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There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…
Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence
Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at http://www.fmsfonline.org/fmsf96.d31.html
Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:8FdkQI0WFDsJ:www.fd.org/pdf_lib/Capital%2520CasesDimensions%2520of%2520Mitigation%2520Stetler.pdf+MRI:+forensics,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.
Creswell, 2009). Given the range of resources that will come under study in this research, a meta-analysis is not readily applicable. Typically, with a retrospective study of this scale, more research is discarded than retained for analysis. Further, a number of large studies have been conducted on this general topic, including research commissioned by Congress ("CNSTAT," 2003; OTA," 1983). Using a descriptive research approach, the researcher will utilize primary and secondary data sources (Creswell, 2009). Document review will constitute a large proportion of the secondary research data. Primary research will consist of interviews with select Individuals in professional positions who are privy to agency information about the use and outcomes of polygraphs.
The corpus of literature will provide a substantive amount of secondary data for analysis and will inform the direction of further efforts at primary research. A comprehensive literature review will be employed to identify pertinent documents for…
Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and Education (BCSSE) and Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) (2003). The Polygraph and Lie Detection. United States National Research Council (Chapter 8: Conclusions and Recommendations, page 212
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Iacono, W.G. (2001). Forensic 'lie detection': Procedures without scientific basis, Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 1 (1), pp. 75-86.
Office of Technology Assessment (November 1983). Scientific validity of polygraph testing: A research review and evaluation.
Employee Handbook Privacy Section
ABC Widget Company: Employee Handbook Privacy Section
What privacy rights issues should be addressed?
In the Age of Information, there are increasing concerns being voiced about what can legitimately be expected to be kept private, and how these issues affect employees' rights in the workplace. According to Hayden, Hendricks and Novak (1990, most adults spend approximately one-half of their waking hours in the workplace today, and it is therefore not surprising that employment practices affect a broad range of privacy rights. With the sole exception of polygraph ("lie-detector") testing, there are not many areas of workplace activities that are addressed by the U.S. Constitution or national privacy laws. As a result, employers in the United States have a great deal of flexibility in collecting data on their employees, regulating their access to personnel files, and disclosing the contents of employee files to those outside the organization.…
Backer, T.E. & O'Hara, K.B. (1991). Organizational change and drug-free workplaces:
Templates for success. New York: Quorum Books.
Hayden, T., Hendricks, E. & Novik, J.D. (1990). Your right to privacy: A basic guide to legal rights in an information society. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Muhl, C.J. (2003). Workplace E-Mail and Internet Use: Employees and Employers Beware An
Employee Privacy Torts
Issues relating to employee privacy have been at the forefront of businesses for many years. This has been fuelled by the dynamic workplace which changes constantly and also by employees and employers being more litigation-conscious. Technology has also spurred on employee privacy issues with e-mail and the internet being related to heightened concerns about vulnerability of employers to litigation. Many employers have thus exacerbated their concerns relating to employee privacy and especially monitoring of employee behavior. Employee privacy is respected in many of the large corporations. However, there still exist some breaches in employee privacy. Small business owners are at most risk as a result of their increased monitoring practices and close employer-employee interaction.
oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
One of the major cases that brought employee privacy to the limelight was oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
Franklin Mills Co. decided to appeal…
Anderson v. City of Philadelphia, 845 F. 2d 1216 (1988).
Borse v. Piece Goods Shop, 963 F.2d 611 (1991).
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1988).
City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 560 U.S. (2010).
The job may require x% travel, which might eliminate one of the candidates, etc. Essentially, hiring the female simply based on the demographics would discriminate against the other candidates and therefore, is illegal (Federal Laws, 2009).
