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Conversion of Natives to Christianity
Words: 2433 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99828322
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"I do not think they will submit," Miranda writes (149). One of the Seri leaders told Miranda that "he loved neither God nor priest nor political authorities and preferred to die killing."

Miranda is clearly caught in a vicious conundrum: the more "industriously" and "diligently" he protects the welfare of the Indians, "the less relief and rest he will have from the Spaniards, whom he also serves." It is a "very ticklish" subject and he resents the fact that the Spanish political leaders in Mexico "watch over a priest's action in order to bring censure upon him. Many times the life I have described is simply not worth it, not worth it at all." He misses Spain, he writes: "There one lives, here one only dies." His worst fear is that once the presidio is finished, the plan will be to "extinguish and annihilate the Seri nation once and for…

Works Cited

Deeds, Susan M. Defiance and Deference in Mexico's Colonial North: Indians

Under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003

Interknowledge Corporation. "Brazil: History." (2005). Retrieved 23 Nov. 2006 at .

Meyer, Michael C., & Beezley, William H.. The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Bloodlines and Race
Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73072693
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Portuguese Thoughts on Seized Africans

The Portuguese chronicler perceived the seized Africans of the mid 15th century with great detail and consideration. The chronicler observed many aspects of the seized Africans that show their culture and their feelings. He saw the various reactions of the people as they stood in chains awaiting the next step in their unthinkable experience(s). He saw people weep; he saw them detach from reality and seem numb. The chronicler noticed the intense emotional responses from the Africans when they were separated from family and friends while led away in chains. He definitely saw many seized Africans lose their grip on reality and their sanity demonstrating hysteria and mania as reactions to their capture. These variations in their reactions show that the African people seized have the full range of human emotions, just as humans from any other part on Earth, such as Portugal.


Country of Portugal
Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6820280
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Portugal 16th Century to Present


Portugal: 16th Century to Present

Portugal: 16th Century to Present

Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…


Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Portugal. Available from: . 2012 August 01.

Facts About. (2012) Portugal History and Timeline & Facts. Available from: . 2012 August 07.

HistoryWorld. (2012). History of Portugal. Available from: . 2012 August 04.

Migration Policy Institute. (2002). Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration. Available from: . 2012 August 05.

1415 Europeans Began a Long Process of
Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1575099
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1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.

Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.

One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…


Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)

John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK

Story of Maual Rodriguez
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 43892957
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Manuel Rodriguez Case

Manuel Rodriguez is a 7th Grade student with a very limited command of English. Originally from Brazil, his first language (L1) is Portuguese, and coming from an upper-middle class family that provided him with a private school education, he is very proficient in it. His father Cesar is a university professor who will be working for four years in the U.S. As part of a United Nations exchange program, while his mother Nona and seven-year-old sister Anna are also living here. In interviewing his parents, it is clear that they are concerned that he is having great difficulty adjusting to the new education system and to life as an immigrant in general, not least because of his language difficulties. During the eight months they have been in this country, Manuel has become sullen, withdrawn and depressed, which is not his normal personality at all, and part of…

History of Africa
Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88645817
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Harmony to Holocaust

The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…


Beard, Oscar L. "Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery." Web Site.

24 May 1999. 5 May 2003.

Hooker, Richard. "The Forest Kingdoms." Washington State University Web Site. 6

June 1999 5 May 2003.

Faculty Profile She May Not
Words: 827 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76756195
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The one-time immigration lawyer moonlighted as an editor at the Latin American Review Press and was impressed with her boss, a 90-year-old woman. This experience has inspired Mahler, who eventually wants to have her own journal or press.

This independent streak dates to her upbringing. "I was a very latchkey kid," she explains, and was raised by her siblings. As a result, she was a bit of a neighborhood terror as well. "I even had my own army of 1st graders that I made do push-ups and if they didn't, I sent them to jail, which was the jungle gym."

For now, however, her focus is on Emory and her family. She married her high school sweetheart, Andrew Mahler, and the couple now reside in Stockbridge. Anna wants to focus on building bonds with her students as well. "I hope to make lasting personal and professional relationships and contribute to…

Rest Case Study There Is No Such
Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 7136421
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Case study There is no such thing

Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came to America and established the colony of Virginia. In the process of establishing the colony the English settlers also brought with them Portuguese and Dutch traders to help in the establishment of the colony. The English settlers had previously failed in their several attempts to establish a colony but were persistent enough to sees their dream come true. The successful establishment of the colony was later followed by successful trading between the settlers and the locals. In one such incidence that may have most importance was when one trader traded his cargo of African slaves for food.The slaves were first taken in as indentured servants to work in return for freedom, food or land.

