
In conclusion, the environment and air pollution are vital parts of an industrialized society. The clean Air Act attempted to address these problems through several versions. The earlier versions of the act suggest an attempt to solve the problem of air pollution, although the Clean Air Act of 1990 suggests a definite improvement, allowing for alternative fuels and technology. Still, more can be done to…… [Read More]
So doing the right thing and being an ethical company would be the best choice for Sports Products, Inc. To make. Making the right choice will in the end will help the company to be more successful.
D. Does the firm appear to have an effective corporate governance structure?
No, it does not appear that Sports Products, Inc. has an effective governance structure. If the stakeholders are the owners of the corporation and have the power to elect a board of directors to run the company, then the company should be running in the shareholders' best interests. During the 20 years that this company has never paid out a dividend to its shareholders. This raises a large red flag that points to the mismanagement that is going on.
The profits of the company are increasing while the stock prices continue to fall. This leads one to question whether the stakeholders…… [Read More]
Starvation is a distant memory in both countries.
The Club of Rome refused to take a look at the beneficial effects of the "Green Revolution," pioneered by American scientists in the 1960's. This revolution increased Indian agricultural production to the point that the country was not only able to feed itself, but to do it well. As soon as China gave its peasants 1/2 acre to farm on their own (in the 1960's), overall food production in China climbed 30%. The freeing of the Chinese farms in the 1980's by Deng Xiao Ping not only increased agricultural production; it dramatically increased peasant income.
Poorer Workers. The argument of the Club of Rome was pure socialism, and should have been recognized as such in 1972. Compare the average lifestyle of an ECD citizen today and in 1972: Home ownership, automobile ownership, richness of diet, ability to travel -- all are drastically…… [Read More]
To a great degree individual environmentalists, and especially martyrs, those who have lost their lives or liberty are seen by those in the most radical circles as defining members of their group. It is also clear that for the most part individuals in the movement are not recognized as such, excluding public figures such as former vice president Al Gore, who just received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on climate change ("Al Gore" 21) or the frequent Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader, an ardent environmentalist.
Al Gore." estern Mail (Cardiff, ales) 13 Feb. 2007: 21.
Baird, Stephen L. "Climate Change: A Runaway Train?. The Human Species Has Reshaped Earth's Landscapes on an Ever-Larger and Lasting Scale." The Technology Teacher 66.4 (2006): 14.
Environmentalism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Crichton, Michael. "Environmentalism as Religion Run Amok." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of…… [Read More]
Environmental Accounting DQ
Activity-based costing refers to costing methodologies identifying activities within organizations and assigning relevant costs to each activity against resources. The advisories are presented to all services and products based on the actual consumption of the items. The model assigns exclusive overhead costs to various direct costs in comparison with conventional costing. The ABC plan allows companies to have a sound estimate of cost elements for different products, services, and activities. The element helps in informing the company's decision for purposes of identifying and eliminating the services and products that are unprofitable while lowering prices for the overpriced service and product portfolio.
The application of random percentages in allocation of costs allows ABC to identify the cause and effect elements in objectively assigning costs. With the sequence of activities identified, the extensive costs for activities are attributed to various products to the scope in which…… [Read More]
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…… [Read More]
With the public pressure in the right places, regulations of application and procedures can be developed for precise procedures (Vosse 1996).
roadbent (1996) writes that the ecological consequences, from construction to removal of merchandise that are dangerous and poisonous ought to be considered in the rules. Elements ought to be assessed depending on the altitude of peril, and where prudent substitutes have become obtainable, limitations will be forced. Rules for responsibility and costs for impairments ought to complement the principles, to endorse better precision and prudence, chiefly in the administration of dangerous discard and corrective measures for fear of pollution of the land and water. This can only take place when the people join hands and collectively pressurize the government to replace existing laws with laws that support the abovementioned processes (roadbent, 1996).