Situation 5 - Our Company has a service contract with the U.S. Government (Department of Defense) to provide nurses for a military hospital. Contractual obligations require employees with patient contact to pass a physical exam and drug test; those handing fiscal matters must pass a drug and polygraph test. Because this contact is with the Federal Government, any employee is subject to laws under the Federal egister, Agencies affiliated with the Federal Government who require drug testing must follow standardized procedures established by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Organization, use certified SAMHSA testing facilities, and comply with appropriate privacy laws (Section 7 -- Drug Testing, 2010). The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA)…
Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended. (1990). United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.ada.gov/pubs/ada.htm
Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination Questions and Answers. (2009). The U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov / facts/qanda.html
Section 7 -- Drug Testing. (2010). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA). 2010. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-eppa.htm
A friend in California has just lost his job in a layoff together with 98 other employees in the same private sector company. The company's administrators have told him that he was included in the recent layoff because of his refusal to take a lie detector test regarding some drugs that were found in his company locker. He also declined to take a drug test since he was afraid that a positive result would make the state child protection agency to take away custody of his children. This situation is an example of a scenario with legal ramifications on the basis of several regulations such as Polygraph Protection Act, Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, Privacy laws, Drug Testing laws, and OSHA.
Generally, the use of lie detector tests in the workplace is not geared towards determining whether an employee is telling the truth but to examine whether…
"Employees' Rights in the Workplace." (1999). The Maryland State Bar Association, Inc.
Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.msba.org/departments/commpubl/publications/brochures/workplace.asp
"Lie Detector Tests." (2008). Can My Boss Do That? Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.canmybossdothat.com/category.php?id=269
I feel I must tell you that I was quite shocked and dismayed when I was notified of your decision to disqualify me for the position of deputy sheriff due to the use of alleged countermeasures during the lie detector testing. First, I would like to vehemently deny that I knowingly engaged in any activity designed to explicitly deceive the lie detector or the person operating it. Since it is alleged that I engaged in some countermeasures, I feel it is safe to assume that I passed the lie detector with no false statements as I have during a previous test. That is due to the fact that I answered every question asked of me as honestly as I could. If there is any question about this, I would think that I would be permitted to take the exam again, but I am being informed that I cannot do…
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…
Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police
Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com .
San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /
Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
The resulting legal ramifications have created an environment of sensitivity to all types of potential discrimination through pre-employment testing procedures.
The ADA Act of 2008 became effective on January 1, 2009. A significant change in the way "disability" is defined is incorporated in the language, so the EEOC is preparing to evaluate the impact of how the language affects the ADA and how it is enforced. Pre-job testing, even though it is done for the right reasons, may now be affected.
The National Institute on Disability and ehabilitation esearch (NID) has established 10 regional centers providing information, technical assistance and training to people with disabilities, employers, and others having responsibilities under the ADA (Nester, Mary Ann, 2008). Even though historically, job applications and interviews could request information concerning an applicant's mental and physical condition, because it was used to discriminate against and even exclude applicants with disabilities, it has created…
Nester, Mary Ann, Pre-Employment Testing and the ADA. Program on Employment and Disability, School of Industrial and Labor Relations-Extension Division, Cornell University, funded by a grant from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (2008). Reviewed June 29, 2009 at http://www.theaaceonline.com/employ.pdf .
Kaplan, Daniel A., J.D., Foley & Lardner LLP, Employment Testing in the Workplace, March 20, 2008. Reviewed June 29, 2009 at http://www.foley.com/files/tbl_s31Publications/FileUpload137/4910/MRA_Kaplan.pdf .
"In a recent case, EEOC v. DaimlerChrysler Corp., an applicant test failed to accommodate those with learning disabilities who needed reading accommodations during the pre-employment test given for nonexempt manufacturing jobs. The case resulted in the ruling that applicants should have the opportunity to take the hiring test with the assistance of a reader if they have proof of an ADA disability. This illustrates that employment testing in the pre-employment context must be continually evaluated to determine if the tests create potential disparate effects and to ensure that the tests are legitimately related to the requirements of the positions for which they are developed/provided" (Kaplan., 2008, p. 1).
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…
American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .
Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
This number would then be compared to the number of people who worry about having their privacy violated. Since it is presumed that more than 16% of the population worry about such items as government intervention into their daily lives, and their concern about how to keep their private information to themselves. One study stated, "protests from certain quarters prompt public-sector officials to think long and hard about how to balance open government and the right to privacy" (Douglas 2006-page 1). ith this information in mind, the study would have to lean towards the better good for most people being when their privacy is respected rather than catching individuals who are using drugs.
Other questions such as smoking after hours, and having unprotected sex can also be categorized as a right to privacy issue rather than a cost issue and as such should be left alone by employers as well.…
Douglas M, (2006) Privacy Concerns. Government Technology, January 2, 2006, http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97730, Accessed July 10, 2006
Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, and Wechsler H., (2000) Increased use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at U.S. Colleges in the 1990's: Results of Three National Surveys. Addiction, Vol 95 Issue 11, pp. 1655-67
The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers
Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.
According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…
Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers. In.gov.
Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State. Passthepolicetest.com.
Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process. Education.com.
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…
Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),
Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
In order to address the issues, efforts would be made towards the creation of stress free interviews and the preservation of objectivity.
c) the psychological interview
The psychological interview is characterized by assessment of the mental state of the individual. It is usually constructed based on standards of psychological testing and the results are interpreted by a specialist.
d) the interview with the top management
Finally, the interview with the top management would be the final stage of the selection process and it would be structured around an informal interaction between candidate and the top managers. Throughout the conversation, the managers would once again test the communication skills, the commitment to the firm as well as the candidates' perceptions over which features made them suitable for the managerial position within the firm.
At this level, more emphasis would be placed on the individual's commitment to the firm and sensitive questions…
Armstrong, M., Baron, a., 2002, Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, CIPD Publishing
Barrett, R., Mayson, S., 2008, International handbook of entrepreneurship and HRM, Edward Elgar Publishing
Bohlander, G., Snell, S., 2009, Managing human resources, 15th edition, Cengage Learning
DeAngelis, T., 2010, Master the corrections officer exam, 16th edition, Peterson's
The APA noted that employee background tests and surveillance can be costly and cause problematic legal concerns that are burdensome for businesses screening part-time employees. Although the OTA found that 95.6% of integrity test takers who fail to pass are incorrectly classified as dishonest, overall, the APA stated that the social value conveyed by such tests to employers outweighed such concerns. Rather than condemn integrity tests, the APA instead issued guidelines for test administration, including the demand that test publishers take more aggressive actions to ensure that qualified individuals administer and score the tests.
However noble such a balance between employer and employee rights might seem, the APA's findings seem to overlook a critical, practical point -- the reason employers use such tests is because of their ease of administration. Employing an expensive professional to administer such tests to a group of prospective part-time employees might be just as costly…
Employee ights / Safety
Employee ights and Safety: A Case Study
The individual in question is now out of a job, due mainly to circumstances that were out of her control. Yes, it is imperative for an organization to punish those who break its policies. Yet, where is the evidence in this case that point to the individual in question? Although the organization she worked for had the right to take action against the employee who had brought the drugs into the facility, its mass layoffs and coerced lie detector tests create a situation where the individual in question was wrongfully terminated.
The organization was essentially acting in a reaction to the presence of drugs within its facility. According to the general rule for employment, the organization believed it had the right to terminate the individual in question based on the concept of employment-at will. This concept is…
Frank & Breslow. (2000). Employment-at-will. LaborLaws.com. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://laborlaws.com/block4/item414/
Muhl, Charles J. (2001). The employment-at-will doctrine: Three major exceptions. Monthly Labor Review. 3-12. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/01/art1full.pdf
OHS Health and Safety Services, Inc. (2012). California. Drug Testing Laws for All U.S. States. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.ohsinc.com/laws_state_drug_testing_laws_said.htm
U.S. Department of Labor. (2012). Employment and training administration fact sheet. Doleta.Gov. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.doleta.gov/programs/factsht/warn.htm
DNA Exonerations: John Kogut
The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut
The Path to Conviction
When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.
