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Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man sunandmike
Chapter One of James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man traces Stephen Dedalus's early childhood experiences from his toddler years through his first term at boarding school. As a baby, Stephen's world is a collage of sensations. His first memories are of his father reading him a story, his parent's distinct smells, and the colors of Dante's brushes. The young Stephen is acutely aware of heat, cold and other tactile sensations. These sensations are initially Stephen's main way of understanding and interpreting the outside world. Yet beyond his physical impressions of the world around him, Stephen forms an immature worldview based on his impressions of religion, politics, and relationships. Stephen's world is shaken up by his first semester at Clongowes, during which he is bullied, homesick, and physically ill. Through several key events, Stephen is forced to…
Symbolism in Portrait of the Artist
If we were to concern ourselves strictly with plot, we might well say of James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man that there is no there. Not a great deal actually happens in this essentially autobiographical tale of Stephen Dedalus, and the narrative follows no clear single trajectory of cause and effect. Rather, in one of the first important uses of stream of consciousness, Joyce tells us in this short novel about Stephen's growing self-awareness as a person and as an artist, a growing self-awareness that will cause him by the end of the book to cast off the nationalism, the Catholicism and the sense of clannishness that defines other members of his father and to set off to Paris to become a writer. Joyce's use of symbolism is far more important in conveying what he has to say about…
Joyce, James. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/29/62/frameset.html .
Symbolism in "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"
In "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man," James Joyce utilizes symbolism to help readers understand Stephen's character development. From a confused young boy to a confident man, Stephen transforms and certain symbols allow us to see this transition to occur. Joyce also uses symbolism to help readers comprehend the setting I which Stephen lives, which influences many of his choices. Symbols allow us to identify with the character and grasp his world.
The kiss early in the novel symbolizes Stephen's youth. When his schoolmates ask him if he kisses his mother goodnight, he realizes something different between them. Stephen desires to be esteemed in the schoolyard primarily because of experiences like this. The question troubles him and he can feel "his whole body hot and confused" (Joyce 14) because he does not know how to answer…
Portrait of the Artist of a Young Man by James Joyce traces the development of Stephen Dedulas as a writer from infancy to young adulthood. While Joyce shows the maturation of Stephen Deduals, he is also painting a vivid image of Dublin, Ireland and Stephen Dedulas' world. One literary device that Joyce uses throughout his novel is the repetitious appearance of numerous images. Stephen's fascination with women, both real and imaginary, is prevalent from childhood and is used by Joyce as a common strain of imagery throughout the novel.
Stephen's main love interest in the novel is Emma Clere. Emma is a girl who has such an effect on Stephen's life that he relates many events of his life back to Emma. For instance, Stephen feels guilty for his involvement with prostitutes not because it is immoral, but because of what Emma would think of him if she found out.…
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man tells the story of Stephen Dedalus as he grows from an introspective and conscious young man into a rebellious and disaffected adult. For much of the novel, young Stephen is trying to figure out exactly who he is and what it is that he values in life. It is a stream-of-consciousness story wherein the internal thoughts and feeling, no matter how insignificant they may seem are written in their entirety so as to represent in a fictional work how a real human being's thought processes guide their life. As an Irish youth, it is expected that Stephen will follow the orders of his parents and honor his father and mother, and that he will live and behave according to the Catholic tradition of his family members and his community. Religion and…
Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York, NY: Dover, 1994. Print.
Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…
Descriptions of women are primarily if not entirely based on mundane physical appearances: stockings, legs, and other features rather than character. The lack of strong female characters impedes the novel from exploring truly liberating themes, and there is a nearly complete lack of social justice issues in the novel. Historical and literary allusions omit the presence of female from the cultural canon. Joyce remains solidly concerned with the male coming of age and personal development experience, and women are but ancillary characters in supporting roles.
Still, The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man does not pretend to be anything but a coming-of-age story that centers on an Irish male protagonist. Moreover, Joyce does paint Dedalus's portrait as a man who has trouble escaping the shackles of his past and his culture. Dedalus's upbringing had a powerful influence on his socialization and his perception of gender. His father is…
As Brivic points out, the labeling of females as hysterical is another means by which a patriarchal society genders certain behaviors. Behaviors related to emotionality are notably gendered, as males and females are socialized to react and communicate according to gender norms. Occasionally in Joycean narratives, discourse related to gender is overt, rather than covert. For instance, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen does not take offense at his father's calling him a "bitch" and instead mocks him: "He has a curious idea of genders if he thinks a bitch is masculine," (Chapter 5). Awareness of the futility of gender norms and gendered identities fuel Stephen Dedalus's character in both Ulysses and in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
Feminist discourse is deliberately subversive in both James Joyce's Ulysses and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Male characters are central…
Al-Hamdani, Mohammad H. "Joyce and Feminism." Literary Paritantra (Systems). Vol 1 Nos 1 & 2 Basant (Spring) 2009, 104-109.
Brivic, Sheldon. "Gender Dissonance, Hysteria, and History in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. James Joyce Quarterly 39(3) (Spring 2002). Pp. 457-476.
Johnson, Jeri. "Joyce and Feminism." Chapter 10 in The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Cambridge Collections Online. Cambridge University Press. 16 November 2011 DOI:10.1017/CCOL0521837103.010
Mullin, Katherine. "True Manliness': Policing masculinity in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Chapter 3 in James Joyce, Sexuality, and Social Purity. Cambridge University Press.
Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.
Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness and the Secret Sharer. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
Ellman, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Jones, William Powell. Stephen Hero, a Part of the First Draft of a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: New Directions, 1944.
Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Dada and Degenerate Art in Germany
At the end of WW1, Germany found itself in a period of transition. Held responsible for the war and forced to pay reparations, the Weimar Republic was in a disastrous state. The Kaiser Willelm II had abdicated, hyperinflation decimated the value of the mark, and erlin was fast becoming vice capital of the world with "New Frau" poster-girl Anita erber taking pride in her position as the high priestess of immorality.[footnoteRef:1] It was a new Germany in every respect -- but not one that was destined to last: it was new in the sense that for the first time in its culture, the Germans were embracing the end -- the end of the old order, of the old code, of the old art and moral imperatives; life was short and falling apart at the seams as fast as the mark was becoming worthless. Jobs…
Altshuler, Bruce. The Avant-garde in Exhibition. NY: Abrams, 1994.