The African were given same considerations…


Alexander, R. (2005). Racism, African-Americans, and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Buell, T. (2004).Slavery in America: A primary source history of the intolerable practice of slavery. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.

Oskamp, S. (2000).Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wars of Principles the Falklands and Malvinas
Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76082748
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Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas

Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…


Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of

1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.

Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures When People Think About
Words: 2151 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24354739
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Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures

When people think about Hawaii, they tend to think in terms of its island people. Polynesian or Asian perceptions often come to mind because of our familiarity with the influence of the Japanese, Chinese and Filipino peoples. But the fact is that Hawaii is very much flavored by other national and ethnic influences too, including the those of two distinct Hispanic groups, the Puerto icans and the Portuguese, whose impacts have been all but forgotten (Mira, 2008).

In the simplest of terms, the differing historical perceptions of these two groups arises from the fact that one (the Portuguese) was seen positively viewed before their initial influx occurred. The other, the Puerto icans, suffered more from the timing of their migration in regards to other non-Hispanic ethnicities and because of the degree of surprise that came from their more forced integration. The Portuguese were basically blessed with having…


Baker, Susan. Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty. Temple University, 2002.

Camacho Souza, Blase. Trabajo y Tristeza: "Work and Sorrow:" The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii, 1900-1902.

Lopez, Iris and David Forbes. Borinki identity in Hawai'i: present and future. Centro Journal, Vol. XIII, Num. 1, 2001, pp. 110-127. New York.

McDermott, John, F., Wen-Shing Tseng and Thomas Maretzki, People and cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Perspective.pp. 100-110. (1980).

Forbidden Religion to Hegemon of
Words: 2650 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14265769
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In that same year as well, Portuguese ships reached China, re-establishing direct trade for the first time since its termination 150 years prior. The Chinese were particularly eager to purchase Spanish silver from the Andes, which the Portuguese provided in exchange for Chinese silk, highly coveted throughout Europe. The Portuguese even went as far as Japan, where they established contact briefly before that country's isolation. Expeditions were also sent to conquer Malacca and explore Borneo in 1511 and 1524.

Odd as it may seem, the Portuguese were the first to establish viceroys to govern over their colonies in India. Beginning under King Manuel I, the Portuguese presence in India was cemented by the appointment of the first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, who governed from 1505-08. His capital was established at Cochin, where he waged wars against a number of Indian rulers for control of commerce in the region. His successor…

Works Cited

Feudalism." Middle Ages.Org. n.d. Middle Ages.Org. 19 October 2008. 

Kreis, Steven. "Renaissance Humanism." 2004. Lectures on Modern European

Intellectual History. 19 October 2008. The History Guide. 

Middle Ages Religion." n.d. Middle Ages. Org. 19 October 2008. Middle Ages.Org.

Country Entry Risk Assessment Alba
Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31680896
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They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would be conducive to cruelty-free, environmentally responsible products such as Alba Organics. However, there are risks as well that need to be taken into consideration.

The Portuguese market is small and growing at only a nominal rate, in comparison to other EU countries. The population is still primarily located in rural areas. Although the euro is quite stable currently, that could change, affecting Alba's profitability. and, there are three primary, well-established competitors that control the majority of the market share currently, with large financial backing that could out compete Alba.


About us. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at

Alba: FAQs. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at

Carioca, M.,…


About us. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at .

Alba: FAQs. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at

Carioca, M., Diniz, R., Pietracci, B. (2004). Making Portugal competitive. McKinsey Quarterly, (3). Retrieved July 11, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.

Consciousness in cosmetics. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at .

Dutch Invasion of Brazil in the 17th
Words: 3465 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21080109
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Dutch invasion of razil

In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.

The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.

The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…


Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.

Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.

Colonial Experience Slavery
Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25124485
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Colonial Slavery

Much of the conventional wisdom around slavery rightly centers around the issue of racism. To many Europeans, the darker skin and different culture of the African peoples indicates the latter's inferiority and lesser level of development. Many Europeans justified colonization based on the idea of bringing civilization to the savage heathens. Others believed that the inferiority of the African races also meant that slavery was a natural social order.

A closer look at the history of colonialism and slavery, however, indicates forces at work other than racism. There were four distinct colonial periods in from the 16th to the late 20th century, and the actions of colonial powers such as Portugal and Spain were not always explained simply by skin color.

This paper reflects on the other forces that underlay the European colonization efforts.

It looks at the role played by patriarchy and religion in the colonial experience.…

Works Cited

Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 .

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 .

