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Moreover, the rape symbolism becomes pronounced in "How Low." First, Ludacris walks through the mirror into the girls' room. Initially there were only a few females but when he steps inside, somehow there are several more girls in the room. His stepping through the mirror is a gross violation of their privacy and personal space. The act is a symbolic rape as Ludacris enters the room uninvited while the women are scantily clad. Moreover, Ludacris brings with him some male friends who don creepy white masks like that of Jason in Friday the 13th. The video then depicts some of the women running scared down the stairs, as they are being chased by these creeps in the hockey masks. The imagery is frighteningly sexist, as males are shown as preying on helpless females. Later, women are being stripped of their clothing against their will by an unseen force. They have…
All videos retrieved from MTV Music Videos Web site at http://www.mtv.com/music/videos/
One, 21 Guns
Here I stand. Or lay. This will probably be my last entry. Judging from how pale my hand is, I'd say definitely my last entry. Unlike I have a little luck or some sort of miracle from above. hat's that old saying? Oh, yeah. "There are no atheists in fox holes." Guess that's so. It's at our darkest that we ask for help even if we normally wouldn't admit to needing any kind of help, from the Almighty or anything else. So if you find this, please send this home. Send to Robert Markam, Sr., 4423 Twain St., Hannibal, MO.
Nothing's ever built to last
I'm bleeding pretty good out this wound on my leg and my make-shift tourniquet doesn't seem to be stopping the flow. I hope that whoever finds me actually reads these words. Only then will you understand why I…
Armstrong, Billie Joe. "21 Guns." Rec. 2008. 21st Century Breakdown. Greenday. Reprise Records, 2009. CD.
As a result, consumers again have choices. y limiting media exposure, and being aware of media techniques used to brand and market pop stars, we can make educated choices. Rather than choosing what to listen to by turning on the radio and television, we now have the choice to investigate on our own, on the Internet. It will be interesting to see how pop music responds.
Daly, Steve. "ritney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. elmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
Lelanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio rings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." illboard, 17 June…
Daly, Steve. "Britney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
LeBlanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio Brings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." Billboard, 17 June 2000, 75.
Houston, young and beautiful, and the daughter of gospel singer Cissy Houston, niece of the famous singer Dione Warwick, and God Daughter of soul queen Aretha Franklin; emerged to fame at age 15 with Life's a Party single in 1979 (Bronson, Fred, 2002, p. 52). But her real fame came in 1983, after she signed with a manager, Clive Davis. She went on to release many major hits; in fact, nearly every song she ever sang became a hit; songs like Saving All My Love for You, Where do Broken Hearts Go, and Greatest Love of All; all hitting the top of pop music radio and sales charts (p. 52).
After having gained such fame and recognition during the 1980s, Houston even made The Star Spangled Banner a hit when she sang it at the opening of the 1991 Superbowl. However, like Boy George, during the 1990s Houston began a…
Allaboutboygeorge.com, online, found at http://www.allaboutboygeorge.com/actor.html, retrieved 20 November 2009.
BBC News, online, found at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7832565.stm , retrieved 20 November 2009.
Bronson, F. (2002). Billboard's Hottest Hot 100 Hits, Watson Guptill, New York, New
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, ecord Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark…
"George Martin," (n.d.). Beatles Bible. Retrieved online: http://www.beatlesbible.com/people/george-martin/
Martin, G. (2012). Interview with Marc Myers. Retrieved online: http://www.jazzwax.com/2012/09/interview-sir-george-martin-pt-1.html
Ratliff, B. (2008). Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer, Dies. The New York Times. 22 Feb, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/22/arts/music/22macero.html
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2010). George Martin Biography. Retrieved online: http://rockhall.com/inductees/george-martin/bio/
Few popular music stars today are as colorful as Lady Gaga. Recently on tour, Lady Gaga is again making the headlines. In South Africa, a group of churches has been organizing protests against Lady Gaga's performances, and even just her presence, in the country. Among other complaints, the South African Council of Churches claims Lady Gaga's visit "could lead to an exponential growth of Satanism," (Engelbrecht, p. 1). For others, Lady Gaga is a welcome presence in the popular culture because she spreads the message of gender equality and positive gender "performativity," (Horn, p. 1). Lady Gaga is like a female "drag queen" and therefore sends a good message about tolerance of gender and sexual identities. Finally, Lady Gaga exemplifies the way social media can be used to promote popular culture and allow for greater fan interactions and control over content. Given that Lady Gaga is associated with Satanism,…
Engelbrecht, David. "Council of Churches Still Anti-Gaga." Channel 24. Retrieved online: http://www.channel24.co.za/Music/News/Council-of-Churches-still-anti-Gaga-20121129
Hampp, Andrew. "Gaga, Oooh Lala: Why the Lady Is the Ultimate Social Climber." Advertising Age. 22 Feb, 2010. Retrieved online: http://vandymkting.typepad.com/files/2010-2-22-adage-gaga-oooh-la-la-why-the-lady-is-the-ultimate-social-climber.pdf
Horn, Katrin. "Camping with the Stars: Queer Perfomativity, Pop Intertextuality, and Camp in the Pop Art of Lady Gaga." Current Ojbectives of Postgraduate American Studies. Vol. 11. Retrieved online: http://copas.uni-regensburg.de/article/view/131/155
..it has to affect people in predictable ways regardless of particular circumstances" (Linton pp). However, music, says Linton isn't like that because one listener might hear the opening E-minor chorus of the St. Matthew Passion and become grief stricken, while someone else might become bored, and another might find that piece incomprehensible (Linton pp). According to Linton, listening to a particular kind of music does not throw listeners into a trance any more than heavy metal music turns its listeners into sociopaths (Linton pp).
However, even Linton back-stepped a bit when he revealed that there was one area of life in which music apparently had the ability to affect people's behavior, grocery shopping (Linton pp)! Several studies reveal that faster paced music tends to make American shoppers walk down the aisles more quickly than slower paced music (Linton pp).