Barron, Stephanie. Degenerate Art: The Fate of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany. NY:
Droste, Sebastian; Berber, Anita. Dances of Vice, Horror and Ecstasy. UK: Side Real
This literary parallel also underlined in the final description of the portrait of what Dorian Gray has become at the end of the book, Chapter 20: "The thing was still loathsome -- more loathsome, if possible, than before -- and the scarlet dew that spotted the hand seemed brighter, and more like blood newly spilled. Then he trembled. Had it been merely vanity that had made him do his one good deed? Or the desire for a new sensation, as Lord Henry had hinted, with his mocking laugh?"
Again, there is scarlet, but this is the scarlet of blood letting, not an innocent blush of the young Dorian's lips. Once again, at the words of Lord Henry, even the older and more jaded Dorian is moved to tremble. He blanches at the sight of the picture, but for a different reason, because he can see the monster he has become,…
Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Full e-text available 3 Nov 2007 at http://www.upword.com/wilde/dorgray.html#3
James Joyce's autobiographical novel, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, is a multi-layered story. The author uses many techniques to indicate his surroundings, his attitudes, his maturity and his development. From styles of writing reminiscent of his infancy to youthful diatribes on the validity of the priesthood, Joyce takes us through his youth and his changing mindset. Furthermore, this intricate novel can be read from many different perspectives simultaneously. These perspectives include religious rebellion, sexual confusion, artistic freedom, political conviction, and family influence. It is a maze of vivid images and lucid dreams that define and describe Joyce's early years. It is my opinion that his water imagery most effectively expresses the complexity of Joyce's youthful composition
One of the most intense water images was the first one. The water is dark and dirty and cold. Another student, Welles, whose name is suggestive of water, throws…
Joyce, James, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 11
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…
Ascari, M. (nd) Three Aesthetes in Profile: Gilbert Osmond, Mark Ambient, and Gabriel Nash. RSA Journal 7.
Braden, HE (2011) Lily Bart and Isabel Archer: Women Free to Choose Lifestyle of Victims of Fate? University of New Orleans. 4 Aug 2011. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.uno.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1247&context=td
Brown, B. (2001) Thing Theory. Critical Inquiry. Vo. 28, No. 1 Autumn 2001.
Gilmore, MT (1986) the Commodity World of the Portrait of a Lady. The New England Quarterly, Vo. 59, No. 1. Mar, 1986.
). Indeed, when Dix exhibited Der Krieg in Berlin in 1924, he was criticized by the right wing press and eventually when Hitler came into power in 1933, Dix was fired based upon pressure from Hitler's government that contended that his paintings were antimilitary. According to Dix's dismissal letter from the Dresden Academy, his artwork "threatened to sap the will of the German people to defend themselves." To add insult to injury, Hitler's assault upon Dix did not end there. The Nazis also destroyed several of his paintings not long after he was dismissed from the Academy (Id.). Dix, however, did not let this injustice destroy his creative spirit. In 1933, he used oil and tempura on wood to paint The Seven Deadly Sins, an allegorical painting that represented Germany's political situation under Hitler. In this painting, Dix utilized the figure of the lazy Sloth because Dix blamed the German…
Apel, Dora. "Heroes and Whores: the Politics of Gender in Weimar Antiwar
Imagery." The Art Bulletin 79.3 (1997): 366+. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Avgikos, Jan. "Max Beckmann and Otto Dix: Neue Galerie." Artforum International Oct.
2005: 275. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Icons and Early Modern Portraits" adds a fascinating new twist to the investigation of the material culture of the Renaissance, which may be brought to bear directly on the study of Renaissance art. Nagel is concerned here with a question of artistic influence, which he sees being transmitted through a lively trade in Greek and other eastern religious icons. To a certain extent, this fact is self-evident but Nagel persuasively argues for several reasons that it has been underemphasized in discussion of the subject.
Nagel first notes that contemporary Renaissance viewers of these icons made several erroneous assumptions about them, which may have obscured the inability of contemporary art scholars today to view these pieces through the eyes of the Renaissance, as it were. Nagel notes from papers related to acquisition and provenance dating from the early modern period that the antiquity of these objects was greatly exaggerated, and on…
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
The best possible introduction to Grant ood's American Gothic is the fact that it was listed by The ashington Times as one of the most important icons of the 1930's in America: "Hardship at home and conflict abroad...the Great Depression. Dust bowl farmers sought a harvest of hope...labored to lift the countries spirits...Pitchfork Picture: Grant ood paints American Gothic." (The ashington Times, May, 1999)
Created in 1930, American Gothic captured the public imagination and shifted the attention of American painting from the cosmopolitan to the rural: "Grant ood's 'American Gothic' caused a stir in 1930 when it was exhibited for the first time at the Art Institute of Chicago.... Newspapers across the country carried the story and the painting of a farm couple posed before a white house...." (The Art Institute of Chicago eb site)
hy did a painting of an ordinary farm couple in front of a…
1930-1939." The Washington Times. May 24, 1999. Research by Sopko,
John, Carlton Bryant, and Patrick Butters. Retrieved from the Questia database. September 29, 2003: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a ction=openPageViewer&docId=5001784640
American Gothic." Sister Wendy's American Collection. PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/sisterwendy/works/ame.html
Check out Grant Wood's comments about American Gothic and what he portrayed in this painting." CampSilos Web site: http://www.campsilos.org/mod2/students/wood_letter.htm
Injustice anywhere," King went on, "is a threat to justice everywhere."