The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…
Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.
Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .
Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .
Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
What is arah's theory?
Will she succeed?
arah's theory is that Will Worker who collided in and damaged her4 car, is an employee of Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns." ince he is unable to pay for repairs of her car, her theory is that that his employers Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns" should pay for it and cover him.
he will not succeed, since the employer of Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns," has made each of his employees independent and hired them as their own workers. "He requires them to sign an "independent contractor" agreement that acknowledges they are independent contractors, not employees. " Wanting to keep costs to a minimum, Larry has each worker buy his own van, as well as maintain their own vehicle liability insurance (and show proof of insurance), and to pay for their own gas and truck maintenance. Will should have been responsible for this. ince…
NEGLIGENT HIRING (4/07) http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&ved=0CGsQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.judiciary.state.nj.us%2Fcivil%2Fcharges%2F5.76.doc&ei=W9U9UYjtFaTx2QWFu4DgCQ&usg=AFQjCNEBBj0GIaRqNwueeAC1eXXjKdevOg&sig2=Y_Y5IiPfEghisB8c9absIw&bvm=bv.43287494,d.b2I
Global Drug Policy. Employee Drug Testing Study. http://www.globaldrugpolicy.org/Issues/Vol%205%20Issue%204/Basic-11-22Efficacy%20Study%20Publication%20Final.pdf
Vitek, J. (2011) Personal Internet Use at Work: Understanding Cyberslacking Computers in Human Behavior http://www.academia.edu/507880/Personal_Internet_use_at_work_Understanding_cyberslacking
In the fifth hypothesis of measuring the business ethics levels of Taiwanese ITPs the Null and Alternative Hypotheses are defined as follows:
H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.
H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five
It has been established in the fourth hypothesis that the greater the ethical climate of independence, the greater the level of ethical self-direction and ownership of ethical outcomes. This also holds true when the ethical climate of instrumental low. The adherence to self-defined ethical standards is high. When the specific variable of in this company, the employees are expected to do their job according to their personal belief of ethics is correlated against the variable of in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment,…
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
Ethics of Employee Location Monitoring
In the contemporary workplace, workers are usually aware that their computer activity, email, and phone conversations may be -- and probably are -- being monitored by their employer. Efforts to limit the consumption of offensive or pornographic material, use of company resources for non-work purposes, and desire to track employee behavior in order to improve efficiency leads managers to install keystroke logs, FID location tags, cell phone software, and "back door" computer tracking programs. Employees complain that they do not feel trusted by employers who use these strategies, and managers may not have clear guidelines for how to use the information they glean from covert employee monitoring. However, some of these techniques can be used to improve workplace safety and ensure, for example, that employees take regular breaks from work in order to reduce eye strain and the health dangers of sedentary work. Below, I…
Hartman, L.P. (2000). Technology and Ethics: Privacy in the Workplace. Business and Society Review 106:1, 1-27.
Kaupins, G., & Minch, R. (2005). "Legal and Ethical Implications of Employee Location Monitoring," HICSS, vol. 5, pp.133a, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Ethics at Apple
Apple has been for some time now the leading manufacturer of innovative wireless technologies, including the iPhone, the iPad, iPods, and Macintosh computers that do more and set the table for other manufacturers to emulate "Mac" innovations. Following the death of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs -- and the emergence of Tim Cook as the new CEO -- the technology media and happy Apple consumers wait for the next launch of an innovative device that will change the way people communicate and retrieve information.
hat are the Apple values and ethics? The "Apple Values" section of the Apple Employee Handbook (circa 1993) sets the record straight on what is expected of employees. In short, Apple asserts that "…we will not compromise our ethics or integrity in the name of profit" (seanet.com). hat Apple does is "…set aggressive goals and drive ourselves hard to achieve them" and "build products"…
Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,
from http://9to5mac.com .
Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com .
Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May