What Is Discovered in an Archaeological Survey
Words: 2344 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53335706
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Archeological Survey of Fort/Tomb in Madras (Chennai), India

This article will focus on Madras (Chennai), India, where the Thomas Christians are said to have been planted over the centuries. Their heritage is said to date back to the time of Christ, after Whom the Apostle Thomas was said to have migrated to the East to preach the Gospel of Christ. It is held by local tradition and lore in India that Thomas died in this area of India. There is a tomb dedicated to him, with a shrine and altar in Madras and it is here that the excavation of the area is to take place. It has historical significance and could yield positive historical findings relating to the travels of Thomas, and whether or not there are any indications or any evidence of his having lived, preached and died in Madras.

The Survey, which is the "systematically organized, thorough…


Abernethy, B. (2009). Ancient Christians in India. PBS. Retrieved from 

Coffey, G. (2014). Residential versus civic use in the Pueblo II-III period. Journal of Field Archaeology, 39(2): 115-123.

Lillesand, T. (2015). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. NY: Wiley.

Opitz, R., Ryzewski, K., Cherry, J., Moloney, B. (2015). Using Airborne LiDAR Survey

Nheengatu A Not-So Dead Language
Words: 2055 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70925585
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There has, in fact, been a great deal of resistance noted in the use of Portuguese as the sole official language throughout much of Brazil; the huge prevalence of indigenous languages still spoken in many regions of the country is one testament to that fact. In addition, there has been a strong reactionary element against perceived outside influences in the linguistic development of the country. Nheemgatu lies right at the crossroads of these issues, and so has occupied a special place in the public consciousness and in the scholarship regarding language development in Brazil specifically, and with colonization generally (Massini-Cagliari 2004). Examinations of the controversy of Nheengatu as it has played out socially and politically in Brazil reveals that the fervor is just as strong in the desire to hold onto the language as a native remnant as it is to abandon the language as a relic of colonization (Massini-Cagliari…

Works Cited

Dienst, Stefan. "Portuguese Influence n Kulina." In Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes. Edited by Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

Massini-Cagliari, Gladis. "Language policy in Brazil: monolingualism and linguistic prejudice." Language Policy 3(1), March 204, pp. 3-23.

Rohter, Larry. "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon." New York Times. August 28, 2005. ProQuest. October 15, 2009.

What is a dead language? (2009).Wise Geek. October 15, 2009.

European Union or EU Is
Words: 3339 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73777715
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GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).

Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…


Clapp, D. (2005). Spain's Economy is Vibrating and Growing. Group Communications, Inc. 

Development Assistance Committee (2001). Portugal Development Cooperation Review. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development.,2340.en_2649_201185_1883871_1_1_1_1,00.html 

Giomo, C. And Jimenez, M. (2001). Economic Survey of Spain. Building Partnership for Progress. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development.

Internal Study Programs (2004). Portugal.

History of the Atlantic Slave
Words: 4085 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 86148004
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A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…

Works Cited

Anstey, Roger. (1975). The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition 1760-1810. Atlantic

Highlands, NY: Humanities Press.

Dodson, Howard, Moore, Christopher Paul, and Yancy, Roberta. (2009). Becoming American:

The African-American Journey. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

Afrikaners Are the Descendants of
Words: 4136 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11391645
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Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.

The Afrikaans Language

Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…

Works Cited


Motivations for and Effects of
Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1846399
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In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.

All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…

Works Cited

Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global

Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.

Angola as Many of the
Words: 2586 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68138518
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The colonial time however was shaped by international events as well. The Cold War played a crucial role in the development of the Angolan state. Despite the fact that Angola is not a big country in terms of size and population, the battle for influence was related particularly to the strategy of the Cold War and that of the strategic zones in the world.

There are several issues to be taken into account when addressing the perspectives of the society as opposed to that of the government in reference to the future of Angola. The first one is the constant and ongoing civil disruptions over the diamond trade.

The UN sanctions imposed on UNITA, the ones responsible for most of the illegal trade diamond had no consistent effect because the trade embargo was not respected, as the Canadian Ambassador mentioned on one occasion

. In this sense, the social constraints…


African Activist Archive,  (accessed November 23, 2010)

Allafrica.comCampaigning Journalist Scrutinizes Angola's Elites  (accessed November 23, 2010) Angola: UN Relief Official Presses for Probe Into Reported Abuse of Deportees. 201 0  (accessed November 23, 2010)

Brasio, Antonio. Monumenta Missionaria Africana Lisbon: Agencia Geral do Ultramar, 1952

History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power
Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093
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History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]


The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.


Unlike the Way the 'Race for the
Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26257884
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unlike the way the 'race for the moon' became the driving force of American scientific exploration during the 1950's and 1960's, the race to control the trade routes to the far reaches of the globe and to expand its technological knowledge of navigation became the driving force of Spanish foreign and domestic policy during the period of world history from the 15th to the 17th centuries. This period is also commonly called "The Age of Discovery" by European historians. The economic impact of Spain's forays into the New orld or worlds ultimately changed the face of European knowledge of the world and the economic structure of Europe. Both the residents of Spain and Europe as a whole, however, experienced both positive and negative effects of this exploration. However, the effects upon Europe were on the whole largely beneficial, because of the increased exposure to new goods and the expansion of…

Works Cited

The Age of Discovery. Website Accessed June 20, 2002.