As to the social and racial injustices King is speaking of, a bit of background into conditions in the South - and specifically, in Alabama - is worthy of some space in this paper. In fact, just a few years prior to the civil rights activism in Birmingham (that saw King arrested and placed in a jail), the lynching of African-Americans in Alabama was not uncommon. The New York Times (August 30, 1933) reported that two "Negroes" were found lynched near Birmingham on a Sunday morning, but the good news was "mob murders have declined"; indeed, the paper reported, "...in the last ten years there have only been four lynchings" in Alabama. And on July 26, 1947, The New York Times quoted the Tuskegee Institute's data that "six out of every seven potential lynchings have been prevented" over the…
Bass, Jonathan S. Blessed Are the Peacemakers: Martin Luther King. Jr., Eight White
Religious Leaders, and the "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press, 2001
King, Martin Luther. Letter from Birmingham Jail. Essential Documents in American
Successful (for a Time) Young Con: Frank Abagnale, Jr.
Frank Abagnale, Jr., is one of America's most beloved con men -- not only because he managed to go undetected in so many professions for a considerable length of time but also because he did so at such an early age when he was practically still a boy. For this reason, it may be more appropriate to suggest that Abagnale is America's favorite con child -- what with a successful film starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Tom Hanks and a Broadway play based on his exploits. Perhaps the biggest reason for his popularity is that after his arrest and conviction, Abagnale went "straight" and began acting as a consultant for the very banks he had helped to defraud as a young man in his teens and very early twenties. This paper will discuss Abagnale's criminal and non-criminal career, provide a limited statistical…
Abagnale, F. (2000). Catch Me if You Can. NY: Broadway Paperbacks.
Abagnale, F. (2004). Human Potential: Keep Your Name to Yourself. ASAE.
Retrieved from http://www.asaecenter.org/Resources/EUArticle.cfm?ItemNumber=11539
Baker, B. (2003). Portrait of the Con Artist as a Young Man. Newsthinking. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20071012201111/http://www.newsthinking.com/story.cfm?SID=166
Simultaneously, he forces a man long upheld as honest in the highest Venetian circles into scheming and manipulations; these are roles which Iago takes on too readily, suggesting a certain familiarity, but it must be preserved that no earlier instance is ever presented to suggest that the notables of Venice were in any way wrong to uphold Iago as honest and true. In fact, those same notables are those that appealed to Othello on Iago's behalf in the question of the promotion. Allowing passion to rule what should be societal decisions is Othello's barbarism cracking through the veneer of his civility. Othello, though a great soldier, is no Caesar nor even a Roman at all. His nature is of the wild, and -- like many tamed, wild beasts -- he retains the inner potential to one day bite the hand that feeds him.
And, even after Othello's barbarian passion has…
1. Shakespeare, William. "Othello the Moor of Venice." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature. Ed. Michael Meyer. 8th ed. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin's, 2009. Print.
2. Crawford, Alexander W. "Othello as Tragic Hero." Hamlet, an ideal prince, and other essays in Shakesperean interpretation: Hamlet; Merchant of Venice; Othello; King Lear. Boston: R.G. Badger, 1916. Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug. 2009. 2 May 2010 < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/othello/othelloessay2.html
3. Crawford, Alexander W. "Othello's relationship with Iago." Hamlet, an ideal prince, and other essays in Shakesperean interpretation: Hamlet; Merchant of Venice; Othello; King Lear. Boston: R.G. Badger, 1916. Shakespeare Online. 20 Aug. 2009. 2 May 2010 <
Post-Impressionist artists were interested in the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche, particularly in his concept of the Ubermensch, a superman who would be capable through intense struggle of surmounting the lower forces that would limit his ability to achieve. The idea that man could evolve beyond his present capacities influenced the relationship of European man to previous cultures and to contemporary but less "civilized" societies. This paper explores the ways in which Paul Gauguin applied the Ubermensch concept to his art and to his life, and examines parallel motifs in the oeuvres of his contemporaries.
The Artist Gauguin: Man, Nature, Ubermensch and God
At the beginning of the enaissance, Massacio painted The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, and initiated a new view of humanity: an intensely personal and emotionalized struggle against fate. In spite of the Neo-Classical return to the formal norms of the past, the…
Biography of Gauguin. http://www.abcgallery.com/G/gauguin/gauguinbio/html (November 14, 2002).
Dillon, John K. (1997) The Death of Tragedy: The philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche's Ubermensch. http://www.nsula.edu/scholars_college/Thesisabstracts/HSTtheses/dillon.html (November 14, 2002).
Gauguin, Paul. (1897) Noa: The Tahitian Journal. 1985 ed. Dover Publishing.
Norris, George. (1996) Expressionism: Its Spiritual and Social Voice. http://www.br.cc.va.us/vcca/norris.html (November 15, 2002).
Romney and Raphael
The portrait by Raphael (1483-1520) known as 'La Fornarina' (the baker's daughter) was painted at the end of the artist's career, c.1518-20, and is part of the collection of the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica at the Palazzo Barnberini in Rome, Italy. The picture is in oils on board, and is 87cm tall by 63 cm wide. The subject is a seated young woman, almost nude, against a dark background of foliage. The upper two-thirds of her body are visible; her legs are clothed in a piece of deep red-pink drapery, and she holds a filmy, semi-transparent piece of fabric up against her stomach and chest with her right hand. Her left hand is resting in her lap. Her breasts, shoulders and arms are bare, and her body is visible through the fabric which she holds in her right hand, giving this picture an erotic quality not typical…
Jones, R. And Penny, N. (1983). Raphael. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kidson, A. (2002). George Romney 1734-1802. London: National Portrait Gallery.
Shawe-Taylor, D. (1990). The Georgians: Eighteenth-Century Portraiture and Society. London: Barrie and Jenkins.