Apparently Holloway believes that society can be transformed by the cultivation…
Linton, Michael. "The Politics of Music.'
There is more to it than meets the eye (or ear), and repeated listenings make that even more apparent.
Great music also depends on great performances, and that is another reason to listen to it more than once. Each artist interprets music a bit differently, and so, no performance will be exactly alike. This is true of all types of music, even classical. Even though the scores are the same, each musician, director, and arranger sees the work differently, and adds a bit of their own interpretation or personality into the piece. Thus, the same song sung decades ago by the Beach Boys does not sound like the same song today sung by a young rap or hip hop artist.
Do these theories apply to pop music, as well? In many aspects, yes, they do. There are certainly many songs in pop music that are complex and detailed, with different…
Features to Listen for in Classical Music." Classicism and Classical Music. 123-124.
Today sometimes also referred to as 'urban' music, R&B was originally a euphemistic way of referring to the boogie woogie blues-based music of African-Americans in the 40s and 50s. In some circles, these would be referred to as 'race records.' When white musicians like Elvis Presley began recording these songs, the term Rock and Roll was coined. This transition would not render the R&B genre moot, but would instead apply it to most music made by African-Americans. Over the years, this would come to serve as a Billboard Chart classification for forms such as Soul, Funk, Disco and many modes of Hip Hop.
Quite in fact, today, R&B may be said to be the dominant form in popular music once again, with its permeation of the variant of popular forms impacting the sound of music today in the same way that rock would for decades. Particularly in the type of…
Today many mainstream popular artists have Rhythm and Blues influences. In addition some artists fluctuate between signing R&B and pop music. Although there are often distinctions made between the two genres R&B is definitely a type of popular music that has been greatly influenced by all of the above Genres.
Rap music or hip hop is also a prime example of the influence of African-American Music on popular music. Rap music actually comes from the ancient art form of poetry. The original intent for rap was to tell a story -- provide a narrative. ithin the context of African-American folk tradition storytelling is extremely important -- the griot is important. Griots are the keepers of the oral traditions -- the storytellers. According to Powell (1991) "To the accompaniment of drums or other percussive instruments, griots entertain and educate their audiences by reciting tribal history and current events. Their performances are…
Powell, CT. (1991) Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3,
Progler., J.A.(1995) Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm
Section Ethnomusicology, Vol. 39, No. 1,, pp. 21-54
Music and the Universe
Music is one characteristic everything in existence possesses. For anything to be existing, it has to possess an amount of energy and these always undergo vibration. From these vibrations, sound waves are generated and these combine to form what we call music. Nothing better defines the phrase "Universal Language" than music. Every human being relates to it. Sound waves move and come in contact with just about anything existing including water, soil, animals, vegetation, other worlds and galaxies etc. Music could also determine a person's mood. This power of music on human moods and emotions can actually be explained easily. The sound waves on reaching a person encounter his/her unique energy signature which causes a unique response to each sound.
This study aims to illustrate just how music and language are related and to also conclusively show that these two have a deep mental and scientific…
Auner, Joseph. "Chapter two: Expanding musical worlds" in Music in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. WW Norton and Company. (2014): 16-34
Brown, Steven, and Joseph Jordania. "Universals in the world's musics." Psychology of Music 41, no. 2 (2013): 229-248.
McMullen, Erin, and Jenny R. Saffran. "Music and language: A developmental comparison." Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal 21, no. 3 (2004): 289-311.
Slevc, L. Robert, and Brooke M. Okada. "Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control." Psychonomic bulletin & review 22, no. 3 (2015): 637-652.
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
Music and Society
Music has a profound influence on society. As with other forms of art, music has the ability to communicate messages that are both complex and oblique -- the message need not be specific, but may convey an emotion or ethos, external to the lyrical content of the songs. Music gives a voice to generations by allowing those who have the ability to convey their thoughts and feelings through the form, and others to convey theirs through the consumption of the media. Thus, while music can have significant influence over a generation, and reflect its values, likewise the music to which that generation is drawn to reflects its values outward to the world, allowing some of the music (and other art) consumed by that generation to be understood by any society that chooses to consume that music. One cannot replicate the 60s just by listening to the Doors…
Edmonson, J. (2013). How social media and streaming have influenced the music industry. Socialnomicsi. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.socialnomics.net/2013/12/02/how-social-media-and-streaming-have-influenced-the-music-industry/
Gordon, A. (2014). Subcultures, Popular Music and Social Change.: Subcultural practices in UK punk culture. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Music on Teens Actions
In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle…
Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.
Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.
Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.
Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
In the music field, Germany boasts of some of the world's most renowned producers, composers and performers. Germany is the third largest music market in the world and the largest in Europe. The earliest roots of the music culture in Germany are within monastic chants and religious music. The 12th century saw the mystic abbess Hildegard who was from Bingen writing storing compositions and hymns. These were sought to be free musical expressions coming from narrow conventions. Between the 12th and 14th century, minnesingers who were wandering nobles and knights wrote and recited love poems in country version in the tradition of French trovers and troubadours. Out of the many minnesingers during that period of time, einmar Von Hagenau and Walther Von de Vogelweide were the most famous ones. Apart from the minnesingers there was also the development of a secular folk music tradition. There are collections of…
Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/
InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028
Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as teens assembled their own 'mixes' rather than sought to embrace the output of an individual artist. It was said that the era of the great soloist and the great musical concept album was dead. ith her first album The Fame in 2008, Lady Gaga changed all of that and silenced the industry's critics. Yes, she is frequently outrageous and provokes controversy for her attire as well as her voice. But underneath all of the glam and glitter, Lady Gaga has proved that she a unique mix of vocal talent, showmanship, and social activism. She has also generated a huge following on Facebook and Twitter. Lady Gaga's fans do not simply download "Poker Face," "Telephone" and "Born this ay" online. They love…
"Lady Gaga tells all." Rolling Stone. June 21, 2010. [November 11, 2011].