Although dictatorial procedures continue to be vital for the efficiency of the strategy, social organizations…… [Read More]
The concept of Marine insurance is something that has been developing at a fast rate of late. (Marine Insurance: Barlow, Lyde and Gilbert) What exactly is insurance and how long has the concept been recognized? Insurance can be defined as a form of provision of a safety net for the distribution of risks. This is generally made in the form of a financial provision that is meant to protect against losses that may occur due to certain unavoidable reasons. Insurance works like this: a person who wishes to insure an object or possession or belonging of his will pay a certain amount of money that has already been fixed by the insurance agent in order to offer the security of the money to distribute the risks when the insurer happens, by misfortune, to lose his possession or damage it because of an unavoidable reason. The insurer, by the…… [Read More]
This paradigm shift can best be understood by looking at a Chinese tradition dating back centuries. However, to understand modern China, we must also understand the basis for Chinese culture -- Confucianism. It was Confucianism, though, that dominated ancient Chinese history as a socio-religious philosophy. The trend towards philosophical underpinnings, too, was part of Ancient China's view of law, order, and state control. Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system based on the teachings of Confucius. It is a system that focuses on social, moral, political, and philosophical through, and stresses the important of education and the actualization of the individual. In combination, individuals then are able to govern the state by morality and virtue, rather than extreme coercion or violence (Sprunger). Unlike many religions, Confucianism expects to be part of the political/legal process and governance is part of the expectations of service by the populace. A basic sense…… [Read More]
Thereafter, Poland and the Czech Republic were required to provide evidence concerning their compliance with the requirement to improve their commitment to environmental standards as well (Medvec 2009).
Both Poland and the Czech Republic were successful in satisfying the EU's leadership of their commitment to full integration by providing evidence of their commitment to improving their track record on environmental issues and achieved membership in the EU in 2004; in fact, the Czech Republic even assumed the presidency of the EU in 2009 (Medvec 2009). Both Poland and the Czech Republic have also become more fully integrated into the EU in other ways as well, including a transition from their former status as members of the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact to become members in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999 (Medvec 2009). Despite these achievements, both Poland and the Czech Republic are still confronted with a number of constraints…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality -- Ethics and Development
The problem of "development" (or, perhaps "progress" and "advancement" also fits in this context) is that while many millions of citizens of the world have been blessed by dramatic progress (technological, industrial, and communications) over the past few decades, many millions are being left behind. Indeed, while millions are living better, living more comfortable lives, countless millions are not benefiting in the least from this social and economic development. In fact, the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots" is said to be widening, and this is a cause for great concern.
Millions of African children are AIDS and HIV victims, simply because they were born to mothers who suffered from AIDS and HIV; millions of other African people are suffering malnutrition, starvation, and live in hopelessness and dread. Millions of people in Third World countries do not have clean reliable drinking water or…… [Read More]
Developing a Federal Acquisition Team: everse Engineering a Standard Forestry Project to Determine Team equirements
The selected project is controlled by the Forestry Department, which is part of the Department of Agriculture, placing the project under the auspices of Chapter 4 for the Federal Acquisition egulations, which themselves make up Title 48 of the Code of Federal egulations (e-CF, 2012). elevant paragraphs include a provision that all Head of Contracting Activities (HCAs) comply with FA 7.103, detailed further below (e-CF, 2012, Title 48, Chapter 4, Part 407, par. 407.103). In addition, paragraph 407.503 of the same chapter provides provisions for the determination of whether or not a proposed contracting function is "inherently governmental" according to FA 7.503(e), and also sets out rules for settling disputes when there is not agreement on this issue (e-CF, 2012). It is not expected that this will be of issue in…… [Read More]
EPA Profile Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the main government agency tasked with monitoring the nation's environmental concerns. Because they are charged with protecting the United States environment, perhaps no government agency has a wider or more diverse mandate. The EPA handles a wide variety of environmental concerns, from potable water to clean air, from the nation's forests and wilderness to the country's wildlife population. In addition, the EPA also regulates the conduct of multinational industries, American businesses and even the personal actions of individual citizens (Williams).
As an agency, the EPA was created during the term of President Nixon. The publication of achel Carson's Silent Spring and the growing popularity of the environmental movement pushed Nixon to create an agency to establish and enforce "environmental protection standards consistent with national environmental goals."
The first EPA administrator, William D. uckelhaus, was sworn in on December 4,…… [Read More]
President Bush's recent initiatives regarding the environment represent a significant change from the government environmental policies of the past century. Bush, who presents himself as a steward of the environment, believes that conservation and protection are best achieved through a partnership with industry. Instead of relying on strict government regulations, Bush believes that forests would be preserved and rivers would be cleaner if market forces are allowed to run their natural course ("Bush reshapes environmental debate").