Tinagli, P. (1997). Women in Italian Renaissance Art. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Goya: Man and Myth
Every society has its myths, stories that explain the time-honored order of things. Humankind does what it does now because of ancient prototypes. As Man does, so did the gods. But what of a society in a state of turmoil? What of a man whose very life is filled with questions? Saturn devours his children, subverts the natural order of the universe. With brutal forthrightness, Goya used an ancient myth to capture the questions of his times and of his life. Humanity is but the plaything of a capricious fate, a helpless doll in the hands of a wild-eyed giant. Yet not only the subject of the painting, but even the manner in which it is painted speak to the horrors of Goya's age and to the hidden darkness of his own mind. Quick brush strokes, sketchy outlines, colors merging into shadow, all comprise the anguished…
He began with very fuzzy looking works of light and sun, then began to paint more sharply drawn works, especially of women. His earliest works have urban subjects. They are typical "Impressionist snapshots of real life, full of sparkling colour and light," but by "the mid-1880s," Renior "had broken with the movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits and figure paintings, particularly of women" such as his "Bathers," painted slowly over the course of the years of 1884-87. (Picoch, 2002)
Edgar Degas -- representing movement and the working class
Of all the Impressionists, Edgar Degas is acknowledged as the master of drawing the human figure in motion. Degas worked in many mediums, preferring pastels to oils. He is perhaps best known for his paintings, drawings, and bronzes of ballerinas and of race horses. Movement's ability to engage in the expressive aims of impressionism is what is important.…
Burns, Sarah. "Cassatt, Mary." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. .[12 Aug 2005]
'Camille Pissarro." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1994. Web Museum Paris. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pissarro/ [12 Aug 2005]
Cox, Phyllis, Fran Hyder, Sandra Gibson, Myra Douglas, & Alan Bishop,
2003 Web Quest http://www.spa3.k12.sc.us/WebQuests/Impressionism/[12 Aug 2005]
Hemingway is classified as a modernist in fiction. Modernism rejected traditions that existed in the nineteenth century and sought to stretch the boundaries, striking out in new directions and with new techniques. More was demanded of the reader of literature or the viewer of art. Answers were not presented directly to issues raised, but instead the artist demanded the participation of the audience more directly in finding meaning and in seeing the relationship between technique and meaning. In literature, writers developed new structures as a way of casting a new light on such accepted elements as character, setting, and plot. Much of modernist fiction shows this increased demand on the reader. Ernest Hemingway gives the illusion of moving in the other direction by simplifying language to the point where it seems ascetic, but in truth his language is complex in its way, building meaning into every word and the placement…
Aldridge, John W. "The Sun Also Rises?
Sixty Years Later." The Sewanee Review XCIV (2)(Spring 1986), 337?45.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.
These different elements are used to provide balance, scale and proportion through illustrating the natural movements / actions that are taking place. Repetition, variety, rhythm and unity are demonstrated based upon the way the image is represented and how it changes as it moves further away from the subject. ("John Biglin in a Small Skull")
From a historical context, this is showing the traditions the elite are continuing to embrace (such as: rowing). However, there are economic and political changes with this group of society growing from a new class of affluent that is emerging. This is illustrating how there are ideological shifts in the views and beliefs of everyone. From a social perspective, these areas are highlighting the way society is becoming wealthier with more people having the opportunity to participate in these activities. ("John Biglin in a Small Skull")
"John Biglin in a Small Skull." Met…
"John Biglin in a Small Skull." Met Museum, 2013. Web 24 Apr. 2013
"Kindred Spirits." Met Museum, 2000. Web. 24 Apr. 2013
"The Veteran in a New Field." Met Museum, 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013
"View from Mount Holyoke." Met Museum, 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013
" ell's article underlines the thinking behind Raphael's masterpiece. It is not simply an imagined portrait of famous people; rather it is a philosophical treatise, in symbolic form, of what it meant to be a great man, as embodied in these different figures.
Glenn Most, in his 1996 article "The School of Athens and its Pre-text" from Critical Inquiry agrees that the central question of the School of Athens is "How can an artist represent pictorially an intellectual activity like philosophy? In the School of Athens, Raphael chooses to do so by depicting the manifold set of ratiocinative and discursive activities performed on a sunny day in a splendid building by a large number of adult male philosophers… because Raphael's image has embedded itself so deeply in our visual unconscious. It requires an effort of the historical imagination to recognize that this was not an inevitable, or even a likely,…
Alkholy, Inas. "The Presence of Secular Books in Raphael's Fresco the School of Athens."
Comparative Islamic Studies, 2.1 (2006) 51-65.
Bell, Daniel Orth. "New identifications in Raphael's School of Athens." Art Bulletin. 77.5
Photographic Analysis of Dorothea Lange's Political And Artistic Vision:
Candidate for Congress (General alter Faulkner) and a Tennessee farmer. Crossville, Tennessee
"Although many do not know her name, her photographs live in the subconscious of virtually anyone in the United States who has any concept of that economic disaster" (Gordon 698). Yet, as noted by professor of history Linda Gordon, Lange was not someone who idly wandered in amongst the farm workers whose images she captured on film. She had a highly specific political agenda and had been hired by the Farm Security Administration (FSA) to capture her images. There has been a dual, contrasting interpretation of Lange through the ages, one perspective which views her work as essentially political, like Gordon, while others like James Curtis who see her work as more personal than political: "Lange sought to create a transcendent image that would communicate her sense of the…
Curtis, James C. "Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, and the Culture of the Great
Depression." Winterthur Portfolio, 21, No. 1 (Spring, 1986): 1-20
Gordon, Linda. "Dorothea Lange: The Photographer as Agricultural Sociologist." The Journal of American History, 93. 3 (Dec., 2006): 698-727
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…
Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
It is never just about the music.
No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…
Luncheon of the Boating Party
Pierre Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir saw an abundance of beautiful things in the world and his paintings expressed a never-ending sense of joy and discovery. ith his brilliant use of natural light and color, he shows the extraordinary splendor of everyday life. A prime example of the artist's ability to capture the joy of a single moment on canvas can be seen in The Luncheon of the Boating Party. This painting depicts the carefree gathering of French revelers, having just concluded a convivial meal. Renoir recreates the beauty of the river scene with the posing of models, all friends of the artist; his use of vibrant color applied in small brush strokes to recreate natural light and a richness in texture, and his use of contrasting white with black. All these elements come together to show one of life's greatest pleasures; the joy of eating…
Rathbone, Elizabeth. "Renoir's Celebration of Luncheon of the Boating Party:" Tradition and New." Impressionist on the Seine. Washington: Counterpoint, 1996.(Monograph)
Renoir, Jean. Renoir, My Father. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1962. (Biography)
Genevoix, Maurice. "Why I Love Renoir." Reprinted in Daulte, Francois. Renoir, The Great
women artists," feminists have reflexively responded by trying to find great women artists from the past who were undiscovered or to emphasize little-regarded female artists from past artistic movements dominated by men. However, this can create the impression of feminists being 'desperate' to find examples of female greatness and over-inflating the reputation of relatively minor artists. Other feminist art historians have criticized the notion of what constitutes 'greatness' as overly masculine in quality and tried to create a new, specifically female-centric notions of artistic greatness. Feminist critic Linda Nochlin sees this as problematic given that there is no clear feminine principle uniting women artists through the ages: in fact, women artists and writers are more apt to resemble males of their respective periods than they are of all women throughout the ages.