"Poker Face." Lyrics. [November 11, 2011].
Music, Art, Literature Trends
From impressionism to pop art, jazz to hip hop, science fiction to beat poetry, artistic, musical, and literary expressions have varied considerably between 1870 and 2005. The period between the end of the nineteenth century to the current day can be generally described as the modern and postmodern eras. The beginning of the modern era, during the final decades of the nineteenth century, coincided with the Industrial evolution. Along with fascination with modern technology and optimism for the future came simultaneous disillusionment. However, modern technological advancements have made such widespread creativity possible. Social and political trends have also influenced creative endeavors, and vice-versa. Art, music, and literature are more accessible and more possible to create than they ever were in the past. The modern era has been characterized by an overall flourishing of the expressive arts, but some trends have a more lasting significance than others.…
Rock music became more than just a musical trend; it also characterized the rise of the teenage culture, symbolized rebellion, and influenced political and social attitudes. Furthermore, rock and roll remains a viable creative endeavor today, and is also internationally popular, which is why the trend is so important. Beyond rock and roll, electronic music and hip hop are recent significant musical trends. Electronic music has been around for decades, and reached a peak with the advent of the rave. Electronic music remains a vital force in the industry, and has also impacted the development of hip hop. Hip-hop is yet another musical trend that coincides with social and race-related realities in the United States. The genre is so important because it represents American urban culture.
Among the literary trends between 1870 and the present day, the most significant ones include post-colonialism, science fiction, beat poetry, and horror. Post-colonial literature such as the works of Joseph Conrad brought awareness to the problems associated with the colonialist mentality. Post-colonial fiction put a human face on the very real political, social, and economic issues of the modern world. Realism was a major literary method used by post-colonial authors, who depicted their worlds with stunning detail. With the modern fascination with technological advancements, science fiction became a highly significant literary trend to emerge during the twentieth century. Science fiction originated in the early twentieth century when Orson Welles' reading of H.G. Wells' novel the War of the Worlds shocked the nation into believing that aliens had indeed attacked the United States. Science fiction literature strongly influenced television and film, too, and is responsible for the popularity of both Star Trek and Star Wars. Related to but different from science fiction, fantasy writing also emerged during this time and gave rise to the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, whose works recently spawned motion pictures.
Another significant literary trend to emerge during the middle of the twentieth century was beat poetry and beat literature. Beat poetry was completely free verse and free form, in sharp contrast to earlier, more structured forms. Moreover, beat poetry was far more abstract than previous works. Just as modern art was becoming more abstract and expressionist, so too was literature. Another key literary trend to emerge during the past century was horror fiction. While horror derives from earlier Gothic literature as well as from science fiction, the horror genre has had a huge impact on modern literary expression. Authors like Stephen King have become immensely famous by making people afraid, and his works as well as the works of countless other horror writers have impacted the plots and themes of films and television shows.
Since the band exploded onto the scene in 2005, the White Stripes have wooed casual listeners and hypercritical audiophiles alike. Founded by Jack White, the White Stripes have received much critical acclaim and the most affectionate form of flattery, too, which is imitation. For instance, Vancouver, Canada band the White Blood Cells is "a pair of balding Irish guys who only play White Stripes songs," (Lucas, 2012). Usually cover bands are tributes to rock's greats such as Led Zeppelin. The fact that the White Stripes already have cover bands dedicated to them shows how much of a mark they have made on music. Yet it has been difficult to classify the music of The White Stripes. Using the term "rock" music is overly general. Therefore, the best classification of The White Stripes has been, to date, the term "garage rock." Garage rock refers to a sub-genre of rock music…
Florida, R. & Jackson, S. (2010). Sonic City: The Evolving Economic Geography of the Music Industry. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29(3): 310-321.
Lucas, J. (2012). White Blood Cells' Get Going is an impressive effort. Straight.com. Retrieved online: http://www.straight.com/article-838066/vancouver/white-blood-cells
McGreevy, R. (2012). How Jack White earned his stripes. Irish Times. 31 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2012/1031/1224325939787.html
I am in complete agreement with Stephen Thomas Erlewine's review of Madonna's album Like a Prayer. First, Erlewine states that the album is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement." One of the reasons why Like a Prayer is a major artistic statement is that Madonna seems more mature in this album than she did in previous ones. For example, the subject matter of her songs, including the title track, is more deeply personal than it was on albums such as Like a Virgin. Moreover, on Like a Prayer, the "material girl" becomes a woman. In songs like "Promise to Try," she creatively expresses herself to members of her family and is no longer just singing about herself. Like a Prayer is "her most explicit attempt at a major artistic statement" because Madonna is stretching her own boundaries and refining her image. A second reason why…
Since the valuation of a God had been essentially devaluated, what was to be the source of revaluation in the modern world? No answer could satisfy Ives, for his society saw no return to the societal standards and beliefs of the age of Bach, which gave explicit valuation to all things, especially music -- as seen in Bach's mastering of counterpoint. Schoenberg's inverted counterpoint is the antithesis of that old world Germanic culture -- and it is no surprise that Schoenberg settled in America -- all things being equal, and, in a sense, equally meaningless.
In conclusion, what was once considered light and understood, orthodox, hierarchical, and whole -- in terms of both estern culture and estern classical music in the time of Bach -- had, by the time of Ives and Schoenberg, drifted into a kind of relativistic self-importance/self-worthlessness that had no moorings whatsoever. Notes and attitudes shifted without…
Barker, Dan. "Brahms the Freethinker." Works Without Faith. 17 May 2007. Web. 25
Heiner, Stephen. Interview with Bp. Williamson. 1 October 2006. Web. 25 March
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
Archaeological finds show that prehistoric man had already played music. Music and dance are the humans' most natural and original forms of expression. Berendt said of modern generations: "Nada brahma - all is sound," in nature. Stones, bones, pieces of wood, hollow vessels and cups make sounds when pushed, beaten or rubbed together. Stretched hides bang, the buzz of the arrow whizzing off the bow can be imitated with fingers and the murmuring, roaring and whistling of the wind can be caught in reeds, bone pipes or hollow branches.