American Spice Trade Organization -- The Age of Discovery. . Web site Accessed June 20, 2002.

Learning Network: Exploration -- The European 'Age of Discovery';!category=xmain;ch=world;;test=no;pos=pop;slot=1;sz=1x1;tile=1;ord=1024585600 . Website Accessed June 20, 2002.

Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World 1492-1640
Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 51709417
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Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled

Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description

The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…

Works Cited

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).

Ceremonies of Possessions

Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.

Mission and Silence Themes of
Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 503099
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In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."

In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…

Works Cited

Endo, Shusaku. Silence. London: Taplinger, 1980.

Joffe, Rolfe (Dir.). The Mission.

With Robert De Niro and Jeremy Irons.

United Kingdom. 1986.

Madeleine Mccann Case
Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 9203474
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Madeleine McCann

When Madeleine McCann's parents put her down to sleep and went out to eat with friends while on holiday in Portugal in at a tapas bar approximately 50 meters from their apartment, they never thought that their 3-year-old daughter would be snatched from their room. While the McCann's immediately reported their daughter's disappearance to Portuguese authorities, massive procedural errors including failure to secure the crime scene, contaminating the scene, and failure to collect evidence have impeded efforts to locate or determine if Madeleine was alive at the time of her disappearance. Portuguese and Scotland Yard continue to probe into Madeleine's disappearance six years after her disappearance as new evidence and eyewitness testimony surfaces.

Madeleine McCann's Disappearance

Madeleine McCann was less than a week from turning 4-years-old when she disappeared from the apartment her family was renting while on holiday in Praia da Luz in Portugal on May 3,…


Allen, V. (2007, 16 November). Madeleine: How the police ruined the forensic evidence in her bedroom. The Daily Mail Online. Accessed 19 August 2013, from 

Gammell, C. (2007, 5 September). Madeleine police handed forensic evidence. The Telegraph. Accessed 19 August 2013, from 

Grice, E. (2013, 15 April). Kate McCann: 'It's dreadful living with this void.' The Telegraph.

Accessed 19 August 2013, from

Angola Portugal Treated the People of Angola
Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77747333
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Portugal treated the people of Angola with contempt and indifference for five centuries of colonization. From as early as the 1400s to the 20th century, the Africans under the Portuguese rule only knew of slavery, hunger and bloodshed.

Before the arrival of the Europeans, Angola was the home to many different African tribes. The first to arrive were the Bushmen, who were successful hunters and gatherers despite their simple existence. They have been discriminated against by other African tribes as well as Western countries for hundreds of years. By the beginning of the 6th century, a technologically advanced people called the Bantu came from the north and overpowered the Bushmen. The Bantu were master craftsmen and quickly dominated the other cultures with their excellent ability for metalworking, ceramics and agriculture. In fact, Angola derives its name from the Bantu kingdom of Ndongo, whose name for its king was ngola.…


Antunes, Anonio Lobo. South of NoWhere. New York: Random House, 1983.

Bender, Gerald. Angola under the Portuguese: the myth and the reality. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Sumol Compal Market
Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 65401998
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Sumol + Compal is a Portuguese company, formed from the merger between soft drink maker Sumol and juice producer Compal. The company faces a mature domestic market, and while it has competitive advantages in Portugal that have prevented share erosion by the major soft drink companies, it also faces intense competition anywhere else in Europe.

Sumol + Compal's main advantage lies with new product development. Despite being an older company in a mature industry, it launches around 20 new products per year, and continues to have a strong innovation pipeline. New products can be a source of competitive advantage and way to gain access to foreign markets.

Sumol + Compal also draws upon its domestic strength. There are unique conditions to the Portuguese market, especially in distribution, that have allowed Sumol in particular to have an unusually high market share, and that have reduced the influence of major soft drink…


Digital Look (2015). Sumol Compal (SUCO). Digital Look. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from 

Dijkhof, L. (2013). Carbonated soft drinks in Europe. MarketLine Industry Profile. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from 

Macau Hub (2012). Portuguese company Sumol-Compal takes official ownership of factory in Mozambique. Macau Hub. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from 

Roales, J. (2013). Soft drinks in Portugal. MarketLine Industry Profile. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from

Capoeira Brazillian Dance Martial Art Originally Angola
Words: 2448 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18336843
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Capoeira brazillian dance martial art originally Angola. All sources MUST BE McFarlin Tulsa City/County Library. I updated a file guide line understand I .