Instead, Nochlin asserts that the absence of great female artists is similar to the reason why there are…
Hoffman, Lewis. "Premodernism, modernism, and postmodernism." Postmodern Psychology.
2008. 24 May 2014. http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/Philosophical_Systems/Overview.htm
"Postmodernist art." Art Encyclopedia. 24 May 2014.
An Analysis of Love in the Renaissance Art of Sidney, Shakespeare, Hilliard and Holbein
If the purpose of art, as Aristotle states in the Poetics, is to imitate an action (whether in poetry or in painting), Renaissance art reflects an obsession with a particular action -- specifically, love and its many manifestations, whether eros, agape or philia. Love as a theme in 16th and 17th century poetry and art takes a variety of forms, from the sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney to the miniature portraits of Hilliard and Holbein. Horace's famous observation, ut picture poesis, "as is poetry so is painting," helps explain the popularity of both. Indeed, as Rensselaer . Lee observes, the "sister arts as they were generally called…differed in means and manner of expression, but were considered almost identical in fundamental nature, in content, and in purpose" (Lee 196). In other words, the love sonnets…
Aristotle. Poetics (trans. By Gerald Else). MI: Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1970. Print.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World. NY W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.
Hogan, Patrick. "Sidney and Titian: Painting in the 'Arcadia' and the 'Defence.'" The
South Central Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 4. (Winter, 1967): 9-15. Print.
Persistence of Memory
Between the horrors of World War I and the misery and death of World War II, writers and artists searched for answers and ways to find some peace of mind. With the introduction of Sigmund Freud's theory of the subconscious, a group of painters hoped that they could find these answers within the genius of their own minds. Perhaps, under the layers of rational thought and visions of the real world in front of them, they could reunite conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world of existence in "an absolute reality, a surreality." As Freud once noted: "A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened." Surrealism offered the opportunity to push the envelop and find the truth. Thus, rose the very nontraditional artistic movement of…
Reynolds and I have been described as exact opposites. I seek to learn my trade by my own hand not at some pretense to any system that is better than nature herself. Reynolds on the other hand seeks to understand art by some compass that is supposed to refine his hand and eye. He is also much keener on watching and learning from other men of letters and this is not my desire or my goal. I care only about the nature of my art, does it build on or represent the value in the object?
aterhouse 11) Reynolds, has also been described as my chief nemesis, even though our work has hung opposite one another in many shows. e are contemporaries with different styles, nothing more. I harbor no animosity toward him, nor do I wish to be continually compared to him as if we were separated twins seeking…
Art Encyclopedia "Thomas Gainsborough April 18, 2008 http://www.answers.com/topic/thomas-gainsborough?cat=entertainment
BBC 2008 "Thomas Gainsborough" April 18, 2008 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gainsborough_thomas.shtml
Van Dyke, John C. The History of Painting Project Gutenberg Edition April 19, 2008 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18900/18900-h/18900-h.htm
Waterhouse, Ellis. Gainsborough. London: E. Hulton, 1958.
" Initially, the painters were given the assignment to create sample frescoes which were to be evaluated. On the basis of the evaluation, they were to be employed or not. However, their talent was rapidly acknowledged and they were commissioned to continue the work without any other testing. The individual scenes constitute a whole because they comprise typological references to one another. They present Moses as prefiguring Christ. We must mention, however, that, only after Michelangelo's later work (1508-1512) did the Chapel become famous.
After the Medici's expulsion from Florence, otticelli felt the influence of a Dominican monk called Girolamo Savonarola. In Savonarola's point-of-view, everything that wasn't useful in the life of humans didn't deserve any attention. Therefore, he destroyed many works of art, in his "bonfire of vanities." ecause of this man, Sandro was deeply affected and his interior feelings were also reflected in his work.
As a review,…
Botticelli- Renaissance Master Artist, http://www.myrrhine.net/botticelli/biography.html
Sandro Botticelli, http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/botticelli.html
Wikipedia Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance
aphael is one of the most renowned artists in modern human history. He is so famous that he is one of a small number of artists that they are only known by one name. His full name is affaello Sanzio da Urbino. His precise birthdate is contended, but it is agreed that he was born sometime in the spring during 1483, as the 15th century, as well as the enaissance era, concluded. His life did not spans four decades, yet his body of work persists around the world nearly five centuries later. aphael, like other enaissance artists and professionals of the period, had proficiency in several skills; he is primarily known as a painter and architect. His life spanned the final stage of the enaissance, known as High enaissance. He came from an artistically inclined family, and suffered the deaths of both of his parents before…
Italian Renaissance Art.com. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Raphael-Biography.html . 2012 October 12.
Raphael Sanzio.org. Raphael Biography. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.raphaelsanzio.org/ . 2012 October 12.
Totally History. Raphael Sanzio. 2012, Web, Available from: http://totallyhistory.com/raphael-sanzio/ . 2012 October 12.
Visual Arts Cork. Raphael. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/old-masters/raphael.htm . 2012 October 12.
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…
Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/TOAH/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm .
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a, b_27.16)." In Heilbrunn Timeline
of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.
November 15, 2010.
The novels "Catch-22" and "Something Happened" demonstrates the inevitable presence of black humor, irrationality and immorality that prevails in times of war or conflict in human society, as humans pursue power and superiority -- that is, survival (of the fittest).
Outlining of the three major themes discussed in the paper, namely: black humor, irrationality, and immorality in Catch-22, mainly centering on the characters in the novel. Comparison of "Catch-22" against another Heller novel, "Something Happened."