Today, numerous types of different forms of music are played across the world. Because humans are so diverse, it comes as no surprise that people like different types of music. For example, there are many adults, many of them older, who do not particularly appreciate hip hop and rap. Part of this has to do with the slang language,…
Berendt, J.E. Nada Brahma. The world is sound. Rowohlt, Reinbek,1983.
Christenson, P.G. And Roberts, D.F. It's Not Only Rock & Roll: Popular Music in the Lives of Adolescents. New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1998.
Freidan, Gregory. "A Response to Professor Taruskin." New York Times, December, 2001.
Liske, Kenneth L. "A Statement of Educational Philosophy and Professional Purpose." University of Wisconsin. 11 May, 2005.
However, at the same time, the Dominican Republic is also a Hispanic speaking island and thus the Latin influence is also heavy in their version of Reggae and other musical tastes. Finally, as the band grew up in the Bronx, their musical background was also heavily influenced by the growth of American style hip-hop, which grew up out of the Bronx area. This diverse, mixing pot of musical heritage was combined by the band Aventura to create the unique musical character of Bachata.
Overall, I found the Avnentura Kings of Bachata concert to be of high quality and highly entertaining. Watching the band perform on stage shows you how much they care about their music and how much they enjoy performing it for their fans. These facts bring a high level of energy to their show, which I found captivating. The band played their songs at a fast, energetic pace…
Even the lyrics, which nonetheless maintain the same kind of bubblegum-angst present in nearly any widely successful "alternative" band, manage to surprise simply by the fact that the band seems to have gained a wider vocabulary, both in terms of individual words and the metaphors used. Put another way, burning "like the fire of a thousand suns" is simply a more enjoyable image than "one step closer to the edge / and I'm about to break," even if both convey generally the same theme within either song.
Following the release of A Thousand Suns, Linkin Park has, as it did previously, focused on charity work alongside the writing of the next album a promotional tour. Most recently, the band has played benefit concerts for victims of the earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent nuclear fallout which hit Japan earlier this year, with the first being in Los Angeles alongside the band B'z,…
Anonymous. "Linkin Park Awards."AceShowBiz. AceShowBiz.com, 2011. Web. 23 Sep 2011.
Anonymous. "B'z, Linkin Park rock fans in Los Angeles to aid disaster-hit Japan." Mainichi
Daily News 01 Sep 2011. Web.
People are now looking ways to fight this problem of stress. Some people take help of drugs to control the stress issue but the side effects of drugs create more problems rather than solving one. Exercise has been proven as a natural solution to the problem of stress with no side effects. In certain cases of other psychological problems combining exercise and music can be helpful.
Effects on Mental Performance: esearches have also shown that both music and exercise combined together have positive effects on cognitive abilities. In a research including 33 men and women in the final weeks of a cardiac rehabilitation program after bypass surgery, angioplasty or cardiac catheterization, the effects of classical music and exercise were studied. All participants were asked to complete a verbal fluency test before and after two separate sessions of exercising on a treadmill. Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons', a classical music piece, was…
Henderson, S. (August, 2005). The Rhythm of Capoeira: Aerobic Workout Combines Cultural Music and Dance for an Effective Exercise. Ebony. 60(10): 94+.
The Effect of Music on Exercise', Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://www.anselm.edu/internet/psych/theses/2004/hall/webpage/
Morris, a. Myers, S. Schaumburg, L. Schrage, K. And Veasey, M. (2006). The Perceived Effects of Music on Exercise Performance. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/541.asp
Little Music with Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Study Suggests' Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/hartsong.htm
These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.
The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).
The theory explained various…
Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.
Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.
Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
Undoubtedly many Beatles songs will be around far longer than many pieces labeled as "classical," but we would still never call "Yesterday" a work of classical music. Similarly, songs like "Yesterday" can be considered as musical masterpieces just as Beethoven's 9th, but the term "classical" can still only be applied to Beethoven, not the Beatles.
Therefore, pop music can be "classic" but not "classical." Classical music is a category; the term does not mean that the music was composed in the eighteenth century; nor does it mean that the music will endure in time as a masterpiece. Music called "classical" can be composed in the 21st century; much of it will not stand the test of time. Nevertheless, it can be labeled as classical if it can be classified into that genre, for instance by the type of instruments being played and the overall impact of the composition.
Classical." Entry in Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=classical .
Popular Music and Identity
Sound Clash-Popular Music and American Culture
Identifying through music is fantastic and creates social movements. People find music to be liberating, relaxing, and calming. Identifying oneself through music a person is able to have direct experiences in their body. This allows a person to place them self in an imaginary cultural narrative. Popular music has been analyzed as though it is a classical composition, which makes the analysts neglect the improvisational and performative aspects of popular music. Analyzing how audiences respond to popular music and how they identify with this kind of music is vital. This would allow people to better understand how different people identify with certain popular songs. Theodor Adorno viewed popular music as a culture industry, which is designed to appeal to society by creating a false need for entertainment. Simon Frith views popular music as a complex world where that values and…
Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.
Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.
Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media and Cultural Theory. London: Bookboon. Print.
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
Ethiopian Music 4
Ethiopia actually contains many distinct cultures. The most populous is that of the Christian Amhara around the capital plateau, but there are other Christian, Jewish, and Muslim peoples, some remote and virtually unknown. The following remarks apply to Amhara lyric poetry.