This essay examines the evolution of Bush's position in light of the American policies regarding the environment over the past 100 years. It looks at how environment policies have changed, from the time President Theodore Roosevelt established the wildlife preserve in Pelican Island Bay, Florida. This essay also examines the changing perceptions Americans hold regarding their environment -- which has been first been viewed as an infinite natural resource, then as a…… [Read More]
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…… [Read More]
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…… [Read More]
Can both sides be right? Hardly, and when the initiative is analyzed with a critical eye, one sees that it looks like the initiative is a tactic for large corporations to appear to be following the letter of the law, but saving money by making Clean Air Act and EPA required equipment to reduce certain emissions by delaying capital expenditures and pushing out previous goals, thus saving millions if not billions of technological investment dollars. Likely these companies lobbied the Bush Administration, citing the need to reinvest in their businesses to become more competitive and thus, unable to divert funds into pollution control.
From the simplest ethnical standard, for instance utilitarianism, the initiative on its own might be ethical if not for the fact that it significantly alters previous legislation, and lessens the impact of EPS regulations on big-business. Certainly, stakeholders in those offending companies would benefit; stockholders, employees, management;…… [Read More]
Economic Impacts of egulation
egulation is a written instrument that contains rules with the force of law (Ogus, 2004). egulation as a process involves monitoring and enforcing rules, established through primary or delegated legislation. egulation usually creates, constrains or limits a right. In addition, regulation creates and limits a duty besides allocating responsibilities (Ogus, 2004). egulation may take several forms depending on its application. These includes legal restrictions made by the government, contractual obligations, which binds several parties together, self-regulations by industries, third party regulation, co-regulation, market regulation, certification and accreditation
egulation made by a state tries to produce outcomes that might not occur (Ogus, 2004). In addition, it attempts to prevent or produce outcomes in various places to what might occur. Through this, regulation becomes an implementation object of policy statements. Examples of regulation include controls on prices, market entries, wages, pollution effects, employment of particular people within certain…… [Read More]
Coase Theorem is a concept developed by Nobel Prize winning economist, Ronald Coase. It revolves around the efficiency in the economic allocation of trade in externalities. The theorem states that if there are negligible transaction costs, then bargaining between conflicting parties will lead to an efficient outcome and allocation regardless of initial allocation of property rights, given that a trade in the externality is possible (Andrew & Schlafly, 2007). Externality is defined as the cost or benefit that arises as a result of an economic activity that may have an impact on an uninvolved third party (Evans, 2011). The uninvolved third party often doesn't choose to incur the cost or benefit, but is a part of the chain as a consequence of the nature of these circumstances. Property rights often relate to the determination of who owns a resource and how it is being used. In economics, property rights are…… [Read More]
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…… [Read More]
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…… [Read More]
Environmental considerations related to hazardous chemical storage include concepts like green chemistry, which is a method of engaging in this process in such a way that hazardous chemicals are actually made obsolete. However, green chemistry is not always feasible; therefore, it is possible to reduce the negative impact that storage of hazardous chemicals could have on the environment by storing them in small batches and containers and thus reducing the level of risk that exists should the chemicals manage to leak or actually become pollutants (National esource Council Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, 2011). Hazardous chemicals can become toxins in any environment and therefore precautions should be taken when storing them for the sake of the environment. Several strategies such as air pollution management, water pollution management, and soil pollution prevention can be implemented alongside control measures, the cost of which should also be considered.
The…… [Read More]
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
In this sense, globalization represented an obvious benefit to American industry, but at great cost to some of the workers who toiled away in conditions reminiscent of the first century of industrialized society in this part of the world. Several high profile instances (such as the conditions in which foreign workers produced American athletic wear) in the late twentieth century highlighted the need for governmental regulation in already) industrialized society to prevent exporting child labor exploitation and industrial pollution along with the opportunity for employment to parts of the world where economic conditions make even the most difficult and potentially dangerous work an attractive option to perpetual unemployment and starvation (Hollender, 1990).
Globalization represents the opportunity to improve the lives of billions of people, particularly in parts of the Far East, who are still living in conditions that have long been considered unacceptable in Western society. It also represent the…… [Read More]