Illustrations of lack Humor in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Demonstrations of irrationality in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Presence of immorality in "Catch-22" vis-a-vis "Something Happened"
Heller's consistent portrayal of humanity as ultimately irrational and immoral portrays humans' innate need to survive regardless of the means by which they achieve it (survival).
Conclusion: Reiteration of the thesis statement
lack Humor, Irrationality and Immorality of Human Society as Portrayed in Joseph Heller's novels (Catch-22…
Cochran, D. (2000). America Noir: Underground Writers and Filmmakers of the Postwar Era. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Coker, C. (2003). Humane Warfare. NY: Taylor & Francis.
Doody, M. (1996). The True Story of the Novel. NJ: Rutgers UP.
Garrett, D. (2001). "Portrait of the Artist, As an Old Man." World Literature Today, Vol. 75, Issue 1.
"Hopefully, I am evolving as an artist and a designer, and Digital Kitchen seems to be a place that [offers me the best] chance at getting to the next level" (Remson, 2002, p. 6).
There are always "next levels" for Carson. Looking at his design for the book the Architecture of Patterns, at first the eye sees the + signs and interprets them as crosses in a cemetery. A closer look and maybe they are just "X's" turned on their sides. Small, smaller, with a few very large + positioned on the cover. The book title is blurred and interrupted by the +'s. Carson's design for Quicksilver and Pukas Surfboards is rowdy; a surfboard shape is permeated with circles and a macrame-like swirl connecting to what could be a bow. it's bizarre, but it's pure Carson. The Bark catalog design uses fonts creatively, a patented Carson approach. "Born on the…
Adweek. "End of Print?" 44.42, (1994): p. 32.
Blackwell, Lewis, and Carson, David. The End of Print: The Grafik Design of David Carson.
San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000.
Carson, David. "click: dcd work, bio, clients." Retrieved Nov. 17, 2010, from http://www.davidcarsondesign.com/?dcdc=top/t .
e was a member of the middle-class, but his father was from the lower class. There were hints of incest in the family, and some have even suggested that itler's father was also his mother's natural father. Furthermore, it is widely reported that itler's father beat him. Therefore, the two men had very different private lives as children.
owever, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, itler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while itler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php, accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New…
However, the men shared common elements in their childhood. For example, Hitler suffered from lung problems as a child. Guevara had asthma. As a result, both men had to avoid some aspects of physical activity during their childhoods, which may have fueled their intellectual pursuits. Guevara was a voracious reader, while Hitler turned his attention to the arts.
Porter, Dan. 2002. The Revolutionary Cult of Che Guevara. PilotGuides.com. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/central_america_and_caribbean/cuba_and_haiti/che_guevara.php , accessed 18 September, 2007.
Coetzee, J.M. 2007. Portrait of the Monster as a Young Artist. New York: The New York Review of Books. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/19851,accessed 18 September, 2007.
Janie in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes ere atching God and Celie in Alice alker's the Color Purple
The main character and narrator of Zora Neale Hurston's novel Their Eyes ere atching God (1937), Janie, has much in common with the narrator and main character Celie within Alice alker's novel The Color Purple (1982). Each speaks authentically, in her own voice: the too-often ignored voice of an African-American female in a white male-dominated society. For both characters, however, authenticity of voice has come at great cost, and through the surmounting of numerous obstacles, the greatest of these being the fears and the lack of confidence within themselves. I will discuss several common characteristics of Celie and Janie within these two novels by female African-American authors.
As Henry Louis Gates, Jr. suggests, fear and hesitancy by African-Americans, male and female alike, to speak authentically, has deep roots: "For just over two…
Berlant, Lauren. "Race, Gender, and Nation in The Color Purple" in Modern
Critical Interpretations: Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Harold Bloom (Ed.).
Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House, 2000. 3-11. Questia Online Library.
Retrieved May 22, 2005, from:
Artwork Piece at a Museum
One of the most impressive pieces showed in the Denver Art Museum is a painting by Claude Monet entitled "Le Bassin des Nympheas," made in 1904. "Among the museum's regular holdings are John DeAndrea's sexy, soothing, life-size polyvinyl painting "Linda" (1983), Claude Monet's dreamy flowerscape "Le Bassin des Nympheas" (1904), and Charles Deas' red-cowboy-on-horseback "Long Jakes, The Rocky Mountain Man "(1844)." This inclusion among the top three most requested pieces of the museum testifies to its grace and technical beauty, things that make it such a memorable painting.
Monet was part of a group of painters who rejected the "approved" way of painting of the day in their search for something else. "The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting " en plein air." They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed colour, not smoothly…
Author not available, "Monet, the Seine and Normandy," "Vernon, Giverny... passionately" Copyright vernon-visite.org 2005, May 2005, retrieved July 28th, 2006
Author not available, "MONET, CLAUDE," The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006, Copyright 2006 Columbia University Press, retrieved July 28th, 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/ref/doc3.asp?docid=1E1:Monet-Cl&refid=gg_x_01
Author not available, "Impressionism," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 27, 2006. Retrieved: July 28th, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism
Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh. "Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial" (Turner 1969, 94).
Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" (Kurihara 1997, 38). Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored. He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…
Artaud, a. "To Have Done with the Judgment of God, a radio play (1947)." In (S. Sontag, ed.) Antonin Artaud: selected writings. Berkeley etc.: University of California Press, 1988: 570-1.
Artaud, a. (1964) Le Theater et son Double. Paris: Gallimard.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XII 218. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
Artaud, a. (1996) Oeuvres Completes XV 341. Quoted in Virmaux, a. & O., Antonin Artaud, Qui tes-vous? Lyon: La Manufacture.
Aaron Copland Outline
INTRODUCTION a. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the life and works of composer
Aaron Copeland. It will discuss some of the composer's well-known works, and analyze his contribution to modern classical music.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the life and works of composer Aaron Copeland. It will discuss some of the composer's well-known compositions, and analyze his contribution to modern classical music.
Aaron Copland was born in New York City on November 14, 1900, the son of Jewish Russian immigrants. His childhood was typical. He worked in his father's department store on Saturday's, and attended public schools in Brooklyn. From a very early age, Copland enjoyed making up songs, and he knew by the age of fifteen that he wanted to compose music.