In spite of the fact that many are familiar with it, Capoeira remains a mysterious concept in the contemporary society. The masses are likely to associate it with a dance or with a fighting style, but very little people are likely to pinpoint exactly what it entails or to describe how it developed. Its name leads people to think it is Brazilian and it actually seems it was developed in the second part of the twentieth century, this largely being owed to the fact that it became more popular around the world during this period.

One of the first reasons why people generally have a wrong understanding of capoeira is the fact that they attempt to associate it with a particular activity. Some call it a…

Works cited:

Aula, I. "INTRODUCTION TO THE MULTICULTURAL HISTORY OF BRAZIL." Cultural Anthropology, Department of Cultural Research in the University of Eastern Finland. Retrieved April 20, 2015, from 

Brough Luna, E. "CAPOEIRA," Retrieved April 20, 2015, from

Varela, S.G. "The Perception of Time in Afro-Brazilian Capoeira Angola." Omertaa 2008 Journal of applied anthropology

African Slave Trade
Words: 1515 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89723043
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Resistance and Complicity

It is impossible to understand or write about Africa's history without considering its relationship with continents like Europe and America. It is imperative that a discussion of the subject concentrate on Africans' pivotal shaping of world history (Lindsay, 2007). Europeans (i.e., Englishmen, Dutchmen, the Portuguese, and the French) contributed only superficially to shaping Africa's history during the Atlantic era's first two centuries, engaging in merchandizing and goods transportation between sea coasts. Only after 1640 did the Europeans, in what is known as the 2nd Atlantic Era (1640-1800s), begin demanding slaves and raw materials, commencing their cruel influence on the economic freedom of the continent. They effectively influenced or overpowered particular communities on the continent through several layers of partnerships strategically created with natives, rather than through military strength. African currency's gradual devaluation attained by introducing European currency in the form of copper coins, Gatling guns and repeating…

Western History
Words: 1126 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52404378
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Silvio A. edini's book "The Pope's Elephant," Hanno, the elephant in question manifests the corrupt, cultural and oftentimes ridiculous papacy of the early 1500s under the reign of Pope Leo X (1513-1531). Through the travails of Hanno, edini provides a remarkable insight into the traditions and pageantry of the Vatican in the early 16th century. edini also manages to show the human face of God's appointed representative on earth as well as the cruelty that existed in that period. As Hanno becomes the vehicle to convey the massive accumulation and application of wealth, privilege and power thoroughly enjoyed by Pope Leo and his supporters to the reader, the pachyderm also began to symbolize this excess, becoming part of the concluding chapter of what they termed the Golden Age.

efore tackling this issue, a summary of "The Pope's Elephant" needs to be proffered. edini provides a captivating and insightful study into…


Bedini, Silvio A. (2000) The Pope's Elephant. Penguin USA, Manhattan.

Rowland, Ingrid D. (1999) "Book Reviews: Early Modern Europe" Catholic Historical Review, April 1999.

America Before Columbus The Website
Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68404788
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This can be seen in the Catholics who were so tightly bound to the Vatican in Rome (17). The textbook points out that this wasn't just the case for Catholics, the Protestants in the New orld were also closely tied to their Protestant religion in England.

The relationship that the colonists had with the Native Americans was an important one because the European colonists needed the Native Americans to help them build their New orld; in short, the Europeans needed the Indian workforce (Ruckman 17). Sadly, Indians became slaves who were bought and sold, or they were forced (indentured) workers (17). Ruckman notes that the colonists needed major work done and the Indian workforce was not enough to meet the demands of a growing society, which is why slaves for Africa were being imported -- roughly beginning around the year 1502 (17).

Spain came to the New orld in 1492…

Works Cited


Henry the Navigator Though Prince
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 51996220
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He was their third son, but still a prince. His interest in navigation in general and Africa specifically began when his father conquered the Muslim port of Ceuta on the northern coats of Africa, across the Straits of Gibraltar from Portugal, in 1415. Other navigational goals he had, such as locating the source of gold in the West African gold trade, finding the legendary Christian kingdom of Prester John in the Middle East, and stopping pirate attacks on the Portuguese coast were not possible with the large, slow ships used to sail the Mediterranean, which led to the development of the lighter and faster caravel under Henry's direction.

Henry received much of the funding for his expeditions not from the coffers of the Portuguese government but from his position as governor of the immensely wealthy Order of Christ, which was the group formed by the Portuguese Knights Templar when that…

Race and Class the Social
Words: 784 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26833162
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Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.

The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…


Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.

Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.