Sung verse poetry is here the major musical artform, given a very plastic melodic conception based in artistic standards which revel in double meanings. The basic formats together with the ambiguities in phrasing have something in common with poetic forms in Yemen and serve principally to attract interest. The sonorities of instrumental ensembles can also be similar, with the instruments serving primarily to accompany or mimick the voice, but with the notable inclusion of the krar lyre which seems to have direct ties to ancient lyres of Greece and King David (a fixture of Ethiopian iconography). The music itself is very much melodically driven, frequently with…
Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.scaruffi.com/history/african.html
Abyssinie Swing. Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.rootsworld.com/reviews/book-abbys.shtml
Gebrekidan, Fikru. Roots, Kwas, and Reggae. Retreived May 23, 2006 from htt:/ / www.seleda.com/may00/bawza.shtml
World Fact Book. Ethiopia. Retireved May 23, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html
music is not always a vehicle for political or social commentary, it has become increasingly more so in the past several generations. Music serves often as a vehicle for community and cultural self-expression, or as a means to communicate social and political ideals as with the spirituals and blues songs of African-Americans bemoaning slavery and racism. Since the 1960s, however, music and its lyrical component has become a means by which to understand the zeitgeist of the historical epoch. Music in the 1960s was often directly and overtly political, particularly the songs of American folk musicians like Bob Dylan. It is almost easier to single out songs from the late 1960s that did not have political overtones versus those that did, because there were so many artists who used music to convey political messages. One of the most notable such songs is John Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance." This song…
Britton, L.M. (2015). Times they are a changin': Indie's apathy v pops political pursuit. The Guardian. 8 June, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/08/times-they-are-a-changin-indies-apathy-v-pops-political-pursuit
Burns, C. (n.d.). Lady Gaga: Performer, persona, and political advocate. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=comssp
Gavish, E. (2009). Music has always been a tuneful force for political change. New York Daily News. 10 Act, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/music-arts/music-tuneful-force-political-change-article-1.381154
Hughes, D. (2013). Hip-hop in politics. ABC News. 14 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/OTUS/hip-hop-politics-difference-generation-makes/story?id=18495205
Evolution of Jazz
Dizzy Gillespie was a jazz musician and composer who mostly known for his work on the trumpet. He also played several other instruments, including the piano and alternative horns. His tenure in jazz was fairly lengthy, and spanned several eras including big band and bebop, the latter of which he helped to popularize. He also played swing music on more than one occasion and performed vocals on both recordings and during live sets. Count Basie was mostly known for his work on the piano and his compositional skills. He was one of the most noted jazz musicians during the time in which this art form initially became popular. Basie was a part of the big band movement in jazz, and led expansive jazz orchestras for the vast majority of his career. Chet Baker was a jazz musician who was largely renowned for his work on the trumpet,…
Bourne, M. (1972). Fat cats at lunch: an interview with Dizzy Gillespie. www.downbeat.com Retrieved from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=1015
Brady, S. (2011). Gordon Goodwin & the big phat band. http://jazztimes.com Retrieved from
608). Hence, Spears is seen as transcending from teen pop star to "vamp." Some of her fans refer to her as "slore" (the combined words "slut" and "whore") because of her move from teen cuteness to adult soft core pornography.
Although it is possible, it doesn't seem likely that Spears suffers from schizophrenia. In his book, Dr. David Barlow lists the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and while Spears has shown "grossly disorganized…" behavior, to our knowledge she does not have disorganized speech, delusions or hallucinations. There is nothing in the literature about Spears that indicates she has had autistic issues or psychotic lapses, but again, schizophrenia is a remote possibility (Barlow, et al., 2008).
hat interventions may be appropriate for Spears, given the widespread believe among those close to her and professionals that she has psychological problems?
Does Spears suffer from a bipolar condition? According to Medline Plus (part of…
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2009). Postpartum Blues. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2009, from http://www.acog.org .
Barlow, David H. (2008). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Florence, KY:
Celizic, Mike. (2008). Spears Suffering from "Bipolar Disorder." MSNBC. Retrieved Dec. 16,
CL's "Hello itches" and the Post-Feminist Representation of the ody
In the music video by CL entitled "Hello itches," CL has managed to escape the constriction of the typical K-pop girl group (sexy, innocent, seductive, chic) by asserting a more aggressive, masculine-mimicking (gagsta-rap-mimicking to be exact), hyper-sexual attitude of domineering vibes; yet, in doing so, she has fallen into another and separate trope -- not the trope of the cute/sexy K-pop artist but rather the trope of the strong, feminist, sexually assertive/aggressive pop artist (a trend represented in various modes by others such as Nicki Minaj, Iggy Azalea, eyonce, Lady Gaga). CL's performance in the video channels the swagger of chauvinistic hip-hop artists, who wave and strut and bounce in front of the camera while surrounded by their posse and/or cadre of scantily clad women. For CL, her posse is the cadre of women -- but here they are donned…
Gill, Rosalind. "Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility," European
Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 10, no. 2 (2007): 147-166.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media, critical edition, edited by W.Terrence.
Gordon. Berkeley, California: Gingko Press, 2013.
Kanye West's Yeezy Season Three Collections And Subversion Of Dominant Culture
Fashion is something that is thought to be changing with time. The fashion of the ancient times is not the same fashion of today, and the fashion of today has a little chance being the fashion of the times to come. As with the fashion progression in the United States of America, the fashion protagonists, and experts have contributed much to fashion. Fashion remains to be the people's choice and touches on the interests and tastes of the people. In the United States of America, fashion has been a way of life, finding its way almost into everything that involves human beings. The contributions are varied like with those who have progressed with the traditional career of fashion to those who have entered into fashion from other fields of play like Kanye West. In his Yeezy Season Three collections,…
Clay, Andreana. 2012. The Hip-Hop Generation Fights Back: Youth, Activism, and Post-Civil Rights Politics. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1993. What Is This "Black" in Black Popular Culture? Social Justice, Vol. 20, No. 1/2 (51-52), Rethinking Race (Spring-Summer 1993), pp. 104-114
Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover [u.a.]: Wesleyan Univ. Press
Just as we can be sure that once we cross the border out of the United States the laws that we are governed by will not be our own; so, too, can we be sure that our cultural tastes in estern music will differ too amongst the people whose culture we enter as we leave the United States.