He learned to play…
Chew, Robin. " Aaron Copland: American Composer." Lucid Cafe. Nov. 1995. http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95nov/copland.html#related
Copland, Aaron. "When Private and Public Worlds Meet." New York Times. 9 June 1968.
Gregor, Katya. "Aaron Copland." Heart's Ease.13 March, 2000. http://www.hearts-ease.org/cgi-bin/conservatory_index.cgi?ID=74
Hampson, Thomas. "I Hear America Singing: Aaron Copland." PBS.org. 4 Feb. 2002. http://www.pbs.org /wnet/ihas/composer/copland.html
The portrayal of the central character, by showing non-verbal aspects of his life, like the intensity of his focus when engaged in creative works, or his silent, brooding intensity when confronting the naked racism that patronizing, rich connoisseurs often showed towards his works, helps the viewer better understand the torment that fueled the genius. To know, for example, the fact that Basquiat had a three-hundred dollar a week cocaine habit means little, it does not tell us why he continued to use drugs and still had the drive to create art. Although the film portrays the full arhol milieu, as it was such an integral part of Basquiat's discovery, and provided the environment where his works were created and received, it does not glamorize New York during the 'Studio 54' years. It also does not glamorize drug use, as it stresses that Andy arhol hoped that Basquiat would get off…
Basquiat." 1996. Written and directed by Julian Schnabel.
Hoban, Phoebe. Basquiat: A Quick Killing in Art. New York: Penguin, 1999.
As well I can see that she has wore royal headdress that usually a king wears but the uraeus (cobra) is linked with the female individuals, though both kings and queens use it. The uraeus is linked to the sun god. Here I remember and you also know dear Zeus one of our beliefs that God took the eyes from Sun. This uraeus in front of her headdress makes me feel like she is the goddess though it symbolizes her kinship.
Yet I am feeling that her portrayal and imagery is different from the Canonical practice however, I am also feeling that it was essential for creating her female king identity. It also makes me feel that Hatshepsut created her image very carefully and slowly and was able to cultivate her identity because in her images she is portrayed as female king and not as a male king.
Dadaism and Surrealism
"It is not the fear of madness which will oblige us to leave the flag of imagination furled." ~ Andre Breton, "Manifesto of Surrealism"
The world of art is always influenced by the historical moment in which the movement originated. The concepts of Dadaism and surrealism were the direct product of artists witnessing the atrocities of the First orld ar which would become even more unpalatable during the events of the Second orld ar (Hoffman 2-3). The visual presentation of both movements can be initially jarring. Dadaism has been described as "anti-art." Instead of beautiful icons of religious scenes or young women, the paintings of this movement are often images of war and violence painted in harsh colors to illustrate the harshness of the world around the artist . Surrealism is by the very definition of surreal, something beyond what the normal person can understand (Claybourne 4).…
Breton, Andre. "Manifesto of Surrealism." 1924. Print.
Claybourne, Anna. Surrealism. UK: Heinemann. 2009. Print.
"Clocking in with Salvador Dali: Salvador Dali's Melting Watches." Salvador Dali Museum.
A Critical Analysis of Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist by Carlo Dolci
Carlo Dolci’s Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist (Illus. 1) is an oil on canvas painting housed in the Phoenix Art Museum. Completed in Florence, Italy, by Dolci in 1670, the painting reflects the style of the Baroque and the typical religious-historical type of subject associated with the Counter-Reformation underway throughout Europe as part of the Council of Trent’s mission to use art to reinforce the principles and doctrines of the Church at a time when Protestantism was undermining the Church’s teaching authority (Vidmar). Salome appears as though disinterested in the disembodied head, offering it up to the public as though it were a piece of overripe fruit that one may or may not like to partake of. Dolci’s use of light reinforces the idea that Salome is by no means…
Identification of Painting
The George Bellows painting that will be reviewed and critiqued in this paper is "Stag at Sharkey's 1909." The painting is oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 48 1/4 (91 x 112.6 centimeters). The painting was done in 1909.
Description of Painting
hat Bellows has done with this painting is create an exaggeration of two boxers going at it. The boxers are locked in a bloody battle. It is a brutal image. There appears to be blood on the arms and shoulders of the boxer on the left, and it seems as though the neck and part of the back of the boxer on the right shows blood as well. The faces in the audience are twisted, grotesque, and only a very few are even discernible. Just above the boxing mat, under the right shoe of the boxer on the right is a pair of…
Beckett, Wendy. (2003). Stag at Sharkey's. The Cleveland Museum of Art. KCET Public
Television. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org .
Dowling, Claudia Glenn. (2012). Guts and glory: the muscular art of painter George Bellows, like his nation, is a study in contrasts. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from Gale Biography
The "self-portraits" might perhaps be viewed in terms of the artist's own past illnesses: At 37, Taylor-Woods, having already survived both colon cancer and breast cancer, likely understands, on personal level, the state of "suspense" between sickness and health, life and death. he may, then, have been "bound" to breast cancer (the invisible ropes may symbolize the disease), cured of it, and her body "released to freedom." In my opinion, however, an artistic weakness of these pictures is that their esthetics and size make them look less like serious art than fashion advertisements for bras and panties! For me, "elf-Portrait uspended" is the least effective of the three exhibition subjects. The tension in the subject's body also appears to be that of someone hanging from ropes (which she in fact was); the tautness of her body kept me from "suspending my disbelief" (so to speak) that she was hanging in…
Sam Taylor-Wood: New Work: 29 October - 4 December 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2005 from http:www.artshole.co.uk/exhibitions/Oct%2005/Sam%TaylorWood htm>.