Colonial Settlement
Words: 1684 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31043661
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Colonial Settlement

The lasting impact of colonial settlement

The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…


Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from 

Accessed 21 September, 2005

Exploration. Retrieved from 

Accessed 21 September, 2005

Dutch Commerce the Golden Age of Dutch
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99724125
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Dutch Commerce

The Golden Age of Dutch Commerce

Few powers from the age of colonialism would ascend with such speed, would proliferate so extensive an influence and would decline with such rapidity as would the Dutch in the 17th Century. A period often identified as a Dutch Golden Age, a duration initiating around the turn of the century and lasting under a century, the 1600s would be distinguished by a global dominance by the emergent Dutch Empire. The text by McKay et al. (2003) is particularly instructive on the role played by the Dutch in shaping global economic and military conditions during its brief but prodigious reign.

The forces that would first distinguish the Dutch from their competitors in a highly contentious period of European expansionism would be their superior naval and maritime capabilities. Prolific shipbuilders with tremendous seafaring and war-making capabilities, the Dutch succeeded in building their empire not…

Works Cited:

Harreld, D.J. (2010). The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th-17th Centuries).

McKay, J.P.; Hill, B.D. & Buckler, J. (2003). A History of World Societies. Bedford/St. Martin's; 6 edition.

Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes
Words: 28549 Length: 95 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 64807002
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Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.

In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.

A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…

works cited:

Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5

Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)

Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received

Gray highlight means writer found this source

Jellyfish Are Marine Invertebrates Which
Words: 3078 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29181795
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.. provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact is that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."

Researchers have been the ones that have as well contended that in some arias, such as the Gulf of Mexico or the Adriatic Sea, jellyfish have taken the role of fish, the former animals' number being far greater than the one of the latter's, and this can be as well put on the intensity with which the human intervene in the nature's life. Moreover, it has been observed that in the above-mentioned areas jellyfish have formed a sort of "gelatinous cover" of the water. In my opinion, this might be the reason for which during many years, Jelly researchers…


Pieribone, V. And D.F. Gruber, Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Harvard University Press, 2006, 288p;

Jacobson, Morris, Wonders of Jellyfish. New York: Dodd Mead, 1978

Jellyfish - Sea Science Series, at 

Kyle McGilligan Bentin, "Jellyfish up close," at

Business Plan Marketing to Brazil
Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 2122673
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Some Brazilian businesses might want to engage in joint arrangements to have workers going to do business or live abroad in English-speaking languages learn from these tapes, and there could be special discount agreements with such companies, to make use of these resources. Additionally, the national economy would greatly benefit from a more fluent population that was better able to engage in a variety of business endeavors in other nations. This would encourage the Brazilian government to not place any additional legal obstacles when engaging in negotiations regarding such an exporting arrangement.

There already a clear and strong desire to learn more about the United States, to do business with the United States, and to travel to the United States. Brazil was the ninth largest source of visitors to the United States in 2004 and has one of the fastest growing outbound travel markets in the world. "ith only 4…

Works Cited

Brazil." (Nov 2006) The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at 

Brazil: CS Market of the Month." (2006). U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at 

Chapter 4: Best Prospects for U.S. Businesses -- Travel and Tourism." (Jan 2006).

Focus Brazil: U.S. Government Export Portal. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at

Slave Rebellion Comparison The Nat
Words: 4025 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33899488
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Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."

Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…

Works Cited

Short History of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Bahia-Online. Retrieved December

10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: .

Gates, H.L., & Appiah, K.A. (Eds.). (1994). Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad Press, Inc.

Goldman, S. (2003). Nat Turner Revolt of 1831. Retrieved December

Brazilian Economy
Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87369472
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Brazilian Economy

When giving scholarly consideration to the rise and fall of the Brazilian economy over the past fifty or so years, it is vitally important of course to examine the economy in the context of government, politics, and the international economic climate. The reason for the great interest taken in the Brazilian economy is because it is the largest economy in Latin America and among the ten biggest in the world. Locating the information for a quality analysis of Brazil's economic history is not problematic; there is a wealth of solid material, including the Joseph A. Page book, The Brazilians, and numerous scholarly articles.

Page's book is presented in great detail, beginning with a realistic "Introducing Brazil" chapter (4-6) in which Page grimly describes how a once optimistic nation now is crime-ridden, so poverty-stricken that "the social fabric is tearing to shreds," with a "yawning chasm" separating "haves" from…


De Onis, Juan. "Brazil's New Capitalism." Foreign Affairs 79.3 (2000): 107-120.

Page, Joseph A. The Brazilians. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Saad-Fiho, Alfredo. "New Dawn or False Start in Brazil? The Political Economy of Lula's

Election." Historical Materialism 11.1 (2003): 3-21.

African Slavery
Words: 2647 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4388725
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African Slavery

Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller,…

Work Cited

Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery. ; SelectRegion=West_Africa

Obadina, Tunde. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis."