Like Byrne, Jeff Todd (ed., 1992), emphasizes the point that each culture will have its own music; Mexico and Latin America have Salsa, and other cultural music as we move south through South America, and into the Caribbean islands, like Cuba. In each of these places, we find folk and cultural variations of music that, in the context of their culture, are easy to enjoy, but not necessarily what we would choose to listen to at home instead of Bob Seger or Joe Cocker. Even the way in which music is referred…
Byrne, David. Crossing Music's Borders: 'I Hate World Music,' New York Times,
October 3, 1999.
Nettl, Bruno (ed). Excursions in World Music, Up Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2004.
Slobin, Mark, Titon, Jeff, Todd, Jeff (ed). Worlds of Music, Chapter I, the Music
Furthermore, Live Nation would have a great advantage in advising and guiding Springsteen regarding his career and recordings. Since the company handles all aspects of the artist's career and has a great chance of benefiting from everything the artist does, it also has a long-term perspective and interest in developing the artist's career.
Springsteen has been widely advised to sign the ten-year deal with Live Nation in order to avoid the difficulties and costs associated with self-marketing. However, this deal is not the most suitable because Springsteen already has a huge and loyal fan base and would therefore have fewer challenges in marketing his album. Secondly, Springsteen will also lose creative control since creative decisions are not left entirely on the artist's hand since the partner has too much at stake. While he stands a chance to receive a lot of money up front in this deal, he will significantly…
Byrne, D. (2008, January 16). David Byrne's Survival Strategies for Emerging Artists -- and Megastars. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://www.wired.com/entertainment/music/magazine/16-01/ff_byrne?currentPage=2
"The Current State of the Music Industry." (2010, March 31). DIO: Do It Ourselves. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://dio333.wordpress.com/2010/03/31/the-current-state-of-the-music-industry/
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…
Asai, S.M. (1999). Nomai dance drama: A surviving spirit of medieval Japan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Malm, W.P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International.
Tokita, A. & Hughes, D.W. (2008). Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Wellesz, E. (Ed.). (1999). Ancient and oriental music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Although the music is not hip-shaking, it is head-bopping and finger-snapping.
31.Hari Naam Ka Pyala
Anup Jalota (India)
Aisi Laagi Lagan
This Indian music is at once accessible and mystical. It is neither Indian classical music nor Indian pop like Bangra. Instead, "Hari Naam Ka Pyala" sounds like Indian devotional or religious music for a popular audience. There is a nice low-register string instrument throughout as well as the Indian drums, which may or may not be tabla. There is also the surprising addition of an accordion-like instrument but most of the instrumentation is strings and percussion. The male vocals are sweet, devotional, and melodic. The sounds or phonemes of the language seem to blend well with the instrumentation as well as the beats. Thus, the vocals both stand alone and blend with the music as if another instrument. I enjoyed listening to this.
Sexuality is another common theme in music. We see in the songs studied testosterone and estrogen, the sexual response cycle, psychosexual images and sexual orientation issues. These treatments of the same basic thing are again complex, ranging from purely physical explorations of the subject to the deep-rooted psychological attributes of sex. Self-esteem and denial are also wrapped up in this subject in some of the songs. This again reflects our need to understand our sexual selves, in particular as distinct from our emotional/loving selves.
In the other category, power proved a major theme. Self-esteem, self-serving bias, defense mechanisms, ego, superego, the spotlight effect, achievement motivation and projection are all components of this theme that emerge in the music. The need for power reflects a desire for achievement that we all have and the need to feel important in this world, perhaps explaining why this theme is so popular. Its popularity…
23. "96 degrees in the shade." Third World (Jamaica). Reggae Greats
The guitar opening in "96 degrees in the shade" make the song sound not like reggae but like soft rock or smooth jazz. In fact, as the song progresses I was surprised that it took so long for the quintessential reggae sounds to start: including the syncopated rhythms and baseline.
24. "Dodi Li." Theodore Bikell (Israel). Folk Songs of Israel
Meaning "My beloved is mine," Dodi Li is a classic Israeli folk song that has been sung by an astonishing variety of groups including Peter, Paul, and Mary and the Milwaukee Children's Choir. The song emphasizes beautiful vocals and heartfelt Hewbrew lyrics. Theodore Biskell's version is evocative especially because the vocals are haunting and resonate throughout my soul. Moreover, the song is deceptively simple with simple soft strumming and drums in the background.
25. "Slow Hora/Freylekhs." The Klezmer Conservatory…
The crowds Christina draws are not all twelve-year-old girls; because the artist has earned numerous critical accolades fans come in droves to see one of the most well-respected musicians in the United States. After winning a slew of Grammy awards, Christina also captured the attention of other well-respected and well-known artists in the music industry. Most notably, Christina Aguilera toured with Justin Timberlake, Pink, Mya, and Lil' Kim. She has also performed onstage with artists as prestigious as Madonna. The recognition Christina Aguilera has earned for herself make her one of the most attractive performers in the industry, but the artist is also an incredible human being.
Aguilera's fame has not destroyed her spirit, proven by the way she has balanced her sexuality with her singing and her fortune with philanthropy. Her Web site describes her primary concern as the fight against AIDS. Christina Aguilera has devoted performance time and…
Christina Aguilera: Biography." The Christina Aguilera Official Website. Retrieved April 11, 2008 at http://www.christinaaguilera.com
Japanese Music from Anime and Video Games on American Culture
Music found in Japanese anime and video games has found its' way into American culture, as the popularity of these mediums has provides a route through which Japanese artists and creative works may extend beyond the Asian region (Shahriari 179). The cross cultural nature of music can be seen in the development of today's Japanese popular music; known as J-Pop, has roots which can be traced to the pre-orld ar II western jazz clubs (Shahriari 178). The Japanese music scene developed its' own culture, as seen with Japanese crooners emulating the style of Elvis Presley, such as Paul Anka and J-Pop songs of the time such as Sukiyaki (Shahriari 179). The style mainly stayed within Japan, with little music becoming well know externally (Shahriari 179). However, the use of the music in anime, as well as video games has increased…
Kelts, R. Japanamerica: How Japanese Pop Culture Has Invaded the U.S. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print.