Sam Taylor-Wood: 'New Work' Art Exhibition at White Cube." Ballet-Dance
Magazine. Retrieved January 4, 2005 from http://www.ballet-dance.com/200412/articles/TaylorWood20041100.html
Art History ime ravel
Our first stop will be the eighteenth century, where we will investigate Neoclassical painting. We will be visiting Sir Joshua Reynolds, as he works on his 1770 oil on canvas "Portrait of a Black Man" -- and we will be asking if the heroic structure of the painting is meant to contain some sort of ideological message, for example asserting the humanity of his subject against the evils of slavery (which was then still common). We should also find out if indeed the portrait is of Dr. Samuel Johnson's servant Francis Barber, as Johnson's progressive attitude in opposing slavery (and his generous treatment of Barber, to whom he left his estate) might explain why this figure is treated heroically in the painting. hen we will visit Jacques-Louis David, as he works on his stark 1793 Neoclassical oil on canvas depiction of "he Death of Marat." We…
The time machine will stop next in the later nineteenth century, when we will investigate some Impressionist painting. Our first stop will be in London in 1875, to interrogate the American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler about his oil on canvas study "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket." We will want to interrogate him about the lawsuit that he filed against the art critic John Ruskin, who accused him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face" with this daring painting. We will also interrogate Whistler as to whether he would consider the painting to be Impressionist or not -- it seems like he may have considered it to be straightforward realism (fading fireworks in the night sky do look like this painting) but chose the obscure subject to illustrate a Wildean idea of art for art's sake. We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.
In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?
Finally in the latter half of the
Fischl displays himself comically strutting, his stomach strangely stuck out, as if to say that his own portraits are just as bizarre; that he nor his paintings are to be taken seriously. The artist presents himself as a clown, preparing for those who say something against his art, preparing himself from the negative. His mask hides him from any critiques. "I think that we, and again I'm saying the generation as we, had a profound degree of self-consciousness. The self-consciousness came from a feeling that everything was a cliche, that everything had such a strong predecessor to it -- that basically you were in pantomime" (Tillim).
In Chicago, when he was going to school, Fischl was also exposed to the non-mainstream art of the Hairy Who. "The underbelly, carnie world of Ed Paschke and the hilarious sexual vulgarity of Jim Nutt were revelatory experiences for me" (Eric Fischl Web site).…
Db-ArtMag.com Rooms for the Misbegotten: A Conversation between Erick Fischl and Cheryl Kaplan.5 December 2009 http://www.db-artmag.de/2006/4/e/1/444.php
Fischl, Eric. Web site. 5 December, 2009 http://www.ericfischl.com/bio/biography1.html
Homes, A.M. Eric Fischl. Bomb (1994-95). No. L., pp. 24-29
Tillim, Sidney. Eric Fischl at Mary Boone, Art in America. (1987), pp. 214-215.
picture Dorian Grey" ilde. Then, refer poem "One a Chamber --
The Picture of Dorian Grey: The conflict between the interior and exterior
The Picture of Dorian Grey is a tale of concealment. The titular protagonist Dorian begins the novel a beautiful and innocent young man. The portrait that the painter Basil Hallward creates of Dorian and Dorian's real image is the same in the first chapter of the work. However, author Oscar ide suggests that through the power of art, the created image is so lifelike it takes on the real, physical burdens of aging. As Dorian grows dissipated and cruel, he does not physically change, although the painting changes. The painting becomes a kind of secret, true self for Dorian, hidden in the recesses of his home. No one is allowed to see it, except Dorian. The painting is a living, realistic depiction of Dorian's inner life, versus…
Dickinson, Emily. "One need not be a Chamber -- to be Haunted -- "
Complete e-text: http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson/10622
Wilde, Oscar. The Portrait of Dorian Grey. Complete e-text:
Pictorialism is a photographic movement that developed in the last 1800's and continues to the present. The main feature of the movement is the focus on photography as art where the value of the photograph is not based on the subject of the photograph, but the composition and how the subject is presented. This broad definition being given, it must be noted that pictorialism is far from a simple approach that can be easily defined. It has changed and developed over time, it has created new techniques, it has impacted on other forms of photography and aspects of it can be seen in modern approached to photography.
To consider pictorialism further, it is necessary to begin at the beginning. This will involve providing on overview of pictorialism and a history of its development. Two pictorialists will then be described as a means of giving example of the approach. Finally, it…
Leggat, R. ROBINSON, Henry Peach. 1999. Retrieved December 3, 2002, URL: http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/robinson.htm
Leggat, R. REJLANDER, OSCAR GUSTAVE. 1999. Retrieved December 3, 2002, URL: http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/rejlande.htm
Lemagny, J., & Rouille, A. A History of Photography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Lezano, D. The Digital Camera Handbook. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1999.
Pollack and othko
The 1930s art world enjoyed several different creative styles. The Social ealists painted works that normally depicted a social message and, with Edward Hopper, even oppression. The egionalists also felt a need to show the trials of daily life. However, others began to see things in greater abstraction. Hans Hoffman was interested in expressive abstract art, and the American Abstract Artists favored a more mathematical perspective1. By the 1940s, the younger artists wanted to break away from earlier methods and pursue a method to show reality in a more unpredictable and immediate fashion. Jackson Pollack and Mark othko exemplified this new style. As othko said in a letter to the editor of the New York Times in 1943: "We are for flat forms becaue they destroy illusions and reveal truth."
This new artwork technique sprang from a non-realist language, searching for "power of color, internal luminosity and…
Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism (World of Art). New York: Thames & Hudson, 1990
Baigell, Matthew. Story of American Painting. New York: Praeger, 1971.
Craven, David. Abstract Expressionism as Critical Critique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Diehl, Gaston. The Moderns. New York: Crown, 1970.
An artist writing is not new; in act, it is a way by which many artists demonstrate their arguments and they also reveal how an artist thinks about many things, his art included. Naturally, because of Matisse's fame, there would be much written about him and from the writings of his peer, we can see more of what was going on at the height of Matisse's career from those who experienced it. The result of such study is "striking" (5) as Benjamin puts it because it "shows that we cannot, from a similarity of professed theories, infer a similarity in styles of painting"(5). e must instead focus on what the artist produced and weight it against his thoughts.
Matisse studied at the Academy Carriere, who was "interested in the question of art education" (70). His schools floundered a bit in that they were closed and suffered from mixed reviews. hen…
Benjamin, Roger. "Matisse's Notes of a Painter."
Bois, Yve-Alain. "1906."
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…