European Colonies Across the World and Their
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92800231
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European colonies across the world and their relationships with the natives and competing colonial powers.

Development of European colonies throughout non-European territories began in the 15th century, and perhaps even earlier. For European explorers, their motivation was likely a combination of human curiosity, pursuit of adventure, and a possible economic payoff for discovering new trade routes. Such motivations typically compelled European explorers like Amerigo Vespucci, Magellan, Columbus, and others, to seek out undiscovered lands, peoples, and potential profits.

In particular, European colonization of non-European territories, in areas like the New World (now the Americas); Alaska; and Africa, permitted countries like Spain; Portugal; Italy; Great Britain; Holland, Russia, and various others, sometimes at the same time, to lay claim to foreign territories, and their indigenous peoples (often, as with the Spanish, in the guise of religion). Colonization by one European power also often led to competition from others; increasingly, nations like…

Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in
Words: 6419 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41477784
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" (Gibbs 226) Alvardo de Campos is a naval engineer by profession and while his earlier writings are positive, his work develops characteristics of existential angst. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works. (Gibbs 226)

One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. "His jostling aliases...expressed his belief that the individual subject -- the core of European thought -- is an illusion." (Gray 52) This view goes to the heart of the matter, as will be discussed in the following sections of this paper; namely that the creation of these fictive identities emphasizes and highlights the modern crisis of identity and the existential and postmodern view that the self as a coherent and continuous entity is an illusion. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…


Cravens, Gwyneth. "Past Present." The Nation 13 Nov. 1989: 574+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Cullenberg, Stephen, Jack Amariglio, and David F. Ruccio. Postmodernism, Economics and Knowledge. London: Routledge, 2001.

Gabriel, Markus. "The Art of Skepticism and the Skepticism of Art." Philosophy Today 53.1 (2009): 58+. Questia. Web. 22 July 2012.

Gibbs, Raymond W. Intentions in the Experience of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Brazilian Culture
Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16213119
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Brazilian Culture

Brazil's culture is a fascinating blend of European, African and Amerindian influences. Portuguese settlers brought with them strong influences in religion, later Europeans such as Italians and Germans arrived bringing 20th century ideas about government, Africans brought drums and dance, and Amerindian influences can be found in a number of spheres. Over the course of the past five hundred years, these influences have been shaped by the vast and varied landscape, the climate and political events. Even though different parts of the country developed almost in isolation from one another due to geographic distance, some elements of culture bind all Brazilians. Carnival is one of those. The combination in dance, music, costume and religion into a single event is one of the defining elements of Brazilian culture. At once, it takes deep roots and social significance, while maintaining a lighter popular side that pays only superficial homage to…

Works Cited:

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Lewis, C. (1996). Woman, body, space: Rio Carnival and the politics of performance. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. Vol. 3 (1) 23-42.

Northern European Power Shift
Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20434756
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Northern European Power Shift

It seems to be a universal human trait that we are always seeking to go beyond perceived boundaries and explore the unknown. Sometimes, this is done for the sake of adventure and nothing more. Most times, however, this is done in the pursuit of wealth, whether it be in the form of land, gold, spices, slaves, or some other highly desirable commodity for a given culture in a given time.

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the dominant explorers of the time hailed from Portugal and Spain, and these countries were made quite wealthy as a result. Their position, however, as significant empires would not last forever, and soon, the countries of Northern Europe -- in particular, the Netherlands, France, and England -- set out to take their share of the riches, too. These countries improved on the Spanish and Portuguese methods of exploration, ship building,…


Goldman, Steve. "Defeat of the Spanish Armada." 2003. The History Buff.

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003. © 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation.

Laws and International Trade
Words: 3140 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76863000
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Intrenational Business

Governing Language

Governing Law and Forum Selection


Boilerplate Language in International Contracts

USA-Brazil Trade: ules of Trade

Other Important Agreement and Laws Governing U.S. and Brazilian Trade

Comparison of Arbitration in South Carolina and Brazil

Conflicts arising out of contracts between international trading parties are on the increase with the rise and increase in international business and international trade. The courts that would hear and decide matters related to business conflicts between trading partners would look to the express terms of the contract as well as the applicable law within which the contracts have been formed and agreed upon by the two parties belonging to two different countries when one party considers the other party's actions to be a breach of the contract. The legal contract and the contents of the contract would be the basis on which courts would decide in arbitration cases and in cases…


Ahmadi, Maryam, and Leila Ahmadi. 'Intellectual Property Rights Of Nanobiotechnology In Trade Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS)'. j bionanosci 6.1 (2012): 56-64. Web.,. 'News - Brazilian-American Chamber Of Commerce Of The Southeast (BACC-SE)'. N.p., 2015. Web. 3 Nov. 2015.

Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen, Hanafiah Harvey, and Scott W. Hegerty. 'Brazil -- "U.S. Commodity Trade And The J-Curve'. Applied Economics 46.1 (2013): 1-13. Web.

Berger, Klaus Peter. Private Dispute Resolution In International Business. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2006. Print.

European Culture and Colonialism in
Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44834154
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Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…


(1999). 4: Colonies, Enterprises, and Wealth: The Economies of Europe and the Wider World in the Seventeenth Century. In Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History, Cameron, E. (Ed.) (pp. 137-170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ekelund, R.B., & Tollison, R.D. (1997). Politicized Economies: Monarchy, Monopoly, and Mercantilism. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Inikori, J.E. & Engerman, S.L. (Eds.). (1992). The Atlantic Slave Trade Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: The Shaping of an Economic Language. New York: Routledge.

Transatlantic Trade and Slavery in
Words: 2512 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64561277
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The problem with European slaves was mainly that they had recourse to legal action for the protection of their rights and redressing their grievances. Like the Native Americans, European slaves were also unfamiliar with the soils and cash crops of the New World. Furthermore, they tended to use their status as slaves only as a vehicle for traveling to the United States, after which they would claim their freedom on the grounds of their Christianity and their race (Gilbert and Reynolds 154).

On the other hand, the main disadvantage of using Africans as slaves was the expense and danger involved in capturing and transporting them from the continent (Gilbert and Reynolds 155). Their knowledge and familiarity with both the tropical environment and the soils of the area however favored them highly over their European and Native American counterparts. This, along with their skill in extracting ores from American soils, as…


Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 8: Slavery and the Creation of the Atlantic World." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.

Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 9: West and West-Central Africa: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.

Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 10: North African and the Sudan: 1500 -- 1880." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.

Gilbert, Erik & Reynolds, Jonathan T. "Chapter 11: East Africa: 1500 -- 1850." Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present. Pearson/Prentice Hall: 2nd Edition, 2007.

History of America Through 1877
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27861139
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Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…

European and Chinese Efforts at
Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 41250674
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" (nd) the conception of Ringrose is one that was based upon "family, clan, and community allegiances. The links in such a network are stated to have resulted from "individual decisions and, in the aggregate, they constituted the inter-city transactions that, described collectively, allow us to identify urban networks." (nd)


Ringrose relates that the same process is observable in the history in Ming China. The community schools were only nominal providers of education and "were subverted by local elites in a predictable way." (nd) However, in sixteenth century China central authority was not nearly as overwhelming in affairs that were local resulting in these schools being transformed by elites into "academies that provided the training necessary to pass the Imperial Civil Service examination." (Ringrose, nd) Not only did bureaucracy become more acknowledging of local dynamics in communities but also resulting was the construction of "commercial…


Europeans Abroad, 1400-1700: Strangers in Not-so-Strange Lands" Online available at

Zurndorfer, Harriet T. (nd) Cotton Textiles and Ming/Qing China in the Global Economy (1500-1840) Online available at 

Frank, Andre Gunder. 1998. ReOrient: The Silver Age in Asia and the World Economy (Berkeley: University of California Press)

Pikerman, Allen (2002) the Iberian Golden Age: European Expansion, Exploration and Colonization 1400-1650. 2002. Online available at

Republicanism in British America the
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Therefore, the next stage in the evolution of the island can be characterized as a need for overcoming the annexation attempts from China and afterwards Japan. The situation however became an issue of international politics as Europeans became involved through the Unequal Treaties which "which opened designated ports in China to foreign trade. In addition, as a result of the treaties' terms, European powers were granted extraterritorial jurisdictions in the treaty ports themselves, so that Europeans were obligated to abide by their own legal system and would only be tried by their own consular officials" (McDevitt-Parks, 2007).

The island was in itself at the disposal of the several influences which exercised their authority particularly because the aboriginal people did not have the capacity to defend themselves, nor were they able to stand against the desires for supremacy of China, Japan, and other European countries such as the French. Therefore, the…


Andrade, Tonio. "The Rise and Fall of Dutch Taiwan, 1624-1662: Cooperative Colonization and the Statist Model of European Expansion." Journal of World History. Emory University. 2006.

McDevitt-Parks, Dominic. "19th-century Anglo-American representations of Formosan peoples." Freeman Summer Grant. 2007. 30 April 2008 

New Taiwan. Taiwan's 400 years of history. 2007. 30 April 2008. 

Taipei Economic and Cultural Office. Taiwan's Culture and Art. N.d. 30 April 2008

Conflict Building a New Jerusalem
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The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).

Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…

Works Cited

Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at 

Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at

Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at

Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at