Knobel, M, and C Lanlshear. "Remix: The Art and Craft of Endless Hybridization." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52.1 (2008): 22-33. Print.
Sexton, J. Music, Sound and Multimedia: From the Live to the Virtual. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Print.
Shahriari, A. Popular World Music. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015. Print.
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Music may be counted among the strongest neurobiological tools at hand for altering individual moods, conduct and attitudes. What effect does it have on us in relation to the promotion of hatred and violent behavior? In what way does it shape people’s explanatory approach and minds? An inherent relationship has been found between mood and music. Scholars constantly attempt at objectively explaining the occurrence of such influences. Research works demonstrate that music engages, within the listener, a broad array of psychology-influencing neurobiological systems (Bergland, 2012).
Music apparently impacts an individual’s physical performance by enhancing vigor with shifting rhythms and diverse tempos, in contrast to the utter absence of music (Belford et al, 2013). This paper will address three distinct models with an aim to gauge the influence or degree of influence of music on individuals working out at gymnasiums.
Observation and Models
Model 1: Concentration represents an attentional practice…
Live Performance: Lana Del Rey
Drawing from the imagery and themes celebrated in "Born to Die," the proposed live performance presents a pastiche of patriotism. An oversized American flag provides an ideal backdrop for a set of songs, during which Lana dons a series of outfits that invoke several different elements of American culture and history including cowboy/western-inspired fringed leather jackets and skirts, elegant but classic denim, and a 1950s/retro look replete with old roller skates. Lana will also use a variety of headdresses and accessories, including her iconic flower crown and also a Kentucky Derby-worthy hat. All outfits and sets juxtapose classically feminine aesthetics, such as the flower crown, with traditional symbols of masculinity including guns and sporting gear. Throughout the set, Lana dances provocatively with both male and female dancers and rides a mechanical bull and a motorcycle on the stage.
Lana del Rey epitomizes what…
Dyer, Richard. "Stars as Specific Images." Chapter 6 in Stars. New Edition. BFI Publishing, 1998.
Gill, Rosalind. "Postfeminist Medial Culture." European Journal of Cultural Studies. Vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 147-166.
Although the Internet is the top choice of electronic media for young adults 18 to 24, this age group continues to watch significant amounts of television each week. On an average, these individuals will view between two to five hours of TV a day for entertainment and relaxation. Television advertising thus remains a top priority for marketing purposes, and companies continue to rely considerably on this medium to get across their messages (Carparelli, 2004). Audience ad recognition remains at a high 70%, and viewers actually like commercials more -- especially those that appeal to feelings, use music in a central role, are humorous and tell a story (MTV-3). It is expected that most students in the United States see about 360,000 commercials by the time they graduate high school (Tamburro, 2004).
This comes as no surprise to me. When watching a movie or a TV show, the commercials…
Acuff, D.S. (1997). What kids buy and why: the psychology of marketing to kids. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Carparelli, L. (2004) Online compares favorably to other media across generations, according to new online publishers association report. Generational Media Study. New York: Online Publishers Association.
Cohn, E. (2002). Consuming kids. American Prospect. Washington, D.C.
CyberCollege. "Social impact of TV." Retrieved February 26, 2005. http://www.cybercollege.com/frtv/frtv030.htm
American Popular Music (Lady Gaga)
The question of originality in popular music is a vexed one. To choose a convenient and current example, when Justin Bieber sings about his "baby," listeners are not meant to hear any kind of deliberate allusion to the Supremes' "Baby Love" or any other previous songs which include "Baby" as part of their lyrical hook: Bieber's charming faux-naivete cannot be mistaken for anything other than a rhetorical willingness to utilize the regular tropes and language of a standard love song. But with some performers, the matter of originality -- together with the question of influence -- is one that must be addressed. I would like to look, in this context, at the work of Stefani Germanotta, the twenty-four-year-old singer and composer better known by her stage name "Lady Gaga." I would like to examine Lady Gaga's oeuvre with three separate areas of inquiry kept in…
Brand, Katy. "No Pants." Katy Brand's Big Ass Show, Episode 1 (ITV-2, UK). Airdate 10 September 2009. Accessed on YouTube 13 March 2011 at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJKGtFNwxs8
Germanotta, Stefani ("Lady Gaga"). "Just Dance." The Fame, 2008. CD.
Grigoriadis, Vanessa. "How Lady Gaga Became the World's Biggest Pop Star." New York Magazine, 28 March 2010. Accessed on 13 March 2011 at: http://nymag.com/arts/popmusic/features/65127/
Koestenbaum, Wayne. Andy Warhol. New York: Viking, 2001. Print.
The New Face Book of ock and oll
An entirely new book (okay score) on the future of music and the place of rock and roll is being written, and yet we really can't even tell what the experience will be like, though it will most likely be a continued mix of country/folksy democracy. What we can tell is that it will come in the packaging of a self-published, self-directed, interactive collection (just like an ebook!), and that its messages of defiance will be such that the entire digital universe of followers will each think of themselves as their own Guitar Hero!
While many people believe that Guitar Hero brought rock and roll into the digital era, the case can be made that it did as much damage as good. It turned many people on to a sense of simulating the music of the leaders of rock and…
Crocker, N. (2010), Mashable Business, 5 predictions for the music industry in 2010. Retried from http://mashable.com/2009/12/25/music-industry-predictions-2010/ .
Parker, J. (2009), School of Rock: What does Guitar Hero's popularity mean for the future of rock and roll? The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/03/school-of-rock/7278/ .
Bain & Company, Publishing in the Digital Era (2011). Downloadable from http://www.bain.com/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/BB_Publishing_in_the_digital_era.pdf
Music Valence and Gender Influence Word ecall Task
A person's state of arousal can determine how well their memory functions. This phenomenon is readily apparent when persons experiencing a traumatic event find it difficult to ever escape these memories, memories that can recur unbidden in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. ecent research examining the influence of relaxing music found a similar effect, such that relaxing music impairs memory coding and consolidation. Towards the goal expanding on these results, an experiment was conducted that tested the influence of classical (relaxing), rock (stimulating), and no music on word recall performance, but stratified by gender. The results indicated that overall, classical music significantly impaired recall performance when compared to subjects listening to rock music or no music, but rock music provided no benefit. What is novel about these findings is that significant differences in memory performance were found between genders.…
Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf .
Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf .
Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and Peart, Neil. (2007). The Main Monkey Business. On Snakes & Arrows [CD]. New York: Atlantic Records.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. (1788). Symphony No. 40 in G minor (KV. 550) [Recorded by Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra with Leonard Bernstein on 19 Sep. 1995]. On Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41 [CD]. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.
The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals
By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a way of engaging in cultural expression. This means that at its core, folk music is not intended to command a commercial value nor is it necessarily folk music by definition once a form has been co-opted by an outside culture. However, this is also a definition for folk which has long been rendered obsolete by the aesthetic and vocal qualities that listeners tend to associate with the genre today. This is because the most historically significant instances in which folk music converged with the commercial zeitgeist would come to produce a highly distinctive set of sounds.
Indeed, when we think of folk music, one tends instantly to conjure image of a young Bob Dylan with harmonica rack and guitar, wheezing his…
EW. (2013). The Great Folk Rock Revival: how bands like Mumford & Sons and the Lumineers are leading a global phenomenon. Entertainment Weekly.
Holden, S. (2013). When They Hammered Out Justice in the '60s. The New York Times.
Jacobs, P. (2006). Bringing It All Back Home -- The Folk Music Revival. Rewind the Fifties.
McCormick, N. (2011). Folk Music: A Quiet Revolution. The Telegraph.
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
Media Has Shaped the Ages through Music:
Music is a medium that has shaped the ages in relation to its significant role in social movements. Actually, music has acted as one of the various methods and vehicles through which social movements have existed and developed. The role and significance of music in shaping the ages is primarily attributed to the fact that it represents more than entertainment as it has spoken for generations and exemplified belief systems. Generally, music has had a tremendous relationship to and impact on social movements in every decade from the 1960s through 2000-2010. Music has been used as a means of exemplifying the mood of the decade in terms of high profile events or movements that took place in the respective decade.
Music through the Decades:
As previously mentioned, music has played a significant role through the ages by shaping social movements and exemplifying the…
Hector, H. (2013, June 14). Understanding the History of Slavery through Bob Marley's 'Redemption Song.' Retrieved August 2, 2014, from http://www.one.org/us/2013/06/14/the-true-meaning-of-bob-marleys-redemption-song/
Holz, A.R. (2010, October 18). Musical Decades: The Revolutionary 1960s. Retrieved August 2,
2014, from http://www.pluggedin.com/upfront/2010/musicaldecades5-therevolutionary1960s.aspx
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Reggae music, born of a combination of R&B, blues, jazz, and traditional African music, and combined with a religious tradition, was unique to Jamaica at a time when the country was looking for her identity. The combination of political messages, religious connotation, and raw sound was ideal for the changing society of the time. However, to be pushed to international stardom, the music was altered and rerecorded by milder, less powerful white British artists who helped internationalize the genre. The end result, however, was that it would take many years for true reggae to reach international audiences, complete with the ideology and messages the music was intended to portray. hile the British musicians helped popularize the culture, it would take Bob Marley and many others decades to bring the true message of reggae music to international light.
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge,…
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103320803 .
Everything Jamaican. "The History of Reggae Music." Jamaica. Everything Jamaican. 2004. 7 May 2007. http://www.everytingjamaican.com/jamaica/ .
Farred, Grant. What's My Name? Black Vernacular Intellectuals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109751409 .
Bays, Barry T. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106845661 .
There is an old cliche that contemporary music, especially popular music, is without lasting significance or quality. The truth is just the opposite. Contemporary music is extremely creative, and employs a wide range of styles and draws on many traditions around the world. In fact, contemporary composers and singers encompass all the known traditions and rich styles of the past, in both western and eastern cultures, in mainstream society as well as indigenous groups. Contemporary music is all music -- from string quartets like the Kronos Quartet, whose classically trained string quartet offers jagged, minimalist, modern music that has won many fans, to the seminal and groundbreaking work of popular singer/composers like Paul Simon, who in his Rhythm of the Saints album, employed African and tribal percussion. Contemporary music can be rock and roll, rap, classical, gospel, jazz, country western, or world music (music of other cultures).
Dylan, Bob. Lyrics 1962-2002. Simon & Schuster (2002).
Dylan, Bob and Ellison, James. Younger Than That Now: The Collected Interviews With Bob Dylan Thunders Mouth Press (2002).
Grout, Donald J. And Palisca, Claude. A History of Western Music, 6th Edition. W.W. Norton & Company (2000).
Kostka, Stefan. Tonal Harmony, With an Introduction to 20th Century Music. McGraw-Hill. (2000).
We need to stop accepting such values and themes in music in the name of freedom of speech and expression because freedom is not meant to rob another person of his rights to live peacefully and securely. If my freedom hurts the rights of someone else, it means there is something wrong with the freedom granted to me. Similarly if a person encroaches upon the rights and happiness of another person and then justifies it with freedom of speech, such a person needs to seriously reflect upon his definition of freedom.
It would be wrong to assume that people are so influenced by such lyrics that they would go around killing other people and adopt anti-social behavior but they would certainly be at risk of developing such an attitude which could prove detrimental in the long run. Secondly we must understand that artists have wider acceptance and impact among impressionable…